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Bettridge 2013

Chemistry Final Exam Review

Significant figure rules: ALL non-zero numbers are significant. ALL zeros between non-zero numbers are significant. ALL zeros which are SIMULTANEOUSLY to the right of the decimal point AND at the end of the number are significant. ALL zeros which are to the left of the decimal point and are in a number >= 10 are significant. When measuring, estimate one place past measurement displayed on instrument. Significant figures in operations Addition and subtraction Sum or difference contains number of decimal places equal to the smallest number of of decimal places in the numbers being added or subtracted Multiplication and division Product or quotient has number of sig. figs. equal to that of the smallest number of sig. figs. in the numbers being multiplied or divided Logarithms Answer has same number of decimal places as the number of sig. figs. in original concentration 1. Chemical and Physical Change/Chemical and Physical Properties Properties Chemical Property must change substance chemically to observe ex. reactivity, flammability, oxidation status Physical Property can be observed without changing ex. colour, mass, volume Changes Chemical Change creates new substance evidence - colour, light, sound, odor Physical Change energy states of matter no new substance

2. Density

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Density = mass per unit of volume g/mL 3. Mixtures Combination of two or more substances that are not chemically united Most natural substances Homogenous mixtures same uniform appearance and composition throughout solution Heterogenous mixtures visibly different substances or phases 4. Elements/Compounds Elements pure chemical substance same type of atom can not be broken down Compounds atoms from different elements combined in specific ratio can be separated ionic or covalent (or metallic) 5. Evidence of a chemical change colour change sound light emission odor

6. Solutions and Types of Solutions SOLUTE: substance in smallest amount, substance that dissolves

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SOLVENT: substance in larger amount Heterogenous Solutions SUSPENSION: particles are easily seen and cloud the solution COLLOIDS: particles are not easily seen and cloud the solution SOL: solid particles in liquid EMULSION: liquid particles in liquid AEROSOL: solid or liquid particles in gas TYNDALL EFFECT: light is scattered when passed through even apparently clear colloids Solid Solutions ALLOY: mixture of two or more metals, or metal and nonmetal SUBSTITUTIONAL: atoms of one metal substitute for atoms of other metal INTERSTITIAL: small atoms of one metal occupy voids between larger atoms of main metal 7. Atomic number and mass number Atomic number order in periodic table tells how many protons are in the atoms nucleus Mass number count of protons + neutrons in the atoms nucleus approx. double the atomic number 8. Isotopes ISOTOPE: an atom with the usual number of protons, but an irregular number of neutrons different forms of a single element change the atomic mass & mass number usually form when an atom is exposed to radioactivity

9. Naming compounds/writing chemical formulas Chemical Formulas Ionic Compounds

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1. Write symbol for cation 2. Cross ion charges to subscript of other ion 3. Simplify subscripts Compound Nomenclature from formula Ionic Compounds 1. write the name of the cation 2. write the name of the anion (for polyatomic ions, 2: -ite & 3: -ate) 3. place Roman numeral after cation name to denote charge Binary Covalent Compounds 1. write name of first element 2. if symbol is followed by a subscript of 2 or more, use prefix to denote number 3. write root of the name of second element with -ide ending 3. use appropriate prefix to denote the number of the 2nd element (1 or more) Acids H + single halogen 1. Hydro + halogen name + ic H + polyatomic ion 1. name of polyatomic ion + ous (2) or ic (3) 10. The mole MOLE - SI unit of any substance, equal to the quantity containing as many units as there are atoms in 12.00 g of carbon-12 AVOGADRO'S NUMBER - 6.02x1023 11. Acid/base properties Acids Taste sour pH < 7 Turn litmus red Proton donors H+1 Bases Taste bitter Slippery pH > 7 Turn litmus blue Proton acceptors OH-1 12. Laws of Conservation of Matter, Definite Proportions, Multiple Proportions LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MATTER - matter cannot be created nor destroyed LAW OF DEFINITE PROPORTIONS - a chemical compound always contains exactly the same proportion of elements by mass

