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FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTING Computer commonly oriented machine purposely used for technical education and research Charles Babbage

e father of computers Von Neumann gave the concept of having an input, output, temp. memory, and perm. memory GENERATION OF COMPUTERS 1. First vacuum tubes 2. 2nd transistors 3. 3rd LSI (large scale integration) - use of ICs - transistors are integrated in the IC microns - - x 10 -6 - unit used to measure size of transistors in an IC 4. 4th VLSI (very large scale integration) - further reduced size of transistors in half - gen that were currently at 5. 5th AI (artificial intelligence) TYPES OF CPUs 1. CISC complex instruction set computer - is a computer instruction set architecture (ISA) in which each instruction can execute several low-level operations, such as a load from memory, an arithmetic operation, and a memory store, all in a single instruction - examples of CISC processor families are System/360, PDP-11, VAX, 68000, and x86 2. RISC reduced instruction set computer - represents a CPU design strategy emphasizing the insight that simplified instructions that "do less" may still provide for higher performance if this simplicity can be utilized to make instructions execute very quickly - well known RISC families include Alpha, ARC, ARM, AVR, MIPS, PA-RISC, PIC, Power Architecture (including PowerPC), SuperH, and SPARC

COMPUTER LANGUAGES 1. low level language 0,1 - a language that provides little or no abstraction from a computer's instruction set architecture. the word "low" refers to the small or nonexistent amount of abstraction between the language and machine language; because of this, low-level languages are sometimes described as being "close to the hardware" 2. assembly language uses mnemonics - a family of low-level languages for programming computers, microprocessors, microcontrollers, and other (usually) integrated circuits. they implement a symbolic representation of the numeric machine codes and other constants needed to program a particular CPU architecture. this representation is usually defined by the hardware manufacturer, and is based on abbreviations (called mnemonics) that help the programmer remember individual instructions, registers, etc. an assembly language is thus specific to a certain physical or virtual computer architecture (as opposed to most high-level languages, which are usually portable) 3. high level language - a programming language with strong abstraction from the details of the computer - it may use natural language elements, be easier to use, or be more portable across platforms - example is the C language Assemblers converts assembly language to machine Language Compiler/interpreter converts high level language to machine language. Compilers convert page by page while interpreters convert line by line 8085 8 bit processor 8086 16 bit processor PC intel based PS (personal system) mac
PC desktop vertical horizontal laptop PDA

binary digit = BIT = 0,1 0011 4 bit = 1 nibble 0100 1111 8 bits (b) = 1 byte (B) 16 bits = 1 word 32 bits = 1 dword (double word) 1024 B = 1 kB 1024 kB = 1MB 1024 MB = 1 GB 1024 GB = 1 TB 1 GB = 1024 MB = 1024 x 1024 x 1024 B 1 TB = 1024 4 B TYPES OF SIGNALS 1. analog can have various inputs 2. digital has 2 values (0 or 1, yes or no, ) - Boolean algebra

throughput (bandwidth) TP = CS x buswidth example: TP = 2.4 GHz x 64 bits = 2.4 GHz x 8 B = 19.2 GBps CS: 66 MHz 33 MHz buswidth: 32 bits 32 bits


COMPONENTS TO ASSEMBLE A PC - mobo, proc, ram, video card, hd, power supply (SMPS switching mode power supply), sound card, optical drive, keyboard, monitor, mouse, nic, ups, speakers, power cable, printer, cabinet, printer cable, cat 5, sata, PROCESSOR

frequency number of cycles per second -measured in hertz (Hz) f = 1/T = 1/s clock speed frequency at which a wave form is generated for a device to send and receive data - the higher the clock speed, the bigger the amplitude and the more data can be sent within a clock period

FPU floating point unit - integers - also called co-processor or math co-processor memory cache - SRAM (static RAM) LEVELS OF CACHE L1 smallest, resides inside the processor - applications & instructions caching L2 inside the proc (used to be on the mobo) - data caching L3 on the mobo - instruction, data, and application caching *** i7 has 6MB L2 cache

clock period a period of 1 rising and 1 falling clock

FUNCTIONS OF CACHE 1. anticipate commands/data needed 2. match the speed of internal and external buses cables point to point bus may branch out control unit - (often called a control system or central controller) manages the computer's various components; it reads and interprets (decodes) the program instructions, transforming them into a series of control signals which activate other parts of the computer arithmetic & logic unit - capable of performing two classes of operations: arithmetic and logic input/output (I/O) - means by which a computer exchanges information with the outside world registers scribbling pad

process - an instance of a computer program, consisting of one or more threads, that is being sequentially executed[1] by a computer system that has the ability to run several computer programs concurrently thread - part of a process that needs to be executed in a sequence instruction - a single operation; any representation of an element of an executable program AMD advanced micro devices TYPES OF MULTIPROCESSING 1. SMP (symmetric multiprocessing) - applies only if you have 2 (or more) physical procs - divides tasks equally between the procs 2. ASMP (asymmetric multiprocessing) - assigns certain tasks only to certain processors PROCESSOR INTERFACE

