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Sonia Carpenter

c3109550

Michael Linich

ORIGINAL TASK

Appendix One: Picture Book Test


Does the book show a variety of different characters whose ancestors are from places other than Australia, or who speak a language other than English? Are these characters on the fringes of the story, or part of the main action? Are individual and personal details given about these characters, or do they follow cultural stereotypes? What kind of language is used to describe these characters? Give some examples. What kinds of images are used to describe these characters? Give some examples. Are the language and images used to describe these characters positive or negative? Give some examples. Which characters voices are heard most in the story? Which characters voices are heard least in the story? Which characters are seen as admirable, strong, powerful or wise? Who wrote this story? Who illustrated it? Are the writer and illustrator part of the group the story is about? Is the tone of the book (ie how the writer and illustrator feel about the content) respectful and sensitive towards people of different cultures? How could you tell if this is an authentic or accurate picture of the culture/s portrayed, remembering that any culture is much more complex than any single book could represent? The River Unit 7 (McKnight, 2006) Commonwealth of Australia, 2006

McKnight, Lucinda. (2006). Picture Book Test Beyond The River Unit Of Work Retrieved March 10, 2012, from http://www.asiaeducation.edu.au/for_teachers/curriculum_resources/asiascopesequence/e nglish/secondary_units_of_work/unit_1_beyond/beyond_appendix_1.html

EDUC6761 / EDUC6771 AT1

Word Count: 3220

Sonia Carpenter

c3109550

Michael Linich

QUALITY TEACHING ANALYSIS OF THE ORIGINAL TASK

Element Deep Knowledge Deep Understanding Problematic Knowledge Higher-order Thinking Metalanguage Substantive Communication

Score

Substantiation for your score Intellectual Quality Task is on key concepts of literary representation of cultures but it does not require students to link concepts The Picture Book Test questions do not require students to demonstrate deep understanding throughout. In answering some questions deep understanding may be facilitated. Task asks students to question the representation of cultures and characters in texts, allowing them to see that knowledge is socially constructed and subject to perspectives, but assumptions are not questioned or explored Most of the questions in the task are asking for responses that require higher-order thinking about the text in question. One question directly asks students about language and how it works; other questions of the test require investigation into the use of language also, but test does not demand complex commentary on use of language Task gives opportunity for elaboration of student understanding of literary representation in the final questions, but other than that, the test only asks for brief responses. Quality Learning Environment This task lacks an introductory statement of outcomes, objectives and quality criteria. Only contains procedural criteria Task questions may be quite challenging to some students but they are not particularly structured as a serious challenge. Students are able to exercise control over which text they may use the test on and in their speed and manner of answering the questions, but questions are direct so this control is minimal Significance Student background knowledge may be trivially involved what the test questions may mean to students individually but it is not part of the task This task asks students to examine representations of people and cultures other than Australian and they are examined equally, and connectedly Students are required to make meaningful connections between topics such as characters, settings, language and image use and context of picture books The test questions are concerned with concepts larger than the those of the classroom, but there is no explicit connection made in the task description, such as why it is good to assess picture books for these elements The task is concerned with the examination of narratives and their textual techniques, so narrative is integral to the task requirements

4 2

3 4 3

Explicit Quality Criteria High Expectations Student Direction

1 3 2

Background Knowledge Cultural Knowledge Knowledge Integration Connectedness

2 5 4

Narrative

EDUC6761 / EDUC6771 AT1

Word Count: 3220

Sonia Carpenter

c3109550

Michael Linich

MODIFIED TASK

The Picture Book Test


Within this unit of work we have been studying picture books and how they use their words and pictures to talk about important world issues, people, places and cultures. Take a look at the following Picture Book Test and think about the questions that it is asking.

