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AN ASSIGNMENT ON

DEMAND OF HIGH POTENCY MEDICINEs IN MANDI DABWALI Submitted to the Department of Commerce for the partial fulfilment of Master of Philosophy in Commerce

SUBMITED TO:Dr. D.P. Warne Associate Professor Department of Commerce

SUBMITED BY:Deepak Mathil Roll no. 05 M.Phil(Commerce)

CHAUDHARY DEVI LAL UNIVERSITY SIRSA, (HARYANA) SESSION-2012-13

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter No. Ch.-1 Ch.-2 Ch.-3 Ch.-4 Ch.-5 Ch.-6 Ch.-7 Subject Introduction Review of Literature Research Methodology Data Analysis Conclusion References Questionnaire Page No 3 7 9 11 12 13 14

CHAPTER-1
INTRODUCTION
High potency medicine The products of potentisation are termed as potencies in different degrees.Potency denote the power that is derived by the grades of medicinal power developed by the process of dynamization. They are a result of series of successive dilution, according to scale and friction through succussion or trituration. Each stage of dynamization results in a medicine that is quantitatively reduced and qualitatively enhanced. The power generated is termed as 'potency' indicating the potentiality of the medicine. The potency of the medicine is indicated by suffixing a numerical and an alphabet(s) to the indicated medicine. The numerical indicates the number of times the original drug is subjected to the process of dilution and friction. The alphabet indicates the scale under which the dilution is carried out - decimal, centesimal or fifty millesimal. Drug strength signifies the strength of the drug in the given potency.In short; it is the concentration or the amount of the actual drug present in the given potency. Producers of high potency drugs should be equipped with isolators, such as glove boxes, and the people handling them should be skilled in using them. Expertise is also required in handling steroids, some used in anti-cancer therapy and hormones. In 2002 the National Center for Health Statistics stated that cancer was the second leading cause of death in the USA, accounting for about 30 per cent of all deaths. For every type of cancer, and in many cases for every patient, there is a potentially different drug to be used as an effective medication. Earlier anti-cancer drugs targeted only cells in the cell cycle and did not take into account the uniqueness of every type of cancer. Advanced clinical research is shedding light on the specific therapeutic targets and pharmacological research is entering into a new era of targeted molecules. Anti-cancer drugs are generally referred as 'highly potent'. Some of the drugs are complex molecules of natural origin that are purified and then subjected to chemical synthesis. Usually, the production process has to be performed in a controlled environment.

Pharmaceutical drug
also referred to as a medicine , can be loosely defined as any chemical substance - or product comprising such intended for use in the medical diagnosis, cure, treatment,

or prevention of disease The word pharmaceutical comes from the Greek word Pharmakeia. The modern transliteration of Pharmakeia is Pharmacia

Classification
Medications can be classified in various ways, such as by chemical properties, mode or route of administration, biological system affected, or therapeutic effects. An elaborate and widely used classification system is the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System (ATC system). The World Health Organization keeps a list of essential medicines. A sampling of classes of medicine includes: 1. Antipyretics: reducing fever (pyrexia/pyresis) 2. Analgesics: reducing pain (painkillers) 3. Antimalarial drugs: treating malaria 4. Antibiotics: inhibiting germ growth
5.

Antiseptics: prevention of germ growth near burns, cuts and wounds

Types of medications 1. For the gastrointestinal tract (digestive system)


Upper digestive tract: antacids, reflux suppressants, antiflatulents, antidopaminergics, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), H2-receptor antagonists, cytoprotectants, prostaglandin analogues Lower digestive tract: laxatives, antispasmodics, antidiarrhoeals, bile acid sequestrants, opioid

2. For the cardiovascular system


General: -receptor blockers ("beta blockers"), calciumchannel blockers, diuretics, cardiac glycosides, antiarrhythmics, nitrate, antianginals, vasoconstrictors, vasodilators, activators Affecting blood pressure (antihypertensive drugs): ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, blockers, calcium channel blockers Coagulation: anticoagulants, heparin, antiplateletdrugs, fibrinolytics, anti-hemophilic factors, haemostatic drugs Atherosclerosis/cholesterol inhibitors: hypolipidaemic agents, statins. peripheral

3. For the central nervous system


Drugs affecting the central nervous system include: Psychedelics, hypnotics, anaesthetics, antipsychotics, antidepressants (including tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, lithium salts, and selective serotonin reuptakeinhibitors (SSRIs)), antiemetics, anticonvulsants/antiepileptics, anxiolytics, barbiturates, movement disorder (e.g., Parkinson's disease) drugs, stimulants (includingamphetamines), benzodiazepines, cyclopyrrolones, dopamine antagonists, antihistamines, cholinergics, anticholinergics, emetics, cannabinoids, and 5-HT (serotonin) antagonists.

