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ThesearemynotesasIdeveloptherealtimeframework andevents behindShotgunOneLIVE

.2 SHOTGUN ONE AUTHORS RESEARCH SHEETS ADF V.2

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A8272 is neither buried, dead, hanging on some road post or jailed in a museum. The Wrangler and longlostsistersarereadytokickass. her

Fact Sheets
MediaDepartment

ADFIssue WeaponsSystemsBrief Pub:ShotgunOne

AVIATION
AustralianDefenceForce

Assetsandcapabilities

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Table of Contents
................................................................................................................................................................................2 ................................................................................................................................................................................2 F/A18Hornet.................................................................................................................................................4 APG73RadarRAAFClassicHornet.............................................................................................................. 7 AIM120AMRAAMClassicHornet,RhinoandF111S................................................................................. 8 AIM9XClassicHornet,RhinoandF111S................................................................................................... 11 F/A18ERhino...............................................................................................................................................12 EA18GGrowler............................................................................................................................................15 Boeing737700Wedgetail........................................................................................................................... 17 C17GlobemasterHeavyTransport............................................................................................................. 20 AP3COrionMaritimePatrolAircraft........................................................................................................... 22 KC30AMultiRoleTankerTransports(MRTT).............................................................................................. 24 F111STheSuperPig ...................................................................................................................................26 MQ9Reaper...............................................................................................................................................36 HerculesC130J..............................................................................................................................................39 HeronRemotelyPilotedVehicle(RPV)......................................................................................................... 42 RQ7Shadow200.........................................................................................................................................43 deHavillandCanadaDHC4Caribou ............................................................................................................. 46 UH1Iroquois.................................................................................................................................................48 NH90NFHASW/TransportHelicopter...................................................................................................... 50 SikorskyUH60BlackHawk.......................................................................................................................... 53 SikorskyS70B2SeahawkHelicopter ........................................................................................................... 55 EurocopterTigerARH...................................................................................................................................57 CH47DChinook............................................................................................................................................59

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F/A18 HORNET
57 F/A18A fighters and 18 F/A18B twoseat trainers, with 71 in service, and 4 lost to crashes. In 2014 it equipsthreecombatSquadrons.

General Features
Manufacturer:Boeing(originallyMcDonnellDouglas) Role:Multirolefighter Crew:Oneortwo Engine:TwolowbypassF404GE400turbofans(7,258kgthrusteach) Airframe:Length:17.1m,height:4.7m Wingspan:12.4m Weight:10,660kgbasic,20,412kgmaximum Speed:Mach1.8(2,200km/h) Range:Ferrying2,700km(withoutrefuelling)andinterdictionover1,000km Combatradius:740km Ceiling:Above45,000feet

Weapons
AIM120AMRAAMactiveradarguidedmissilesAIM132A? AIM7Sparrowradarguidedlongrangemissiles AIM9Sidewinderinfraredseekingmissiles Harpoonantishipmissiles conventionalandlaserguidedbombs M6120mmnosemountedcannon

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Avionics
HughesAPG73multimoderadar GPS inertialnavigationsystem VHFomnidirectionalrange/instrumentlandingsystem twomissioncomputers headupcockpitdisplay multifunctionalcathoderaytubedisplays

The Royal Australian Air Force purchased 57 F/A18A fighters and 18 F/A18B twoseat trainers, with 71 in service,and4losttocrashes.ThefirstF/A18wasdeliveredtotheRAAFonOctober29,1984.

Squadrons
No.3SquadronMcDonnellDouglasF/A18Hornet(AirDefence) No.75SquadronMcDonnellDouglasF/A18Hornet(AirDefence) No.77SquadronMcDonnellDouglasF/A18Hornet(AirDefence) No.2OCUMcDonnellDouglasF/A18Hornet(Training&TypeConversion) 16operationalaircraftperSquadron(2015)

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APG73 RADAR RAAF CLASSIC HORNET

Introduction
The APG73 (Used in F/A18 ) is an upgrade of the APG65 with higher processor throughput, greater memory capacity, bandwidth, frequency agility, higher analogue/digital sampling rates, improved reliability and easier maintenance. When fitted with a motionsensing subsystem and stretch waveform generator and special test equipment, the APG73 can generate high resolution ground maps and make use of 'advanced' image correlation algorithms to enhance weapon designation accuracy. The APG73 has been operational in U.S. NavyandMarineCorpsF/A18CandDaircraftsincesince1992. Advanced technology has provided the system with much better electronic countercountermeasures, mainly through flexible software in the processors which allow the radar to adapt quickly to different threats. The programmablesignalprocessoralsoallowsthesystemtoadaptquicklytonewweaponsortacticsbysoftware changes rather than hardware modifications. Faster analoguetodigital airtoair conversion improves the radar resolution cell and the new signal processor improves Doppler resolution. This enables better discriminationbetweencloselyspacedtargets. The signal processor throughput has been increased from 7.2 million operations/s to 60 million complex operations/s by the use of multichip gate arrays. The data processor function is a general purpose dual computer that provides mode control, antenna control, target tracking, and display processing. It operates at more than two million instructions/s with a two million word firm memory and a 256,000 16bit working memory. The travelling wave tube transmitter and antenna of the AN/APG65 are retained in the APG73, although therearelongtermplanstoreplacethetransmitterandantennawithasolidstateactivearrayantenna.

Operational modes of the AN/APG73:


Airtoair modes
(a)velocitysearchformaximumdetectionrangeagainstheadonaspecttargets (b)rangewhilesearch (c) trackwhilescan which provides the AIM120 missile with a fireandforget capability when integrated with theF/A18 (d)singletargettrack (e)assessmenttoseparatecloselyspacedtargets. (f) vertical acquisition whichgives the ability to scan a narrow width vertically and lock on to the target within aspecifiedrange (g) boresight acquisition which enables the pilot to point the aircraft at a target which the radar will then acquireautomatically.

Airtosurface
In the airtosurface field the radar offers a highresolution mapping feature which can be used with land or sea search modes for both moving and stationary targets. A special sea search mode enables the system to acquire and track ship targets, even in adverse sea conditions. A terrainavoidance mode is included for low levelmissionsandanairtosurfacerangingmodeforaccuratedeliveryofweaponsisavailable. The APG73 has the ability to detect airborne targets at more than 100 miles, distinguish lowflying or slow movingtargets"onthedeck,"pinpointshipsatsea,mapthecontoursoftheground,andtrackgroundtargets. F/A18Cs have synthetic aperture ground mapping radar with a doppler beam sharpening mode to generate ground maps. This ground mapping capability that permits crews to locate and attack targets in adverse weatherandpoorvisibilityortopreciselyupdatetheaircraft'slocationrelativetotargetsduringtheapproach, acapabilitythatimprovesbombingaccuracy. 7 | P a g e

www.vostokstation.com.au RadarWarningReceiver(RWR)fittedonclassicsfrom2008 The AN/ALR67(V)3 digital radar warning receiver dramatically enhances the survivability of the warfighter throughimprovedsituationalawareness. The AN/ALR67(V)3 is the advanced digital countermeasures receiving set now serving as the System of Record U.S. Navy radar warning receiver (RWR) on all frontline, carrierbased F/A18 E/F Super Hornet tactical aircraft. In full rate production, it is the Naval Air Systems Commands answer to a critical operational requirementensuringsurvivabilityintodayscomplex,highdensityenvironment. The channelized receiver architecture allows successful detection of emitters in high pulse density, as well as interception of faint distant signals despite interference from strong nearby transmitters. The digital measurement path of the receiver uses leading edge digital technology for improved reliability and low cost through reduced parts count, and improved performance through precision digital parameter measurements. This is a key enabler for the advanced functionality needed to fulfill the requirements of major combat operationsoverthenextseveraldecades. The AN/ALR67(V)3 is fully integrated with all avionics equipment on the F/A18 A/B/C/D Hornets, as well as thatontheF/A18E/FSuperHornets.

AIM120 AMRAAM CLASSIC HORNET, RHINO AND F111S

Introduction
Type Mediumrange, airtoair tactical missile Service history Inservice September 1991 Production history Manufacturer Hughes/Raytheon Unitcost $386,000 (2003); $299,000 (price for Lot 12 contract in April 1998; the previous price in Lot 11 was $340,000 each) Specifications Weight 335 lb (152 kg) Length 12 ft (3.66 m) Diameter7in(178mm) EngineHighperformancedirectedrocketmotor Wingspan20.7in(526mm)(AIM120A/B)Operational RangeAIM120A/B:75km(45mi) AIM120C5:105km(65mi) 8 | P a g e

www.vostokstation.com.au AIM120D100mi SpeedMach4Guidance systemINS,activeradarLaunch WarheadHighexplosiveblastfragmentation

Guidance System Overview


Interception course stage
AMRAAMusestwostageguidancewhenfiredatlongrange.Theaircraftpassesdatatothemissilejustbefore launch,givingitinformationaboutthelocationofthetargetaircraftfromthelaunchpointanditsdirection andspeed.Themissileusesthisinformationtoflyonaninterceptioncoursetothetargetusingitsbuiltin inertialnavigationsystem(INS).Thisinformationisgenerallyobtainedusingthelaunchingaircraft'sradar, althoughitcouldcomefromaninfraredsearchandtrackingsystem(IRST),fromadatalinkfromanother fighteraircraft,orfromanAWACSaircraft. Ifthefiringaircraftorsurrogatecontinuestotrackthetarget,periodicupdatesaresenttothemissiletellingit ofanychangesinthetarget'sdirectionandspeed,allowingittoadjustitscoursesothatitisabletocloseto selfhomingdistancewhilekeepingthetargetaircraftinthebasket(theradarseeker'sfieldofview)inwhichit willbeabletofindit. NotallAMRAAMusershaveelectedtopurchasethemidcourseupdateoption,whichlimitsAMRAAM's effectivenessinsomescenarios.TheRAFinitiallyoptednottousemidcourseupdateforitsTornadoF3force, onlytodiscoverthatwithoutit,testingprovedtheAMRAAMwaslesseffectiveinBVRengagementsthanthe oldersemiactiveradarhomingBAESkyflashweapontheAIM120'sownradarisnecessarilyoflimitedrange andpowercomparedtothatofthelaunchaircraft.

Terminal stage and impact


Oncethemissileclosestoselfhomingdistance,itturnsonitsactiveradarseekerandsearchesforthetarget aircraft.Ifthetargetisinorneartheexpectedlocation,themissilewillfinditandguideitselftothetarget fromthispoint.Ifthemissileisfiredatshortrange(typically,visualrange),itcanuseitsactiveseekerjustafter launch,makingthemissiletrulyfireandforget.AtthepointwhereanAMRAAMswitchestoautonomousself guidance,theNATObrevitycode"PITBULL"wouldbecalledoutontheradio,justas"FoxThree"wouldbe calledoutuponlaunch.