OVERCLOCKING - the process of running a computer component at a higher clock rate (more clock cycles per second) than it was designed for or was specified by the manufacturer, usually practiced by enthusiasts seeking an increase in the performance of their computers - done through manipulating the CPU multiplier and the motherboard's front side bus (FSB) speed until a maximum stable operating frequency is reached crystal oscillator generates the clock speed on the mobo

TYPES OF RAM 1. SRAM (static RAM) used in proc cache & hdd - fastest but expensive bec it uses more transistors and capacitors (up to 6 trans and caps per 1 bit while DDR uses only 1 trans and 1 cap per 1 bit) - a type of semiconductor memory where the word static indicates that, unlike dynamic RAM (DRAM), it does not need to be periodically refreshed, as SRAM uses bistable latching circuitry to store each bit. SRAM exhibits data remanence,but is still volatile in the conventional sense that data is eventually lost when the memory is not powered 2. DRAM (dynamic RAM) slowest, half duplex - a type of random access memory that stores each bit of data in a separate capacitor within an integrated circuit. Since real capacitors leak charge, the information eventually fades unless the capacitor charge is refreshed periodically. Because of this refresh requirement, it is a dynamic memory as opposed to SRAM and other static memory - can send/rcv data in 19 nanosec 3. EDORAM (extended data out RAM) can send/rcv data in 60 nanosec 4. SDRAM (synchronous DRAM) 30 nanosec - is a dynamic random access memory (DRAM) that has a synchronous interface. Traditionally, dynamic random access memory (DRAM) has an asynchronous interface which means that it responds as quickly as possible to changes in control inputs. SDRAM has a synchronous interface, meaning that it waits for a clock signal before responding to control inputs and is therefore synchronized with the computer's system bus. The clock is used to drive an internal finite state machine that pipelines incoming instructions. This allows the chip to have a more complex pattern of operation than asynchronous DRAM which does not have a synchronized interface 5. DDR SDRAM (double data rate) - is a class of memory integrated circuits used in computers. It achieves nearly twice the bandwidth of the 4

MEMORY - stores data


PROCESSOR TECHNOLOGIES 1. PGA (pin grid array) ex: P1, P3, P4 1. scalar 1 process at a time - employed by all procs before Pentium 2. super scalar multi threading - pentium 1 is the first super scalar proc 3. hyperthreading 2 logical procs inside 1 physical proc both doing multithreading - started with pentium 4 4. hypertransport higher bandwidth with low latency obtained by using double data rate 5. dual core 2 physical cores inside 1 proc 6. core 2 duo dual core with hyperthreading on each core 7. quad core 4 cores 8. core 2 quad 4 cores with hyperthreading on each

secondary DVD floppy

primary memory has direct contact to the proc secondary memory reach the proc through the primary memory RAM random access memory - temporary memory where data processed and to be processed is stored - temporary storage - volatile (data gets deleted when power is turned off) - consists of transistors and capacitors (1 trans & 1 cap = 1 bit) 128 MB = 1024 x 1024 x 8 = 8388608 trans & caps