4. For pain and consciousness (analgesic drugs)


The main classes of painkillers are NSAIDs, uploads and various orphans such as paracetamol. Other drugs such as anesthetic medication can also be used to reduce pain or numb a person's feeling to it.

5. For musculo-skeletal disorders


The main categories of drugs for musculoskeletal disorders are: NSAIDs (including COX-2 selective inhibitors), muscle relaxants, neuromuscular drugs, and anti cholinesterases.

6. For the eye


General: adrenergic neurone blocker, astringent, ocular lubricant. Diagnostic: topical anesthetics, sympathomimetics, parasympatholytics, mydriatics. Antibacterial: antibiotics, topical antibiotics, sulfa drugs, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones. Antiviral drug. Anti-fungal: imidazoles, polyenes. Anti-inflammatory: NSAIDs, corticosteroids. Anti-allergy: mast cell inhibitors.

7. For the ear, nose and oropharynx


sympathomimetics, antihistamines, anticholinergics, NSAIDs, steroids, antiseptics, local anesthetics, antifungals, cerumenolyti.

8. For the respiratory system


bronchodilators, NSAIDs, anti-allergics, antitussives, mucolytics, decongestants corticosteroids, Beta2-adrenergic agonists, anticholinergics, steroids.

9. For endocrine problems


androgens, antiandrogens, gonadotropin, corticosteroids, human growth hormone, insulin, antidiabetics sulfonylureas, biguanides/metformin, thiazolidinediones, insulin t hyroid hormones, antithyroid drugs,calcitonin, diphosponate, vasopressin analogues

10. For the reproductive system or urinary system


antifungal, quinolones, antibiotics, cholinergics, anticholinergics, anticholinesterases, antispasmo dics, 5-alpha reductase inhibitor, selective alpha-1 blockers, sildenafils fertility medications

11. For contraception


Hormonal contraception Ormeloxifene Spermicide

12. For obstetrics and gynecology


NSAIDs, anticholinergics, haemostatic drugs, antifibrinolytics, Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT), bone regulators, beta-receptor agonists, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinising hormone, LHRH gamolenic acid, gonadotropin release inhibitor, progestogen, dopamine agonists, oestrogen, prostaglandins, gonadorelin, clomiphene, tamoxifen, Diethylstilbestrol

13. For the skin


emollients, anti pruritics antifungals, disinfectants, scabicides, pediculicides, tar products, vitamin A derivatives, vitaminDanalogues, keratolytics, abrasives, systemicantibiotics, topical antibiotics,horm ones, desloughingagents, exudateabsorbents, fibrinolytics, proteolytics, sunscreens, antiperspirants, c orticosteroids

14. For infections and infestations


antibiotics, antifungals, antileprotics, antituberculousdrugs, antimalarials, anthelmintics, amoebic ides, antivirals, antiprotozoals

15. For the immune system


Vaccines, immunoglobulins, immunosuppressants, interferons, monoclonal antibodies

16. For allergic disorders


anti-allergics, antihistamines, NSAIDs

17. For nutrition


tonics, electrolytes and mineral preparations (including iron preparations and magnesium preparations), Parental nutritional supplements, vitamins, anti-obesity drugs, anabolic drugs, haematopoietic drugs,food product drugs

18. For neoplastic disorders


cytotoxic drugs, therapeutic antibodies, sex hormones, aromatase inhibitors, somatostatin inhibitors, recombinant interleukins, G-CSF, erythropoietin

