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DISASTER A situation wherein normal living conditions are seriously disrupted.

. MAN MADE CALAMITIES Fire Pollution Epidemic Civic Disturbance NATURAL CALAMITIES Earthquake Typhoon Volcanic Eruptions Flood Landslide Tsunami

PRE-FIRE AND OTHER EMERGENCY PLANNING Fire Hazard Any condition or act which increases or may cause an increase in the probability of the occurrence of fire, or which may obstruct, delay, hinder or interfere with the fire fighting operations and the safeguarding of life and property. PROCEDURES: 1. Identify Problem Areas (Potential Hazard) a. People Action b. Sources of Ignition c. Flammable, Combustible & other Hazardous Materials (Toxic Materials) d. Equipment Failures 2. Availability of Fire Fighting Devices/Systems a. Where is it located? b. How it works? c. How to use it? 3. Preparing Emergency Action Plan Fire Fighting & Emergency Escape & Evacuation Included in the Plan 1. How to call the Local Fire Station 2. Emergency Escape & Evacuation Procedure 3. Listing of Workplace Hazard 4. How to properly store Flammable, Combustible Toxic & Other Hazards 5. Availability and conditions of Fire Fighting Equipment & Other Devices 6. Who will be maintaining & operating the following Fire Fighting Equipment 7. Standard Housekeeping Procedures Equipment and Fire Protection


Successful management for controlling fire and other emergencies cannot be hit or miss, because management of every industrial property cannot always depend entirely on Automatic Fire Protection Equipment or the Local Fire Department to prevent losses, they should provide, equip, and train an organization to deal with fires and other emergencies. The actions for which management should provide are identified in these recommendations, together with a discussion of principles that have been found to be effective. These recommendations not only apply to large fires, but also to any happening of disaster proportions which may occur from typhoons, earthquake, volcanic eruptions, floods, civil disturbances or other circumstances. Recommendations are expressed in terms applying to industrial or manufacturing properties, but they are also applicable to other institutions and facilities that have similar physical characteristics and resources. In an emergency, particularly where loss of life is involved, management of an industrial plant or other institutions has to take actions that include the following. These are not listed in the order of relative importance or in the order in which the actions will be taken, but simply to indicate the kind of management problems with these recommendations are concerned: 1. Call the Fire Department and activate the Plant Fire Brigade. 2. Account for every person in the plant or facility and rescue any person who maybe trapped. 3. Issue releases for the press, radio, and TV news services immediately giving the facts so far as they are known properly and of public interest. 4. Report the extent of damage and the possible time the plant or facility may be shut down, so that necessary arrangements for transferring business to other facilities or other adjustments in operations can be promptly made. II. ZONE OF ACTIONS

An action for dealing with other disaster organizes itself into three (3) general zone areas. The handling of large fire compared with other disasters may differ a bit with respect to the dimensions of these zone areas, but a study of the action at the disaster will show that the same operations apply in other disasters as they apply at large fires. 1. The Plant Fire Brigade, composed of firefighting and evacuation groups takes charges of the immediate zone of the fire or destruction as it is the agency primarily responsible for the physical factors in a disaster. 2. The Plant Security or Police operate in a zone immediately around the incident but for the most part outside the area in which the fire brigade are operating.

3. A third zone in the disaster is the area outside of that which there is a need for special supervision of traffic movement, and this is usually known as the support area. III. ORGANIZATION

A Fire Brigade in any plant, facility or institution is organized composed of a firefighting or operating group and an evacuation group. The organization shall have the following objectives: 1. To enable management to conduct an effective safety program; 2. To lessen potential loss by anticipating possibilities and instituting appropriate procedures; 3. To promote fastest and most desirable reaction of the personnel of the plant or institution in dealing with an emergency; 4. To re-establish normal conditions with as little confusion as promptly as possible; 5. To secure better employee/management preparations for emergencies; relations by obvious

6. To give people with responsibilities for dealing with fires and other disasters a sense of having taken all possible steps to meet likely situations; and 7. To establish necessary liaison with the appropriate government and private agencies concerned and acquire the necessary support and cooperation. In it simplest form, this organization is headed by a Fire Marshal assisted by the selected personnel. The size of the facility, the presence of unusual hazards, the potential magnitude of the fire or any other emergencies, and the availability of the local fire department will determine the nature and size of protection and organization to be provided. Members of the Fire Brigade should be regular plant employees from all departments. They should be available to answer all alarms and to attend required training sessions. Minimum physical requirement should be established, but a periodic physical examination is desirable. IV. MEMBERS AND DUTIES 1. Fire Marshal: a. Shall be responsible for the implementation of fire prevention and safety measures; b. Responsible for maintaining an up-to-date record of all members; c. Coordinate with all departments when a fire and evacuation drill is held; d. Report all deficiencies including the life safety systems for corrective action; e. Responsible for submission of the fire and evacuation drill report and recommendations for improvement; f. Prepares evacuation plan; and g. Reports all types of fire and emergency incidence;

