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Sistem non-Newton

Non-Newtonian bodies

adalah zat-zat yang tidak mengikuti persamaan

aliran Newton; dispersi heterogen cairan dan padatan seperti larutan

koloid, emulsi, suspensi cair, salep dan produk-produk serupa

 

. Jika bahan-

bahan non-Newton dianalisis dalam suatu viscometer putar dan hasilnya

diplot, diperoleh berbagai kurva konsistensi yang menggambarkan adanya

tiga kelas aliran yakni;

plastis, pseudoplastis, dan dilatan.

Aliran Plastis
Aliran Plastis

kurva aliran plastis tidak melalui titik (0,0) tapi memotong sumbu shearing stress (atau akan memotong, jika bagian lurus dari kurva tersebut diekstrapolasikan ke sumbu) pada suatu titik tertentu yang dikenal dengan harga yield. Bingham bodies tidak akan mengalir sampai shearing stress dicapai sebesar yield value tersebut. Pada harga stress di bawah harga yield value, zat bertindak seperti bahan elastic. Ahli rheologi menggolongkan Bingham bodie sebagai suatu bahan yang mempunyai/memperlihatkan yield value, seperti halnya zat padat. Sedang zat-zat yang mulai mengalir pada shearing stress terkecil didefinisikan sebagai cairan. Yield value adalah suatu sifat yang penting dari disperse-

dispersi tertentu.

Aliran plastis berhubungan dengan adanya partikel-

 

partikel yang terflokulasi dalam suspense pekat.

Akibatnya,

terbentuk

struktur kontinu di seluruh sistem.

Adanya

yield value

disebabkan oleh

adanya

kontak antara partikel-partikel yang berdekatan

 

gaya van der waals

), yang

harus dipecah sebelum aliran dapat terjadi.

 

Akibatnya yield value merupakan indikasi dari kekuatan flokulasi.

Makin

(disebabbkan oleh

banyak suspense yang terflokulasi, makin tinggi yield valuenya.

Aliran Pseudoplastis

 

Aliran pseudoplastis diperlihatkan oleh

polimer-polimer dalam larutan,

 

yang merupakan kebalikan dari sistem plastis, yang tersusun dari partikel-

partikel yang terflokulasi dalam suspensi

. Sejumlah besar produk farmasi

termasuk

gom

dan

sintesis

, misalnya: disperse cairan dari tragacanth,

 

natrium alginate, metilselulosa dan natrium karboksimetil selulosa,

menunjukkan aliran pseudoplastis.

Viskositas zat pseudoplastis berkurang dengan meningkatnya rate of

shear

 

. Viskositas nyata dapat diperoleh pada setiap haraga rate of shear

dari kemiringan tangen (garis singgung) pada kurva pada tittik tertentu.

Aliran Dilatan

 

Suspense-suspensi tertentu dengan persentase zat padat terdispers yang

tinggi menunjukkan peningkatan dalam daya hambat untuk mengalir dengan

meningkatnya rate of shear

. Aliran dilatan adalah

kebalikan dari aliran

 

pseudoplastis

. Bahan-bahan aliran dilatan dikenal dengan istilah

shear-

thickening system.

 

Zat-zat yang mempunyai sifat-sifat aliran dilatan adalah

suspensi yang berkonsentrasi tinggi

suspense-
suspense-

(kira-kira 50% atau lebih) dari

partikel-partikel kecil yang mengalami deflokulasi .

Diposkan oleh Afra Chemistry Lover di 03.46

Diposkan oleh Afra Chemistry Lover di <a href=03.46 " id="pdf-obj-1-43" src="pdf-obj-1-43.jpg">

2011-02-15

2011-02-21

Non-Newtonian fluid From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
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A non-Newtonian fluid is a fluid whose flow properties differ in any way from those of Newtonian fluids. Most commonly the viscosity of non- Newtonian fluids is not independent of shear rate or shear rate history. However, there are some non-Newtonian fluids with shear-independent viscosity, that nonetheless exhibit normal stress-differences or other non-Newtonian behavior. Many salt solutions and molten polymers are non- Newtonian fluids, as are many commonly found substances such as ketchup, custard, toothpaste, starch suspensions, paint, blood, and shampoo. In a Newtonian fluid, the relation between the shear stress and the shear rate is linear, passing through the origin, the constant of proportionality being the coefficient of viscosity. In a non- Newtonian fluid, the relation between the shear stress and the shear rate is different, and can even be time-dependent. Therefore a constant coefficient of viscosity cannot be defined.

Although the concept of viscosity is commonly used to characterize a material, it can be inadequate to describe the mechanical behavior of a substance, particularly non-Newtonian fluids. They are best studied through several other rheological properties which relate the relations between the stress and strain rate tensors under many different flow conditions, such as oscillatory shear, or extensional flow which are measured using different devices or rheometers. The properties are better studied using tensor-valued constitutive equations, which are common in the field of continuum mechanics.