CHAPTER-2
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Following studies has already been done to check different dimensions of the high potency medicines in various places. Some of the previous studies have been reviewed here as below Burak & Damico (1999) information provided through prescription medicine advertising encourages individuals to seek advice about health conditions they recognise, but have not been clinically diagnosed or treated. Desselle & Aparasu (2000) the fact that lay consumers may lack the requisite knowledge to decide whether to prescribe a drug does not mean they are incapable of accurately understanding prescription drug. Andrews (2000) Let no physician teach the people about medicines or even tell them the names of medicines, particularly the more potent ones, for the people may be harmed by their improper use. Brinberg (2001) said legislation also requires provision of specific information, including the drugs indication and authorised use, its active ingredients and the quantities in which these are present, any precautions deemed necessary, its contraindications and potential side effects. Lead author Colin Dormuth (2008) said "previous studies have shown hints that high potency statins may increase the risk of kidney failure, but the studies were not large enough to provide more than a signal of a potential problem. If the increased risk only shows up at a rate of one additional case per 1,700 people treated, a study would need to be very large to ensure that effect was real and not merely a chance observation. Dormuth (2008) said "We thought given that so many people use these medications that it was really important to try to determine if there was an association between stating potency and risk of acute kidney injury,"

University of British Columbia7 (2008) said "those who took high potency formulations to those taking lower doses of the drugs. People included were aged 40 and older and started taking statins between the beginning of 1997 and April 30, 2008. The data were drawn from databases from seven Canadian provinces as well as from Britain and the United States. About a third of the 2,067,639 people in the study were using high potency statins. An editorial on the issue that ran with the study8 (2009) said "the kidney problems, when they occurred, seemed to materialize early in the treatment, generally within 120 days. But the risk of kidney injury associated with high potency statins remained elevated for at least two years, the study found. An editorial on the issue that ran with the study said that despite the broad use of statin drugs, the science of finding the Goldilocks dosage maximizing benefit while minimizing risk was still evolving.

RESEARCH GAPS:
The earlier studies have found out many attributes of the users of high potency medicines. Some studies shows that patients were more satisfied to use high potency medicine, some studies shows that patients were suffering from side effect of use high potency medicine, some other companies sees it as the business proposition, hence different types of the patients has been studied out till now. But no study has exclusively shown the relation of patients demand of high potency medicine. So with these aspects in mind this present study has been taken up.

CHAPTER-3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research in common parlances refers to search for knowledge. It is an original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge making for its advancement. Basically it is the pursuit of truth with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment. In short, the search for knowledge through objective and systematic. Method of finding solution of the problem is research. The advances learners dictionary elaborated gives the meaning of reach as a careful investigation or inquiry especially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge. The methodology devised by the researcher for this particular study here as under:

3.1 Statement of the Problem


Statement of the Problem is to know Demand of high potency medicine in Mandi Dabwali.

3.2 Objectives of the study:


To tap the gaps of the earlier studies following objective will be taken up by the study: 1. To study the prescription of doctors for the use of high potency medicines. 2. To study the demand of high potency medicines by patients. 3. To study the demand of high potency medicines by chemists.

3.3 Scope of the study


The present study will provide the information for the demand of high potency medicines among the patients and chemist in one city of Haryana state.

3.4 Research Design


The present study will be used the exploratory design.

3.5 Sample Design


To select a Sample of 17 doctors, 17 chemist and 16 patients from one city of Haryana state, Stratified Sampling will be used firstly for selecting one city mandi dabwali, Haryana and then convenience Sampling will be used.

3.6 Data Collection


This study is based on primary For the purpose of data collection; a well-structured questionnaire will be circulated among the respondents.

CHAPTER-4
Data Analysis and interpretation
After collection of data through various sources, different statistical tools and techniques have been used for the analysis of data. A sets of simple techniques of statistical analysis such as mean. Most of them are obtained with the help of the computerized packages SPSS (16.0 version); and Interpretation of data is based on rigorous exercise aiming at the achievement of the objectives of the study and findings of the existing studies. Demand Of High Potency Medicine For Skin Problem Table: 4.1
Type Of Medicine Use For Skin Problem
Antipruritics Antifungals Antiperspirants Total
4 8 5 17 21.6% 40.5% 37.8% 100.0% N % of Total Sum

Source: Survey.

