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URBAN HYDROLOGY: 1. STORM SEWERS: - Water drain quickly into the stream 2. Vegetated soils with impermeable surfaces.

- reduce storage & increases run off - decrease evapotranspiration urban surfaces-dry - increase velocity of overland flow - reduces infiltration and percolation 3. Groundwater: - groundwater recharge may be reduced because sewers do not allow for percolation and seepage - groundwater abstraction through wells may also reduce the store locally - irrigation can draw on water resources leading to depletion and pollution. 4. Flood control problems: - urbanization increase peak of annual flood - during heavy prolonged rainfall, saturated soil behaves similar to urban surfaces. Effects of dams: 1. Advantages: -control flood and drought dams allow good crops in dry years as in Egypt in 1972 and 1973 -irrigation -60% of water form the Aswan Dam is used for irrigation and up to 4000 kn og the desert are irrigated -HEP accounts for 7000 million KW hours each year -improved navigation -recreation and tourism 2. Disadvantages: -1Salinisation crop yields have been reduced on one-third of the area irrigated by water from the Aswan Dam , due to salinization -groundwater changes-seepage leads to increased groundwater levels and may cause secondary salinization -displacement of population-up to 100 000 Nubian people have been removed from their ancestral homes

Salinisation: occurs when potential evapotranspiration is greater than precipitation and when the water table is near the ground surface. As moisture is evaporated form the surface, water containing salts is drawn upwards by capillary action. Further evaporation causes the deposition of the salts on the ground surface

-drowning of archaeological sites-Ramases II and Nefertari at Abu Simbel had to moved to safer locations. However, the increase the humidity of the area has led to increased weathering of ancient monuments. -seismic stress-the earthquake of November 1981 is believed to have been caused by the Aswan Dam; as water levels in the Dam decrease, so does seismic activity. Deposition within the lake,- infilling is taking place at about 100 million tonnes each year. Effects of Deforestation: Effects: - Flood levels in river increases -Grazing increase overland run-off because of surface compaction and removal of vegetation -increase in the sediment load and chemical load of streams. - increase in light intensity, temperature, wind speed and moisture. Consequences: -organic matter is decomposed at a faster rate -rain drop impact increases -evapotranspiration rates decreases -overland run-off increases Afforestation: - higher rate of interception rates - decreased overland flow - higher rate of infiltration beneath the forests - deeper soils beneath a cover of trees Effects of irrigation Irrigation is the supply of water to areas where there is insufficient for adequate crop growth. Water can be taken from surface stores; such as lakes, dams, reservoirs and rivers, or from groundwater -irrigation range from total flood-paddy fields or drip irrigation-precise amount are measured out to each individual plant. Evidence of irrigation in Egypt for the past 6000 years. For example, large parts of the USA and Australia are irrigated. In Texas, irrigation has reduced the water table by as much as 50 m. By contrast, in the Indus Plain in Pakistan, irrigation has raised the water table by as much as 6 m since 1922, and caused widespread salinization.

Irrigation can reduce the earths albedo by 10%. Irrigation frequently leads to an increase in the amount of salt in the soil. This occurs when groundwater levels are close to the surface. In clay soils this may be within 3 m of the surface whereas on sandy and silty soils it is less. Capillary forces bring water to the surface where it may be evaporated, leaving behind any soluble salts that it is carrying, this is known as salinization. Some irrigation especially paddy rice, required huge amounts of water. As water evaporates in the hot sun, the salinity levels of the remaining water increase. This is also occurs behind large dams. The construction of Aswan Dam has led to a fall in groundwater levels in the Nile Valley and delta. In addition increase in population has led to increase use of groundwater . Consequently has been a decline in groundwater levels on the delta and an increase in saltwater intrusion.

