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Chemistry, a branch of physical science, is the study of the composition, properties and behavior of matter.

Chemistry is concerned with atoms and their interactions with other atoms, and particularly with the properties of chemical bonds. Chemistry is also concerned with the interactions between atoms (or groups of atoms) and various forms of energy (e.g. photochemical reactions, changes in phases of matter, separation of mixtures, properties of polymers, etc.). Chemistry is sometimes called "the central science" because it bridges other natural sciences like physics, geology and biology with each other. Chemistry is a branch of physical science but distinct from physics. The etymology of the word chemistry has been much disputed. The genesis of chemistry can be traced to certain practices, known as alchemy, which had been practiced for several millennia in various parts of the world, particularly the Middle East.

Branches Of Chemistry Organic Chemistry - the study of carbon and its compounds; the study of the chemistry of life. Inorganic Chemistry - the study of compounds not-covered by organic chemistry; the study of inorganic compounds or compounds which do not contain a C-H bond. Many inorganic compounds are those which contain metals. Analytical Chemistry - the study of the chemistry of matter and the development of tools used to measure properties of matter. Physical Chemistry - the branch of chemistry that applies physics to the study of chemistry. Commonly this includes the applications of thermodynamics and quantum mechanics to chemistry. Biohemistry - the study of chemical processes that occur inside of living organisms. Agrochemistry - This branch of chemistry may also be called agricultural chemistry. It deals with the application of chemistry for agricultural production, food processing, and environmental remediation as a result of agriculture. Astrochemistry - Astrochemistry is the study of the composition and reactions of the chemical elements and molecules found in the stars and in space and of the interactions between this matter and radiation. Chemical Engineering - Chemical engineering involves the practical application of chemistry to solve problems.

Chemistry History - Chemistry history is the branch of chemistry and history that traces the evolution over time of chemistry as a science. To some extent, alchemy is included as a topic of chemistry history. Cluster Chemistry - This branch of chemistry involves the study of clusters of bound atoms, intermediate in size between single molecules and bulk solids. Combinatorial Chemistry - Combinatorial chemistry involves computer simulation of molecules and reactions between molecules. Electrochemistry - Electrochemistry is the branch of chemistry that involves the study of chemical reactions in a solution at the interface between an ionic conductor and an electrical conductor. Electrochemistry may be considered to be the study of electron transfer, particularly within an electrolytic solution. Environmental Chemistry - Environmental chemistry is the chemistry associated with soil, air, and water and of human impact on natural systems. Food Chemistry - Food chemistry is the branch of chemistry associated with the chemical processes of all aspects of food. Many aspects of food chemistry rely on biochemistry, but it incorporates other disciplines as well. General Chemistry - General chemistry examines the structure of matter and the reaction between matter and energy. It is the basis for the other branches of chemistry. Geochemistry - Geochemistry is the study of chemical composition and chemical processes associated with the Earth and other planets. Green Chemistry - Green chemistry is concerned with processes and products that eliminate or reduce the use or release of hazardous substances. Remediation may be considered part of green chemistry. Kinetics - Kinetics examines the rate at which chemical reactions occur and the factors that affect the rate of chemical processes. Medicinal Chemistry - Medicinal chemistry is chemistry as it applies to pharmacology and Nanochemistry - Nanochemistry is concerned with the assembly and properties of nanoscale assemblies of atoms or molecules. Nuclear Chemistry - Nuclear chemistry is the branch of chemistry associated with nuclear reactions and isotopes. Photochemistry - Photochemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with interactions between light and matter.

Polymer Chemistry - Polymer chemistry or macromolecular chemistry is the branch of chemistry the examines the structure and properties of macromolecules and polymers and finds new ways to synthesize these molecules. Solid State Chemistry - Solid state chemistry is the branch of chemistry that is focused on the structure, properties, and chemical processes that occur in the solid phase. Much of solid state chemistry deals with the synthesis and characterization of new solid state materials. Spectroscopy - Spectroscopy examines the interactions between matter and electromagnetic radiation as a function of wavelength. Spectroscopy commonly is used to detect and identify chemicals based on their spectroscopic signatures. Thermochemistry - Thermochemistry may be considered a type of Physical Chemistry. Thermochemistry involves the study of thermal effects of chemical reactions and the thermal energy exchange between processes. Theoretical Chemistry - Theoretical chemistry applies chemistry and physics calculations to explain or make predictions about chemical phenomena.