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LAW OF MULTIPLE PROPORTIONS (Daltons Law) - chemical compounds always form ratios of small whole numbers 13. Electrolytes ELECTROLYTE: a substance which forms ions in an aqueous solution, conducts electricity 14. Chemical reaction types Synthesis A + B = AB Decomposition AB = A +B Single Displacement A + BC = AC +B Double Replacement AB + CD = AD + CB Combustion CH + O2 = CO2 + H2O 15. Balancing equations 1. Write unbalanced equation 2. Balance elements by placing coefficients in front of them until equal number of element is on each side of equation. Do not add subscripts Balance H and O last. 3. Indicate states of matter of the reactants and products. (g) = gas (l) = liquid (s) = solid (aq) = aqueous (solution in water)

16. Reaction Prediction Synthesis 1. element + element = binary compound 2. metal oxide + water = hydroxide base 3. nonmetal oxide + water = acid 4. metal oxide + nonmetal oxide = salt

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Decomposition 1. binary compound = element + element 2. hydroxide base = metal oxide + water 3. acid containing oxygen = nonmetal oxide + water 4. salt containing oxygen = metal oxide + nonmetal oxide Single Replacement Possible no reaction Metals replace metals lower in activity series Exception: when a metal reacts with an acid, the metal replaces hydrogen Nonmetals replace nonmetals lower in activity series Exception: When the five most reactive metals react with water, the products formed are a hydroxide and hydrogen gas Double Replacement switch anions 17. Composition Stoichiometry + Percent Composition/Empirical Formula/Molecular Formula/Combustion Analysis COMPOSITION STOICHIOMETRY: quantitative relationships among elements in compounds Solving mass-mass stoichiometry problems 1. Identify substances and write balanced equation 2. Dimensional analysis (with given, solving for, formulas) Percent Composition 1. Multiply atomic masses of each element by number of moles 2. Divide each product by molecular mass of compound 3. Multiply quotients by 100 to find percentages

Empirical/Molecular Formula 1. Percent -> Mass If percentages are given, assume 100.0 g sample. Substitute grams for %. 2. Mass -> Mole Use mass and atomic mass of each element to convert to moles. 3. Divide by smallest

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Divide each elements moles by the smallest number of moles. Round to whole number. 4. Multiply until whole Determine lowest whole number ratio for moles in compound. Ratio becomes subscript in formula. 5. Determine molecular formula Divide given molecular mass of unknown by molecular mass of unknown empirical formula. Multiply subscripts in empirical formula by quotient rounded to whole number. Combustion Analysis Always reacts unknown with O2 to produce CO2 + H2O Solving combustion analysis problems 1. Determine mass of atoms in unknown compound based on masses of products 2. Determine empirical formula of the unknown compound based on masses of atoms 3. Determine molecular formula of unknown compound using empirical formula and molecular mass 18. Reaction and Solution Stoichiometry + Limiting Reactants, Percent Yield and Percent Error REACTION STOICHIOMETRY: determining amount of substance that is consumed or produced by a reaction SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY: determining quantities in chemical reactions taking place in solutions Use dimensional analysis to solve for amount of reactant. Use mole/mole ratio (from coefficients of balanced equation) 22.4 Litres / mole = volume of ideal gas

Solving for Limiting Reactant 1. Dimensional analysis to solve for amount of non-limiting reactant that reacts with limiting reactant 2. Subtract amount of reacted non-limiting reactant from original amount of non-limiting reactant

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3. Dimensional analysis to solve for amount of unknown product (known = limiting reactant) Percent Yield Percent yield = (mass of actual yield / mass of theoretical yield) x 100% Percent Error Percent error = ((experimental value - true value) / true value) x 100% Stoichiometry of Solution Reactions 1. Dimensional analysis solving for mass, volume, or moles use molarity of known or unknown use molecular mass is mass (g) is in the problem use mole/mole ratio of known and unknown Precipitation Reactions Use solubility rules for salts to determine precipitate precipitate = solid all other reactants and products = aqueous if all reactants and products are soluble (aqueous), there is no reaction COMPLETE FORMULA EQUATION: shows all reactants and products, but not what actually occurs COMPLETE IONIC EQUATION: shows all aqueous substances as ions NET IONIC EQUATION: shows only ions that participate in reaction 1. Write complete formula equation 2. Write complete ionic equation (breakup compounds into ions) 3. Cancel spectator ions SPECTATOR IONS: ions that remain unchanged throughout a reaction 4. Write net ionic equation Preparing a Standard Solution 1. massed amount of solid solute (must be calculated) placed into volumetric flask 2. small amount of water is added to dissolve solute 3. more water is added until level reaches volume mark on flask