The influence of human activity: 1. Human impact on precipitation -Cloud seeding Rain requires either ice particles or large water droplets. Seeding introduces silver iodide, solid CO2 (dry ice) or ammonium nitrate to attract water droplets. E.g. Australia and USA seeding has increased precipitation by 10 to 30% on a small scare and on a short term basis, increase in one area but lead to decrease precipitation elsewhere and might also increase to hail. In urban and industrial areas due to pollution, the heat island effect and turbulence precipitation often increased by up to as much as 10% due to increased cloud frequency and amount. 2. Human activities impact on evaporation and evapotranspiration: -Land use changes: Tropical afforestation leads to increased transpiration -Dams: Evaporation increases locally following construction of large dams. E.g. Lake Nasser behind Aswan Dam loses up to a third of its water due to evaporation. Water loss can be reduced by chemical sprays, by building sand fill dams and by covering the dams. Urbanisation: This leads to huge reduction in evapotranspiration due to lack of vegetation cover. There may be a slight increase in evaporation because of higher temperatures and increased surface storage. The main physical controls include heat, wind and humidity. Human impact on interception: In farmland areas cereals intercept less than broad leaves. Row crops leave the soil bare, for example in Mississippi valley sediment yields in woodland areas produces 1 unit of soil erosion, pasture produces 30 units and corn leaves 350 units. Deforestation leads to reduction in evapotranspiration, an increase in surface run off and decline in surface storage and a decline in lag time. Afforestation has the opposite effect, although the evidence does not necessarily support it. For example, in parts of Severn Human impact on infiltration and soil water:

Land use changes has great impact on infiltration and soil water. Urbanisation creates an impermeable surface with compacted soil. This reduces infiltration. Infiltration is up to five times greater under forests compared to grassland. This is because trees channel water down their roots and stems. With deforestation there is reduced interception, increased soil compaction and more overland flow. Grazing leads to decline in infiltration due to compaction and ponding of the soil. Ploughing increase infiltration rate because it loosen soils. Waterlogging and salinization is common if there is poor drainage. When water table is close to the surface evaporation of water leaves salts behind and may form an impermeable duricrust. (hardened, impermeable layer within soil and may consist of silica, calcium and iron) Dams: increase of surface storage but due to large size and volume of water store there is a number of effects: 1. increase storage of water 2. decreased flood peaks 3. low flows in rivers, for example the River Hooder in Lancashier, where the flow declined 10% in winter, but 62% in summer. 4. Decrease sediment yields (clear water erosion) 5. Decreased losses due to evaporation and seepage leading to changes in temperature and salinity of water 6. Increased flooding of the land 7. Triggering of earthquakes 8. Salinization, for example in the Indus valley, Pakistan 1.9 million has severely saline and up to 0.4 million ha are lost per annum to salinity. 9. Large dams can cause local changes in climate. In other areas there is a decline in surface storage when water in urban areas is channelled rapidly away over impermeable surfaces into drains and gutters. Changes in groundwater: 1. Example of human activity that has effect ground water storage is irrigation. 2. Before irrigation development started in the 1930s, the High Plains groundwater in Texas was stable (in a state of dynamic equilibrium,i.e. with long term recharge equal to long term discharge. 3. But groundwater is now being rapidly used to supply centre pivot irrigation schemes, in less than 50 yrs the water level has declined by 30 to 50 m in a large area to the north of Lubbock, Texas. 4. The aquifer has narrowed by more than 50% in large parts of certain countries, and the area irrigated by each well is contracting as well yields are falling. 5. By contrast, in some industrial areas, recent reductions in industrial activity have led to less groundwater taken out from the ground, as a result groundwater levels such areas begun to rise, but adding to

problem caused by leakage from ancient, deteriorating pipe and sewer systems. E.g. many British cities including London, Liverpool and Birmingham. 6. In London, due to a 46% reduction in groundwater abstraction the water table in the Chalk and Tertiary beds has rised by as much as 20m. 7. Such a rise has numerous implications including: (i) increase in spring and river flows (ii) re emergence of flow from dry springs (iii) surface water flooding (iv) pollution of surface waters and spread of underground pollution (v) flooding of basements. (vi) Increased leakage into tunnels (vii) Reduction in stability of slopes and retaining walls (viii) Reduction in bearing capacity of foundations and piles (ix) Increased hydrostatic uplift and swelling pressures on foundations and structures (x) Swelling of clays as they absorb water (xi) Chemical attack on building foundations To recharge ground water is by water spreading-possible where materials containing the aquifer are permeable (alluvial fans, coastal sand dunes or glacial deposits) How? Like irrigation, and allowing water to seep into the ground. Not suitable for ground with impermeable layers but the only way is to pump water into deep pits or into wells. E.g. in heavily settled coastal plain of Israel, to replenish the groundwater reservoirs when surplus irrigation water is available and this attempt to diminish problems associated with salt water intrusions from the Mediterranean.