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Addressing & Subnetting

for Exploration-S1

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to identify and locate each host. We call it addressing. Identification: hostname, address (MAC, IP) IP address ? MAC add ? MAC address: local IP address: internetwork An address generally represents the connection to the network


unique address: letter (network address) and number (host address)


IP Address (IPv4)

IP address is 32-bit long.

It is often writen in dotted decimal format.

IP Addressing Structure

IP add has 2 parts: net-id & host-id Two different networks must have different network address (net-id). 2 different hosts in the same network must have different host address (host-id). Hosts in the same network have the same network address. Broadcast domain: one network address Network address= IP address AND Subnet mask

IP Addressing Structure

32-bit address is expressed in Dotted decimal Network portion

Host portion


Subnet Mask

The subnet mask is 32-bit pattern and created by

placing a binary 1 in each bit position that represents the network portion and placing a binary 0 in each bit position that represents the host portion. The prefix and the subnet mask are different ways of representing the same thing - the network portion of an address. The number of bits of an address used as the network portion is called the prefix length. In 8-bit pattern, there are: 00000000 = 0 11110000 = 240 10000000 = 128 11111000 = 248 11000000 = 192 11111100 = 252 11100000 = 224 11111110 = 254 11111111 = 255

Defining the Network and Host Portions


Defining the Network and Host Portions


Example 1:

SM : Net/host id: N.N.N.H Net E1 (Net-ID): Net E2 : Net E3 :

Number of broadcast domain ?


Example 2:

SM: Net address: Net/host id: N.N.N.H

H: hhhhhhhh 00000000 00000001 00000010 00000011 00000100 11111110 11111111


Example 3:

IP address: Subnet mask: Net address: Net/Host ID: N.N.N.H

IP address : 11000000.10101000.01100100.00000001 SM : 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000 Net address : 11000000.10101000.01100100.00000000


Example 4:

IP address: Subnet mask: Net address: ?

IP address : 01100000.10101000.01100100.00000001 SM : 11111111.11111111.11100000.00000000 Net address : 01100000.10101000.01100000.00000000


Hierachical addressing scheme

As a hierachical addressing scheme, IP addresses are divided into classes.


Classes of IP Addresses

Class A addresses are assigned to larger networks. Class B addresses are used for medium-sized networks Class C for small networks.


Classes of IP Addresses

First octet order bits: Class A: 00000000 00000001 01111110 01111111

(0) (1) (126) (127)

First octet order bits: Class B: 10000000 10000001 10111110 10111111 First octet order bits: Class D: 11100000 11100001 11101110 11101111

(128) (129) (190) (191)

First octet order bits: Class C: 11000000 11000001 11011110 11011111

(192) (193) (222) (223)

(224) (225) (238) (239)


Classes of IP Addresses


Type of Address in an IPv4 Network

Three types of addresses: Network address - The address by which we refer to the network. All hosts in a network will have the same network bits. Broadcast address - A special address used to send data to all hosts in the network. The broadcast address uses the highest address in the network range. This is the address in which the bits in the host portion are all 1s. This address is also referred to as the directed broadcast. Host addresses - The addresses assigned to the end devices in the network


Network Address

When all host-bits are zeros (0), we have a number that represents network address. This address is reserved, namely it cannot be assigned to any host.


Network Address


Broadcast Address

When host-bits are all one (1), we have a number that represents broadcast address. This address is also reserved, namely it cannot be assigned to any host. Exp: ping ping

Broadcast Address


Extra: Broadcast Address

The router supports the following kinds of broadcast types: Limited broadcast - A packet is sent to a specific network or series of networks. In a limited broadcast packet destined for a local network, the network identifier portion and host identifier portion of the destination address is either all 1s ( Directed broadcast - A packet is sent to a specific destination address where only the host portion of the IP address is either all 1s (such as


Host address



Calculating Network, Hosts & Broadcast Addresses



Type of Communication

Three types: Unicast, Broadcast, Multicast



Is used for the normal host-to-host communication in both a

client/server and a peer-to-peer network. Uses the host address of the destination device as the destination address and can be routed through an internetwork.


The process of sending a packet from one host to all hosts in the

network Host processes a broadcast address destination packet like unicast address. A directed broadcast is sent to all hosts on a specific network. The limited broadcast is used for communication that is limited to the hosts on the local network.



The process of sending a packet from one host to a selected group of

hosts. Multicast transmission is designed to conserve the bandwidth of the IPv4 network. The multicast clients use services initiated by a client program to subscribe to the multicast group.

Reserved IPv4 Address Ranges


Public and Private addresses


Public IP Addresses

Public Addresses: are designed to be used in the hosts that are publicly accessible from the Internet. Public IP addresses are unique. No two machines that connect to a public network can have the same IP address. (X#Y#Z ) Public IP addresses must be obtained from an Internet service provider (ISP) or a registry at some expense. With the rapid growth of the Internet, public IP addresses were beginning to run out (IP address depletion).

Private IP Addresses

Private Addresses: are set aside for use in private networks. Network Address Translation (NAT): is used to translate private addresses to public addresses, be implemented on a device at the edge of the private network.

Private IP Addresses /8 /12 /16

RFC 1918 sets aside three blocks of IP addresses for private, internal use. These three blocks consist of one Class A, a range of Class B addresses, and a range of Class C addresses. Addresses that fall within these ranges are not routed on the Internet backbone. Internet routers immediately discard private addresses.