Picture Book Test


Does the book show a variety of different characters whose ancestors are from places other than Australia, or who speak a language other than English? Are these characters on the fringes of the story, or part of the main action? Are individual and personal details given about these characters, or do they follow cultural stereotypes? What kind of language is used to describe these characters? Give some examples. What kinds of images are used to describe these characters? Give some examples. Are the language and images used to describe these characters positive or negative? Give some examples. Which characters voices are heard most in the story? Which characters voices are heard least in the story? Which characters are seen as admirable, strong, powerful or wise? Who wrote this story? Who illustrated it? Are the writer and illustrator part of the group the story is about? Is the tone of the book (ie how the writer and illustrator feel about the content) respectful and sensitive towards people of different cultures? How could you tell if this is an authentic or accurate picture of the culture/s portrayed, remembering that any culture is much more complex than any single book could represent? This Picture Book Test is one way of assessing how accurately and realistically a picture book represents the world through a range of people, places and cultures. A picture book can achieve this by using characters and settings from different parts of the world, and then making sure all of these characters and settings are equal parts of the story. It can also do this through its use of language and characters in ways that appeal to, and can be understood by, a wide range of different people across various places and cultures. EDUC6761 / EDUC6771 AT1 Word Count: 3220 3

Sonia Carpenter

c3109550

Michael Linich

In small groups in class (you will be put in your groups by the teacher), discuss what you think each of the points in the Picture Book Test means and suggest an example of how it could be relevant to a picture book, using your knowledge of picture books from our reading of Libby Hathorns The River and from the picture books you may have read at home or elsewhere. Use as many words as you like in your explanations and try to make sure your examples from picture books are as specific as possible! Write down a group explanation and example for at least five questions in the Picture Book Test. As a group, choose a picture book from the ones in the classroom, library, or one from home, and use the Picture Book Test on it. Afterwards, in your group write an answer to these questions: How easy the test was to use on your book? What kind of answers did you find? Where any parts of the test unclear or irrelevant? Groups will be presenting to their class a 5 minute talk about their work together, and their presentation should talk about: Their understanding of the Picture Book Test Their results from testing a picture book Their ideasnon the tests usefulness in understanding how and why picture books use their words and pictures to talk about the world in certain ways Each group member should try and have a turn speaking to the class if they want. You are able to use your picture books in your presentation, and you are to tell the class your ideas on why it is important for picture books to consider these issues in how they are written. You will be given time over the next few lessons for your group to write down and practice a script for your presentation and organise the order of your speakers. Your group will be assessed on how well you give your presentation based on the following marking criteria:

EDUC6761 / EDUC6771 AT1

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Sonia Carpenter

c3109550 Group Presentation Rubric

Michael Linich

Students in group:

________________________________________

CATEGORY Content

5 Presentation shows a full understanding of the 5 chosen questions from the Picture Book Test, the test results in the book chosen, and the purpose of the test Group members always (99-100% of time) speak in complete sentences. Most group members Stand up straight, looks relaxed and confident. They establish eye contact with everyone in the room during the presentation.

3-4 Presentation shows a good but incomplete understanding of the 5 chosen questions from the Picture Book Test, the test results in the book chosen, and the purpose of the test Group members mostly (80-98%) speak in complete sentences. Most group members stand up straight and establish eye contact with everyone in the room during the presentation.

2 -3 Presentation shows a good understanding of parts of the 5 chosen questions from the Picture Book Test , the test results in the book chosen, and the purpose of the test Group members sometimes (7080%) speak in complete sentences. Most group members sometimes stand up straight and establish eye contact.

1 -2 Presentation shows limited or no understanding of the 5 chosen questions from the Picture Book Test , the test results in the book chosen, and the purpose of the test Group members rarely speak in complete sentences. Most group members slouch and/or do not look at people during the presentation.

Uses Complete Sentences

Posture and Eye Contact

Time-Limit

Presentation is 5-6 Presentation is 4 minutes long. minutes long.

Presentation is 3 minutes long.

Presentation is less than 3 minutes OR more than 6 minutes.

EDUC6761 / EDUC6771 AT1

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Sonia Carpenter

c3109550

Michael Linich

You will also be assessed individually on your contribution to your groups work, based on the following criteria:

Individual Work in Group Presentations

Student Name:

________________________________________

CATEGORY

3-4 Usually listens to, shares with, and supports the efforts of others in the group.

2 -3 Often listens to, shares with, and supports the efforts of others in the group but sometimes is not a good team member.

1 -2 Rarely listens to, shares with, and supports the efforts of others in the group. Often is not a good team member.