Kill probability and tactics


General considerations
Once in its terminal mode, the missile's advanced electronic counter countermeasures (ECCM) support and goodmaneuverabilitymeanthatthechanceofithittingor explodingclosetothetargetishigh(ontheorderof90%), as long as it has enough remaining energy to maneuver with the target if it is evasive. The kill probability (Pk) is determined by several factors, including aspect (headon interception, sideon or tailchase), altitude, the speed of the missile and the target, and how hard the target can turn. Typically, if the missile has sufficient energy during the terminal phase, which comes from being launched close enough to the target from an aircraft flying high and fast enough, it will have an excellent chance of success. This chance drops as themissile is fired at longer ranges as it runs out of overtakespeed at longranges,andifthetargetcanforcethemissiletoturnitmightbleedoffenoughspeedthatitcannolonger chasethetarget.

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Lowercapability targets
This leads to two main engagement scenarios. If the target is not armed with any medium or longrange fire andforget weapons, the attacking aircraft need only to get close enough to the target and launch the AMRAAM. In these scenarios, the AMRAAM has a high chance of hitting, especially against low maneuverability targets. The launch distance depends upon whether the target is heading towards or away fromthefiringaircraft.Inaheadonengagement,themissilecanbelaunchedatlongerrange,sincetherange will be closing fast. In this situation, even if the target turns around, it is unlikely it can speed up and fly away fast enough to avoid being overtaken and hit by the missile (as long as the missile is not released too early). It is also unlikely the enemy can outmaneuver the missile since the closure rate will be so great. In a tailon engagement, the firing aircraft might have to close to between onehalf and onequarter maximum range (or maybeevencloserforaveryfasttarget)inordertogivethemissilesufficientenergytoovertakethetargets. If the targets are armed with missiles, the fireandforget nature of the AMRAAM is invaluable, enabling the launching aircraft to fire missiles at the target and then turn and run away. Even if the targets have longerrange semiactive radar homing (SARH) missiles, they will have to chase the launching aircraft in order for the missiles to track them, effectively flying right into the AMRAAM. If the target aircraft fires missilesandthenturnandrunsaway,theirownmissiles willnotbeabletohit.Ofcourse,ifthetargetaircraft have long range missiles, even if they are not fireandforget, the fact that they force the launching aircraft to turn and run reduces the kill probability, since it is possible that without the midcourse updates the missiles will not find the target aircraft. However the chance of success is still good and compared to the relative impunitythelaunchingaircraftenjoy,thisgivestheAMRAAMequippedaircraftadecisiveedge.Ifoneormore missiles fail to hit, the AMRAAMequipped aircraft can turn and reengage, although they will be at a disadvantage compared to the chasing aircraft due to the speed they lose in the turn, and would have to be carefulthatthey'renotbeingtrackedwithSARHmissiles.

Similarly armed targets


TheothermainengagementscenarioisagainstotheraircraftwithfireandforgetmissilesliketheVympelR77 (NATO AA12 "Adder") perhaps MiG29s, Su27s or similar. In this case engagement is very much down to teamworkandcouldbedescribedas"agameofchicken."Bothflightsofaircraftcanfiretheirmissilesateach other beyondvisual range(BVR), but thenface the problem that if theycontinue to track the target aircraft in order to provide midcourse updates for the missile's flight, they are also flying into their opponents' missiles. Although in this regard the RVVAE (which is the missiles export name or R77 the official Russian Air force designation) does have an advantage as it is faster and has a greater range than the Amraam. Meaning that theRussianairplanefiringitcaninfactfirefirst,althoughitstillneedstoleadthemissiletowardsthetargetas the missiles own radar seeker has a limited range (under 10km, as on Amraam). This is why teamwork is so important and advanced missiles with guidance systems with handoff capability can help overcome this problem. This is also part of the reason why most tactics dictate holding on to missiles "until you see the whitesoftheireyes,"orholdingontothemforaslongaspossible. If the enemy fires missiles at maximum range, you will be able to defeat them easily without having surrendered valuable ordnance yourself. The other main tactic would be to sneak up behind the enemy aircraft and launch missiles without them noticing, giving the launching aircraft sufficient time to leave the danger zone of the enemy after launching. Even if the enemy detects the launch and turns around, the speed and possibly altitude it loses during the turn puts its missiles at an energy disadvantage which may be sufficient for the other aircraft to defeat it. This typically requires excellent groundcontrol intercept (GCI) or airborneradar(AWACSAirborneWarningandControlSystem)facilitiesinordertobesuccessful.

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AIM9X CLASSIC HORNET, RHINO AND F111S

Introduction
The AIM9 missile began its existence as a contemporary of the AIM7, initially used as a shortrange heat seeking weapon for bomber intercepts. The early AIM9B was used by US Navy and Air Force, and widely licensed or cloned. By the mid 1960s the AIM9 line split into unique Navy and Air Force variants, the Navy opting for gas cooled detectors in the D, G and H models, the Air Force thermoelectric cooling in the E and J models. The subsequent AIM9L was a common variant, with allaspect capability and gas cooling, introduced during the late 1970s, and based on the AIM9H. The AIM9P, based on the AIM9J, remained in concurrent production. The last of the 'classic' Sidewinders, the AIM9M was an improved evolution of the AIM9L and remainswidelyusedinAIM9M8or9configuration,introducedduringthe1980s.

Replacement for the AIM9M


ThereplacementfortheAIM9MinUSserviceandsubsequentlyRAAFisthesubstantiallynewAIM9Xvariant, sufficiently reengineered to actually merit a unique designation and introduced to the F15C/E, F16C, F/A18 series, F/A22A and JSF. While the AIM9X shares the rocket motor and warhead of the AIM9M, it uses new fixed canards, a new digital seeker with an InSb FPA detector, and coupled steerable cruciform tails and exhaust vanes for thrust vector control. The FPA detector uses a Stirling cryogenic refrigerator rather than JouleThompsongascooler.LaunchedfromtheLAU127orLAU142,theAIM9XusesaMilStd1760interface and is intended for use with the Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) helmetmounted sight. While the AIM9X replaces the AIM9M throughout the US inventory, many users of the legacy models will continue tooperatethemintotheforeseeablefuture.


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F/A18E RHINO
24F/A18E/FRhinoequipNo1and6Squadrons.

Introduction
The most notable change in the Super Hornet compared to the classic is its size, designed around an internal fuel (JP5) capacity of 14,700 lb, or 36% more than the F/A18C/E. This most closely compares to the clean F 15C,whichhasaround10%lessinternalfuelthantheSuperHornet. The design is sized around a 36% greater internal fuel load than the F/A18C, with the aim of retaining the established agility performance of the F/A18C, resulted in a larger wing of 500 sqft area, against the 400 sqft areaoftheF/A18C,a25%increase.Theconsequentsizingchangesresultina30,885lbemptyweight(31,500 lbbasicweight)aircraft,a30%increaseagainsttheF/A18C.Notsurprisingly,theaircraft'semptyweightis8% greater than the F15C, reflecting the structural realities of catapult launches and tail hook recoveries. The larger F414 engine, a refanned and evolved F404 derivative, delivers 20,700 lb static SL thrust in afterburner, whichisaround8%lessthantheF100PW220intheF15C. Other differences include rectangular intakes for the engines, a reduced radar cross section (RCS), two extra wing hard points for payload, and other aerodynamic changes. One of the most significant of which is the inclusion of significantly enlarged leading edge extensions (LEX) which provide improved vortex lifting characteristics in high angle of attack maneuver, and reduce the static stability margin to enhance pitching characteristics. This results in pitch rates in excess of 40 degrees per second. In the end, the Super Hornet shared little with earlier F/A18s aft of the forward fuselage. The Super Hornet has 42% fewer structural parts

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www.vostokstation.com.au thantheoriginalHornetdesign.Flightcharacteristicsincludebeinghighlydepartureresistantthroughitsflight envelope,andhavinghighangleofattackwithcarefreeflyingqualitiesforcombatandeaseoftraining. The Super Hornet can return to an aircraft carrier with a larger load of unspent fuel and munitions than the originalHornet.Thetermforthisabilityisknownas"bringback".BringbackfortheSuperHornetisinexcessof 9,000pounds(4,000kg).

Radar
New build Rhinos have APG79 Active Electronically Steered Array (AESA) radar fitted. The APG79 is considered to have slightly better range performance than the Joint strike Fighter's APG81 AESA, but inferior totheF22A'slargerAPG77.

Avionics
WhiletherearesomesimilarcockpititemsoftheoriginalHornet,theSuperHornetfeaturesatouchsensitive, upfront control display; a larger, liquid crystal multipurpose color display; and a new engine fuel display.[22] TheSuperHornethasaquadruplexdigitalflybywiresystem,[23]aswellasadigitalflightcontrolsystemthat detectsandcorrectsforbattledamage.[19]SuperHornetproductionstartedwiththeAPG73radar.TheAPG 79AESAradarwasintroducedlater(seetheupgradesectionbelow). TheAN/ASQ228ATFLIR(AdvancedTargetingForwardLookingInfrared)isthemainelectroopticalsensorand laser designator pod for the Super Hornet. Defensive systems are coordinated through the Integrated Defensive Countermeasures system (IDECM). The IDECM system includes the ALE47 countermeasures dispenser,theALE50toweddecoy,theAN/ALR67(V)3radarwarningreceiver,andtheALQ165AirborneSelf Protect Jammer (ASPJ). Aircrew have the ability to use night vision goggles (NVG) for Super Hornet operations which means the aircraft interior and exterior lighting are NVG compatible. Also includes an improved AN/ALQ214jammer,andAN/ALE55FiberOpticTowedDecoy, The RAAF version is delivered with the DualCockpit Cueing System for both pilot and Weapon systems officer Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS). The JHMCS provides multipurpose aircrew situational awareness including highoffboresight cueing of the AIM9X Sidewinder missile. Shared Reconnaissance Pod (SHARP) is a highresolution, digital tactical air reconnaissance system that features advanced day/night and allweathercapability.