Contents [hide]
Contents
[hide]

[edit]Types of non-Newtonian behavior [edit]Summary

<a href=1 Types of non-Newtonian behavior o 1.1 Summary o 1.2 Shear thickening fluids o 1.3 Shear thinning fluid o 1.4 Bingham plastic o 1.5 Rheopectic o 2 Examples 2.1 Oobleck o 2.2 Flubber o 2.3 Chilled caramel topping o 2.4 Silly Putty o 2.5 Ketchup 3 See also 4 References 5 External links [ edit ] Types of non-Newtonian behavior [ edit ] Summary Comparison of non-Newtonian, Newtonian, and viscoelastic properties Viscoelas "Parallel" linear tic Kelvin material combination of elastic and viscous effects " id="pdf-obj-3-92" src="pdf-obj-3-92.jpg">

Comparison of non-Newtonian, Newtonian, and viscoelastic properties

 

"Parallel" linear

 

tic

combination of elastic and viscous effects

   

Material returns to a well-defined "rest shape"

   
     

Apparent viscosity incr

Some lubricants, whi

eases with duration of stress [1]

 
   

Time-

     

dependen

Some Clays,

t

viscosity

Apparent viscosity decr

   
 

eases with duration of stress [2]

fluid, Honey under certain conditions

 
 

Apparent viscosity incr

Suspensions of corn

thickening(dilatant

eases with increased

starch or sand in

Time-

independ

)

stress [3]

 
 
     

ent

viscosity

thinning(pseudopl

astic)

Apparent viscosity decr eases with increased stress [4][5]

Paper pulp in water,

latex

paint, ice, blood,

syrup, molasses

 

Viscosity is constant Stress depends on

normal and shear strain rates and also the pressure applied on it

[edit]Shear thickening fluids

Shear thickening fluids are also used in all wheel drive systems utilising a viscous coupling unit for power transmission.

[edit]Shear thinning fluid

A familiar example of the opposite, a shear thinning fluid, or pseudoplastic fluid, is paint: one wants the paint to flow readily off the brush when it is being applied to the surface being painted, but not to drip excessively.

[edit]Bingham plastic

There are fluids which have a linear shear stress/shear strain relationship which require a finite yield stress before they begin to flow (the plot of shear stress against shear strain does not pass through the origin). These fluids are called Bingham plastics. Several examples are clay suspensions, drilling mud, toothpaste, mayonnaise, chocolate, and mustard.

[edit]Rheopectic

There are also fluids whose strain rate is a function of time. Fluids that require a gradually increasing shear stress to maintain a constant strain rate are referred to as rheopectic. An opposite case of this, is a fluid that thins out with time and requires a decreasing stress to maintain a constant strain rate (thixotropic).

[edit]Examples

[edit]Oobleck

Oobleck on a subwoofer. Applying force to oobleck, by sound waves in this case, makes the " id="pdf-obj-5-40" src="pdf-obj-5-40.jpg">

Oobleck on a subwoofer. Applying force to oobleck, by sound waves in this case, makes the non-Newtonian fluid thicken. [6]

An inexpensive, non-toxic example of a non-Newtonian fluid is a suspension of starch (e.g. cornflour) in water, sometimes called "oobleck" or "ooze" (2 parts corn starch to 1 part water). [7][8] Uncooked imitation custard, being a suspension of primarily cornflour, has the same properties. The name "oobleck" is derived from the children's

[edit]Flubber

Main article: Flubber (material)

Flubber is a non-Newtonian fluid, easily made from polyvinyl alcohol based glues and borax, that flows under low stresses, but breaks under higher stresses and pressures. This combination of fluid-like and solid-like properties makes it a Maxwell solid. Its behavior can also be described as being viscoplastic orgelatinous. [9]

[edit]Chilled caramel topping

Another example of this is chilled caramel ice cream topping. The sudden application of forcefor example by stabbing the surface with a finger, or rapidly inverting the container holding it—leads to the fluid behaving like a solid rather than a liquid. This is the "shear thickening" property of this non-Newtonian fluid. More gentle treatment, such as slowly inserting a spoon, will leave it in its liquid state. Trying to jerk the spoon back out again, however, will trigger the return of the temporary solid state. A person moving quickly and applying sufficient force with their feet can literally walk across such a liquid.

[edit]Silly Putty

Main article: Silly Putty

Silly Putty is a silicone polymer based suspension which will flow, bounce, or break depending on strain rate.

[edit]Ketchup

Ketchup is a shear thinning fluid. [3] Shear thinning means that the fluid viscosity decreases over time given a constant shear. In other words, fluid motion is initially difficult to start, but once flowing will continue to do so freely.

[edit]See also

[edit]References

  • 5. ^ Emulsions, Foams, and Suspensions: Fundamentals and Applications, Laurier L. Schramm, Publisher: Wiley VCH, 26 July 2005, ISBN 3527307435, ISBN 978-3527307432p.173, Google books

2011-02-21