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for Exploration-S1

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## It is often writen in dotted decimal format.

http://www.iana.org

http://www.iana.org

IP add has 2 parts: net-id & host-id Two different networks must have different network address (net-id). 2 different hosts in the same network must have different host address (host-id). Hosts in the same network have the same network address. Broadcast domain: one network address Network address= IP address AND Subnet mask

Host portion

Octet
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## The subnet mask is 32-bit pattern and created by

placing a binary 1 in each bit position that represents the network portion and placing a binary 0 in each bit position that represents the host portion. The prefix and the subnet mask are different ways of representing the same thing - the network portion of an address. The number of bits of an address used as the network portion is called the prefix length. In 8-bit pattern, there are: 00000000 = 0 11110000 = 240 10000000 = 128 11111000 = 248 11000000 = 192 11111100 = 252 11100000 = 224 11111110 = 254 11111111 = 255

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## Defining the Network and Host Portions

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Example 1:

SM : 255.255.255.0 Net/host id: N.N.N.H Net E1 (Net-ID): 192.168.11.0 Net E2 : 192.168.10.0 Net E3 : 192.168.12.0

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Example 2:

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Example 3:

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Example 4:

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## As a hierachical addressing scheme, IP addresses are divided into classes.

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Class A addresses are assigned to larger networks. Class B addresses are used for medium-sized networks Class C for small networks.

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## (0) (1) (126) (127)

First octet order bits: Class B: 10000000 10000001 10111110 10111111 First octet order bits: Class D: 11100000 11100001 11101110 11101111

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## Type of Address in an IPv4 Network

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When all host-bits are zeros (0), we have a number that represents network address. This address is reserved, namely it cannot be assigned to any host.

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When host-bits are all one (1), we have a number that represents broadcast address. This address is also reserved, namely it cannot be assigned to any host. Exp: ping 10.0.6.255 ping 255.255.255.255
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The router supports the following kinds of broadcast types: Limited broadcast - A packet is sent to a specific network or series of networks. In a limited broadcast packet destined for a local network, the network identifier portion and host identifier portion of the destination address is either all 1s (255.255.255.255) Directed broadcast - A packet is sent to a specific destination address where only the host portion of the IP address is either all 1s (such as 192.20.255.255).

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Practice 6.2.2.2

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Type of Communication

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Unicast

## Is used for the normal host-to-host communication in both a

client/server and a peer-to-peer network. Uses the host address of the destination device as the destination address and can be routed through an internetwork.
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The process of sending a packet from one host to all hosts in the

network Host processes a broadcast address destination packet like unicast address. A directed broadcast is sent to all hosts on a specific network. The limited broadcast is used for communication that is limited to the hosts on the local network.

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Multicast

## The process of sending a packet from one host to a selected group of

hosts. Multicast transmission is designed to conserve the bandwidth of the IPv4 network. The multicast clients use services initiated by a client program to subscribe to the multicast group.
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Public Addresses: are designed to be used in the hosts that are publicly accessible from the Internet. Public IP addresses are unique. No two machines that connect to a public network can have the same IP address. (X#Y#Z ) Public IP addresses must be obtained from an Internet service provider (ISP) or a registry at some expense. With the rapid growth of the Internet, public IP addresses were beginning to run out (IP address depletion).
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Private Addresses: are set aside for use in private networks. Network Address Translation (NAT): is used to translate private addresses to public addresses, be implemented on a device at the edge of the private network.
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## 10.0.0.0 /8 172.16.0.0 /12 192.168.0.0 /16

RFC 1918 sets aside three blocks of IP addresses for private, internal use. These three blocks consist of one Class A, a range of Class B addresses, and a range of Class C addresses. Addresses that fall within these ranges are not routed on the Internet backbone. Internet routers immediately discard private addresses.

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## When addressing a nonpublic intranet, a test lab, or a home

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all 0s -This host, exp: 0.0.0.0 all 0s.host - Host on this net, exp:0.x.x.x all 1s - Limitted broadcast (local net),exp: 255.255.255.255 Net.all 1s - Directed broadcast for net, exp: 192.168.100.255 Net.all 0s Network address, exp: 192.168.1.0 127.anything (often 1) - Loopback, exp: 127.0.0.1 Exp: ping 0.0.0.0 0.0.6.156 255.255.255.255 10.0.6.255
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Classful addressing: A company or organization was assigned an entire class A, class B, or class C address block. Limits to the Class-based System Classful allocation of address space often wasted many addresses, which exhausted the availability of IPv4 addresses. Classless Addressing Address blocks appropriate to the number of hosts are assigned to companies or organizations without regard to the unicast class.