General characteristics
*Crew:F/A18E:1,F/A18F:2 *Length:60ft1in(18.31m) *Wingspan:44ft8in(13.62m) *Height:16ft(4.88m) *Wingarea:500ft(46m) *Emptyweight:30,564lb(13,864kg) *Loadedweight:47,000lb(21,320kg)(infighterconfiguration) *Maxtakeoffweight:66,000lb(29,900kg) *Powerplant:2GeneralElectricF414GE400turbofans oDrythrust:14,000lbf(62kN)each oThrustwithafterburner:22,000lbf(98kN)each *Internalfuelcapacity:F/A18E:14,400lb(6,530kg),F/A18F:13,550lb(6,145kg) *Externalfuelcapacity:5480galtanks,totaling16,380lb(7,430kg)

Performance
*Maximumspeed:Mach1.8+[10](1,190mph,1,900km/h)at40,000ft(12,190m) *Range:1,275nmi(2,346km)cleanplustwoAIM9s[10] *Combatradius:390nmi(449mi,722km)forinterdictionmission[54] *Ferryrange:1,800nmi(2,070mi,3,330km) *Serviceceiling>50,000ft(15,000m) *Wingloading:92.8lb/ft(453kg/m) *Thrust/weight:0.93 13|P a g e

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Armament
*Guns:120mm(0.787in)M61A1/A2Vulcancannon *Hardpoints:11withacapacityof17,750lb(8,050kg),withprovisionstocarrycombinationsof: Missiles: +2AIM9Sidewinderonwingtips +AIM120C(D)AMRAAM +AIM7Sparrow/AIM9X +AGM84Harpoon +AGM88HARM +AGM65Maverickmissiles Bombs: +AGM154JointStandoffWeapon +JointDirectAttackMunition(JDAM) +Pavewaylaserguidedbombs +Mk80seriesgeneralpurposebombs +Mk20RockeyeIIandCBUseriesclusterbombs

F/A18ESuperHornetRAAF

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EA18G GROWLER

AstheEAprefixindicates,theEA18GGrowlerisanElectronicAttackvariantoftheSuperHornetthathasthe abilitytodisruptorjamarangeofmilitaryelectronicssystems,includingradarsandcommunicationssystems. The Growler is a Force Level Electronic Warfare capability that will operate in conjunction with our air, land and sea forces. It will improve situational awareness and protect our forces by providing the ability to deny or disruptanadversarys use of theelectromagnetic spectrum and hence,their electronic systems. It will be able to support the full spectrum of Defence tasks, from evacuations to major conflicts. Twelve of Australias 24 SuperHornetshavebeenprewiredtoenablethemtobeequippedwithEA18GGrowlercapability. TheEA18GGrowlerisaseparate,butcomplementary,capabilityfortheF/A18FSuperHornetandthefuture F35A (Joint Strike Fighter).The EA18G Growler purchase includes the modification to the aircraft, required mission and support systems, training, and ongoing support to effectively develop and operate a Growler capability.DefenceplanstoachieveInitialOperationalCapability(IOC)in2018.

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General characteristics:
CommunicationCountermeasuresSet(CCS) SmallerandmorecapablethanUSQ113withexpandableinfrastructure. TransmitfunctionthroughlowbandALQ99jammerpod. InterferenceCancellationSystem(INCANS) ProvidesUHFcommunicationscapabilityduringALQ99jamming. Significantcommunicationandsituationalawarenessimprovement. Length 18.3metres Height 4.9metres Wingspan 13.7metres Weight(empty) 15,011kilos Engines TwoF414GE400engines Thrust 44,000lbs Crew OnePilot,oneElectronicWarfareOfficer

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BOEING 737700 WEDGETAIL


SixWedgetailAEW&CaircraftareoperatedbyNo2SquadronfromRAAFBaseWilliamtown,nearNewcastle. The Wedgetail provides is a system which combines a 250 NMI class 360 degree all altitude radar and ESM surveillance coverage and comprehensive digital and voice connectivity, and battle or mission management functions.

Specifications
Manufacture:Boeing Airframe:NextGeneration737700 Powerplant:TwoCFMInternationalCFM567B24turbofans Thrust:27,000poundsstaticthrusteachengine Length:110feet,4inches(33.6meters) Wingspan:117feet,5inches(35.8meters) Height:41feet,2inches(12.5meters) Radar: Northrop Grumman MESA electronically scanned array radar system, 360 degrees/Air and Maritime modes,200+nmrange/AllWeather,IFF300nm. Nickname:"Wedgetail"

Primary function
TheRAAFWedgetailaircraftwillcomplementJindaleeOperationalRadarNetworkandgroundbasedsensors, providing highly accurate data and flexible employment options to the modern air surveillance and combat environment. This will provide an excellent capability to support a layered air defence system, which is necessary to defend Australia. However, Wedgetail is not just a capability for the defence of Australia. The aircraftwillbeabletosupportdeployedAustralianDefenceForceandalliedassetsatsignificantranges,which 17|P a g e

www.vostokstation.com.au will provide the Australian Government with a capability that can be used effectively to support coalition operationsthroughtheworldifnecessary.

General Features
Based on the Boeing 737700 IGW, essentially a 700 fuselage mated with stronger 800 wings and undercarriage, this airframe is also the basis of Boeings MMMA proposals for the AP3C replacement. The aircrafthasaciteddashspeedof460KTAS,rangeof3,000NMI,timeonstationwithoutrefuellinginexcessof eight hours, and an aerial refuelling receptacle to extend time on station. With turbofan propulsion the Wedgetail has a station altitude between 30,000 and 40,000 ft, providing an important advantage in lowlevel radar horizon distance against turboprop competitors. Lowlevel footprint is a critical parameter in both maritimeairdefenceandcruisemissiledefenceroles. The internal layout is a forward fuselage mission deck with six operator consoles and cabinets with racked crypto, communications, ESM and data processing equipment, a centre fuselage crew rest area, and an aft fuselageradar/IFFequipmentarea).Inall10operatorconsoleswillbeused.Thetenmultifunctionconsolesfor operators provides significant growth potential for the systems roles and missions. The Wedgetails software intensive system will permit the use of a wide range of flexible, graphics intensive synthetic display formats, which can fuse radar, ESM, datalink and digital mapping outputs. These demonstrator displays illustrate the style of presentation to be used. This technology permits rapid growth to incorporate offboard data sources suchasUAVs,satellitesandgroundbaseddatabases(Boeing). The core of the mission avionic suite is the Northrop Grumman MESA Lband (1.2151.4 GHz) surveillance radar with an integrated IFF capability, feasible due to the overlapping radio frequency band coverage of the radar function. The MESA is an active array (AESA) an integrated TransmitReceive (TR) module with internal phaseshiftandRFgaincontrolsdriveseachantennaelement.

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Whiletheradarcanbeusedtosweep360degreeslikeamechanicallysteereddesign,itcanalsofocusallofits energyintoanarrowthreatsectortoincreaseeffectiverangeperformance,oritcantimesharebetweenthese two regimes to maintain 360 degree background coverage while increasing detection and tracking performance in a narrow sector of interest. The latter regime has proven very useful in naval Aegis radar operationsincomplexlittoralenvironments. The ability to focus energy into sectors permits higher update rates on target tracks, and higher track confidence levels against distant or faint targets. In an environment where larger supersonic combat aircraft and supersonic cruise missiles are common, this is a valuable capability. The MESA is supported by a communications/datalink suite and the ALR2001 Electronic Support Measures (ESM) used to passively detect hostileemitters.

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C17 GLOBEMASTER HEAVY TRANSPORT


The Royal Australian Air Force has four C17 Globemaster heavy transports. The Globemaster is operated by No36SquadronfromRAAFBaseAmberley,nearBrisbane.

Introduction
The C17 Globemaster is a highwing fourengine heavy transport. It has three times the carrying capacity of the C130 Hercules, allowing Australia to rapidly deploy troops, combat vehicles, heavy equipment and helicopters anywhere in the world. The Globemaster is large enough to transport the M1A1 Abrams tank, BlackHawk,SeahawkorChinookhelicopters,threeTigerarmedreconnaissancehelicoptersorfiveBushmaster infantry vehicles. The C17 Globemaster significantly enhances ADF ability to support national and internationaloperations,andmajordisasterreliefefforts.

Boeing C17 Globemaster III technical specifications


Manufacturer Boeing Role Heavymultiroletransportandstrategicairlift Crew Three;twopilotsandaloadmaster Engine FourPrattandWhitneyPW2040turbofans(40,440lbsthrusteach) Airframe Length:53m,height:16.8m Wingspan 51.7m Weight 72,500kgpayload Speed 800km/h(cruisingspeed) Range 4,500km Accommodation Dependingonconfiguration: *134troops *90stretcherpatients *tanks,helicopters,infantryvehicles

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AP3C ORION MARITIME PATROL AIRCRAFT


TheOrionistheworkhorseofNo92Wing,locatedatRAAFBaseEdinburgh,nearAdelaide

Introduction
The Orion is the workhorse of No 92 Wing, located at RAAF Base Edinburgh, near Adelaide, who are responsible for conducting longrange surveillance missions within Australia's Exclusive Economic Zone and throughouttheIndianandPacificOceans. 22|P a g e

www.vostokstation.com.au TheOrionfirstenteredmilitaryservicein1962,withthecurrentP3Cfirstintroducedin1968.Thesignificantly upgraded Australian Orions, designated AP3C, were introduced into service in 2002 and are fitted with a variety of sensors, including digital multimode radar, electronic support measures, electrooptics detectors (infraredandvisual),magneticanomalydetectors,identificationfriendorfoesystems,andacousticdetectors. The Orion may work alone, or in conjunction with other aircraft or ships. Wartime missions include locating and attacking enemy submarines and ships using torpedoes and Harpoon antishipping missiles. Orions also assistinsearchandrescueoperationsbyconductingsearchandsurvivorsupply(airdrop)missions. Orion flight training is conducted primarily in two simulators, the Advanced Flight Simulator and the OperationalMissionSimulator.

Lockheed Martin AP3C Orion technical specifications


Manufacturer LockheedMartin Role Longrangesurveillance,antisubmarineandantishipwarfare,searchandsurvivorsupply Crew Thirteen: *twopilots(captainandcopilot) *twoflightengineers *tacticalcoordinator *navigator/communicationofficer *sensoremploymentmanager *sixairborneelectronicanalysts. Engine FourAllisonT56A14(4600shafthorsepowereach) Airframe Length:35.6m,height:10.44m Wingspan 30.8m Weight 61,200Kgmaximum Speed 750km/h(405knots)max,650km/hcruise(350kts)at26,000feet,370km/h(200kts)loiter Endurance 15hours Weapons/stores *Mk46/MU90torpedoes *AGM84Harpoonairtosurfacemissiles *Varioussonobuoysandstores *AirSeaRescueKits *Storpedoes *Heliboxes

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KC30A MULTI ROLE TANKER TRANSPORTS (MRTT)


TheRAAFoperatesfiveKC30Btankers.No33Squadron,RAAFBaseAmberleyQLD.