In The Table No.4.1, There are various type high potency medicines for skin problem. More than 40.5% patients are using antifungals medicine for skin problem.

Demand Of High Potency Medicine For Nervous System, Brain Problem Table :4.2
Type Of Medicine Use For Nervous System, Brain Problem
Antipsychotics Antidepressants Antidepressants Total
N 5 7 5 17 % of Total Sum 31.4% 42.9% 25.7% 100.0%

Source: Survey.

In The Table No.4.2 There are various type high potency medicines for Nervous System, Brain Problem. More than 42.9% patients are using antidepressants medicine for Nervous System, Brain Problem.

Demand Of High Potency Medicine For Digestive problem Table :4.3


Type Of Medicine Problem
Antidopaminergics Antispasmodics Antidiarrhoeals Total

Use For Digestive


N 5 6 6 17 % of Total Sum 25.0% 38.9% 36.1% 100.0%

Source: Survey.

In The Table No.4.3 There are various type high potency medicines for Digestive problem. More than 38.9% patients are using antispasmodics medicine for Digestive problem.

Demand Of High Potency Medicine For Pain And Unconscious Problem Table :4.4
Type Of Medicine Use For Pain And Unconscious Problem
Non steroid anti inflammatory drug
4 26.5%

% of Total Sum

Opioids Paracetamol Total

8 5 17

41.2% 32.4% 100.0%

Source: Survey.

In The Table No.4.4 There are various type high potency medicines for Pain and Unconscious Problem. More than 41.2% patients are using opioids medicine for Pain and Unconscious Problem.

Demand Of High Potency Medicine For kidney, bladder problem Table :4.5

Type Of Medicine Use For Kidney, Bladder Problem


sildenafils, fertility medications

N 5

% of Total Sum 33.3%

Anticholinesterases alpha reductase inhibitor


Total

5 7 17

30.0% 36.7% 100.0%

Source: Survey.

In The Table No.4.5 There are various type high potency medicines for kidney, bladder problem. More than 36.7% patients are using alpha reductase inhibitor medicine for kidney, bladder problem.

CHAPTER-5
CONCLUSION
Drugs which are prescription only are regulated as such because they can impose adverse effects and should not be used unless necessary. Medical guidelines and clinical trials required for approval are used to help inform doctors' prescription of these drugs, but errors can happen. Reasons to not prescribe drugs such as interactions or side effects are called contraindications. Errors include over prescription and polypharmacy, misprescription, contraindication and lack of detail in dosage and administrations instructions. In the pharmaceutical industry, the high potency drug is one that achieves acceptance by prescribing physicians as a therapeutic standard for, most commonly, a highly prevalent chronic (rather than acute) condition. Patients often take the medicines for long periods.

CHAPTER-6
REFERENCES
1. Riaz AJOURNAL OF THE NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE, V. 104 (3), pp. 169-169 2. Heinrich Von Staden, Herophilus: The Art of Medicine in Early Alexandria (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989), pp. 1-26. 3. Kenneth G. Zysk, Asceticism and Healing in Ancient India: Medicine in the Buddhist Monastery, Oxford University Press, rev. ed. (1998) 4. Ilene Sue Ruhoy, Christian G. Daughton. Beyond the medicine cabinet: An analysis of where and why medications accumulate. Environment International 2008, Vol. 34 (8) 5. DR. Billash, Govt. Civil Hospital, Mandi Dabwali. 6. DR. R. Sidhu, Sidhu Hospital on Chotala Road. Mandi Dabwali.

Questionnaire DEMAND OF HIGH POTENCY MEDICINES IN MANDI DABWALI Dear Respondent This questionnaire is designed as a part of an academic work. All the information received through this questionnaire will be used only for academic purpose giving due attention to highlight the real position. Demand of high potency medicines in mandi dabwali. Through this questionnaire your suggestions will also be warmly welcomed and acknowledged and the individual identification will not be divulged. 1. Which type of medicines do you prescribed for skin problem? Please tick as () antipruritics [ ] antifungals [ ] antiperspirants [ ]

2. Which type of medicines do you prescribed for contraception? Please tick as () Ormeloxifene [ ] i- Pill [ ] Spermicide [ ]

