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It is indeed a great pleasure for me to present this Summer Training Report on Delhi Metro Rail Corporation as a part of the curriculum of the B.E.course Mechanical Engineering I take this golden opportunity to thank all my mentors at DMRC who with their support And venerated guidance made this training a real success . I express my sincere thanks to officers of DMRC who in spite of their busy schedule have lent their precious time for helping out me to understand various system used in DMRC.

I will be failing in my duty if I am not mentioning the technical demonstrations as given by the reverent staff of DMRC. There is no denying the fact that DMRC is the epitome of modern technology and getting training at such an organization is an exquisite learning experience that made a mark at the profoundest part of my mind.

Delhi Metro Rail Corporation


is like a dream come true for Delhi, a revolutionary change in the city transport. Delhi needs metro system in the first place and it would change things for the better not only for people who would be using it and but for the people living in Delhi by reducing congestion, air pollution, noise pollution and accidents.

Formation of DMRC
A company under the name DMRC was registered on 30.05.1995 under the companies act for construction and operation of the metro project. DMRC is the joint venture of the Government of India and Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi. It started functioning in November 1997. It appointed General consultant in August, 1998 to assist them for implementation of the project. This is the consortium office international consultancy company led by Pac Consultants International (PCI), Japan. The whole project of approximately 200Kms is to be completed in three phases up to 2021, the first phase of the project, comprising of approximately 62.06Kms, is currently operational. It is having 18 stations in Line 1 (Red Line), 10 stations in Line 2 (Yellow Line) and 22 stations in Line 3 (Blue Line).

Benefits of Delhi Metro on completion

On the completion of the first phase of the Delhi Metro, it would be catering to around 2.18 million commuters per day resulting in decongestion of the roads. This would also mean that there would be less number of buses on the roads. It has also reduced the travel time. Also the pollution level is reduced to about 50%. Since the first phase of the Delhi Metro is operational a large number of commuters are having a lot of convenience in reaching their desired destination in the required time.

Advantages of Rail-based Transit System

Can achieve carrying capacity as high as 60000-80000. Required 1/5th energy per passenger compared to Road-based system. Causes no air pollution in the city. Causes lesser noise level. Occupies no road space if underground and only about of 2 meter width of the road if elevated. Carries same amount of bus traffic or 33 lanes of private motor car. Is more reliable, comfortable and safer than road system. Reduces journey time (about 50% to 75% )

Awards won
The Delhi Metro has been awarded OHSAS (Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Sequence 18001) by RINA (Registro Italiano Navale India Pvt. Ltd.), Geneva. To help in proper maintenance the DMRC has been divided into departments and sub departments: Signaling Telecom Rolling Stock P. Way AFC

Rolling Stock Overview

Train Formation
At present each train train set consist of four cars.Both ends of the train-set are Driving Trailer(DT) cars and middle cars are Motor(M) cars. The train set can be controlled as a complete unit or as separate units for various maintenance activities at the depot. 1) 4 car 2) 6 car 3) 8 car DT-M-M-DT DT-M-M-T-M-DT DT-M-M-T-M-T-M-DT (Here T car is the non-driving trailer car.)

Salient Features
1. Broad Gauge 2. 25 KV Supply Voltage System 3. Three phase A.C. Induction Motor 4. Fail Safe braking with regenerative braking 5. VVVF Control 6. Reinforced conical rubber primary Suspension 7. Secondary Air Suspension 8. Uniform Floor Height 9. Jerk Controlled Braking 10. Light Weight Stainless Steel Structure 11. Slip/Slide protection 12. Train Integrated Management System 13. PLC based saloon Air conditioning system 14. Electrically Operated and electronically controlled Saloon Doors

15. Emergency Door 16. ATP/ATO

Track Rail gauge

1676mm 25kV ac single phase 50Hz Through Pantograph DT&T : 42.0 ton, M : 42.0 ton 361 persons (seating 43, standing 318) 392 persons (seating 50, standing 342) Control of acceleration and deceleration by Variable Voltage, Variable Frequency (VVVF) Inverter blended with regenerative Braking Regenerative braking blended with pneumatic braking by electrical command and BP-back up brake by drivers brake Valve MR-pressure 8.0 bar ~ 10 bar Automatic Train Protection (ATP) Train Integrated Management System,TIMS Roof-mounted and Self-contained Type 41KW Bolster less type bogie with air spring Conical bonded rubber spring Air spring 90Km/h 80Km/h 35Km/h

Supply Voltage System

Current Collection Car Train Weight(max) Maximum Number of passengers DT car M&T car Speed Control System