Collaboration with Almost always listens to, shares Peers with, and supports the efforts of others in the group. Tries to keep people working well together. Listens to Other Presentations Listens intently. Does not make distracting noises or movements.

Listens intently but has one distracting noise or movement.

Sometimes does not appear to be listening but is not distracting.

Sometimes does not appear to be listening and has distracting noises or movements.

If you do well as a group and individually as a contributor, you will get all of the 10 possible marks, and this will mean that you truly understand how important picture books are in the effect they can have on people through their choice of words, characters, pictures and settings.

EDUC6761 / EDUC6771 AT1

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Sonia Carpenter

c3109550 QUALITY TEACHING ANALYSIS OF YOUR MODIFIED TASK

Michael Linich

Element

Score

Substantiation for your score Intellectual Quality Through synthesis of individual and group knowledge, this task requires students to focus on linking the topics within picture book literary representation and its significance and potential implications In the tasks various stages and through group work, students are required to demonstrate that they deeply understand the test questions, their meaning, their application to a sample text and the meaning of results found Students do treat and explore knowledge as socially constructed, to the extent of questioning their assumptions, but not so that they can judge the appropriateness of different interpretations across various contexts. Through using the test and then examining it and articulating and communicating their understanding, students are consistently using higherorder thinking Students do not only explore the use of language in texts to create meaning, but they also explore their own use of language to convey understanding and perspective. When writing their comprehension of the test and reflecting on their test results, students are in particular clarifying the ideas, concepts and arguments related to testing picture books for their cultural knowledge Quality Learning Environment The incorporation of marking criteria. And the explanations that surround it, illustrate how well students need to perform in order to achieve in this task This task presents the serious challenge of collaborating with peers to successfully complete a task, with the knowledge that they are being assessed individually and as a group Students have autonomy over the style and content of their presentation as the guidelines for what to include are not detailed or specific, but they have limited control in the progression of the task or the questions they must use Significance Students background knowledge is elicited, particularly at one point of the task, and it is connected but not sustained throughout whole task See above See above Task is based on students forming an understanding of how picture books function within society, not just the classroom. Task asks that some connections are made, but implications are not really explored. See above

Deep Knowledge Deep Understanding Problematic Knowledge Higher-order Thinking Metalanguage Substantive Communication

Explicit Quality Criteria High Expectations Student Direction

4 4

Background Knowledge Cultural Knowledge Knowledge Integration Connectedness

3 5 4 3

Narrative

EDUC6761 / EDUC6771 AT1

Word Count: 3220

Sonia Carpenter

c3109550

Michael Linich

CRITICAL ANALYSIS

The Quality Teaching model provides a framework for the factors a teacher needs to consider in the design and implementation of assessment tasks; this revision of The Picture Book Test aimed to integrate as many of the elements of the model into a quality assessment of learning in a stage 4 English classroom. The modified task intends to maximise stage 4 students learning of the NSW syllabus outcomes 2.1 and 6.5. (Board of Studies NSW, 2001) These outcomes are concerned with critical reading and viewing strategies, and the significance of textual elements to student experiences. These are closely interrelated and the Picture Book Test, as it has been modified into a classroom assessment for learning, can develop a students understanding of these two syllabus outcomes through facilitating their ability to appreciate and recognise the power of stories to change and affect people. (Burke, 2003)

The modification of the original task was open to interpretation as the Picture Book Test was from a resource for teachers, a Unit of Work Beyond the River, (McKnight, 2006) from the Asia Education Foundation (AEF). It needed to be made into a complete assessment, because the work unit did not have pre-designed task sheets ready to give to students, only a set of resources and assessment ideas. The Picture Book Test was supplied as an appendix in the unit for the teacher to use as a basis for an assessment task. The assessment strategy of group work and presentation was chosen in modification of the Picture Book Test for the advantages cooperation provides for student learning. Collaboration amongst students to learn is an assessment strategy proven successful (Sawyer, Watson, & Gold, 1998) and so a task that required students to demonstrate an understanding a wide range of concepts such as those in the Picture Book Test would be best understood if communicated between students. Group presentations would allow the instruction of the key concepts to be shared by the class. These could be consolidated by teacher instruction as feedback between presentations. The modified task allocates time for students to write and rehearse their presentations, opportunity for them to form arguments and information that demonstrate a deep understanding of their chosen focus. The task marking criteria details that they will be assessed individually for their contribution and attentiveness to other presentations, so this deep understanding is extended across all of the key concepts within this assessment task.