2. LGA (land grid array) ex: I7, P4

3. SECC (single edge contact cartridge) - 242 contacts ex: P2, P3

*** L2 is shared on all technologies mentioned above ZIF zero insertion force 3

*** RAM stores data like in a spreadsheet, each cell can hold up to 1 Byte, every Byte of information has an address

preceding single data rate (SDR) SDRAM by double pumping (transferring data on the rising and falling edges of the clock signal) without increasing the clock frequency. With data being transferred 64 bits at a time, DDR SDRAM gives a transfer rate of (memory bus clock rate) x 2 (for dual rate) 64 (number of bits transferred) / 8 (number of bits/byte). Thus, with a bus frequency of 100 MHz, DDR SDRAM gives a maximum transfer rate of 1600 MB/s DDR2 - is a double data rate synchronous dynamic random access memory interface. It supersedes the original DDR SDRAM specification and the two are not compatible. In addition to double pumping the data bus as in DDR SDRAM, (transferring data on the rising and falling edges of the bus clock signal), DDR2 employs an I/O buffer between the memory and the data bus so that the data bus can be run at twice the speed of the memory clock. The two factors combine to achieve a total of 4 data transfers per memory clock cycle.With data being transferred 64 bits at a time, DDR2 SDRAM gives a transfer rate of (memory clock rate) 2 (for bus clock multiplier) 2 (for dual rate) 64 (number of bits transferred) / 8 (number of bits/byte). Thus with a memory clock frequency of 100 MHz, DDR2 SDRAM gives a maximum transfer rate of 3200 MB/s DDR3 - is a random access memory interface technology used for high bandwidth storage of the working data of a computer or other digital electronic devices. DDR3 is part of the SDRAM family of technologies and is one of the many DRAM (dynamic random access memory) implementations.DDR3 SDRAM is an improvement over its predecessor, DDR2 SDRAM, and the two are not compatible. The primary benefit of DDR3 is the ability to transfer at twice the data rate of DDR2 (I/O at 8 the data rate of the memory cells it contains), thus enabling higher bus rates and higher peak rates than earlier memory technologies. There is no corresponding reduction in latency, as that is a feature of the DRAM array and not the interface.[citation needed] In addition, the DDR3 standard allows for chip capacities of 512 megabits to 8 gigabits, effectively enabling a maximum memory module size of 16 gigabytes.With data being transferred 64 bits at a time per memory module, DDR3 SDRAM gives a transfer rate of (memory clock rate) 4 (for bus clock multiplier) 2 (for data rate) 64 (number of bits transferred) / 8 (number of bits/byte). Thus with a memory clock

frequency of 100 MHz, DDR3 SDRAM gives a maximum transfer rate of 6400 MB/s

SIMMs and DIMMs is that DIMMs have separate electrical contacts on each side of the module, while the contacts on SIMMs on both sides are redundant. Another difference is that standard SIMMs have a 32-bit data path, while standard DIMMs have a 64-bit data path. Since Intel's Pentium has (as do several other processors) a 64bit bus width, it requires SIMMs installed in matched pairs in order to complete the data bus. The processor would then access the two SIMMs simultaneously. DIMMs were introduced to eliminate this practice 3. RIMM (rambus imm) 16 bit, 184 pin 4. CRIMM (continuity rimm) filler for RIMM 5. SODIMM (small outline dimm) 64 bit, 144 or 200 pins, used in laptops

DDRAM = 266 MHz DIMM = 64 bits bandwidth = 266 MHz x 64 b = 266 MHz x 8 B = 2128 MBps ROM read only memory - non volatile - permanent memory BIOS basic input output system - rom chip on the mobo TYPES OF ROM 1. ROM predefined instructions 2. PROM programmable rom - can add info but cant erase 3. EPROM erasable prom - can erase and put new info, uses UV 4. EEPROM electronically eprom - can erase and put new info, uses electrical charges 5. EAPROM electronically alterable prom hardwire chips that have embedded instructions that cannot be changed firmware - can be changed hardwiring process of embedding chips with instructions *** the control unit is the only hardwire in a computer flashing process by which you upgrade your firmware *** where to get BIOS updates: 1. MB manufacturer 2. BIOS manufacturer phoenix, award, AMI 3. brand manufacturer

6. RDRAM (rambus dynamic) 800MHz - a type of synchronous dynamic RAM, designed by the Rambus Corporation TYPES OF MEMORY MODULES 1. SIMM (single inline memory module) - 30 pin/8bit or 72 pin/32 bit - a type of memory module containing random access memory used in computers from the early 1980s to the late 1990s. It differs from a dual in-line memory module (DIMM), the most predominant form of memory module today, in that the contacts on a SIMM are redundant on both sides of the module

6. MicroDIMM 214 pin, used in PDAs JEDEC joint electron device engineering council - manufactures RAMs

2. DIMM (dual imm) 168/184/240 pins, 64 bit - comprises a series of dynamic random access memory integrated circuits. These modules are mounted on a printed circuit board and designed for use in personal computers, workstations and servers. DIMMs began to replace SIMMs (single in-line memory modules) as the predominant type of memory module as Intel's Pentium processors began to gain market share. The main difference between 5

TYPES OF FLASHING 1. CUI (character user interface) - DOS 2. GUI (graphical user interface) - OS (win, ) SECONDARY MEMORY HDD hard disk drive *** all memory modules have a bus width 6

VRAM video RAM, used on AGP cards WRAM window RAM, uses dual ported technology

- fixed storage medium - magnetic disc - non volatile - read/write heads - data is always read from outside to inside the disc

