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Experiment no.

4 Viscosity average molecular mass

Neha Chauhan Roll No. Y1011033 6th Semester January 15, 2013

Aim of The Experiment

To determine the viscosity average molecular weight of Polyvinyl alcohol graphically.


Viscosity is an internal property of a uid that oers resistance to ow. It is due to the internal friction of molecules.Viscosity of a polymer solution depends on concentration and size (i.e., molecular weight) of the dissolved polymer. By measuring the solution viscosity we should be able to get an idea about molecular weight.


Viscosity is measured with the help of an apparatus called viscometer. Equation governing the viscosity of liquid owing through viscometer is given as below. g =( )t = ct 8V where = Radius of the tube through which liquid ows , g= acceleration due to gravity, = density of the solution, t= time taken by liquid to ow through the tube


We let 0 be the viscosity of the pure solvent and be the viscosity of a solution using that solvent. Several methods exist for characterizing the solution viscosity, or more specically, the capacity of the solute to increase the viscosity of the solution. That capacity is quantied by using one of several dierent measures of solution viscosity. The most common solution viscosity terms are: Specic Viscosity: Specic viscosity expresses the incremental viscosity due to the presence of the polymer in the solution. 0 sp = (2) 0 where 0 is the viscosity of solvent i.e pure water. Intrinsic viscosity: The extrapolated value of sp /c at zero concentration is known as the intrinsic viscosity [ ]. [ ] is a unique function of molecular weight (for a given polymer-solvent pair) and measurements of [ ] can be used to measure molecular weight. [ ] = limcm 0 ( sp ) Cm (3)

Mark-Houwink equation
The equation describing the dependence of the intrinsic viscosity of a polymer on its relative molecular mass (molecular weight) and having the form: [ ] = K M a (4)

a where [ ] is the intrinsic viscosity, K and a are constants the values of which depend on the nature of the polymer and solvent as well as on temperature and M is usually one of the relative molecular mass averages. Therefore the viscosity average molecular weight can be expressed by the equation as: M =( [ ] 1/a ) K (5)


Chemicals Required
Polyvinyl alcohol stock solution (0.008 g/ml) Water


Apparatus Required

Viscometer Stopwatch Beaker Funnel Pipette and bulb Volumetric ask

1. 25 ml of 80%, 60%, 40% and 20% concentration solution were prepared from the stock solution. 2. The viscometers were clamped and pure water was lled.Using the pipette bulb the liquid was pushed above the ducial and then allowed to ow through the capillary. 3. Time required for the liquid to ow through the capillary was noted.The procedure was repeated thrice. 4. The viscometer was drained and lled with the polyvinyl alcohol of 80% concentration. The time ow was noted and the step was repeated with three more dierent available concentrations. 5. The data obtained was then used to calculate the molecular weight of the polymer.


Data Tabulation
Table 1: Observation table Concentraion(%) Time,t (s) Mean Time(s) Water 98. 55 98.95 98.65 98.46 20 110.00 110.00 109.53 108.59 40 125.42 125.46 125.44 125.43 60 153.99 152.74 153.28 153.12 80 168.00 168.88 168.3 168.02

S No 1


Determination of parameter c

From equation (1) we see that c is a constant and doesnt depend on concentration. As water was taken as solvent, and we know that Viscosity of water(0 = 0.862), Density of water(w = 0.997075),and Time taken by water to ow through the tube,t=98.65s(From observation table). Plugging these values in equation (1),we get 0.862 = c 0.997075 98.65 c = 8.76 103 units


Calculation of Specic Viscosity sp

Density of Polyvinyl alcohol solution=1.3g/ml Concentration of stock solution=.008g/ml

S No 1

Table 2: Table for calculation of specic viscosity 0 Concentraion(%) Time,t (s) Mean Time(s) [ ] sp = 0 20 110.00 110.00 109.53 1.247 0.45 108.59 40 125.42 125.46 125.44 1.428 0.66 125.43 60 153.99 152.74 153.28 1.745 1.03 153.12 80 168.00 168.88 168.3 1.916 1.23 168.02


Calculation of Intrinsic viscosity

Plot: Graph1] Linear Regression t of dataset: Table12 , usingf unction : A x + BY standarderrors : U nknownF romx = 20tox = 80B (y intercept) = 0.165 + / 0.0640507611195995A(slope) = 0.01355 + / 0.00116940155635265Intrinsicviscosity [ ] = Intercept of the graph = 0.165.

Calculation of Viscosity average molecular weight

Using the value of intrinsic viscosity polyvinyl alcohol and a already known set of values of k and a, determination of the the molecular weight of the polymer is performed. S No 1 2 3 K 0.0002 0.30 0.14 a 0.76 0.50 0.60
] 1/a M = ( [ K ) 13263.278 0.821 3.021

The values of viscosity average molecular weight obtained from the last two parameters are very small. Hence they can be neglected. Therefore the value of viscosity average molecular mass is 13263.278g/mol.


The value of viscosity average molecular mass found out experimentally is 13263.278g/mol.