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Sonia Carpenter

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Michael Linich

Other reasonable assessment strategies could be individual reports or essays; such strategies would potentially increase student direction, but they have the disadvantage of limiting student deep understanding to the topics each student invariably focused on. The Picture Book Test references too many complex concepts to make a coherent understanding of them achievable for an individual in a single assessment task, especially a stage 4 learner. The Beyond the River Unit (McKnight, 2006) suggested that students write their own Picture Book Test as a method of assessment. This was not incorporated into the modified task as although an appropriate assessment strategy of a students comprehension of the test purpose, this would not allow students the opportunity to solidify their learning through communication with others (West, 2010), as group presentations do. Rewriting the test encourages a disregard of the issues raised by the test in favour of their own. This could increase the elements of significance in the task, but potentially at the sacrifice of communication skills exercised by giving presentations. The dimensions most improved by modification of The Picture Book Test were Intellectual Quality and Quality Learning Environment. The original task already contained significant implementation of the Significance dimension, through its style of questions that built on cultural knowledge, knowledge integration and narrative. (Ladwig & Gore, 2009) Through group work in various stages, the modified task was especially able to improve integration of the deep understanding element. Metalanguage was increased through comprehension of the tests language and revision and reflection on this comprehension, all instrumental skills related academic English (Luke, 2004) as much as Quality Teaching. Commentary and understanding was then deepened through the execution of a presentation on their understanding. The standard of Explicit Quality Criteria and Student Direction was able to be raised through the increase assessment tasks, a description of them, and the incorporation of marking criteria for students to use as a measure of their performance. In a classroom implementation of this task, sensitivities towards group work and what it demands of the individual would need to be considered. Students from particular cultural or social backgrounds, and students with disabilities or challenging behaviours, may not do well in group assessment environments and may be a learning hindrance to other group members. This assessment task as designed does assume that all students will work effectively in groups and this is certainly not the case. (Koriat, 2008) A modified version for individuals may be needed for some to be equally assessed in achieving the learning outcomes without feeling excluded. The modified task could achieve this with minor change, as many of the group tasks could be achieved by the individual and students could be given the option to present in front of the teacher alone rather than the whole class, with the same outcomes assessed.

EDUC6761 / EDUC6771 AT1

Word Count: 3220

Sonia Carpenter

c3109550

Michael Linich

REFERENCE LIST

Board of Studies NSW. (2001). English Years 7-10 Syllabus. (2003284). Sydney: Board of Studies NSW. Burke, Jim. (2003). The English Teacher's Companion: a complete guide to classroom, curriculum, and the profession (2nd ed.). Portsmouth: Heinemann. Koriat, Asher. (2008). Easy Comes, easy goes? The link between learning and remembering and its exploitation in metacognition. Memory & Cognition, 36(2), 416-428. doi: 10.3758/MC.36.2.416 Ladwig, James, & Gore, Jennifer. (2009). Quality Teaching in NSW Public Schools: An Assessment Practice Guide. Sydney: Department of Education and Training. Luke, Allan. (2004). At Last: The Trouble with English. Research in the Teaching of English, 39(1), 8595. McKnight, Lucinda. (2006). Beyond The River. Asia Scope and Sequence: Secondary Units of Work Retrieved March 10, 2012, from http://www.asiaeducation.edu.au/for_teachers/curriculum_resources/english_cr/asiascope seqenglishcr/secondary_units_of_work_eng/unit_1_beyond/beyond_unit_overview.html Sawyer, Wayne, Watson, Ken, & Gold, Eva (Eds.). (1998). Re-Viewing English. Sydney: St Clair Press. West, Keith. (2010). Inspired English Teaching: a practical guide for trainee and practicing teachers. London, New York: Continuum International Publishing Group.

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