partition allocating space format making the space usable FILE SYSTEM structuring model - system of putting files in a particular way 1. FAT12 file allocation table 2. FAT16 - max partition size: 2 GB *3. FAT32 32 bit, does not support encryption - max partition size: 2 TB *4. NTFS new technology file system - 32 bit, has file security - ntfs 4.0 supports only compression - ntfs 5.0 compression and encryption - 8 MB 2 TB 5. HPFS high performance file system 6. UDFS universal disc file system 7. CDFS compact disc file system FLOPPY DISK portable storage medium - magnetic disk - outside to inside - FAT12 (2 12) - 1.44 MB = 80 tracks x 18 subdivisions x 2 sides x 512 B (per sector) - high density FDs have 2.88 MB *** every file system has an index: FAT12,16,32 FAT (file allocation table) NTFS MFT (master file table) COMPACT DISC portable storage medium - level 3 red laser - optical discs - 650 700 MB - CD drive (ROM, writer) - x in speed means 150 kbps - pits and lands - read from inside to outside - uses CDFS (compact disc file system) - index: TOC (table of contents) INSTRUCTION SETS - a list of all the instructions, and all their variations, that a processor (or in the case of a virtual machine, an interpreter) can execute. Instructions include: Arithmetic such as add and subtract. Logic instructions such as and, or, and not. Data 7

instructions such as move, input, output, load, and store. Control flow instructions such as goto, if ... goto, call, and return 1. MMX 2. SIMD - single instruction, multiple data turbo boost technology - a technology implemented by Intel in their Core i5 and Core i7 CPUs, which allows CPU performance to be dynamically increased on demand.[1] It is activated when the operating system requests the highest processor performance state. When the processor is operating below these limits and the user's workload demands additional performance, the processor frequency will dynamically increase by 133 MHz on short and regular intervals until the upper limit is met or the maximum possible upside for the number of active cores is reached. Conversely, when any of the limits are reached or exceeded, the processor frequency will automatically decrease by 133 MHz until the processor is again operating within its limits BURNING CDs 1. windows xp 2. nero 3. wmp single session multi session DVD digital versatile disc - optical disc - CDFS / TOC - compressed pits and lands - dvd rom, combo drives, dvd writer - red laser but higher intensity - x = 10.5 Mbps TYPES OF DVD 1. single sided single layer = 4 GB 2. single sided double layer = 8 GB 3. double sided double layer = 17 GB mpeg moving pictures expert group mpeg2 compressed movie that can be placed on a dvd

BURNING DVDs 1. windows vista 2. nero 3. roxio 4. wmp BLU-RAY DISC expensive - larger space - high density - blue laser (405 nm) - SL: 25 27 GB, DL: 50 GB - bd-rom, bd-r, bd-rw, bd-re (rewritable for HD recording) - UDFS (universal disk file system) - x = 36 Mbps POWER SUPPLY SMPS switching mode power supply - converts AC to DC - 12V (motor), 5V (IC), +3.3V (proc) CONNECTORS mobo 24 pin SATA 15 pin IDE 4 pin CPU 4 pin (2x2) input voltage indicator switch -red 110/220 switch HEATSINK dissipates heat out - types: active (ex: fan) passive (aluminum heatsink) MOTHERBOARD planar board / system board

*** each platter has 2 heads to read/write on top and on the bottom of the platter IDE HDD IDE cable 4 pin molex connector SATA HDD SATA cable 15 pin connector

cell small portion in a sector cluster collection of sectors in a continuous track cylinder collection of corresponding tracks on each platter 1 sector = 512 B 1 cluster = 8 sectors = 512 B x 8 sectors = 4096 B = 4 kB 4 kB is the min allowed size of a cluster 1 cluster usually does not exceed 32 kB slack wastage on a cluster TYPES OF FORMAT 1. low level format done by manufacturer - creates the tracks and sectors 2. high level format only takes out data but not recreate tracks and sectors - what we normally do when we format

SATA (serial ATA) 7 pin - 150 MBps EXPANSION SLOTS AGP (accelerated graphics port) - brown, 124 pin, 32 bit versions: 1. 1x, 2x 2. 1x, 2x, 4x 3. 1x, 2x, 4x, 8x PCI (peripheral component interconnect) - white, 124 pin, 32 bit, 133MBps CNR (communications networking riser) - brown, for NIC AMR (audio modem riser) - brown, for soundcard and modem form factor layout of the board - AT, ATX, BTX, AT advanced technology 12 pin (2x6) DIN5 no soft switch size: 12x13 no integ cards DIN deutsche industry norm CHIPSET 1. MCH (memory controller hub) north bridge 2. ICH (input/output controller hub) south bridge ATA advanced technology attachment - HDs - 39 - 40 pins ATAPI ATA peripheral interface - CD drives IDE (integrated drive electronics) 40 pins - also called PATA (parallel ATA) - 133 MBps FDC (floppy disc controller) 34 pins ATX AT extended 20/24 pin mini DIN6 soft switch 8.5x13 integ cards PCI-E (PCI express) - 64 bit, black - uses serial communication lanes 1x pins 36 versions 1 1.25 GHz 2 2.54 GHz 3 4 GHz 1 1.25 x 4 2 2.54 x 4 34x4