Brake System

Air Pressure Automatic Train Control System Train Monitoring System Saloon Air Conditioning System Type Rated Cooling Capacity Bogie Type Suspension -Primary - Secondary Maximum design Speed Maximum Operational Speed Round trip schedule Speed with 30S station & 8% coasting, excluding terminal station turn round time with fully loaded train Acceleration from 0km/h to 30km/h for fully loaded train on level tangent track(Notional) Service braking rate from 80km/h to standstill up to fully loaded train on level tangent track Emergency braking rate from 80km/h to 0km/h up to fully loaded train on level tangent track

0.78m/s 5%

1.0m/s 5%


Jerk rate

0.70 + 0.05m/s


1. Aircon 2. Pneumatic and Brake System 3. Passenger Saloon Door 4. Bogie,suspension & wheels 5. Coupler 6. Saloon Interior 7. Car Body Structure

Function of air conditioning system

to control temperature to control humidity to supply pure air

Design Conditions
Description No. of passengers :Ambient temperature:Inside condition:Present inside condition:Fresh air per passenger :Cooling capacity:Condition 392 430 DBT& 33% RH / 390 DBT & 41%RH DBT 330 DBT&/290DBT 240 DBT 2.3 lps 41 kw per unit 82 kw per car

Operating modes

Set Point + 1.0C




Set Point + 0.5C



Normal Operating Mode In Normal Operating Mode A/C unit provides cooling and ventilation, switching automatically by various sub modes to fulfil specified condition. Emergency Operating Mode When 3 Phase. Power supply is not available , ac will work in this mode & will supply fresh air only. Smoke Mode In this mode , system shuts off the fresh air intake and provides full recirculation of return air within the saloon.

Normal operating sub -modes Vent mode :air is supplied inside saloon without any cooling Cool-1 mode:air is supplied with cooling (only 50% of cooling capacity is used) Cool-2 mode:air is supplied with cooling (100% cooling capacity is used.

Main component of air conditioning system Refrigeration Equipment Air Transfer Equipment Electrical Equipment

A) Refrigeration equipment
1.Compressor 2. Condenser coil 3. Solenoid valve 4. Thermal exp. Valve 5. Evaporator coil 1. Compressor The function of the compressor is to pump the refrigerant through the system and to compress the low pressure, low temperature refrigerant into a high pressure high temperature super heated vapour, to allow condensing to occur. Type:- Semi-Hermetic Four Cylinder Reciprocating Suction Gas Cooled Speed:- 1450 rpm Swept volume:- 82.21 m3/h Displacement:-945ccm 2. Condenser The function of the condenser coil is to reject the heat from refrigerant absorbed by the evaporator coil and during the compression process Type: Copper finned, copper tube, brass frame heat exchanger Quantity: 2 per unit Air Flow:2700 l/s (each coil)

3. T-X valve The TX valve regulates the refrigerant flow into the evaporator coil, expanding the liquid from high pressure to low pressure, and causing a large drop in refrigerant temperature. Refrigerant R22 Range N -40 +10 o C Factory Superheat 5K Max bulb temp. 100 o C Max working pressure 28 bar 4. Evaporator coil The prime function of the evaporator compartment is to deliver conditioned air to the main supply air duct that services the vehicle Type: Quantity: Air Flow: Face Velocity: Cooling Capacity: Copper finned, copper tube, brass frame heat exchanger. 1 per unit. 1350 l/s 2.5 m/s 41 kW

5. Dual pressure controller (DPC) Its function is to switch off the refrigeration system in case of adverse system condition . It monitors both the high and low refrigerant pressures. If the low (LP) or high (HP) pressures reach a predetermined set point, the refrigeration system will be shut down. Range: Set points:hp fault:- 2800 / 2500 kpa Lp fault :- 50/350 kpa LP 50 700 kPa HP 300 3000 kPa

B. Air Transfer Scheme

Fresh air


Supply fan


Fresh air damper

1.Supply fan As the name applies , it supplies the conditioned air inside saloon . It draws back 70% of return air & 30% of fresh air & moves past t Type: Quantity: Supply Air: Motor:2.Condenser fan Its function is draw the atmospheric air through condenser coil , inside which hot refrigerant is flowing , thus making the heat rejection & condensing the Type: Multi wing axial fan, 9 blades Quantity: two (2) per unit Direction of flow: Draw through RPM Range: 0 2045 rpm Motor:- 2.2 KW @1500rpm , 415 v Two double inlet centrifugal blower wheels with double shafted motor Two (2) per unit 1350 Litres/second at 470 Pa external static pressure 2.2 kw @1500rpm , 415 v

3.Air dampers Their function is to control the fresh air & return( recirculated) air volume as per requirement. Mode Vent , Cool 1 &2 Emergency vent Smoke vent fresh air damper partially opened fully opened fully closed return air damper fully opened fully closed fully Opened


