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ANALISA STRATIGRAFI

PERKEMBANGAN STRATIGRAFI
Th 80 - an ---.EXXON EXPLORATION RESEARCH LABORATORY :

mengeluarkan KONSEP & TEKNIK tentang SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY

SEQ.STRATIGRAPHY merupakan hasil akhir dari SEISMIC STRATIGRAPHY (Mitchum, 1977) Th. 1988: Konsep Seq. Strat. terbit pertama kali dalam SEPM Special Publication No. 42 (Wilgus et al, 1988) yang merupakan REFERENSI STANDAR : " MODEL" Seq.Strat.

Pitman (1986), Galloway (1989), Mial (1991), Sloss (1991), Posamentier dan Allen (1993) : memfokuskan pada modifikasi "model" Sikuen Dasar. Galloway (1989), Hunt & Tucker (1992) : metoda pengganti penentuan Sikuen dan System tracts. Plint (1988), Wagoner et al (1990), Nummmeda et aL (1990), Posamentier et al (1992) & Schumm (1993) Deskripsi terinci mengenai aspek-aspek spesifik dari Sikuen Pengendapan (Depositional Sequence).

Legaretta et.al. 1993 Significant departures from Flume Experiment : Koss et.al. 1990 Wagoner et.al. 1990 : - cores, wirelines and outcrops, High Resolution Strat.Seq., - marine to continental strata

Wilgus et.al. 1988 : Early strat.Seq. Models Sediment flux SEPM Spec.pub. No. 42
Tectonics Autocyclic phenomenon Climate

Galloway 1989 :

Block diagram Genetic Strat. Seq. : Posamentier & Vail, 1988

Sequ sequ com neve relat level nota

Accomodation space conception to eustatic change : Jervey et.al.1988

Payton 1977 : Seismic Stratigraphy AAPG Memior 27 : - Regional, chronostratigraphic surface


- Detailed lithologic prediction from seismic data

EXXON RESEACH PRODUCTION CO.

- Utility of time synchronous surfaces - Genetic units of strata deliniated by unconformity

Sequence Stratigraphy telah terbukti sebagai alat yang bermanfaat untuk analisa stratigrafi suatu cekungan sedimentasi.
Seq.Strat. dapat diterapkan untuk eksplorasi Hidrokarbon dengan alasan : 1. Melengkapi alat yg bermanfaat utk analisa pengisian sedimen dlm cekungan yg berkaitan dgn : SEA LEVEL CHANGES, TECTONICSME dan SEDIMENT SUPPLY. 2. Seq. Strat. mampu memahami lebih baik rangkaian diantara POLA SEDlMENTASI dlm bagian yang berbeda dalam suatu cekungan. 3. Seq.Strat. dapat digunakan untuk meramalkan lokasi reservoir, seal prone interval dan zonazona dalam suatu cekungan.

Lithostratigraphy and Chronostratigraphy


Hypothetical Cross Section

Alluvial Plain Coastal Plain

Foreshore/Upper Shoreface Shoreface/Shelf

Lithostratigraphy

A Sand B Sand

Nonmarine Member X Shale Z

Units are defined by lithology Rock Units vary in space and time Boundaries are subjective

Chronostratigraphy

Unconformity and correlative conformity Downlap surface and correlative conformity Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3

Units based on physically observable stratal surfaces Units vary in space only Represent natural stratigraphic divisions (genetically related)

Aplikasi SEQEUNCE STRATIGRAPHY utk explorasi Hidrokarbon dan produksi ( 3 kategori ) :


1. REGIONAL UNDERSTANDING AND PREDICTION OF HYDROCARBON SYSTEM.
Data : - Regional Well Log - Seismic Geometry ANALISA SEQ.STRAT

MODEL GEOLOGI CEKUNGAN

PERAMALAN : - Reservoir - Seals - Source Rocks - Migration System - Trapping Style

ANALISIS SIKUEN STRATIGRAFI SEISMIK korelasi batas sekuen, penentuan fasies seismik, LOG Identifikasi lingkungan pengendapan fasies regresi-transgresi : korelasi MFS Sequence Boundary System Tracks

SIKUEN

TST11

SIKUEN 11
SB10

HST10 MFS9 TST10 SB9 HST9

SIKUEN 10

SIKUEN 9
MFS8

TST9 SB8 HST8 MFS7 TST8 SB7


HST7

SIKUEN 8

MFS6
TST7

SIKUEN 7

SB6

HST6 MFS5 TST6 SB5 HST5 MFS4 TST5 SB4


HST4 TST3
HST3 TST3 LST2

SIKUEN 6

SIKUEN 5
SIKUEN 4

MFS3 SB3 MFS2 SB2 MFS1 SB1

SIKUEN 3 SIKUEN 2

HST2
TST2

HST1

SIKUEN 1

SE

GEOLOGICAL MODEL BASED ON SEISMIC SECTION INLINE 587

NW

ABF GUF 11

Top GUF

GUF 12 GUF GUF 13

Top U TAF

Top L TAF
U.TAF

Top BSM
Basement

L.TAF

Time Depth Curve - Telaga A1


UBSh

MBS 2

LOWER KEUTAPANG ?