The Royal Australian Air Force operates five KC30A MultiRole Tanker Transports (MRTT). These are heavily modified Airbus A330 airliner used for airtoair refueling and strategic transport. The KC30A is able to refuel Air Force's F/A18A/B Hornet and F/A18F Super Hornets, as well as the E7A Wedgetail Airborne Early Warning and Control aircraft, C17A Globemaster, and other KC30As. It will be compatible with refuelling the P8APoseidonsurveillanceaircraftandF35ALightningIIwhentheseaircraftenterAirForceservice. TheaircraftarefittedwithtwoformsofairtoairrefuellingsystemsanAerialRefuelingBoomSystem(ARBS) mounted on the tail of the aircraft, which comprises a 'flybywire' boom refuel system; and a pair of all electric refuelling pods underneath each wing, which unreel a hoseanddrogue to refuel probeequipped aircraft. These systems are controlled by an Air Refuelling Operator in the cockpit, who can view refuelling on 2Dand3Dscreens. The KC30A has a fuel capacity of more than 100 tonnes, and can remain 1800km from its home base with 50 tonnes of fuel available to offload for up to four hours. In its transport role, the KC30A will be capable of carrying 270 passengers, and comes with an underfloor cargo compartments will be able to accommodate 34,000kgsofmilitaryandciviliancargopalletsandcontainers. Advanced mission systems will also be fitted. They include the Link 16 realtime datalink, military communicationsandnavigationsuites,andanelectronicwarfareselfprotectionsystemforprotectionagainst threatsfromsurfacetoairmissiles. TheKC30AsareoperatedbyNo33SquadronlocatedatRAAFBaseAmberley.

General characteristics
*Crew:3:2pilots,1AARoperator *Capacity:226280[12]troops *Length:59.69m(195ft10in) *Wingspan:60.3m(197ft10in) *Height:17.89m(58ft8in) *Wingarea:361.6m(3892ft) *Emptyweight:120,500kg(265,657lb) *Maxtakeoffweight:230,000kg(507,063lb) *Powerplant:2RollsRoyceTrent700orGeneralElectricCF680turbofans,316kN(71,000lbf)each

Performance
*Maximumspeed:880km/h(475knots,547mph) *Cruisespeed:860km/h(464knots,534mph) 24|P a g e

www.vostokstation.com.au *Range:12,500km(6,750nm,7,770mi) *Serviceceiling:12,500m(41,000ft) *Rateofclimb:m/s(ft/min)

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F111S THE SUPER PIG


PreretirementtheF111fleetwasdistributedinthefollowingmanner:

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Intrduction
In 2008 a private company recognized the opportunity of upgrading retired F111 with off the shelf technologies driven out of the F22 and F35 projects. The commercial opportunity of developing an ultra fast, supercruiseF111Swithstateoftheavionicsandweaponswasirresistible.Thiswasmademoreattractivewith the availability of 295 USAF F111 airframes collectingdust in an Arizona bone yard. More over, a virtual army of experienced F111 technicians and specialists were about to become available. With almost 300 aircraft, yielding around 4500 airframeyears of life billions of dollars could be potentially made selling the incredibly powerful aircraft relatively cheaply to other friendly air forces (Perhaps even the US) providing them instant strategic capability. Of all currently operational combat aircraft, the F111 returned the largest payoff in capability from an infusion of F22/JSF/F/A18E technology, such as power plants and internally carried munitions,asithasaninternalbombbay,morethantwicetheinternalfuelcapacityofmostcurrenttypesand avariablegeometrywing. For those nations not a little questionable, certain components would be swapped for less security sensitive technologies. The upgrade logic was to replace unique components such as radar, mission avionics and engines with types common to large volume production fighters such as the,F/A18E, F22and JSF. The F111 electronic warfare package (ALR62 RHAWS) was replaced with the highly capable BAeA ALR2002A and a new technology internal jammer to replace the ALQ94/137 DECM. The attack radar and terrain following radar were replaced withacombinedTFR/multimodeactivearrayradar(AESAActiveElectronicallySteeredArray)

Specifications
AN/APG77 Radar.
The AN/APG77 radar is designed for airsuperiority and strike operations and features a low observable, active aperture, electronicallyscanned array with multitarget, allweather capability. This is an active element, electronically scanned (that is, it does not move) array of over 1000 fingersized transmitter / receiver modules. Each module weights ca 15g and has a power output of over 4W. The APG77 is capable of changing the direction, power and shape of the radar beam very rapidly, so it can acquire target data, and in themeantimeminimizingthechancethattheradarsignalisdetectedortracked. Three radar arrays are placed in the nose of the aircraft (one facing forward and two facing sideways). Each wingrootcarriesaninfraredsearchandtracksystemthatoperatethroughfacetedwindows.Thisiscombined withTFR/multimodeactivearrayradar(AESAActiveElectronicallySteeredArray)adaptedfromtheF/A18E/F APG79(APG73RUGIII) 27|P a g e

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Weapons Bay Pallete.


An internal weapon bay pallete was installed and became particularly useful, since it could be used for additional auxiliary fuel carriage while still providing enough space for launcher hardware, e.g. modified LAU 92orLAU142.uptofourAIM120C/D.

Performance
Role:Multirolefighterbomber Crew:Oneortwo Engine:TwolowbypassF404GE400turbofans(7,258kgthrusteach) AirframeLength: Wingspan Weight10,660kgbasic,20,412kgmaximum SpeedMach2.5 Rangeferrying5,00km(withoutrefuelling) Operationalradius2500km

Weapons
Radarguided120DAdvancedMediumRangeAirtoAirMissiles(AMRAAM). AIM132ASRAAM Aim9xIRguidedmissile Weaponsbaypallete 1,000poundGBU30/32JointDirectAttackMunition(JDAM) The end product of the upgrade was a long range / long endurance interceptor with around 37,000 lb of internal fuel. With 34 internal or semiconformal AMRAAMs and a clean wing, an operating radius well in excessof1,000NMIwouldbefeasible,withoutaerialrefuelling.Arguablyanunbeatabledeterrenttoregional Tu22 Backfire, Tu142 Bear and Tu16/H6 Badger operators, and a useful interceptor against the numerous regionallowertierstrikeaircraftliketheMiG19/J6Farmer,J8II,MiG23BMFlogger,Jaguar,Il28/H5Beagle andQ5,aswellastankersandtransports. A particular point in favour of the missileer capability in the F111S fleet was that a favourite game played in times of crisis or tensions is the systematic baiting of opposing air defences by long range aircraft. The conventional response of launching air superiority fighters and supporting tankers can quickly result in massive expenditures in fuel, flying hours and airframe time to fend off repeated challenges. An F111 configured as a missileer has the operating radius to cover such profiles very comfortably, with no need for tankersupport,thereforelargelydefeatingthepurposeofbaitingflightoperations.

Supercruise
TheF111SusestheF119variantfromtheF22fanandcore,andCTOLJSForPYBBNnozzles.TheF119PW100 isamuchsimplerengine60%thepartscountoftheF100PW200andreliability/maintainability/supportability 80%betterthantheF100PW200,witharoundonehalfoftherequiredsupportequipment. The key attribute of the F119PW100 is that it is capable of sustained supersonic cruise by use of a differentoperatingcycle,advancedmaterialstechnologysuchasdiffusionbondedtitanium,andasignificantly moreeffectiveinternalcoolingsystemincomparisonwithcurrentengines.Genuinesupercruisingenginescan maintain high dry thrust output at higher altitudes and Mach numbers, where conventional engines cannot deliver the needed dry thrust to sustain supersonic flight. Current technology demonstrations of the JSF119 using supercooling techniques have seen turbines operated at temperatures 200 to 250 deg C higher than the F100turbine. The value of sustained or long duration supercruise in combat operations cannot be understated. It not only provides aircraft with a significant energy advantage over hostile fighters, but effectively doubles productivity and operational tempo in long range bomb trucking operations a major force structure issue with the new White Paper capability goals. Supercruise is a roughly twofold force multiplier in its own right, a fact reflected in the USAF push to field its new GSTF expeditionary strike force built around two squadrons of supercruisingF22s,twothirdsorlessthesizeofareinforcedconventionalexpeditionaryfighterwing. 28|P a g e

www.vostokstation.com.au The basic aerodynamics of the F111 are particularly well suited to supersonic cruise, especially with the variable wing and inlet geometries which are not a feature of the F22 design, and the internal bomb bay which is a feature common to the F22 and JSF designs. The option of sweeping the wings fully aft to 72.5 degrees results in a significant reduction in supersonic drag, against a conventional fighter with a fixed sweep angle,indeedtheF16XLsupercruiseruseda70degreesweeponitsmajorinnerwingplanform.

Super Cruise Benefits


The benefits of super cruise were seriously underestimated and as a force multiplier the F111S quickly put to bedtheskepticsandtheignorant. The aircraft could supercruise over large distances, thus almost doubling its productivity per 24 hour cycleandalmostdoublingtheresultingoperationaltempo.A4hoursortieat420KTAScruisebecame a 22.5 hour sortie with supercruising engines. A very long range 89 hour strategic strike sortie becameatolerable4.55hoursortie,sustainablewithoutadditionalaircrew. Transiting at 4550 kft and Mach 1.5 class speeds, the F111 becomes very difficult to catch by most interceptors, and only the very best SAMs would perform well under such conditions, thereby collapsing the number of genuinely difficult threat environments down to AWACS supported MiG 29/Su27/30anddoubledigitSAMs.WiththeAESAradarupgradeperformedandtheradargiventhe capability to jam centimetric band threats, the risks from forward quarter inband threats such as interceptors and active radar guided SAMs in high altitude supersonic penetration were much reduced. At low level, the engines permitted sustained dry supersonic dash during penetration, with all of the advantages that confers in survivability, weapon toss range, persistence and heat signatures. Therefore the existing low level penetration tactics were able to be retained, in addition to new high altitudepenetrationtactics. Witharound26klbofstaticSLmilitarydrythrustperengine,itisunlikelythatafterburnerswouldbe required for hot and heavy takeoffs, thus saving considerable fuel. Indeed, given the experience with the F22, afterburners were used very infrequently. The saved fuel offset the higher dry SFC in supercruise. The F119 is significantly more reliable and durable than the TF30, since it is two and one half generations beyond the TF30 in technology and materials. This results in reduced support costs over time especially in critical manpower. Commonality with the F22 and JSF offered important economies. WiththenewtechnologyengineitbecamefeasibletoadaptanexistingAirframeMountedAccessory Drive (AMAD) with new generators, hydraulic pumps and a Jet Fuel Starter (JFS) turbine. Replacing sixties technology accessories removed any long term supportability issues, while also reducing ground support crew hours required. The AMAD package used includes pumps for OBOGS and OBIGGS (oxygen and nitrogen generator) systems, the inclusion of which would reduced turnaround times,andimproveddamagetolerance,respectively. The rate of fatigue life consumption has been significantly reduced because a larger proportion of operational time was spent at higher altitudes, against the current regime of low level intensive operations, and medium level cruising. Engine wear and tear incurs at low altitudes, where particulatesandwaterdropletsareingested. With the AESA radar upgrade performed the F111's role has been expanded to encompass long range and long endurance interceptor tasks, with the required performance for a sustained long range supersonic dash intercepts against Badgers, Bears and Backfires and thus confer the same footprintcoverageadvantagedeliveredbytheF22. ThearmingoftheF111withaninternallycarriedGPS/inertialguidedwingedglidebomb,theJDAM ER, a high altitude standoff range of 80 NMI or much better became feasible with a very cheap munition. This allowed the aircraft to launch its weapons from outside the envelope of almost every SAMinexistence,andmakesaninterceptbyafighterevenmoredifficult.EvenabasicGBU31JDAM achieves a 20+ NMI glide range with a supersonic 45 kft launch thus defeating most older SAM systems.