error message 1** = CPU 2** = memory 3** = keyboard 6** = hard drive

beep code 1 long = RAM 1 long & 5 short = video

SETUP INSTRUCTIONS - all user defined settings are loaded CMOS RAM where the changes in the predefined instructions in ROM BIOS are saved (since ROM BIOS is hardwired) - powered by CMOS battery - volatile memory POST (power on self test) gives power supply to all devices and checks if all critical devices are working critical devices other devices will not work without it critical devices proc memory video HD keyboard non critical devices CD ROM DVD scanner BIOS INSTRUCTIONS - 16 bit drives are loaded BOOTUP INSTRUCTIONS - bootstrap loader phase - instructions set in boot sequence floppy disk boot sector (track 0 sector 1) HD MBR (track 0 sector 1 of physical disk 1) TYPES OF BIOS PW 1. user pw prevents access to bios 2. supervisor pw prevents changes to bios setup PXE preboot execution environment ROM LPT line printer terminal COMMON BIOS COMMANDS F1/F2/DEL enter setup screen F5/F9 restore to defaults F10 save ESCD extended system configuration data - located in CMOS RAM - saves IRQ settings so it doesnt have to be reassigned everytime pc is turned on SATA - data bust rate up to 150 MBps - SATA cables have 4 wires, 2 to send and 2 to receive PATA - 133 MBps - 40 wires and 80 wires are available 10



8x 16x

98 164

FSB front side bus - connects north bridge to proc - 533 MHz, 800 MHz, 1000 MHz BSB back side bus - connects L2 to proc QPI quick path interconnect - replaced FSB in recent models like I7 EFI (extensible firmware interface) - 64 bit BIOS ROM BIOS - has 16 bit drivers

power good signal - is a +5 volt signal generated in the power supply when it has passed its internal self-tests and the outputs have stabilized. This normally takes between 0.1 and 0.5 seconds after the power supply is switched on. The signal is then sent to the motherboard, where it is received by the processor timer chip that controls the reset line to the processor. In the absence of the PowerGood signal, the timer chip continuously resets the processor, which prevents the computer from running under bad or unstable power conditions. When the timer chip receives the Power-Good signal, it stops resetting the processor, and then the processor executes whatever code is at address FFFF:0000 (usually the ROM BIOS) looks for location of jump code BIOS shadowing contents of ROM BIOS is shadowed into the RAM reserved memory portion of ROM, 384 kB 9

- hot swappable - not hot swappable - serial communication, - parallel comm. hence hence not susceptible susceptible to EMI to EMI - controller has 7 pins - 40 pins - one device per controller - 2 devices - no jumper settings - jumper settings required required to configure master/slave - cable length can be - max length is 45 cm of 1 meter - huge capacity HD like - doesnt support high 1 TB drives available capacity HD - power consumption is -5V 250 mV - 15 pin power connector - 4 pin molex connector - 150, 300, and 600 MBps - 16 MBps orig., later 33, 66, 100, 133 MBps - HD D, CD D, DVD D, BR D - HD D, CD D, DVD D - HDD platter can rotate - 7200 RPM up to 10000 RPM PORTS AND CONNECTORS

game port also DB15 but has 2 rows - yellow - joystick - MIDI port (musical instrument digital interface) RJ-11 - 2-6 pins (usually 4) - modem, phone RJ-45 - network DVI - digital video interface - 24 pins - for digital monitors DVI-I - integrated digital & analog DVI-D - digital DVI-A - analog DVI-M1-DA - integrated, digital, analog & USB DVI-M1-DL - (dual link) single link - can only support analog dual link - both

CABLES 1. straight pair cable - RJ11 2. twisted pair - RJ45 - the twists make it less susceptible to EMI unshielded (UTP)

7. firewire - IEEE 1394 - Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers - used for cameras, videocams versions: 1394 A - 400 Mbps 1394 B - 800 Mbps USB - up to 127 devices - asynchronous - 5m (max) per cable 8. IDE cable 9. FD cable firewire - 63 devices - synchronous - 4-4.5m

shielded (STP) - used for longer distance but not more than 100m

TYPES OF USB HUBS 1. low power hub - does not need external power 2. high power - needs external power - used for devices that require more than 5 volts daisy chaining - connecting firewire devices

PS/2 mini DIN 6 - purple = keyboard, green = mouse, cannot be interchanged bec they have their own controllers in the mobo VGA video graphics adaptor - DB15 (data bus 15) - blue, 15 pins (3 rows) USB Ethernet uses RJ45 connector HDMI - high definition multimedia interface serial port DB9, male port, comport, RS-232 - green - 2 rows, 9 holes - used for external dial up modems - sends data by bits parallel port DB25, female port, LPT (line printer terminal) - pink - 25 pins - printers, scanners, ext. drives - sends data by bytes sound ports green = line out, blue = line in, pink = mic