UPPER BAONG

GEOLOGICAL REGIONAL OVER VIEW


Regional Structure South Sumatra Basin Paleogeography Baturaja Formation South Sumatra Basin

PETROLEUM SYSTEM
Sub Basin Area Oil Maturity Map

Location

X Block Location Sub Basin Area Paleogeography Talang Akar Formation South Sumatra Basin Burial History

Stratigraphic Regional Column

South Sumatra Sub-Basin

Location
Location X Block Oil Migration Pathway Within Talang Akar Formation Oil Migration Pathway Within Baturaja Formation

PROSPECT AND LEAD LOCATION X BLOCK


Location Map X Block Line Seismic Map X Block Prospect and Lead Map X Block
P X 1 P X 2 L X 4 L X 3 L X 5

Play Concept

Aplikasi : 1. FRONTIER Basin. 2. Cekungan dengan Data Sumur relatif jarang. Pendekatan : - Analisa pola penumpukan sedimen berskala besar pada well-log - Korelasi regional well-log - Geometri stratal pada seismik regional Integrasi DATA Bawah Permukaan dg SEISMIK Regional Analisis Kemungkinan kehadiran dan sifat Reservoir & Seal secara regional.

Sequence Stratigraphic Analysis of Well Logs: Interpretations of Stacking Patterns


Idealized parasequence stacking patterns of a complete marginal marine depositional sequence
Highstand: Progradational Transgressive: Retrogradational Lowstand: Aggradational Highstand: Progradational

Maximum Flooding Surface "Transgressive" Surface Sequence Boundary

Changes in these patterns can be used for sequence stratigraphic interpretation and correlation

TST

TST HST

Sequence Boundary

Incised Valley

Flooding Surface/ Sequence Boundary Maximum Flooding Surface

LST/TST

TST TST LST LST

Highstand is missing, probably eroded away

Lowstand is missing, probably an interfluve

An example from Southeast Asia


20 GR 120

- 2150m Maximum Flooding Surface? Highstand Systems Tract? Maximum Flooding Surface - 2175m Cored interval*

Progradational to Retrogradational shoreface/deltaic deposits

LowstandTransgressive Systems Tract?

Aggradational succession possible composite incised valley fill


- 2200m

Sequence Boundary?

Maximum Flooding Surface LowstandTransgressive Systems Tract? Sequence Boundary?

- 2225m

Aggradational to retrogradational succession valley fill? Channel fill overlain by delta lobes?

- 2250m

20

GR

Another Example from Southeast Asia


120
- 2200m

20

GR

120 Maximum Flooding Surface

Maximum Flooding Surface?

- 2225m Cored interval

- 2325m

Maximum Flooding Surface?

Highstand Systems Tract


- 2250m - 2350m

Highstand Systems Tract


Maximum Flooding Surface

Maximum Flooding Surface

Transgressive Systems Tract


Maximum Flooding Surface?

- 2275m

- 2375m

Transgressive Systems Tract

Highstand Systems Tract


- 2400m

- 2300m

Seismic Examples of Significant Surfaces and Recognition Criteria

Seismic Examples

2. UNDERSTANDING & PREDICTING RESEVOIR GEOMETRY, HETEROGENEITIES & SEALS.


Data : - Well-log rinci - Core - Data Produksi - Penamp. Seismik (3D)

HIGH RESOLUTION SEQ. STRAT

MODEL GEOLOGI

ARSITEKTUR RESERVOIR
Aplikasi Seq.Strat. adalah dalam studi lapangan dan reservoir.

CORE DATA

~>30 degree bedding attitude ~45 degree bedding attitude

Flooding Surface

Horizontal bedding attitudes

Undulatory geometries
Drilling mud injections

~45 degree bedding attitude

Generic Delta Relationships

Distributary Mouth Bar

Delta Front

Flooding Surface

Delta Front

3. DEVELOPMENT OF NEW TYPES OF PLAYS BASED ON SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY CONCEPT.


Seq. Strat. memfokuskan pads : TIPE SISTEM SEDIMENTASI YANG BARU. Misal : - Incised fluvial Valleys - Lowstand Coastal Sand Deposite - Submarine Fan. Aplikasi : > Mature basin : subsurface data banyak > Depositional System khusus daerah distal shelf environment

Contoh : Mature basin US Gulf Coast US western Interior basin Cretaceous Foreland Basin (Western Canada)

GUIDELINES YANG DIIKUTI :


1). Seq.. Strat. terdiri dari Concept & Principles. 2). Seq. Strat. "MODEL" harus dan dapat memodifikasi faktor lokal dalam basin, misal : tektonisme yang mengontrol fasies sedimen dan arsitektur stratal. Konsep Sequence harus diaplikasikan dengan cara yang fleksibel (Semua variabel geologi) Jadi tidak hanya eustacy saja tetapi juga tectonics, sediment supply, depositioal process, dsb harus dipertimbangkan. 3). Objective of Seq. Stratigraphy is definitely not to calibrate a given Stratigraphic interval with the global eustatic sea level chrat. 4). Basic Principles of Seq. Strat. are : TIME an Scale Independent dapat diaplikasikan dengan skala yang luas dari Outcrop and Reservoir to Seismic and Regional basin-fill scale.