2. Deputy Fire Marshal: a. Assist the Fire Marshal; b. Assumes duties of Fire Marshal in case of his absence. 3. Floor Captains and Alternates: a. Responsible to the Fire Marshal on matters pertaining to fire prevention and control his floor; b. Immediate charge of all occupants on his floor in case of emergency; c. Responsible for the maintenance of all aisles and passageway especially those leading to exits to be clear of obstructions; d. Assigns Room Captains, Exit Guards, Searches, Fire Extinguisher/Hose Operations in his floor; e. Submit an up-to-date record for Fire Brigade Members on his floor to the Fire Marshal. 4. Room Captains: a. Supervises firefighting and evacuation activities of his area of responsibility during actual emergency drills; b. At sound of the alarm, reports to the Floor Captain for orders; c. Upon orders to evacuate, organizes his group and moves the group through pre-planned evacuation routes to its assigned evacuation areas; d. Conducts immediate head-count at evacuation area to see if anyone is missing. 5. Exit Guards: a. At sound of the alarm, reports to the Floor/Room Captain for orders; b. Leads evacuation column thru pre-planned evacuation routes to assigned evacuation areas; c. Opens fire exit doors, keeping it open until all members of his group have left the floor area; d. Follow tail end of evacuation column and keep order in the line; and e. Receives advice from searchers when the floor area is cleared upon which the exit door is closed. 6. Searchers: a. At sound of the alarm, reports to Room Captain for orders; b. Searches rooms, offices, washrooms and other spaces where they may be persons who did not hear the alarm and were not aware of evacuation orders; and c. Advises the exit guards when the room or floor is cleared and joins the evacuation column. 7. Fire Extinguisher Operations and Alternates: a. Upon receipt of alarm, proceeds to assigned portable fire extinguisher;

b. If the fire is located in his area of assignment takes fire extinguisher assigned to him and proceeds to the scene of fire to extinguish the fire; c. If the fire is in other floors or areas, stands by the fire extinguisher and awaits orders from Floor Captain; d. Joins evacuation column after the room or floor area is cleared, bringing with him portable fire extinguisher, if necessary; and e. Returns fire extinguisher to proper place after actual emergency drill. 8. Fire Hose Operators and Alternates: a. Upon receipt of the alarm, proceed immediately to the fire hose they are assigned; b. If the fire is in their area of assignment, pulls out fire hoses assigned to them and proceeds to the fire scene to extinguish the fire; c. If the fire is located in other floors, stands by the fire hose they are assigned and awaits orders from Floor Captain; and d. Upon orders to evacuate, joins the evacuation column to designated evacuation area. V. OTHER UNITS OR SUPPORT GROUPS 1. Rescuers: a. b. c. d. e. Locates victims still at endangered areas; Extricate victims when found, if necessary; Stabilizes victims and bring them to a place of safety; Joins evacuation column upon orders of the Fire Marshal; and Joins wrap-up activities at evacuation area and awaits further orders from the Fire Marshal.

2. First Aid Nurses and Medical Attendants: a. Provides first aid treatment; b. Assist in the evacuation of injured victims to hospitals; and c. Joins wrap-up activities at evacuation areas and awaits further orders from the Fire Marshal. 3. Security Guards: a. At sound of the alarm, notifies the Local Fire Department thru whatever means available; b. Determines location of the fire and notifies the Fire Marshal and Floor Captains; c. Secure immediate areas around the place of emergency including the designated evacuation areas; d. Maintains orderly traffic movement and see that fire lanes being used by responding fire apparatus and other emergency units are not obstructed; and e. Stays at assigned post until properly relieved and awaits final instructions from Fire Marshal during and after wrap-up activities.


GENERAL EVACUATION PROCEDURES 1. The Floor Captain on the floor where a fire or an emergency occurs shall ascertain the location of the fire or emergency. He shall direct initial firefighting to control the fire if possible. If the extent of the fire is already uncontrollable, he shall notify the Security Guard assigned to main alarm panel board to sound the general building alarm for evacuation; 2. The Floor Captain of the floor immediately above the involve floor shall immediately follow the pre-planned evacuation procedures; 3. The Fire Marshal will institute evacuation of other floors where conditions indicate the need for such action; 4. Evacuation routes shall be pre-planned and shall be via uncontaminated stairways. Stairways being used by firefighting groups should be avoided, if possible; 5. Upon the first stroke of the alarm signal, employees/occupants should: a. Immediately ceased work; b. Secure important documents/papers; c. Designated custodians of prime records, cash or other priorities of value should ensure that said items are hand carried by them to the evacuation area, if possible; d. Unplug as quickly as possible all electrical equipment; e. Get out of the room quickly and take the nearest exit from your room and follow evacuation column. WALK FAST but do not run, keep calm and DO NOT PANIC; f. Give way to occupants of the floor above you, if the fire or an emergency occurred on the floor above you; g. Do not use the elevator, you maybe trapped; h. Once on ground level, assemble in the designated evacuation area and keep away from areas being used by firefighting or rescue groups; and i. Stay at evacuation area until you have been properly accounted for.