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www.vostokstation.com.au The ARDU F111G was used as a trial platform for USAF Small Diameter Bomb (SDB, formerly SSB/MMTD) and Smart Ejector Rack (SMER) supersonic test drops from the internal bay, resulting in theSDBfamilyofweaponsbecomingafeatureoftherelifedF111. GiventhattheF111bombbayisdeeperthanthatoftheF22,alloftheinternalweaponsbeingused or devised for the F22 are suitable for internal carriage by the F111, yielding important interoperabilityandcommonalitybenefitswiththeUSAF. Adding judicious radar signature reduction into the survivability equation, given internal bomb carriage, reaction times for SAM operators, AWACS and fighters are significantly degraded supercruise alone would halve the reaction time. Recent technological developments in applique laminates and inlet signature reduction techniques reduced the F111's forward quarter radar signaturewellbelowcontemporaryreducedRCSproductionfighters. In supercruise, established high power support jamming pods are not an option. A revival of the EF 111A was the only viable way to provide support jamming for a supercruising fighter force. Two airframeswereusedforthispurposeProvisionofsupercruisingEF111Sescortjammersusingcurrent jammingequipmentprovidedtheabilitytodefeatalllandbasedandnavalSAMsystemsknowntobe intheregion,aswelltheA50AWACS. THe super cruising F111 was able to keep up with F22 strike packages, as well as an F22 fighter escort. This simplified operational planning, both for regional operations and coalition operations with the USAF. Indeed, a super cruising escort fighter is penalised by a subsonic cruising bomber, as theslowestaircraftinthepackagedeterminesitstransitspeedtotarget.

An Easier Plane to Manage and Fly The Start Up


An example of how the new avionics makes life simpler for the pilot is in the start up. The pilot simply places the battery switch 'on,' places the auxiliary power unit switch momentarily to 'start' and then places both throttles in 'idle.' The engines start sequentially right to left and the auxiliary power unit then shuts down. All subsystems and avionics are brought on line and builtin testing checks are made. Then the necessary navigation information is loaded and even the pilot's personal preferences for avionics configuration is read andthesystemsaretailoredtothosepreferences.Allofthishappensautomaticallywithnopilotactionsother thanthethreesteps.Theairplanecanbereadytotaxiinlessthan30secondsafterenginestart.

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Interoperability
The F111S possess a satellite communications capability that integrates beyond line of sight communications throughout the spectrum of missions it is tasked to perform. The F111S utilises the most modern tactical datalinks which provide the sharing of data among its flight members as well as other airborne, surface and groundbasedplatformsrequiredtoperformassignedmissions.

MultiFunction Display System


Rockwell Collins's 8"x20" MultiFunction Display System (MFDS) provides the panoramic projection display for the F111S. Onegigabytepersecond data interfaces enable the MFDS to display six full motion images simultaneously. The adaptable layout is easily reconfigurable for different missions or mission segments. Projection display technology provides a highluminance, highcontrast, and highresolution picture with no viewingangleeffect. Changingthedisplaysisonlyamatterofpressingafingerondifferentpartsofthescreenofthemulti function display, or MFD, to reconfigure or prioritize information or activate systems. The forest of toggle switches in previous fighter cockpits has been wiped clean from the F35s interior landscape, with most of their functions moved to the touch screen. A few switches still sprout here and there, but the overall cockpit ambience is one of simplicity and calm, almost to the point of aeronautical feng shui. For example, fingeron glass controls replace cockpit switches for selecting such functions as air refueling mode and flight control systemtests.Allradio,missionsystemscomputers,andidentificationandnavigationcontrolsareonglass. The large eight by thirtyinch multifunction display (created by combining three eight by teninch displays) can be customized and divided into many differentsized screens through an elegant pilotvehicle interface design. By touching the screen, the pilot can select a pair of eight by teninch window displays, or four five by eightinch windows, or any combination of window sizes to project information based on its importanceatanygivenmoment. The Integrated Control Panel (ICP) is the primary means for manual pilot data entry for communications, navigation, and autopilot data. Located in center top of the instrument panel, this keypad entrysystemalsohassomedoubleclickfunctions,muchlikeacomputermouseforrapidpilotaccess/use.

Screen and Windows Functions.


TheindividualWindowsontheMFDScanamongstotherthingsbesettodisplay: 1. Integrated Caution/Advisory/Warning (ICAW) data, communications/navigation/identification (CNI) dataandserveastheStandbyFlightinstrumentationGroupandFuelQuantityIndicator(SFG/FQI). 2. TheStandbyFlightGroupisalwaysinoperationandshowsthebasicinformation(suchasanartificial horizon)thepilotneedstoflytheaircraft.TheSFGistiedtothelastsourceofpowerintheaircraft,so ifeverythingelsefails,thepilotwillstillbeabletoflytheaircraft. 3. The Main Window is the pilot's principal display for aircraft navigation (including showing waypoints and route of flight) and Situation Assessment (SA) or a "God'seye view" of the entire environment around(above,below,bothsides,frontandback)theaircraft. 4. Three other windows can display tactical (both offensive and defensive) information as well as non tactical information (such as checklists, subsystem status, engine thrust output, and stores management). To reduce crew workload in flight, the F111S incorporates a uniquely designed integrated caution, advisory and warning system (ICAW) taken from the F22. A total of 12 individual ICAW messages can appear at one timeinthiswindowdisplayandadditionalonescanappearonsubpagesorscreens. Two aspects of the ICAW display differentiate it from a traditional warning light panel. First, all ICAW fault messages are filtered to eliminate extraneous messages and tell the pilot specifically and succinctly what the problem is. For example, when an engine fails, the generator and hydraulic cautions normally associated with an engine being shutdown are suppressed, and the pilot is provided the specific problem in the form of an engineshutdownmessage. The second is the electronic checklist. When an ICAW message occurs, the pilot depresses the checklistpushbutton(calledabezelbutton)onthebottomoftheUFDandtheassociatedchecklistappearson the left hand Secondary MultiFunction Display (SMFD). This function also provides access to nonemergency checklists for display to the pilot. In addition to the visual warning on the display, the aircraft has an audio system that alerts the pilot. A Caution is indicated only by the word "caution", while a Warning is announced withthespecificproblemthatis,"Warning.EngineFailure". 33|P a g e

www.vostokstation.com.au IfmultipleICAWsoccur,theirassociatedchecklistsareselectedbymovingapickboxoverthedesired ICAWanddepressingthechecklistbutton.Associatedchecklistsareautomaticallylinkedtogethersothatifan engine failureoccurs, the pilot will not only get the checklist for the engine failure procedure inflight but also the single engine landing checklist. The pilot can also manually page through the checklists at any time from themainmenu.Thisisparticularlyhandywhenhelpingawingmanworkthroughanemergency.

Cockpit Display Symbology


The tactical information shown on the displays is all intuitive to the pilothe can tell the situation around him by a glance at the screen. Enemy aircraft are shown as red triangles, friendly aircraft are green circles, unknownaircraftareshownasyellowsquares,andwingmenareshownasblue.Surfacetoairmissilesitesare represented by pentagons (along with an indication of exactly what type missile it is) and its lethal range. In addition to shape and color, the symbols are further refined. A filledin triangle means that the pilot has a missilefiringqualitysolutionagainstthetarget,whileanopentriangleisnotafiringqualitysolution.Thepilot has a cursor on each screen, and he can ask the aircraft's avionics system to retrieve more information. The system can determine to a 98% probability the target's type of aircraft. If the system can't make an identificationtothatdegree,theaircraftisshownasanunknown. The Inter/Intra Flight Data Link (IFDL) is one of the powerful tools that make the F22, F35 and the F111S more capable. Each aircraft can be linked together to trade information without radio calls with each aircraft in a flight or between flights. Each pilot is then free to operate more autonomously because, for example, the leader can tell at a glance what his wing man's fuel state is, weapons remaining, and even the enemy aircraft targeted. Classical tactics based on visual "tally" (visual identification) and violent formation maneuversthatreducethewingmanto"hangingon"mayhavetoberethoughtinlightofsuchcapabilities.

HandsOn Throttle and Stick (HOTAS)


TheF111Sfeaturestwosidestickcontrollers(likeanF16)andtwosetsoftwothrottlesthataretheaircraft's primary flight controls. The GECbuilt stick is located on the right console and there is a swingout, adjustable arm rest. The WSOs stick folds away unless required as do the throttles which pop up from a console betweenthecrew.Thestickisforcesensitiveandhasathrowofonlyaboutonequarterofaninch.Thepiloits throttles are located on the left console. Both the stick and the throttles are highuse controls during air combat.Tosupportpilotfunctionalrequirements,thegripsincludebuttonsandswitches(thatarebothshape and texture coded) to control more than 60 different timecritical functions. These buttons are used for controllingtheoffensive(weaponstargetingandrelease)anddefensivesystems(althoughsome,likechaffand flares,canoperatebothautomaticallyandmanually)aswellasdisplaymanagement.

Life Support Ensemble


The F111S life support system integrates all critical components of clothing, protective gear, and aircraft equipmentnecessarytosustainthepilot'slifewhileflyingtheaircraft.Inthepast,thesecomponentshadbeen designedandproducedseparately.Thelifesupportsystemcomponentsinclude: Anonboardoxygengenerationsystem(OBOGS)thatsuppliesbreathableairtothepilot. An integrated breathing regulator/antig valve (BRAG) that controls flow and pressure to the mask andpressuregarments. Achemical/biological/coldwaterimmersion(CB/CWI)protectionensemble. AnupperbodycounterpressuregarmentandalowerbodyantiGgarmentactsapartialpressuresuit athighaltitudes. An aircooling garment, which was to be used by pilots on the Army's RAH66 Comanche helicopter providesthermalreliefforthepilot. Helmet and helmetmounted systems including C/B goggles and C/B hood; and the MBU22/P breathingmaskandhosesystem. . Thechemical/biological/coldwaterimmersiongarmentistobewornbypilotswhentheyflyoverlargebodies ofcoldwaterorintochemical/biologicalwarfaresituations. 34|P a g e

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ACES II Ejection Seat


The F111S uses the same seat as the Raptor, improved version of the ACES II (Advanced Concept Ejection Seat) ejectionseat that is used in nearly every otherAir Force jet combat aircraft (F16, F117,F15,A10,B1, B2).