EXTERNAL DEVICES 3. coaxial cable - uses BNC (british naval connector) - up to 500m S-VIDEO S-VIDEO IN - 4 holes S-VIDEO OUT - 7 holes 4. optical fiber (fiber optic) - uses subscriber connector or straight tip 5. USB cable USB A - goes to the pc (upstream) USB B - goes to the device (downstream) versions: 1 - 1.5 Mbps 1.1 - 12 Mbps 2 - 480 Mbps 3 - 3.2 - 5 Gbps *** X58 chipset mobo supports USB3 (introduced by ASUS) *** win 95 OSR2 is the first OS with USB support 6. SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) - for external SCSI devices types: - standard - multimedia - ergonomic - wireless - gaming - numeric keypad - thumb size - microsoft office kb - has an F lock key you need to activate for the function keys to work layouts: - QWERTY - DVORAK 12 1. keyboard - electrical signal is sent to the proc when a key is pressed keys: - alphanumeric - punctuation - special keys


2. mouse - graphical user interface types: - mechanical - has a track ball - optical - uses optics/infrared - laser - wireless 3. monitor types: - CRT - cathode ray tube - LCD - liquid crystal display - LED - light emitting diode - plasma - OLED - organic LED pixel - 1 dot on screen dpi - dots per inch resolution - number of horizontal and vertical pixels on screen color depth - intensity at which the electron beams are hitting the RGB to produce colors OSD - on screen display degauss refresh rate - number of times per second in which the monitor draws the data it is being given - for standard CRT monitors: 56 Hz, LCDs: 60 Hz TYPES OF LCD

- 1024x768 - digital & analog XGA - extended graphics array - 1024x768 - digital & analog WXGA - wide XGA - 1366x768 - digital & analog UXGA - ultra XGA - 1600x1200 - digital & analog WUXGA - widescreen UXGA - 1920x1200 - digital & analog *** SPDIF - sony philips digital interface - digital audio signal - carries compressed audio signal IRQ - interrupt request - request signal sent by the components on the mobo to the processor to process a particular task APIC - advanced programmable interrupt controller

12 - PS/2 13 - math coprocessor (FPU) 14 - primary IDE controller 15 - secondary IDE controller I/O ADDRESS - hexadecimal address associated to every data t hat goes out of the controller DMA (direct memory access) - getting the task done without the intervention of the processor *** all DMA requests are handled by the DMA controller UDMA - ultra DMA, used on IDE drives JUMPER SETTINGS - for IDE controller (primary & secondary) - set by manufacturer dedicated master dedicated slave

*** all HDs need jumpers, otherwise they wont be detected (except for seagate HDs) *** seagate HDs with no jumper will use cable select *** if both devices on an IDE are set to master (or both set to slave), they wont be detected

PM: none PS: none SM: maxtor HD SS: none

1. active matrix display - TFT (thin film transistor) 2. passive matrix display - thick film transistor DISPLAY MODE CGA - color graphics adaptor - resolution: monochrome - 640x200 color - 160x100 - input: digital EGA - enhanced graphics array - text mode - 720x350 graphics mode - 640x350 - digital VGA - video graphics array - 640x480 - analog SVGA - super VGA

sample jumper settings: *** there are 2 IRQ controllers on the mobo (1rst controller = IRQ 0-7, 2nd controller = IRQ 8-15). the 2nd IRQ controller has no direct connection to the proc, for it to be able to communicate with the proc, it has to go through the 1rst IRQ controller through IRQ 2) 0 - system timer 1 - keyboard 2 - redirect to IRQ 9 3 - com 2 & 4 4 - com 1 & 3 5 - LPT2 6 - FDC 7 - LPT1 8 - real time clock 9 - redirected from IRQ 2 10 - available 11 - available 13

PM: Samsung CDROM PS: seagate HD SM: maxtor HD SS: samsung DVD

primary controller - primary master - primary slave

secondary controller - secondary master - secondary slave


PM: maxtor HD PS: none SM: none SS: none SMART test (self monitoring analysis and reporting technology) - comes with the HD ACPI (advanced configuration power interface) MODEM (modulator demodulator) - converts signal from digital to analog (modulator) or analog to digital (demodulator) types: 1. dial up modem - internal (PCI slot) or external 2. DSL - digital subscriber line 3. cable DIAL UP MODEM - cant browse and use phone at the same time - 56 kbps max throughput - easy setup


*** activity: - adding modem - start > control panel > phone & modem > modem > add - creating dialup connection - disable call waiting - control panel > phone and modem options > dialing rules > select location > edit > check disable cw modem diagnostics:

BLUETOOTH - 802.15 standard - 1-3 Mbps - 1-100 m range - wireless personal area network (WPAN) - versions: 1.2 - 1 Mbps, 2.0 - 3 Mbps piconets - an ad-hoc computer network, using Bluetooth technology protocols to allow one master device to interconnect with up to seven active devices. Up to 255 further devices can be inactive, or parked, which the master device can bring into active status at any time bthprops.cpl - run command to access BT properties class 1 2 3 power 100 mw 2.5 mw 1 mw distance (range) 100 m 10 m 1m

ADSL (asynchronous/asymmetric DSL) - bandwidth is being shared among consumers so it may vary from one house to another - bandwidth is higher when youre closer to the DSLAM (digital subscriber line asynchronous multiplexer) *** bandwidth of dsl is 128 Mbps multiplexing - many lanes (input) converted into a single output - a process where multiple analog message signals or digital data streams are combined into one signal over a shared medium. The aim is to share an expensive resource CABLE - uses BNC, USB, or RJ-45 connectors

1. AT - attention commands 2. query modem - executes AT commands - control panel > phone and modem options > modem tab > select the modem > diagnostics > properties > diagnostics > query 3. hyperterminal test (xp) - you have to manually execute AT commands - run > hyperterm LAPTOPS - notebook computers - AC adaptor converts AC to DC - DC controller acts as VRM (voltage regulator module) - keyboard layer - sodimms: ddr - 200 pins, sdram - 144 pins - has daughter cards docking station port replicator enhanced port replicator *** activity: - creating hardware profiles (docked and undocked) in xp

FINGERPRINT READER methods of getting fingerprint: 1. optical scanning - captures digital image 2. capacitance scanning - uses capacitance sensors TABLET PC forms: 1. booklets - dual screen tablet computers that fold open like a book. A typical Booklet PC is equipped with multitouch screens and pen writing recognition capabilities. They are designed to be used as a digital day planner, internet surfing device, project planner, to watch videos, live tv, play music, and for e-reading 2. slates - resemble writing slates, tablet PCs without a dedicated keyboard. For text input, users rely on handwriting recognition via active digitizer, touching the screen with a fingertip or stylus or by using an external keyboard can usually be attached via a wireless or USB connection 16

*** reasons why dialup connections dont work: 1. wrong access code 2. failed handshake 3. protocol mismatch 4. transmission speed mismatch 5. no dial tone guard tone - what you get during the handshake process that means authentication is happening PSTN - public switch telephone network - digital handshake - process by which ISP is authenticating the user (with username and pw) 15

PCMCIA (personal computer memory card international association) - PC cards type PC1 PC2 PC3 bus 16 bit 16/32 16/32 thickness 3.3 mm 5 mm 10.5 mm

express card - 34/54 mm wide dongle laptop coaster

3. convertibles - have a base body with an attached keyboard. They more closely resemble modern laptops, and are usually heavier and larger than slates 4. hybrids - share the features of the slate and convertible by using a detachable keyboard which operates in a similar fashion to a convertible when attached WINDOWS APPLICATIONS FOR TABLET PCS Experience Pack: 1. Ink Desktop - an Active Desktop control designed to run in the background and allow the user to write directly on the desktop 2. Snipping Tool - a screen capture application which allows the tablet pen to be used to select a portion of the screen and then annotate it and save as a file or send in an email 3. Ink Art - a painting application developed by Ambient Design originally as ArtRage, licensed to Microsoft for release to Tablet PC users 4. Ink Crossword - a crossword application developed to mirror the experience of a paper crossword puzzle on a tablet PC 5. Media Transfer - a synchronization utility designed to download music, pictures, and videos off of computers in the same network Education Pack: 1. Ink Flash Cards - an application designed to assist memorization by using a flash card approach, enabling the user to handwrite their own flash cards and display them back in a slideshow 2. Equation Writer - a recognition tool specializing in converting handwritten mathematical equations to a computer-generated image for pasting into other documents 3. GoBinder Lite - an organization and note-taking application developed by Agilix Labs

4. Hexic Deluxe - a game with a tablet PC specific gesture enabled for easier use with the tablet and better ADVANTAGES 1. The ability to use in environments not conducive to a keyboard and mouse such as lying in bed, low lighting when a lighted screen is the input source, standing or with one hand. 2. Recording non-character based information such as diagrams and mathematical notation and symbols. 3. Lighter weight, lower power models can function similarly to dedicated reading devices like the Amazon Kindle. DISADVANTAGES 1. Higher cost convertible tablet PCs can cost significantly more than their non-tablet counterparts although this premium has been predicted to fall.[6] 2. Input speed handwriting can be significantly slower than peak typing speeds which can be as high as 50-150 WPM, though Swype and other technologies provide alternate, speedier methods of input. 3. Screen damage risk - Tablet PCs are handled more than conventional laptops yet built on the same frames and since their screens also serve as input devices (like PDAs) they run a higher risk of screen damage. 4. Wrist futility - Does not let your wrist rest on something. You have to move your arm constantly. PRINTERS impact printer - has physical contact to the paper non impact printer - no physical contact dot matrix - forms every character with multiple dots - has tractor/friction feed rollers - line printer/character printer, impact printer inkjet - ink is sprayed through nozzles - line printer, non impact printer - thermal shock - uses heat mechanical vibration - uses pressure from piezoelectric effect bubblejet - ink is vaporized and forms a bubble - line printer, non impact printer 17