Pneumatic system is mainly used in five items in metro Brake System, Coupler, Suspension, Horn and Pantograph. But pneumatic system work in a unit with common input and different outputs i.e. having a common air supply equipment which supply air at high pressure in two pipes named MAIN PIPE (M.P.) & BRAKE PIPE (B.P.) and other equipment tapped pressure from it. Hence it has been configured as follows:Configuration
A B C G L P U W Air Supply equipment Brake Control equipment Mechanical Brake Actuating component Wheel Side Protection equipment Air Suspension equipment Pneumatic Horn equipment Auxiliary Air Supply equipment Automatic Coupler Actuating equipment DT, T DT, T, M DT, T, M DT, T, M DT, T, M DT DT, T, DT, T, M


Its mainly consist of three parts:1) Piston Compressor (VV120) 2) Air Dryer Unit (LTZ015 H) 3) Air Reservoir

Ai r

Piston compress or VV120

Air driyer unit LTZ015-H

Air Reserv oir


There are two type of compressor:i. Main compressor:1. Discharge air pressure 2. Nominal discharge capacity 3. Type 4. motor motor ii. Auxiliary air compressor 1. Nominal discharge capacity 2. motor max. 10 bars. 900 L/min. piston type. 3, 415V AC, 50 Hz, induction

70 L/min 110V DC, 860W,10 minute rating

Features of piston compresseor: It is W- Shaped 3-Cylinder Unit with 2-Stage compression reciprocating type compressor (see fig.). i. Extremely short design. ii. Optimum cooling for all cylinders. It have self-supporting, Flange- Mounted, Motor compressor set. i. No additional frame needed. ii. Small installation space. It creates very low sound pressure level. i. Only about 64db(A)/4.6m (76db/1.0m) It have closed circuit splash type lubrication i. Which allow low oil consumption. It have forced air cool type ******** heat exchanger i.e. radiator. Its cooler Fan speed control by temperature.

It also has a torsion ally rigid bellow type coupling between motor and compressor which allow no rotary vibration. It is mounted with car by wire rope isolators for no resonance throughout the whole compressor speed range. Compressor can be drive by AC, DC and hydraulic motor i.e. very low specific power consumption i. It also has low breakaway torque for low starting current even at low temperature.

2) Air Dryer Unit (LTZ015 H)

At very high pressure when air is cooled some component of it condense in to liquid which make air wet. So that why an air dryer unit mounted which perform following function on air:1) 2) 3) 4) Dries the air.(Two column unit) Separate oil & liquid from it.(Oil separator) Filter the foreign partial from it.(MicroFilter) And act as silencer for out going air to reduce noise.(Air silencer)

92.93 A O.. P1 P2 V...

Insulators (on LTZO15..H) Drainage port Exhaust port Air supply port Air pipe connection to main reservoir Valve seat

19a 19b 19.7 19.11 24 25 34

Tower Tower Desiccant Oil separator bowl with Ranching rings Valve cone for check valve Bracket Duplex piston valve

3.Air Reservoir
There are 2 type of reservoir Main reservoir & Auxiliary reservoir 1) Main reservoir can have 200L of air. 2) Auxiliary reservoir can have _______L of air.


The brake system is one of the most important parts of metro and it is controlled and designed to interface with TIMS(Train Integrated Management System) with electrical and pneumatic controls. The two think must be taken in consideration while designing brake system:1) Wheel slide protection 2) Fail safe system Main component of brake system are:1) 2) 3) 4) 5) BP (Brake Pipe) BCU (Brake Control Unit) BECU (Brake Electronic Control Unit) ASV (Anti Skied Valve) BBU (Block Brake Unit) 34.15 KNORR K-ring 34.17 43 50 55 56 70 71 KNORR K-ring Valve magnet Regeneration choke Piston for pre control valve KNORR K-ring KNORR K-ring Valve head for bypass valve


BAKE PIPE a. It is a tapped pipe from MRP (Main Reservoir Pressure). b. Its max. pressure is 5 bar c. Its used only for braking propose.



It is a single board which consist many type valves as shown in fig. It has analogue control valve which convert signal from BECU to required pressure. a. Combination of different valve used for different purpose:i.A & B used for service brake. ii.C, D & E used emergency brake. iii.F & G used for auxiliary unit. iv.J, L, M & N used for testing fittings

Different type of braking :i. Service brake ii. Blend brake iii.Emergency brake iv. Parking brake v. Holding brake vi. BP- back up brake i. SERVICE BRAKE :a. It is ED (Electro Dynamic) brake. b. It is also Regenerative brakes c. In this motor work as generator and back EMF is produce which recharge the battery. d. And due to generative action and opposite field a braking force is applied on the motor. e. This brake is controlled by C/I of M car. ii. BLEND BRAKE

f. It is blending of ED (Electro Dynamic) brake & EP (Electro Pneumatic) brake. g. It is applied when only ED brake is not sufficient. h. Then the remaining amount of brake is applied by EP brake i. EP brake is control by DT car. Hence blend brake is collectively controlled by DT & M car. M car DT car Train line brake demand TCU TCU BECU BECU