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MQ9 REAPER

Introduction
The MQ9 Reaper (originally the RQ9 Predator B) is an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) developed by General Atomics Aeronautical Systems for use by the United States Air Force, the United States Navy, and the British Royal Air Force. The MQ9 is the Air Force's first hunterkiller UAV designed for longendurance, highaltitude surveillance. The MQ9 is fitted with six stores pylons. The inner stores pylons can carry a maximum of 1,500 pounds (680 kilograms) each, and are "wet" to allow carriage of external fuel tanks. The mid wing stores pylons can carry a maximum of 600 pounds (270 kilograms) each, while the outer stores pylons can carry a maximum of 200 pounds (90 kilograms) each. An MQ9 with two 1,000 pound (450 kilogram) external fuel tanks and a thousand pounds of munitions has an endurance of 42 hours.[5] The Reaper has an endurance of 14 hours when fully loaded with munitions.[1] The MQ9 currently carries a variety of weapons, including the GBU12 Paveway II laserguided bomb and the AGM114 Hellfire II airtoground missiles. AIM92 Stinger air toairmissilesandGBU38JDAMbombshavebeenadded. The Predator B provides the service an improved "deadly persistence" capability, with the UAV flying over a combat area night and day waiting for a target to present itself. In this role an armed UAV neatly complements piloted strike aircraft. A piloted strike aircraft can be used to drop larger quantities of ordnance on a target while a cheaper UAV can be kept in operation almost continuously, with ground controllers workinginshifts,carryingalighterordnanceloadtodestroytargets.

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS
*Contractor:GeneralAtomicsAeronauticalSystemsIncorporated *LandingType:runway *LaunchType:runway *PowerPlant:HoneywellTP33110turbopropengine,670kW

PERFORMANCE
*Ceiling:50,000ft(15km) *Operationalaltitude:25,000ft(7.5km)[26] *Endurance:1628h[27] *Range:3682mi(3200nmi,5926km) *FuelCapacity:1,300kg(3,907lb) 36|P a g e

www.vostokstation.com.au *Length:11m(36ft) *Payload:1700kg(3800lb) *Maximumspeed:400km/h(250mph,220knots) *Cruisespeed:160km/h(100mph,85knots)[28] *Weight:1676kg(3700lb)empty;4760kg(10,500lb)max[29] *Wingspan:20m(66ft)

ARMAMENT
* 6 Hardpoints under the wings, can carry a payload mix of 1,500 lb. on each of its two inboard weapons stations,500600lb.onthetwomiddlestationsand150200lb.ontheoutboardstations. *2xAIM9Sidewinderairtoairmissiles *4xFIM92Stingerantiaircraftmissiles *2xAIM120CAMRAAMairtoairmissiles *2xAGM65Maverickairtogroundmissiles *8xAGM114Hellfireairtogroundmissiles *2xGBU12PavewayIIlaserguidedbombs *2xGBU38JDAMairtogroundbombs

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HERCULES C130J
TheRAAFoperate12C130Jand8C130H.TheyareoperatedbyNo37Squadron,basedatRAAFBase Richmond,nearSydney.

Introduction
TheLockheedMartinC130JSuperHerculesisanAmericanfourengineturbopropmilitarytransportaircraft. TheC130JisacomprehensiveupdateofthevenerableLockheedC130Hercules,withnewengines,cockpit, andothersystems.TheHerculesfamilyhasthelongestcontinuousproductionrunofanymilitaryaircraftin history.Duringmorethan50yearsofservicethefamilyhasparticipatedinmilitary,civilianandhumanitarian aidoperations.TheHerculeshasalsooutlivedseveralplannedsuccessordesigns,mostnotablytheAdvanced MediumSTOLTransportcontestants. TheC130J"Super"HerculesisthenewestversionoftheHerculesandtheonlymodelstillin production.ExternallysimilartotheclassicHerculesingeneralappearance,theJmodelisaverydifferent aircraft.ThesedifferencesincludenewRollsRoyceAE2100turbopropswithsixbladedcompositescimitar propellers,digitalavionics(includingHeadUpDisplays(HUDs)foreachpilot),reducedcrewrequirements(2 pilotsnonavigatororflightengineer),increasedreliabilityandupto27%loweroperatingcosts.TheC130J isavailableinastandardlengthorstretched30variant.

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Lockheed Martin C130H Hercules technical specifications


Manufacturer LockheedMartin Role Mediumtacticalandmultiroletransport Crew Twopilots,navigator,flightengineer,loadmaster Engine FourAllisonturboprops(4,190shafthorsepowereach)driving4bladepropellers Airframe Length:29.7mheight:11.8m Wingspan 40.4m Weight 70,450kgistheMaxAUW(79,380kgistheMaximumAlternateAUW) 595km/h(normaloperations) Speed Range 5,100kmwith14,000kgpayload Ceiling 40,000feet AccommodationDependingonconfiguration: *92troops *64paratroops *74stretcherpatientsandtwomedicalattendants *lightarmouredvehicles,artillerypiecesorfourwheeldrives

Lockheed Martin C130J Hercules technical specifications:


Manufacturer Role Crew Engine Airframe Wingspan Weight Speed Range Ceiling LockheedMartin Mediumtacticalandmultiroletransport Twopilots,loadmaster FourAllisonAE2100D3turboprops(4,590shafthorsepowereach)driving6bladevariable pitchpropellers Length:34.37m,height:10.1m 40.4m 79,380kgmaximum(19,500kgpayload) 625km/h(normaloperations) 5,100kmwith18,155kgpayload 35,000feet 40|P a g e

www.vostokstation.com.au Accommodation/loaddependingonconfiguration: *128troops *74paratroops *74stretcherpatientsandtwomedicalattendants *lightarmouredvehicles,artillerypiecesorfourwheeldrives *twoextracargopalletscomparedtoC130H(30%more)

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HERON REMOTELY PILOTED VEHICLE (RPV)


TheHeronisbuiltbyIsraelAerospaceIndustries.

Canadian MacDonald, Dettwiler and Associates (MDA) contractors conduct preflight checks on an Australianoperated HeronRemotelyPilotedVehicle(RPV),atKandaharAirfield(KAF)inAfghanistan.

The Heron Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) provides high resolution intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance capability with realtime support to ground commanders to enhance force protection in the MiddleEastAreaofOperations. Onaverage,theHeronfliesbetween400to500hourseachmonthofmediumaltitude,longenduranceflights. It can conduct single missions in excess of 24 hours, with a maximum speed of more than 100 knots (180 km/h)ataltitudesofupto10,000metres. Unlikesmallunmannedaerialvehicles(UAVs),the1.1tonneHeronRemotelyPilotedAircraftisoperatedfrom an airfield runway in conjunction with other manned aircraft. The Australian Heron is based at Kandahar, whichisanecdotallythebusiestsinglerunwayairfieldintheworld. To ensure the safe and effective operation of the aircraft at such a busy airfield, Air Force uses military pilots whohaveexperiencewiththecomplexanddynamicairspacetopilottheHeron. Pilots qualified on Army helicopters, F/A18 Hornets, F111s, AP3C Orion and C130 Hercules have deployed and operated the Heron Remotely Piloted Aircraft since August 2009. The Heron pilot is supported by a Payload(Sensor)OperatorwhoalsoactsascopilotfortheHeron. In addition, up to seven operational staff process, analyse and disseminate information from the Herons sensors. The operational staff may include aircrew, intelligence staff, operations officers, engineering staff, administrationofficersandlogisticians. TheHeroncapabilityisalsousedatWoomera,SouthAustraliaincontrolledairspacefortrainingpurposes. 42|P a g e

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RQ7 SHADOW 200

The RQ7Shadow 200 is thesmallest of the Shadow family of unmanned aircraft systems developedbyAAI. It is now in operational service with the Australian Army, US Army and US Marine Corps. The Shadow 200 replaced the ScanEagle which has been in operation since mid 2007. The first Shadow 200 was delivered in August2011.TheShadow200systemcapturesfullmotionvideoduringbothdayandnightoperations,Sensor images and metadata is sent back to a ground control station up to 125 kilometres away. It can recognize targetsonthegroundwhileoperatingatanaltitudeofupto10,000feet. The Australian Joint Project 129 Phase two covered two units and four ground control systems (GCS) modules to support multiple operational sites and training facilities. Each Shadow 200 system comprises five aircraft, ground control stations, a launch and recovery element, and associated equipment, logistics and training. The Shadow 200 can carry the IAI/Tamam 20kg (51 lbs) POP300D multisensor EO payload and at the same time an electrooptic camera, infrared camera, and three separate lasers for target designation, pointing and rangefinding,alongwithcommunicationrelaypayload. Shadow 200 is used to locate, recognise and identify targets from a brigade tactical operations centre. The system recognises tactical vehicles by day and night from an altitude of 8,000ft and at a slant range of 3.5km. Imagery and telemetry data is transmitted in nearreal time from the Shadow ground control station to joint starscommongroundstation,allsourcesanalysissystemandtothearmyfieldartillerytargetinganddirection system. Shadow has beenoperational in Afghanistanandin Iraqand byMay 2010hadamassed 500,000flight hours.ThesystemsisproducedatAAIinHuntValley,Maryland. ShadowTUASairvehicle Theairvehiclesystemcanbetransportedbytwomilitarywheeledvehiclesandoperatedroundtheclockfrom unprepared sites by the 22soldier crew. The Shadow TUAS can carry payloads up to 27kg (60lb) including sensors and electronic warfare systems. Larger variants of other Shadow aircraft with a larger fuselage and wingspanarecapableofcarryingpayloadsupto45.4kg(100lb)withminimalimpactoncostorperformance. The air vehicle is of composite structure. Its compact size and small engine produce a very low radar and infraredsignature,makingitverydifficulttodetect. 43|P a g e

www.vostokstation.com.au The original RQ7A air vehicle has a wingspan of 3.89m and carries a maximum payload of 25.3kg. The maximum endurance is five hours 30 minutes. The RQ7B is a longerendurance version, with increased wingspan of 4.27m and larger tail unit, payload up to 27.2kg and endurance of six to seven hours, depending onmissionprofile. A new wing design developed for the aircraft expands the wingspan to 20ft. It will increase Shadow's payload capacity and endurance from six to nearly nine hours. The Shadow TUAS fitted with new extended wings completeditsfirstflightinApril2010.