3. Which type of medicines do you prescribed for Digestive problem? Please tick as () antidopaminergics [ ] antispasmodics [ ] antidiarrhoeals [ ]

4. Which type of medicines do you prescribed for the eye problem? Please tick as () Anti-allergy [ ] Antiviral drug [ ] Anti-inflammatory [ ]

5. Which type of medicines do you prescribed for kidney, bladder problem? Please tick as () sildenafils, fertility medications [ ] anticholinesterases [ ] alpha reductase inhibitor [ ]

Suggestions (If any):-

Doctor Personal information:Name= Age= Gender= Education= Occupation= Locality= (urban/rural) DEEPAK MATHIL (year) (Male/Female)

Questionnaire

DEMAND OF HIGH POTENCY MEDICINES IN MANDI DABWALI


Dear Respondent This questionnaire is designed as a part of an academic work. All the information received through this questionnaire will be used only for academic purpose giving due attention to highlight the real position. Demand of high potency medicines in mandi dabwali. Through this questionnaire your suggestions will also be warmly welcomed and acknowledged and the individual identification will not be divulged. 1. Which type of medicines does you sales for skin problem? Please tick as () antipruritics [ ] antifungals [ ] antiperspirants [ ]

2. Which type of medicines does you sales for contraception? Please tick as () Ormeloxifene [ ] i- Pill [ ] Spermicide [ ]

3. Which type of medicines does you sales for Digestive problem? Please tick as () antidopaminergics [ ] antispasmodics [ ] antidiarrhoeals [ ]

4. Which type of medicines does you sales for the eye problem? Please tick as () Anti-allergy [ ] Antiviral drug [ ] Anti-inflammatory [ ]

5. Which type of medicines does you sales for kidney, bladder problem? Please tick as () sildenafils, fertility medications [ ] anticholinesterases [ ] alpha reductase inhibitor [ ]

Suggestions (If any):-

Chemist Personal information:Name= Age= Gender= Education= Occupation= Locality= (urban/rural) DEEPAK MATHIL (year) (Male/Female)

Questionnaire

DEMAND OF HIGH POTENCY MEDICINEs IN MANDI DABWALI


Dear Respondent This questionnaire is designed as a part of an academic work. All the information received through this questionnaire will be used only for academic purpose giving due attention to highlight the real position. Demand of high potency medicines in mandi dabwali. Through this questionnaire your suggestions will also be warmly welcomed and acknowledged and the individual identification will not be divulged. 1. Which type of skin problem do you have? Please tick as () Eczema [ ] Sensitive skin/skin allergy [ ] Skin cancer [ ]

2. Which type of medicine do you use for skin problem? Please tick as () antipruritics [ ] antifungals [ ] antiperspirants [ ]

3. Which type of Nervous System, Brain problem do you have? Please tick as () Weakness [ ] Brain tumor [ ] Numbness [ ]

4. Which type of medicine do you use for Nervous System, Brain problem? Please tick as () antipsychotics [ ] antidepressants [ ] antidepressants [ ]

5. Which type of Digestive problem do you have? Please tick as () Longstanding abdominal pain [ ] frequent diarrhea [ ] Blood in stools [ ]

6. Which type of medicine do you use for Digestive problem? Please tick as () antidopaminergics [ ] antispasmodics [ ] antidiarrhoeals [ ]

7. Which type of pain and unconscious problem do you have? Please tick as () Cerebral palsy [ ] Multiple sclerosis Seizures [ ] epilepsy [ ]

8. Which type of medicine do you use for pain and unconscious problem? Please tick as () Non steroid anti inflammatory drug [ ] opioids [ ] paracetamol [ ]

9. Which type of kidney, bladder problem do you have? Please tick as () Urinary tract infections [ ] Blood in urine [ ] Reduced kidney function [ ]

10. Which type of medicine do you use for kidney, bladder problem? Please tick as () sildenafils, fertility medications [ ] anticholinesterases [ ] alpha reductase inhibitor [ ]

Suggestions (If any):-

Patient Personal information:Name= Age= Gender= Education= Occupation= Locality= (urban/rural) (year) (Male/Female)

DEEPAK MATHIL