1. Qualified electricians should regularly check all electrical wiring installations. 2. All electrical appliances should be unplugged and all lights put off before leaving offices at close of office hours. 3. All trashcans should be emptied before the close of office hours. 4. Ashtray should be provided for cigar and cigarette butts. 5. Flammable liquids and combustible materials should not be stored inside offices. 6. Smoking should not be allowed inside stock/store rooms. 7. Floor wax, oily or waxed rags should be kept inside non-combustible containers with cover. 8. All waste materials, rubbish or scrap should be discharged from office premises. 9. Have a fire extinguisher within reach at all times. 10. A fire/disaster brigade should be organized and regular evacuation drill conducted.


1. Always be prepared for fire. When entering a building, it is always wise to choose your nearest exit to use in case of emergency. Report any fire hazard you may notice. 2. Take no chances of entering a burning building to save property. Only the saving of lives justify a personal risk, leave the job of firefighting to the firemen. 3. It is always dangerous to remain in a burning building. Fire often spread rapidly and cut off escapes and is likely to generate poisonous gases. 4. If caught in a fire inside a building and there is a mad rush of people in panic for the main exit, keep out of the crowd and attempt to find some other means of escape. Above all, keep calm, walk fast, but dont run towards the nearest exit. Dont crowd or push others, for you will only create disorder. Keep in line where you are headed for. Stay in line and wait for your turn. Be careful at stairways. Use the handrail. In any emergency, forget your personal belongings. Your life and lives of others are more important. 5. If forced to remain further in smoked-filled building, remember that the air is usually better near the floor. Stay close to the floor therefore by crawling towards the exit, if it is necessary for you to make a dash through smoke or flame, HOLD YOUR BREATH. 6. A temporary refuge may be secured behind any door. Even a thin wooden door will temporarily stop smoke and hot gases or flame for several minutes. 7. If burned in a fire, report for medical treatment at once. Many burns or smoke inhalations that at first seem not serious, later on have fatal results.


1. If you detect smoke or evidence of fire see if it is still possible for you to extinguish it. Extinguish it if you can. If it is no longer possible, sound the alarm immediately. 2. Close transoms and doors at once. 3. Shut off main switches of electrical current if fire is electrical in nature. 4. Take time to plan your exit. Do not panic. 5. In going out from a room, feel the door first before opening. If it is not too hot, open it slightly with your head away and one of your feet bracing it. Put your hand across the door opening to test the heat of the air. 6. If the hallway appears safe, use the planned exit. 7. If the hallway is not safe, plug up any openings, cracks or holes in the room through which smoke may enter by using wet towels, blankets or sheets of cloth. 8. Open the window slightly and stay near it. Be clam, avoid hysteria and do not panic. Do not jump out of the window if it is highly located from the ground. Closing doors and transoms, blocking all openings to prevent hot air and toxic gases from the hallway in entering the room has saved many lives. Calmly wait for rescue. 9. in the event that you are able to rush out of the building with your cloths on fire, smother the flame with a wet blanket or sheet. If none, roll over the ground. 10. As soon as responding firefighters arrive at the scene, give them way and help clear the area so that they can operate orderly. Inform them of any trapped person/s needing rescue.