Engine
The air vehicle is powered by a UEL AR 741 rotary engine developing 28.3kW and driving a twobladed pusher propeller. Fire and explosionresistant fuel cells are installed in the wings. The RQ7A and the longer enduranceRQ7Bmodelshaveafuelcapacityof40land57l.

Payloads
The payloads are selected according to the mission requirements and include advanced electrooptical and infrared systems, planned synthetic aperture radar and moving target indicator, hyperspectral imagery, lightweightcommunicationsrelaypackage,marker/illuminator,laserrangefinderandtargetdesignator. TheArmyShadow200isfittedwiththePOP200orPOP300lightweightelectroopticalsystemsuppliedbyIAI Tamam. The compact size and small engine produce a very low radar and infrared signature. The system is twoaxis gyrostabilised and fitted with forwardlooking infrared (FLIR) and CCD TV sensor array. It can be fittedwithalaserrangefinderandtargetdesignatorandiscapableofcorrelativeautomatictargettracking. BAE Systems has supplied five Aurora Generation IV remote sensing systems to the US Army for use on the Shadow 200. The systems provide target detection and widearea surveillance, using daytime hyperspectral imagingfromhighresolutionelectroopticsensors. Shadow 200 is equipped with WESCAM 11SST (StepStare Turret), a lightweight EO payload. This payload providesauniquecapabilitytorapidlycoveralargearea.Thesensorcapturessevenvideoframespersecond, images are compressed and streamed to the control station, where they are tiled together to create a hi resolution digital image of a large area. 11SST covers up to 300km2 per hour, from an altitude or distance of 4,000m. The payload can include an optional geopositioning and image processing package that allows for flexible automatic positioning and automatic target tracking. The payload can also include thirdgeneration 3 5nm InSb FLIR, an eyesafe laser rangefinder, and a colour daylight CCD sensor with x14 zoom lens (2.2 28.5mm).

Launch and recovery


The launch of the Shadow 200 TUAS can be conducted in two ways allowing the military personnel the flexibility to choose the most appropriate launch site during field operations. A standard wheeled takeoff procedurecanbeusedortheairvehiclecanbelaunchedfromahydraulicraillauncher. The guidance of the air vehicle can be preprogrammed before takeoff or remotely controlled during the flight. The air vehicle climbs at a rate of 300m to 450m (1,000ft to 1,500ft) a minute. The vehicle has a cruise speed and quickdash speed of 148km/h to 250km/h (80kt to 135kt) to proceed to the operating area. Its minimumspeedis111km/h(60kt). The Shadow air vehicle can be preprogrammed before takeoff or remotely controlled during the flight and canuseaconventionalwheeledlandingonaflatsurfaceabout95minlength.Analternativerecoverymethod usesadeployablearrestinghookontheairvehicleandgroundbasedarrestingcables.

Ground station
CDL Systems, based in Calgary, Alberta, was contracted to develop the vehicle control system software. The ground control station (GCS) is a sheltered ruggedised portable system with a suite of vehicle control and C4I interfacesoftware.Theportablegroundcontrolstation(PGCS),oneoftheunitsofthegroundcontrolsystem, is installed in a set of rugged transit cases. The rugged transit cases are easily transported and allow the PGCS to be rapidly set up and torn down in the field. The ground data terminal (GDT), that includes transmit and receiveunitsandanantennasystem,iseasilysetupwithouttools. 44|P a g e

www.vostokstation.com.au The PGCS and GDT are used to control the launch of the air vehicle, operation of the payload, the reception and display of the downloaded data from the sensors on the airborne platform and for the recovery of the air vehicle. Theforwardbattlecommanderscanviewtheareaundersurveillanceusingaremotevideoterminal(RVT).The RVTdisplaystheobservedviewonaflatpanelscreendisplayinnearrealtime.AAICorporationdevelopedthe airborne video surveillance (AVS) capability demonstrated on the Shadow TUAS, with the US DOD Defense AdvancedResearchProjectsAgency(DARPA).

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DE HAVILLAND CANADA DHC4 CARIBOU


TheRoyalAustralianAirForceretireditslastCaribou,A4140,on27November2009

Introduction
TheCanadiandesignedandproduceddeHavillandCanadaDHC4Caribou(knownintheU.S.militaryasCV2 andC7Caribou)wasdesignedasaspecializedtransportwithshorttakeoffandlanding(STOL)capability.The Caribouwasfirstflownin1958andalthoughmainlyretiredfrommilitaryoperations,isstillinuseinsmall numbersasarugged"bush"aircraft. TheRoyalAustralianAirForceDHC4Caribouisaversatiletacticallighttransportaircraft,capableof veryshorttakeoffandlandingsonunpreparedrunways.Itsmainoperationalroleistacticalairtransportin supportoftheAustralianArmy.TheCaribouisoperatedbyNo38SquadronfromRAAFBaseAmberley,near Brisbane,andRAAFBaseTownsville. TheCaribouisatwinenginedhighwingmonoplanewithfullspandoubleslottedFowlerflapsand fullyreversiblepropellers,whichallowittoachieveitstrademarksteepapproachandveryshorttakeoffsand landings.Thehighwinganddistinctivehighplacementofthetailprovideeasyaccesstoalargecargo compartment,whilethelowpressuretyrespermitoperationonunpreparedrunways. ItisthelastpistonenginedaircraftintheAirForceandisouronlyaircrafttoemploytheLowAltitude ParachuteExtractionSystem(LAPES),whereupto2000kgofsledmountedcargoisextractedfromtheaircraft byaparachutefromametreabovetheground. The Caribou is equipped with GPS satellite navigation and nightvision equipment, giving it the capabilitytooperateinanyweather,dayornight,toeitherlandordropsoldiersandequipmentbyparachute withpinpointaccuracy.TheCaribouisnotpressurisedandisnotfittedwithautopilotorweatherradar. Since1997theCaribouhasparticipatedinfaminereliefoperationsinPapuaNewGuineaandIrianJayaduring Operations SIERRA, PLES DRAI and AUSINDO JAYA, as well as the tsunamirelief operation in PNG in 1999 and operationsinEastTimorandtheSolomonIslandssince1999. Althoughintroducedin1964andemployedintheVietnamWar,theCaribouisstillrecognisedasone ofthemostcapableshorthaultransportaircraftintheworld.

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De Havilland Canada DHC4 Caribou technical specifications:


Manufacturer DeHavillandCanada Role Lighttacticaltransport Crew Twopilots,flightengineer Engine TwoPrattandWhitneyradials(2000horsepowereach) Airframe Length:22.5mheight:9.6m Wingspan 29m Weight 15,400kg Speed 280km/h(cruise) Range 2000km Ceiling 28,000feetor13,000feetwithpassengers Accommodationcapacityis4tonnesofcargo: twofourwheeldrivesorlightartillerypieces 32equippedtroopsseated 22stretcherpatientsplusmedicalattendants

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UH1 IROQUOIS

http://www.richardseaman.com TheBellHelicopterTextronUH1Iroquois,commonly(orofficiallyintheUnitedStatesMarineCorps)knownas the"Huey",isamultipurposemilitaryhelicopter,famousforitsuseintheVietnamWar.The"U"standsfor utility,incontrasttoattackorcargohelicopters. TheUH1wasdevelopedfrom1955USArmytrialswiththeBellModel204.TheinitialdesignationofHU1 (helicopterutility)ledtoitsnickname,Huey.ThenicknamebecamesopopularthatBellstartedputtingthe Hueynameontheantitorquepedals. Theaircraftwasfirstusedbythemilitaryin1959andwentintotriserviceproductionin1962astheUH1.The lastwereproducedin1976withmorethan16,000madeintotal,ofwhichabout7,000sawuseduringthe VietnamWar. InVietnam,2,202Hueypilotswerekilledandapproximately2,500aircraftwerelost,roughlyhalftocombat andtheresttooperationalaccidents. Specifications(UH1D) Crew:14 Capacity:3,880lbincluding14troops,or6stretchers,orequivalentcargo Length:57ft1inwithrotors(17.4m) Fuselagewidth:8ft7in(2.6m)) Rotordiameter:48ft0in(14.6m) Height:14ft5in(4.4m) Emptyweight:5,215lb(2,365kg) 48|P a g e

www.vostokstation.com.au Loadedweight:9,040lb(4,100kg) Maxtakeoffweight:9,500lb(4,310kg)) Powerplant:1LycomingT53L11turboshaft,1,100shp(820kW)

Performance Maximumspeed: 135mph(220km/h) Cruisespeed: 125mph(205km/h) Range: 315mi(510km) 19,390ft(Dependingonconditions)(5,910m) Serviceceiling Rateofclimb: 1,755ft/min(8.9m/s) Power/mass: 0.15hp/lb(0.25kW/kg) ArmamentVariable,butmayincludeacombinationof: 2x7.62mmM60machinegun,or2x7.62mmGAU17/Amachinegun 2x7roundor19round2.75in(70mm)rocketpods

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NH90 NFH ASW / TRANSPORT HELICOPTER

Photo:Eurocopter.TheAustralianArmyhas46

Introduction
The NATO Frigate Helicopter(NFH) is one of two versions of the NH90 twinengine multirole helicopter being developedbyNHIndustries.TheotherversionistheNH90TTHTacticalTransportHelicopter. The NHI NH90 TTH is a medium sized, twinengine, multirole military, flybywire helicopter manufactured by NHIndustries,acompanyestablishedbyAgusta,EurocopterandStorkFokkerAerospace.TheNH90,whichcan beflownbyasinglepilot,isdesignedtooperatebynightanddayandinpoorweather.Ithasbeenorderedby severalnationsandenteredservicefrom2007.

NFH: NATO Frigate Helicopter


The primary role of the NFH version is autonomous antisubmarine warfare (ASW) and antisurface unit warfare (ASuW), mainly from naval ships. These aircraft are equipped for day and night, adverse weather and severe ship motion operations. Additional roles include antiair warfare support, vertical replenishment (VERTREP),search&rescue(SAR)andtrooptransport.

TTH: Tactical Transport Helicopter


The primary role of the TTH version is the transport of 20 troops or more than 2,500 kg of cargo, heliborne operations and search & rescue. It can quickly be adapted to MEDEVAC/CASEVAC missions by fitting up to 12 stretchersorcargodeliverycapability Additional roles include medical evacuation (12 stretchers), special operations, electronic warfare, airborne commandpost,parachuting,VIPtransportandflighttraining..