Dilution M1V1 = M2V2 M1 = molarity of stock solution V1 = volume of stock solution (solve for) M2 = molarity of dilution V2 = volume of dilution

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Acid/Base Titration MaVa = MbVb Ma = molarity of acid (solve for) Va = volume of acid Mb = molarity of base Vb = volume of base Concentration of Ions Multiply concentration of solution by moles of ions in balanced equation. Solution Formation UNSATURATED: when a solution has less than the maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved by the solvent SATURATED: when a solution has the maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved by the solvent SUPERSATURATED: when a solution has more than the maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved by the solvent Solubility Curves For solids, solubility increase as the temperature increases For gases, solubility increases as the temperature decreases 19. Molarity MOLARITY: expression of concentration of solution measured in moles of solute / Litres of solution represented by M 20. Factors affecting the rate of a reaction Greater surface area = faster reaction Greater concentration = faster reaction Greater temperature = faster reaction Greater pressure = faster reaction

CATALYST: substances added to a chemical reaction which change rate of reaction, but remain chemically unchanged after the reaction addition of catalyst = faster reaction

21. Phase diagrams

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22. Boyles Law P1V1 = P2V2 23. Charles Law V1 / T1 = V2 / T2 24. STP STP: Standard Temperature and Pressure Temperature: 273K (0C) Pressure: 1.00 atm

25. Grahams Law Rate1 / Rate2 = sqrt P2 / V1 Rate = rate of effusion for gas 26. Ideal Gas Law PV = nRT n = moles 27. Combined Gas Law P1V1 / T1 = P2V2 / T2 28. Daltons Law Ptotal = PA + PB + PC... Px = xAPtotal xA = moles A / moles A + moles B... 29. Root Mean Square Velocity rms = sqrt (3 / 1) (RT / M)

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R = 8.3145 J / K moles M = molecular mass in kilograms / moles Greater atomic/molecular mass = slower 30. Atomic Structure History Democritus & Aristotle earth, water, air, fire, ether atom = smallest thing in universe John Dalton all matter consists of tiny particles atoms are unchangeable elements characterised by mass of atoms elements combine in whole number ratios elements combine in more than one whole number ratio J.J. Thomson plum pudding negatively charged particles scattered throughout cloud of positive Rutherford gold foil experiment fired beam of alpha particles at gold foil some particles passed through, few deflected proved all positive charges in atom are collected in tiny nucleus Bohr exposed hydrogen atoms in ground state to light electrons absorbed protons and moved to higher orbital proved electrons have orbits

Schrdinger electron cloud model impossible to know exact location of electrons at any given time electron cloud = many possible locations for electrons 31. Quantum numbers QUANTUM NUMBERS: set of numbers used to describe where an electron is in an atom n, l, ml, ms n = energy level 1, 2, 3...

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as n increases, energy increases represented by each period on periodic table l = subshell 0 to n - 1 for each energy level four subshells for each energy level s (lowest), p, d, f (highest) tells shape of orbitals that make up subshell s = spherical p = lobed d, f = multi-lobed ml = orbitals -l to l ms = spin of electron -1/2, +1/2 each electron in pair in each orbital spins opposite the other (Pauli Exclusion Principle) 32. Maximum number of electrons and orbits per subshell Maximum of 2 electrons per orbital, so s = 1 orbital (2 electrons) p = 3 orbitals (6 electrons) d = 5 orbitals (10 electrons) f = 7 orbitals (14 electrons) 33. Ground state and excited state GROUND STATE: lowest energy state possible for an electron EXCITED STATE: state in which electron absorbs additional energy and exists at a higher energy level (further from the nucleus)

34. Electron configurations and orbital diagrams for atoms and ions ELECTRON CONFIGURATION: showing distribution of an atoms electrons AUFBAU PRINCIPLE: as protons are added to a nucleus, electrons are also added nle- = basic equation for electron configurations n = energy level l = subshell in that energy level e- = number of electrons in that subshell Use periodic table to find electron configurations

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Each subshell must fill before the next is started. (Hunds Rule) e.g. H = 1s1 He = 1s2 Br = 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p5

For ions, electron configuration always reverts to closest noble gas configuration. e.g. Mg = 1s22s22p63s2 Mg ion (Mg+2) = 1s22s22p6 Ne = 1s22s22p6

ORBITAL DIAGRAMS (BOX DIAGRAMS): showing which orbitals the electrons in an atom occupy and the spin of the electrons Same as electron configurations, represented as arrows in boxes e.g. Br =