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## Address Depletion Internet Routing Table Explosion

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Subnetting

Net 1: 172.16.0.0 Net 2: 172.17.0.0 Net 3: 172.18.0.0 Net 4: 172.19.0.0 Usable hosts per network : 2^16-2= 65534 !!!

2 IP

Exp: Net address: 192.168.100.0; SM: 255.255.255.0; usable host addresses: 2^8-2=254 If hosts per network is 60 used: 6 host bits: xxhhhhhh, 2^6-2=62 hosts; unused: 2 host bits xxhhhhhh xx000000 (0) xx000001 xx000010 xx111110 xx111111 (63)
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Subnetting

Subnetting is another method of managing IP addresses. This method of dividing full network address classes into smaller pieces has prevented complete IP address exhaustion. The network is no longer limited to the default Class A, B, or C network masks and there is more flexibility in the network design. Subnet addresses include the network (N) portion, plus a subnet (sN) field and a host (H) field. To create a subnet address, a network administrator borrows bits from the host field and designates them as the subnet field.
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Subnetting

Host bit must be reassigned as network bit.The starting borrow bit is the leftmost hosting bit. Providing broadcast contentment and low level security.

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Subnetting

1 net address: 192.168.10.0; SM: 255.255.255.0; 254 hosts hosts per network: 30; networks: 6 ? Borrows bits: 3 2^3-2= 6 subnets Host bits: 5 2^5-2=30 hosts SM: 255.255.255.224 Subnets: 192.168.10.0 192.168.10.32 192.168.10.64 192.168.10.96 .128 192.168.10.192 192.168.10.224

Exp: xxxhhhhh 000 (0) 001 (32) 010 (64) 011 (96) 100 (128) 101 (160) 110 (192) 111 (224)
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The number of bits in the subnet will depend on the maximum number of hosts required per subnet. The subnet mask: using binary ones in the host octet(s) 2 power of borrowed bits = usable subnets (2 power of remaining host bits)2= usable hosts

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Exp: subnet

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## Other: Basic subnetting

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Example 5:

Primary network 192.168.10.0/24 Number of hosts per network: 60 Number of subnets: 4 Borrows bits ? Subnetwork address ? Subnet Mask ? Host Range ? Broadcast address ?

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## Calculating subnets with VLSM

172.16.0010hhhh.hhhhhhhh/20

172.16.0010xxxx.xxhhhhhh/26

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## Calculating subnets with VLSM

172.16.33.0/26 is further subnetted: 172.16.33.00xxxxhh/30 172.16.33.000000hh 172.16.33.0/30 172.16.33.000001hh 172.16.33.4/30 172.16.33.000010hh 172.16.33.8/30 172.16.33.000011hh 172.16.33.12/30

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## Calculating subnets with VLSM

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Example 2

Your company has been given the network address 172.16.32.0/19. After careful planning, looking at current needs and expansion, you realize you need a maximum of three subnets of 1000 hosts, three subnets of 250 hosts, and several subnets for serial point-to-point links.

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Example 2

172.16.32.0/19 172.16.00100000.00000000 Subnets of 1000 hosts: need 10 host bits 172.16.001xxxhh.hhhhhhhh/22 172.16.001000hh.hhhhhhhh 172.16.32.0 172.16.001001hh.hhhhhhhh 172.16.36.0 172.16.001010hh.hhhhhhhh 172.16.40.0 172.16.001011hh.hhhhhhhh 172.16.44.0 172.16.001100hh.hhhhhhhh 172.16.48.0 172.16.001101hh.hhhhhhhh 172.16.52.0 172.16.001110hh.hhhhhhhh 172.16.56.0 172.16.001111hh.hhhhhhhh 172.16.60.0

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Example 2

3 subnets of 1000 hosts: 172.16.32.0/22 172.16.36.0/22 172.16.40.0/22 Subnets of 250 hosts: need 8 host bits To sub-subnet the subnet 172.16.44.0/22

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Example 2

172.16.44.0/22 172.16.001011xx.hhhhhhhh/24 172.16.00101100.hhhhhhhh 172.16.44.0 172.16.00101101.hhhhhhhh 172.16.45.0 172.16.00101110.hhhhhhhh 172.16.46.0 172.16.00101111.hhhhhhhh 172.16.47.0

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Example 2

3 subnets of 250 hosts: 172.16.44.0/24 172.16.45.0/24 172.16.46.0/24 Links of 2 hosts: need 2 host bits To sub-subnet the subnet 172.16.47.0/24

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Example 2

172.16.47.0/24 172.16.47.xxxxxxhh/30 172.16.47.000000hh 172.16.47.0/30 172.16.47.000001hh 172.16.47.4 172.16.47.000010hh 172.16.47.8 172.16.47.000011hh 172.16.47.12

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Practice 6.5.4-6

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