What is the Importance of Chemistry? Chemistry has a reputation for being a complicated and boring science, but for the most part, that reputation is undeserved. Fireworks and explosions are based on chemistry, so it's definitely not a boring science. If you take classes in chemistry, you'll apply math and logic, which can make studying chemistry a challenge if you are weak in those areas. However, anyone can understand the basics of how things work... and that's the study of chemistry. In a nutshell, the importance of chemistry is that it explains the world around you. A large amount of research breakthroughs in physics would not have been possible without the use of principles and methods of chemistry. The development of specialized drugs to cure diseases and understanding of biological and geological systems would be unimaginable if it weren't for the contribution from chemistry.

Kasaysayan Ang kasaysayan o historya ay ginagamit bilang isang pangkalahatang katawagan para sa impormasyon tungkol sa nakaraan, katulad ng "heolohikang kasaysayan ng daigdig". Kapag ginagamit bilang pangalan ng isang pinagaaralang larangan, tinutukoy ng kasaysayan ang pag-aaral at pagpapaliwanag ng mga nakatalang lipunan ng tao, mga panayam (binigkas na kasaysayan), at arkeolohiya. Maaaring mga ibang paraan ang karaniwang ginagawa sa ilang panahon kaysa sa iba, at may mga uso ang pag-aaral sa kasaysayan (tignan historiograpiya). Tinatawag na bago ang kasaysayan ang mga pangyayaring bago Kadalasang sinasabi na nababalutan ng kaalaman sa kasaysayan ang parehong kaalaman sa nakaraang pangyayari at maka-kasaysayang pag-iisip na kasanayan, dahil: matutughahanda sa hinaharap, nakatutulong upang malinang ating kasanayan at kaasalan, nakatutulong upang malutas o lutasin ang kasalukuyang suliranin, nalilinang ang pakikipagkapwa.
source: https://tl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kasaysayan

Sa Aking Mga Kabata ni Jos Rizal


Kapagka ang baya'y sadyang umiibig Sa kanyang salitang kaloob ng langit, Sanglang kalayaan nasa ring masapit Katulad ng ibong nasa himpapawid.

Pagka't ang salita'y isang kahatulan Sa bayan, sa nayo't mga kaharian, At ang isang tao'y katulad, kabagay Ng alin mang likha noong kalayaan.

Ang hindi magmahal sa kanyang salita Mahigit sa hayop at malansang isda, Kaya ang marapat pagyamaning kusa Na tulad sa inang tunay na nagpala.

Ang wikang Tagalog tulad din sa Latin Sa Ingles, Kastila at salitang anghel, Sapagka't ang Poong maalam tumingin Ang siyang naggawad, nagbigay sa atin.

Ang salita nati'y huwad din sa iba Na may alfabeto at sariling letra, Na kaya nawala'y dinatnan ng sigwa Ang lunday sa lawa noong dakong una.

Pananaliksik sa Sa Aking Mga Kabata Sinasabing ang tulang ito ay isinulat ni Rizal noong siya ay walong taong gulang lamang. Marahil ikinagugulat ito ng nakararami sapagkat sa kanyang murang edad, mabigat na ang tekstong kanyang isinulat. Bago kami gumawa ng mga spekulasyon ukol sa isyung ito, minabuti naming bigyang puna muna ang kanyang akda. Sa unang taludtod makikita kaagad natin ang maigting na pagnanasang makamtam muli ang kalayaan. Kaya namin ito nasabi ay dahil na rin sa kanyang ibinigay na pagwawangis sa salitang kalayaan at sa kalagayan ng ibong nasa himpapawid. Samakatuwid kung ito ang kanyang ginamit bilang paghahalintulad, ano pa nga ba ang nanaisin ng ibong minsay naging malaya kapag ito ay sadyang ikinulong, na kanyang ipinahayag sa paggamit ng salitang sangla or pawn. Higit pa rito ang unang dalawang linya na nagsabi na kung ang buong bayan (emphasis on buong bayan ) ay sadyang nagmamahal [ nag-uukol ng di-sapilitang (innate) pagpapahalaga/pagtatangi ] sa sarili nitong wika, maaring ito ang maging susi sa pagtatamo ng kalayaan.