35. Periodic Law including Element Families Groups 1-8: Representative Elements Group 1: Alkali Metals Group 2: Alkaline Earth Metals produce oxides Group 7: Halogens super 7 (diatomic gases) Group 8: Noble Gases non-reactive monatomic gases Transition metals & inner transition metals (lanthanoids & actinoids) in middle of table PERIODIC LAW - there is a repeating pattern of physical and chemical properties of elemetns when they are arranged in order of increasing atomic number

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Atomic Radius: Increases Ionization Energy: Increases Electronegativity: Increases Electron Affinity: Increases 36. Ionic and covalent bonds IONIC BOND - when atoms are bonded by transferring electrons one atom to another formed between metal and nonmetal atoms (salts) solids high melting/boiling points soluble electrolytes COVALENT BOND - when atoms are bonded by sharing electrons between each other formed between two nonmetal atoms (molecules) liquids or gases low melting/boiling points not soluble do not conduct electricity METALLIC BOND - when metal atoms lose their valence electrons forming a sea of electrons formed between two metal atoms solids varied melting/boiling points not soluble conduct electricity

Find difference in electronegativity to determine bond type Difference 1.67 = ionic bond Difference 1.67 = covalent bond 37. Lewis dot structures LEWIS DOT STRUCTURE - diagram showing electrons in bonds between atoms in molecule OCTET RULE - there can only be four pairs of electrons in the highest energy level exception: Hydrogen and Helium obey duet rule (same as octet rule with one pair) Rules for Writing Lewis Dot Structures 1. Determine number of valence electrons (group #) 2. Write symbol(s) of element(s) and draw electrons in orbitals around symbol s subshell electrons are always paired drawn on top of the symbol ------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Rules for Writing Lewis Dot Structures of Compounds 3. Put atoms together so that they obey octet rule atoms may form single, double, or triple bonds atom in middle called central atom atoms bonded to central atom called terminal atoms 38. Polarity DIPOLE - two poles (1 pos., 1 neg.) Covalent Bond Polarity occurs when electrons are unevenly shared between two atoms in a covalent bond dipole present = partial pos. and neg. regions in atom/ion atom with higher electronegativity = partial negative direction of pull indicated by arrow between atoms/ions (in LDS) molecule is polar if atoms around central are asymmetrical or a NBP is present Intermolecular Forces attraction or repulsion between particles making up atoms or ions Van der Waals Forces weakest attractive forces in particles develop because of rapidly shifting electrons, making charge change momentarily Dipole-Dipole Forces occur in high electronegativity partial positive in one molecule attracted to partial negative in other Dipole-Induced Dipole Forces attraction of non-dipole to dipole non-dipole becomes induced dipole Dispersion Forces (London forces) occur with two non-dipoles majority of electrons in one molecule shift to one side, making partial p & n can affect another non-dipole to create an induced dipole Polarity and Solubility polarity determines solubility polar solute dissolves in polar solvent non-polar solute dissolves in non-polar solvent polar solute will not dissolve in non-polar solvent and vice versa 39. VSEPR VSEPR - Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (covalent bonds and non-bonding pairs of electrons stay as far apart as they can because same charge electrons repel) B = bond

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N = non-bonding pairs Linear 1B, 0N OR 1B, 3N OR 2B, 0N 180 Bent 2B, 2N 105 Trigonal Planar 3B, 0N 120 Pyramidal 3B, 1N 107 Tetrahedral 4B, 0N 109.5 40. Acid/Base definitions Arrhenius definition acids produce H+1 when dissolved in water bases produce OH-1 when dissolved in water Brnsted-Lowry definition Acids are proton donors Bases are proton acceptors AMPHOTERIC SUBSTANCE: substance that can act as acid or base When an acid combines with water, the H+1 from acid is pulled from the acid due to polarity of water, forming hydronium (H3O) ion. Lewis definition Acids accept electrons Bases donate electrons 41. pH/pOH pH: potential of hydrogen pOH: potential of hydroxide 1-14 scale <7 = acid 7 = neutral >7 = base Calculating pH & pOH pH = -log[H+1] pOH = -log[OH-1]

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42. Heating/Cooling Curves Plot of temperature of a substance over time

A = KE , solid B = PE , solid liquid C = KE , liquid D = PE , liquid gas E = KE , gas