Using Private Addresses

When addressing a nonpublic intranet, a test lab, or a home

network, we normally use private addresses instead of globally unique addresses. Private addresses can be used to address point-to-point serial links without wasting real IP addresses.


Special IPv4 Addresses

Network Addresses Broadcast Addresses Default Route Loopback: Link-Local Addresses to ( /16) These addresses can be automatically assigned APIPA ( Automatic Private IP Addressing ) TEST-NET Addresses The address block to ( /24) is set aside for teaching and learning purposes. These addresses can be used in documentation and network examples. Unlike the experimental addresses, network devices will accept these addresses in their configurations

Extra: Reserved IP Address

all 0s -This host, exp: all - Host on this net, exp:0.x.x.x all 1s - Limitted broadcast (local net),exp: Net.all 1s - Directed broadcast for net, exp: Net.all 0s Network address, exp: 127.anything (often 1) - Loopback, exp: Exp: ping

Legacy IPv4 Addressing


Legacy IPv4 Addressing

Classful addressing: A company or organization was assigned an entire class A, class B, or class C address block. Limits to the Class-based System Classful allocation of address space often wasted many addresses, which exhausted the availability of IPv4 addresses. Classless Addressing Address blocks appropriate to the number of hosts are assigned to companies or organizations without regard to the unicast class.


IP addressing crisis

Address Depletion Internet Routing Table Explosion






Net 1: Net 2: Net 3: Net 4: Usable hosts per network : 2^16-2= 65534 !!!

IP addresses for poin-to-point link (router router): 2 hosts

2 IP

Exp: Net address:; SM:; usable host addresses: 2^8-2=254 If hosts per network is 60 used: 6 host bits: xxhhhhhh, 2^6-2=62 hosts; unused: 2 host bits xxhhhhhh xx000000 (0) xx000001 xx000010 xx111110 xx111111 (63)


Subnetting is another method of managing IP addresses. This method of dividing full network address classes into smaller pieces has prevented complete IP address exhaustion. The network is no longer limited to the default Class A, B, or C network masks and there is more flexibility in the network design. Subnet addresses include the network (N) portion, plus a subnet (sN) field and a host (H) field. To create a subnet address, a network administrator borrows bits from the host field and designates them as the subnet field.


Host bit must be reassigned as network bit.The starting borrow bit is the leftmost hosting bit. Providing broadcast contentment and low level security.



1 net address:; SM:; 254 hosts hosts per network: 30; networks: 6 ? Borrows bits: 3 2^3-2= 6 subnets Host bits: 5 2^5-2=30 hosts SM: Subnets: .128

Exp: xxxhhhhh 000 (0) 001 (32) 010 (64) 011 (96) 100 (128) 101 (160) 110 (192) 111 (224)

Establishing SM address

The number of bits in the subnet will depend on the maximum number of hosts required per subnet. The subnet mask: using binary ones in the host octet(s) 2 power of borrowed bits = usable subnets (2 power of remaining host bits)2= usable hosts


Applying the Subnet Mask

Exp: subnet Host Range ??? .00100000 .00100001 (33) .00100010 .00100011 (62) .00111111


Other: Basic subnetting


Other: Basic subnetting


Other: Basic subnetting


Example 5:

Primary network Number of hosts per network: 60 Number of subnets: 4 Borrows bits ? Subnetwork address ? Subnet Mask ? Host Range ? Broadcast address ?


Calculating subnets with VLSM

4 subnets of 62 hosts 4 links of 2 hosts


Calculating subnets with VLSM




Calculating subnets with VLSM

4 subnets of 62 hosts:

4 links of 2 hosts: is further subnetted with a prefix of /30.


Calculating subnets with VLSM is further subnetted:


Calculating subnets with VLSM


Example 2

Your company has been given the network address After careful planning, looking at current needs and expansion, you realize you need a maximum of three subnets of 1000 hosts, three subnets of 250 hosts, and several subnets for serial point-to-point links.


Example 2 172.16.00100000.00000000 Subnets of 1000 hosts: need 10 host bits 172.16.001xxxhh.hhhhhhhh/22 172.16.001000hh.hhhhhhhh 172.16.001001hh.hhhhhhhh 172.16.001010hh.hhhhhhhh 172.16.001011hh.hhhhhhhh 172.16.001100hh.hhhhhhhh 172.16.001101hh.hhhhhhhh 172.16.001110hh.hhhhhhhh 172.16.001111hh.hhhhhhhh


Example 2

3 subnets of 1000 hosts: Subnets of 250 hosts: need 8 host bits To sub-subnet the subnet


Example 2 172.16.001011xx.hhhhhhhh/24 172.16.00101100.hhhhhhhh 172.16.00101101.hhhhhhhh 172.16.00101110.hhhhhhhh 172.16.00101111.hhhhhhhh


Example 2

3 subnets of 250 hosts: Links of 2 hosts: need 2 host bits To sub-subnet the subnet


Example 2 172.16.47.xxxxxxhh/30


Other: Subnetting a Subnet


Other: Subnetting a Subnet


Other: Subnetting a Subnet


Other: Subnetting a Subnet


Other: Subnetting a Subnet


Other: Subnetting a Subnet


Other: Subnetting a Subnet


Other: Subnetting a Subnet


Other: Subnetting a Subnet


Other: Subnetting a Subnet


Other: Subnetting a Subnet


Other: Subnetting a Subnet


Other: Subnetting a Subnet

Practice 6.5.4-6