The occurrence of earthquakes cannot be prevented. Furthermore, although some work is currently being done to understand earthquakes in more detail, no earthquake prediction can yet be issued with confidence. Therefore, the only way to prevent disasters caused by earthquakes is to anticipate and prepare for them. WHAT TO DO BEFORE THE EARTHQUAKE 1. The key to effective disaster prevention is planning. Evaluate the structural soundness of the buildings and places wherein you frequently stay. Determine whether the site is traversed by a ground fracture, technically known as fault, which may give way or cause buildings to fail. Note the presence of other potential sources of hazards due to secondary effects of earthquakes like steep hill slopes, hanging heavy objects, dams, storage tanks, falling debris and others. After this evaluation process, you shall be more aware of the hazards that need attention or consideration. 2. Prepare your place of residence for the event. Most of the causes of injuries during earthquakes are from sliding and falling objects. Latches should be installed on drawers, cabinets and cupboards. Heavy materials should be identified and placed in the lower compartments of cabinets. Breakable items should be secured while harmful chemicals and flammable materials should be stored properly to minimize the possibility of falls or spills. 3. Strap heavy furniture to restrict sliding or trooping during earthquakes. It is also advisable to provide blocks to stop the movement of furnishings or equipment on wheels. The chances that an earthquake shall hit when you are in bed are as high as when you are up. Therefore, check your bedrooms for hanging or unstable objects that may fall on you during earthquakes. 4. Familiarize yourself with your place of work. Know and master the routes to take to get out of your building. Also, find and mark the places where fire extinguishers, first aid kits, alarms, utilities and communication facilities are located. One thing to note, though: do not use the elevators during and after an earthquake. Any structural or power failure can cause you to be stranded indefinitely in the elevator. 5. Lastly, but most importantly, plan on coping for the event. It is wiser to prepare an emergency plan to cope with the disaster that to regret the absence of anticipation later. Prepare a stock of potable water, flashlight, radio and batteries, spare cloths and some food packed and ready to take with you in case an earthquake forces you to evacuate your place. The authorities may take sometime to react to your needs since it is possible that they may also be affected by the event. Discuss with your family a reunification plan and identify a contact person or place in case you get separated or in case an event occurs when one family member is away.

WHAT TO DO DURING THE EARTHQUAKE 1. If you are indoors, stay there! The best thing to do is to protect your body from falling debris by getting under a sturdy table or desk or bracing yourself in the doorway or corner of the room. Be aware and stay clear of heavy and sharp materials that may fall or topple on you be particularly wary of glass fragments from windows, bookcases, cabinets, chandeliers, hanging plants and lighting fixtures. 2. If you are outside, move to an open area away from power lines, posts, trees, walls and the like. Also be aware of any debris which may fall down from high places. If the event occurs when you are amidst tall buildings, find a corner, doorway or structural indentations where you can be protected from falling debris. If the earthquake occurs while you are out in the fields or forests, stay clear from steep escarpments that may be affected by landslides. 3. When driving a vehicle during the earthquake, pull to the side of the road and stop. Park away from bridges, overpasses, overhead wires, posts and similar things that may fall unto the vehicle. If electrical wires had fallen on your vehicle, stay inside and wait for assistance. Do not attempt to cross bridges or overpasses that may have been damaged by the earthquake. 4. In the crowded places like stores, theaters, malls and churches, do not rush to exit! Try to calm the crowd and direct them away from materials that may fall. 5. If you are residing in a coastal area, always be aware of tsunami. If you felt an unusually strong earthquake, especially when you are able to note the difference between the arrival times of the P and S waves is short (less than 10 seconds), you and your family should immediately run to higher grounds. WHAT TO DO IMMEDIATELY AFTER EARTHQUAKE 1. Check yourself and others for injuries. Also check for trapped person and others who may need assistance like disabled or sick people. 2. Wear shoes for protection. Expect floors and roads to be strewn with sharp objects and it is best to protect yourself from further accidents. 3. Use a flashlight when searching. Gas leaks, chemical spills and flammable materials always abound after earthquakes and an open flame will add to the risk of starting fires. 4. Check for fires and if any, have it controlled. Some earthquake damage had been aggravated by the occurrence of fires. In case you see a fire, locate the nearest fire control or alarm unit and use it. 5. Check your water, electrical, or gas lines for defects. If any damage is suspected, turn the system off in the main valve or switch. Before turning the lines on again, check with the utility service men for instructions.

6. Never touch fallen electrical wiring or objects touched by these wires. If any fallen power line is observed, fence this off to prevent others from electrocution. Inform the authorities of any power line damage. 7. Do not use the telephone except for emergency calls. During earthquakes, communication lines are being used as information link during the warning rescue, relief and security operations. 8. Gather information from battery operated radios or from victim assistance centers which the government shall provide for the purpose. Do not spread or easily believe in rumors. 9. Do not use your vehicles unless there is an emergency. Roads may be closed to traffic or hazards may still have to be checked along your route. Do not go sightseeing. 10. Be prepared for aftershocks. Use extreme caution when entering damaged buildings since aftershocks can bring them down. 11. Obey public safety precautions. Instructions to reduce the effects of earthquakes shall be issued by the authorities. Keep streets clear for the passage of emergency vehicles. 12. Take note of what you observe and be prepared to inform authorities of the presence of victims needing assistance, materials needing attention and information of scientific value. 13. If you must evacuate, leave a message on where you are headed and take with you a first aid kit, flashlight, portable radios, foods, clothes, important papers, toiletries, personal items and blankets. Your destination may not immediately have all the necessary items for your comfort.