waxjet - uses melted wax laser printer - uses toner cartridges - page printer, non impact printer - has a print drum laser printing steps: 1. charging - primary corona wire charges the photosensitive print drum to -5000 volts 2. writing - laser light touches protion of drum where character will be printed forming a negative image 3. developing - toner gets transferred on to the drum 4. transferring - paper moves across the drum and gets positively charged 5. fusing - making sure the characters are permanently done on the paper 6. cleaning - cleans excess toner types of printer: 1. local printer - attached to a local system 2. true network printer - doesnt need a monitor/tower to function, just needs a network cable dot matrix type print technology impact serial impact dot matrix 200 1120 chars per sec 72 - 7601 dpi parallel port/usb home user laser nonimpact laser toners 4 - 50 page per min 300 2400 dpi usb home user inkjet nonimpact inkjet cartridges

- set as default printer - print test page *** printers use USB, DB25, or 26 pin centronics connectors ways of installing printer: 1. CD 2. downloading the driver from the manufacturers website MFP (multi function peripherals) SLI (scalable link interface) - first introduced by 3dfx under the name scan-line interleave - nvidia bought 3dfx and reintroduced SLI - uses SLI bridge paddle card - special card in SLI capable mobos *** if 2 video cards are placed on 16x PCI-E slots, one behaves as the master and the other the slave. master and slave splits the task, the slave sends its output to the master and the master combines both outputs to form the final render to the monitor SLI renderings: 1. split frame rendering (SFR) - frame is split into half by master and slave 2. alternate frame rendering (AFR) - odd frames are given to the master and even frames are given to the slave SLI antialiasing - smoothening of edges physix - 8, 9, 200 series GPUs other implementations: usb office envts 1. 2 GPUs on one PCI-E slot - 2 logical GPUs in 1 physical videocard - 6600, 7900GX2 2. quad SLI - 2 videocards with 2 GPUs each - 9800 GX2 18

print speed

1-20 page per min 300 1200 dpi

graphics resolution connectivity requirements

*** activity: - adding printer - control panel > printers > add printer - printer sharing

2. hard drive-based players or digital jukeboxes Devices that read digital audio files from a hard disk drive (HDD). These players have higher capacities currently ranging up to 250 GB.[10] At typical encoding rates, this means that tens of thousands of songs can be stored on one player 3. 3-way SLI - 3 videocards on 3 PCIE slots 4. quadro plex - uses an external GPU (VCS) that can support up to 4 GPUs 5. hybrid SLI - uses an integrated GPU (IGP) *** SLI only allows you to connect to 1 monitor ATI CROSSFIRE - (also known as CrossFireX) is a brand name for ATI Technologies' multi-GPU solution. The technology allows up to four graphics cards to be used in a single computer to improve graphics performance - you can use different GPUs as long as theyre on the same family/series 1. first generation - uses a dongle 2. second generation - master card is no longer required 3. current generation - uses a ribbon-like connector attached to the top of each graphics adapter, similar to nVidia's SLI bridges, but different in physical and logical natures MP3 PLAYERS 1. flash-based players - non-mechanical solid state devices that hold digital audio files on internal flash memory or removable flash media called memory cards. Due to technological advancements in flash memory, these originally low-storage devices are now available commercially ranging up to 64 GB. Because they are solid state and do not have moving parts they require less battery power and may be more resilient to hazards such as dropping or fragmentation than hard disk-based players. Basic MP3 player functions are commonly integrated into USB flash drives ESD (electrostatic discharge) - sudden and momentary electric current that flows between two objects at different electrical potentials caused by direct contact or induced by an electrostatic field - momentary unwanted currents that may cause damage to electronic equipment 1. catastrophic 2. degradation 1. reset 2. retry 3. restart 4. reinstall 5. restore TROUBLESHOOTING 1. FD light wont turn off - make sure the twisted end of the cable is on the floppy drive and not on the mobo 2. no video - in older systems, there is an option in the bios whether to use onboard video card or AGP, or PCI 3. flickering monitor - adjust the refresh rate 4. CMOS checksum error - replace cmos battery 5. computer behaves sporatically or keeps restarting bad power supply or fans power supply is not working *** activity: - synchronizing IPOD TROUBLESHOOTING