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Formation/basics of E1 Basics of PDH Basics of SDH Formation of STM

PDH is almost synchronous. It is simply Multiplexing of E1`s. Sampling, Quantizing & Encoding (i.e. PCM) of Analog voice channels produces 64Kbps channel. 32 such channels multiplexed to produce E1 (the basic unit of PDH)
Clock
8000 Hz

Voice
Coded in 8 bits/sample

A/D

E1 (TS0 to TS31)
Primary unit of PDH i.e. E1

(8000 samples)X(8bit/sample) =64,000bps

32 Channels each 64 Kbps

Formation of E2, E3
As basic unit of PDH is E1 E1=32X64Kbps = 2.048Mbps E2=4E1=8.44Mbps E3=4E2=16E1=34.368Mbps E4=4E3=140Mbps

Disadvantages of PDH System: Not fully synchronous. Complex hardware

Back to back multiplexing


Less bandwidth More hardware cost If we want to get E1 from E4 ,we have to demultiplex it by going back

step by step. i.e.1st E4 is broken into E3, then E3 to E2 & so on, thus form a complex hardware.

T T T S S S 0 1 2

T S 1 6

T S 2 9

T S 3 0

T S 3 1

TS0: Frame synchronization & Alarms TS16: Signaling & Alarms TS1 to TS15 & TS17 to TS31 : For Data

Concentrated E1: 2.5 TS for 1 TRx

E1

Un-concentrated E1: 3TS for 1 TRx


Hybrid E1: 2TS for 1 TRx

Journey from E1 to STM 1


E1 2.048 Mbps
Justificat ion bit Low path overhead Pointer

X 3=

TUG 2 6.972Mbps (i.e. 3 E1)


(TUG2)X( 7) + (Pointer)

C12

2.224Mbps
TUG 3 49.536Mbps (i.e. 21 E1) VC12

2.240Mbps
TU12

(TUG3)X (3)+(High order POH)+( Stuffing)

2.304Mbps

SOH + Pointer

VC 4 150.336Mbps (i.e. 63 E1)

STM 1, 155.5Mbps

Journey from E1 to STM 1


E1 2.048 Mbps

TU12(Tributary Unit)
C12

Justificat ion bit

Low path overhead

Pointer

X 3=

TUG 2 6.972Mbps (i.e. 3 E1)


(TUG2)X( 7) + (Pointer)

2.224Mbps
TUG 3 49.536Mbps (i.e. 21 E1) VC12

2.240Mbps
TU12

(TUG3)X (3)+(High order POH)+( Stuffing)

2.304Mbps

SOH + Pointer

VC 4 150.336Mbps (i.e. 63 E1)

STM 1, 155.5Mbps

Key features
It is fully synchronous. It can carry circuit switched or Packet Switched both. All network element use same clock. Tributary can mapped or extracted directly from pointers.

Different transmission rates in STM


STM1: 155Mbps STM4: 622Mbps STM16: 2.48Gbps STM64: 10Gbps

PDH: All 17 E1
1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.1.4 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.2.4 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.3.4 1.4.1 1.4.2 1.4.3 1.4.4 2

SDH: All 63 E1
1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3 1.4.1 1.4.2 1.4.3 2.4.1 2.4.2 2.4.3 3.4.1 3.4.2 3.4.3 1.5.1 1.5.2 1.5.3 2.5.1 2.5.2 2.5.3 3.5.1 3.5.2 3.5.3 1.6.1 1.6.2 1.6.3 2.6.1 2.6.2 2.6.3 3.6.1 3.6.2 3.6.3 1.7.1 1.7.2 1.7.3 2.7.1 2.7.2 2.7.3 3.7.1 3.7.2 3.7.3

Prepared by:

Krishna Mohan
Fill free to contact
Krishna.mohan.ec@gmail.com