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3 Dynamic Analysis
Available dynamic analysis facilities include solution of the free vibration problem (eigenproblem), response spectrum analysis and forced vibration analysis.

Solution of the Eigenproblem


The eigenproblem is solved for structure frequencies and mode shapes considering a lumped mass matrix, with masses at all active d.o.f. included. Two solution methods are used: the subspace iteration method for almost all problems, and the determinant search method for very small problems.

Mass Modeling
The natural frequencies and mode shapes of a structure are the primary parameters that affect the response of a structure under dynamic loading. The free vibration problem is solved to extract these values. Since no external forcing function is involved, the natural frequencies and mode shapes are direct functions of the stiffness and mass distribution in the structure. Results of the frequency and mode shape calculations may vary significantly depending upon the mass modeling. This variation, in turn, affects the response spectrum and forced vibration analysis results. Thus, extreme caution should be exercised in mass modeling in a dynamic analysis problem. In STAAD, all masses that are capable of moving should be modeled as loads applied in all possible directions of movement. Even if the loading is known to be only in one direction there is usually mass motion in other directions at some or all joints and these mass directions (loads in weight units) must be entered to be correct. Joint moments that are entered will be considered to be weight moment of inertias (force-length2 units). Please enter selfweight, joint and element loadings in global directions with the same sign as much as possible so that the masses do not cancel each other. Member/Element loadings may be used to generate joint translational masses. Note that member end joint moments that are generated by the member loading (including concentrated moments) are discarded as irrelevant to dynamics. Enter mass moments of inertia, if needed, at the joints as joint moments. STAAD uses a diagonal mass matrix of 6 lumped mass equations per joint. The selfweight or uniformly loaded member is lumped 50% to each end joint without rotational mass moments of inertia. The other element types are integrated but roughly speaking the weight is distributed equally amongst the joints of the element.

The members/elements of finite element theory are simple mathematical representations of deformation meant to apply over a small region. The FEA procedures will converge if you subdivide the elements and rerun; then subdivide the elements that have significantly changed results and rerun; etc. until the key results are converged to the accuracy needed. An example of a simple beam problem that needs to subdivide real members to better represent the mass distribution (and the dynamic response and the force distribution response along members) is a simple floor beam between 2 columns will put all of the mass on the column joints. In this example, a vertical ground motion will not bend the beam even if there is a concentrated force (mass) at mid span. In addition, the dynamic results will not reflect the location of a mass within a member (i.e. the masses are lumped at the joints). This means that the motion, of a large mass in the middle of a member relative to the ends of the member, is not considered. This may affect the frequencies and mode shapes. If this is important to the solution, split the member into two. Another effect of moving the masses to the joints is that the resulting shear/moment distribution is based as if the masses were not within the member. Note also that if one end of a member is a support, then half of the that member mass is lumped at the support and will not move during the dynamic response.

Damping Modeling
Damping may be specified by entering values for each mode, or using a formula based on the first two frequencies, or by using composite modal damping. Composite modal damping permits computing the damping of a mode from the different damping ratios for different materials (steel, concrete, soil). Modes that deform mostly the steel would have steel damping ratio, whereas modes that mostly deform the soil, would have the soil damping ratio.

Response Spectrum Analysis


This capability allows the user to analyze the structure for seismic loading. For any supplied response spectrum (either acceleration vs. period or displacement vs. period), joint displacements, member forces, and support reactions may be calculated. Modal responses may be combined using one of the square root of the sum of squares (SRSS), the complete quadratic combination (CQC), the ASCE4-98 (ASCE), the Ten Percent (TEN) or the absolute (ABS) methods to obtain the resultant responses. Results of the response spectrum analysis may be combined with the results of the static analysis to perform subsequent design. To account for reversibility of seismic activity, load combinations can be created to include either the positive or negative contribution of seismic results.