Blending request

F set by M & DT F set by M ED V1 V2 EP


EMERGENCY BRAKE j. The train set is equipped with an emergency brake loop wire. The emergency brake loop is connected to the emergency brake magnet valve. Which is opened when de-energized and closed when energized (Failsafe system). k. Magnet valve is de-energies by driver or interruption it by pass the MRP i.e. MRP become 0 bar l. Analogue control valve on BCU produce a request signal using load limiting value.

m. Redundancy realized for the emergency brake pressure generation. iv. PARKING BRAKE
n. Parking brake is used for parking the train in depot and these are installed at Driving trailer car and Motor cars (1 set per axle).

o. It can be operated manually or by TIMS. p. It is spring actuated brake. q. In this first MRP pressure goes low (< 4.5 bar) by any mean it release the pressure from spring and brake applied. v. HOLDING BRAKE r. The holding brake is provided to prevent the train from rolling backwards on a rising gradient and the train from moving at the station. s. This brake is controlled by C/I of M car. t. The holding brakes are 70% of full service brakes. vi. BP- BACK UP BRAKE u. Additional BP (Brake pipe) controlled back-up brake system is provided in order to take over the brake control function in case of failure of individual electronic or electrical control elements. The driver can continue to control the pneumatic friction brake by using the driver's brake valve. v. The driver is able to apply or release the pneumatic brake by operating the driver's brake valve. w. By the brake valve the brake pipe (BP) pressure can be reduced or increased depending on the time the brake lever is maintained at "braking" or "driving". During the normal service brake operation, the drivers brake valve lever shall be maintained at "driving"


1.It is microprocessor based control system which deals with many type of signal. 2.It works as an interface between TIMS & BCU.

D. ASV (Anti Skied Valve)

Wheel slide protection is used to optimize the stopping distance and to avoid the wheel flats under wheel sliding conditions. Wheel slide protection is active in service brake and Emergency brake.The wheel slide protection acts per bogie on each car by the dump valves (G2). Wheel-slide protection is operational at all speeds down to 3 km/h.Speed sensor mounted on the cover of each axle box, detects the speed of the associated wheel. When a potential wheel-slide event is detected, the BECU will release/apply the brakes through energizing/ de-energizing the magnets of the dump valves or anti skied valve.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

14 15 16 17 18 19

Econnection Double valve magnet Plate Anchor spring Housing D piston Compressing spring Control chamber Valve seat Vd Bypass nozzle Nozzle D Bracket To brake cylinder pressure supply To the brake Nozzle C Valve seat Vc C-piston Control chamber Outer valve seat


Inner valve seat

Block Brake Unit

1 2

Piston packing ring Piston

44 45

Compensating link Bracket

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Piston return spring Piston pin Cam disc Bearing pin Cam roller Trust ring Adjuster mechanism Hexagon reset head Ball shaped rod head Torque pin Brake block wedge Brake block shoe Brake block Link pin Hanger Friction member Hanger pin Torsion spring Housing Bellows Cylinder cover Air supply port


Return spring



Salient Features of Saloon Door Obstruction detection Door isolation Emergency operation Fault diagnosis


1. 2. 3. 4.








Types of Coupler 1. Automatic Front Coupler Coupler Length (from face to pivot) Coupler Weight Maximum Swing of coupler Horizontal Vertical 2. Automatic Intermediate coupler Coupler Length (from face to pivot) Coupler Weight Maximum Swing of coupler Horizontal Vertical 3. Semi Permanent Coupler Coupler Length (from face to pivot) Coupler Weight Maximum Swing of coupler Horizontal Vertical 1240 5 mm approx. 210 kg approx 45 approx. 6 1350 5 mm approx. 365 kg approx 45 approx. 6 1350 5 mm approx. 485 kg approx 45 approx. 6

Different faults of aircon

Circuit breaker tripping i.e SFB , CBF , CMB tripping: any circuit breaker gets trips, this fault comes. CBF-1 or 2 tripped:system will run as usual with increased discharge pressure CFB- 1&2 tripped :system will not run in cool mode CMB tripped:system will not run in cool mode SFB mode:system will not run in a any mode High pressure(HP) fault:- when system pressure increase beyond given safe limit for the system, then system gets tripped. If such instances occur more than 3times in a hours, then cooling system will shut down. Low pressure fault: when system pressure decreases beyond given safe limit for the system, cooling system will shut down. High ambient temperature unloading.:- in case of adverse ambient condition , to avoid overloading of cooling system , system is unloaded. RAT/FAT probe fault:- these faults occurs in case of failure of temperature probe. COTS / IOAT getting operated:- these are temperature switches , installed inside compressor motor winding & inverter area respectively., & gets operated when temperature exceeds the given limit.& respective system gets shutdown.