General characteristics
*Crew:2pilots 50|P a g e

www.vostokstation.com.au *Capacity:20troops/12stretchers *Length:16.13m(52ft11in) *Rotordiameter:16.30m(53ft5in) *Height:5.23m(17ft2in) *Emptyweight:5,400kg(11,900lb) *Maxtakeoffweight:10,600kg(23,370lb) *Powerplant:2RollsRoyceTurbomecaRTM32201/9turboshafts,1,662kW(2,230shp)each *Powerplant:2GeneralElectricT700T6Eturboshafts,1,577kW(2,115shp)each

Performance
*Maximumspeed:300km/h(162knots,186mph) *Range:800km(TTH);1,000km(NFH)() *Serviceceiling2,960m() *Rateofclimb:480m/min() ArmamentMissiles:antisubmarineand/orAirtosurfacemissiles(NFHversion)

NH90 NFH ROLES


The primary missions of the NH90 NFH helicopter are in the autonomous AntiSubmarine Warfare (ASW) and AntiSurfaceshipWarfare(AsuW)role. Inatypicalfourhour'relocationoncall'operation,thehelicopterwouldtake:35minutestoreachtheareaof operation; 20 minutes releasing sonobuoys; two hours on surveillance in the area of operations; 30 minutes releasingtorpedoes;and35minutestoreturntoshipandland,with20minutesinreserve. In a typical fourhour 'screening' operation, the helicopter would take: 15 minutes to reach the area of operation;threehoursand30minutesintheoperationszonecarryingout11consecutivecyclesoftenminute sonardipping;and15minutestoreturntotheshipandland,with20minutesreserve. In the antisurface warfare role, the helicopter is capable of detection, tracking, classification, identification and attack of hostile ships, and has overthehorizon capability. Secondary roles include AntiAir Warfare (AAW),VerticalReplenishment(VERTREP),SearchandRescue(SAR),trooptransportandminelaying.

COCKPIT AND AVIONICS SYSTEMS


The helicopter has a crew of three: the pilot and Tacco (the tactical coordinator responsible for mission management)andtheSenso(sensorsystemsoperator)inthecabin.ThecabinoftheNFHisequippedwithan avionics bay with a sensor operator station and a tactical coordinator station, a dipping sonar and a sonobuoy launcher. "ThecabinoftheNH90isequippedwithanavionicsbaywithasensoroperatorstation." The NH90 has "flybywire" all electric flight controls from Goodrich Actuation Systems and Liebherr Aerospace.Thisfullauthorityquadruplexsystemincreasesthemanoeuvrabilityoftheaircraftwhiledecreasing the weight. The avionics system is supplied by Thales Avionics and is based on a dual MILSTD1553B digital databus. The cockpit has five 8in x 8in colour multifunction liquid crystal displays for flight, mission systems andmaintenancedata.HoneywellPrimus701Aweatherradarisfitted. The avionics package includes the Thales Topowl helmetmounted sight and display which has a 40 field of view.TopowlalsoequipstheTigerandRooivalkattackhelicopters. Under a contract awarded in January 2008, German NH90 helicopters will be fitted with EADS Defence ElectronicsMilOWS,amilitaryversionoftheHELLASlaserbasedhelicopterobstaclewarningsystem. 51|P a g e

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ARMAMENT
The NATO Frigate Helicopter can be armed with antisubmarine torpedoes, airtosurface missiles and airto airmissiles.

COUNTERMEASURES
The helicopters for France, Germany, Italy, Portugal and Finland are fitted with a selfprotection suite from EADS Defence Electronics, which is also being supplied to the Tiger helicopter. The suite includes EADS AN/AAR60 MILDS missile approach warning system, Thales TWE Threat Warning Equipment with integrated radarwarningandlaserwarningreceiversandMBDASaphirMchaffandflaredispenser. Norwegian NFH are to have the ITT AN/ALQ211 Integrated Radio Frequency Countermeasures (IRFCM) suite. Swedish helicopters will be equipped with an EW suite supplied by Saab Avionics, in conjunction with AvitronicsofSouthAfrica.AvitronicsisjointlyownedbySaabandGrintek. "TheNH90isequippedwithanintegratedcommunicationsandidentificationmanagementsystem."

SENSORS
The NFH is equipped with a tactical ForwardLooking Infrared (FLIR) system mounted in the nose, a Magnetic AnomalyDetector (MAD) and a sonar suite. French NavyNFH will be fitted with the Flash Sonics sonar system fromThalesUnderwaterSystems,whichcombinestheFlashactivedippingsonarwiththeTMS2000sonobuoy processingsystem. The Norwegian and Swedish Navy NFH will also operate a version of the system, FlashS, optimised for conditions in the Baltic Sea. Dutch, Italian and German NFH will be equipped with the Helicopter Long Range Active Sonar (HELRAS). The HELRAS dipping sonar is supplied by ELAC Nautik of Kiel, Germany, a subsidiary of L3Communications. The NFH is equipped with a Thales European Navy Radar (ENR) 360 surveillance radar mounted under the nose. ENR is derived from Thales Ocean Master andhas been developed in conjunction with EADS and Galileo Avionica.SwedishNFHwillhaveAN/APS143B(V)3OceanEyemultimodesurveillanceradarfromUScompany, Telephonics. Ocean Eye has both SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) and ISAR (Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar) imagingmodes.

COMMUNICATIONS
The NH90 is equipped with an integrated communications and identification management system. The secure radio system provides airtoair and airtoground communications. The TSC 2000 IFF (Identification Friend or Foe) supplied by Thales was developed under German and French cooperation. The helicopter is equipped withaLink11securedatalink.

PROPULSION
TheNFHHelicopterispoweredbytwoRTM32201/9enginessuppliedbyRollsRoyceTurbomeca. "TheNATOFrigateHelicoptercanbearmedwithantisubmarinetorpedoes."

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SIKORSKY UH60 BLACK HAWK


AH60LBattleHawk:ExportversionfortheAustralianArmy,operatedby5AviationRegiment,171Aviation SquadronandtheSchoolofArmyAviation.

Photo:Wikipedia

Introduction
TheS70A9BlackHawkisoperatedby5AviationRegiment,171AviationSquadronandtheSchoolofArmy Aviation.Itstasksincludetacticaltransportofinfantrysoldiers,searchandrescue,medicalevacuation, disasterreliefandexternalcarriageofheavyequipmentincludingartilleryhowitzersandlightvehicles. TheSikorskyUH60BlackHawkisamediumliftutilityorassaulthelicopterderivedfromthetwinturboshaft engine,singlerotorSikorskyS70. TheBlackHawkseriesofaircraftcanperformawidearrayofmissions,includingthetacticaltransport oftroops,electronicwarfare,andaeromedicalevacuation.AVIPversionknownastheVH60Nisusedto transportimportantgovernmentofficials(e.g.,Congress,Executivedepartments)withthehelicopter'scallsign of"MarineOne"whentransportingthePresidentoftheUnitedStates.[2]Inairassaultoperationsitcanmove asquadof11combattroopswithequipmentorrepositionthe105mmM102howitzerwiththirtyroundsof 105mmammunition,andafourmancrewinasinglelift.Alternatively,itcancarry2,600lb(1,170kg)ofcargo orslingload9,000lb(4,050kg)ofcargo.TheBlackHawkisequippedwithadvancedavionicsandelectronics forincreasedsurvivabilityandcapability,suchastheGlobalPositioningSystem. Theunitcostvarieswiththeversionduetothevaryingspecifications,equipmentandquantities.For example,theunitcostoftheArmy'sUH60LBlackHawkis$5.9millionwhiletheunitcostoftheAirForceMH 60GPaveHawkis$10.2million.[3] 53|P a g e

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General characteristics
*Crew:2pilots(flightcrew) *Capacity:2,640lbofcargointernally,including14troopsor6stretchers,or8,000lb(UH60A)or9,000lb (UH60L)ofcargoexternally *Length:64ft10in(19.76m) *Rotordiameter:53ft8in(16.36m) *Height:16ft10in(5.13m) *Discarea:2,260ft(210m) *Emptyweight:10,624lb(4,819kg) *Loadedweight:22,000lb(7,375kg) *Maxtakeoffweight:24,500lb(11,113kg) *Powerplant:2GeneralElectricT700GE701Cfreeturbineturboshafts,1,800hp(1,340kW)each

Performance
*Neverexceedspeed:193knots(222mph,357km/h) *Maximumspeed:159kt(183mph,295km/h) *Cruisespeed:150kt(173mph,278km/h) *Combatradius:368mi(320nmi,592km) *Ferryrange:1,380mi[12](1,200nmi,2,220km) *Serviceceiling19,000ft(5,790m) *Rateofclimb:700ft/min(3.6m/s) *Discloading:7.19lb/ft(35.4kg/m) *Power/mass:0.192hp/lb(158W/kg)

Armament
Guns:27.62mm(0.30in)M60machinegunsorM134miniguns(TheArmyisnowreplacingtheM60 machinegunwiththeM240Hmachinegun.) CanbeequippedwithVOLCANOminefielddispersalsystem.SeeUH60ArmamentSubsystemsfor moreinformation.

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SIKORSKY S70B2 SEAHAWK HELICOPTER


RANoperates16SeahawkswithNo.816SquadronRAN

Introduction
TheSikorskySH60/MH60Seahawk(orSeaHawk)isatwinturboshaftengine,multimissionNavyhelicopter basedontheairframeoftheUH60BlackHawk.TheSeahawkisanintegralpartoftheship'sweaponsand sensorsystems.Withitsuniquesensorsuiteandintegratedweaponssystemsthehelicopterextendsthe combatradiusoftheshipbyfinding,localisingandattackingwhereappropriate,surfaceorsubmarinetargets eitherindependentlyorinconjunctionwithotherforces. AtypicalSeahawkmissioninvolvesuptothreehoursoflowleveloperationsoverthesea,dayor night,inallweatherconditions,oftenrecoveringtoaship'sdeckwhichpitchesandrollsdramaticallyinheavy seas,andisgenerallywetwithspray. TheSeahawk'ssensorsinclude:searchradar,magneticanomalydetectorandsonicsprocessingfor bothactiveandpassivesonobuoys.Bothforwardlookinginfraredandelectronicsupportmeasuresarealso tobefitted.TheSeahawk'smainweaponistheMk46antisubmarinetorpedo.

Statistics
Length 19.8metres Height 5.2metres Width 16.4metres(rotorsspread) Weight 9947kg Speed 330kph Range 1295km Crew 3(Pilot,TacticalCoordinator,SensorOperator) EnginesTwoGET700Turboshaft

Weapon Systems
TwoMk46Torpedo One7.62machinegun 55|P a g e

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General Description
Fitted with a foldable four bladed main rotor and tail rotor pylon (to enable the aircraft to be stowed in the hangeraboardafrigate),theSeahawkisaconventionalhelicopter.However,itisanadvancedantisubmarine warfare'craftwithahighlevelofintegrationofitstactical,navigation,communicationsandweaponssystems. The RAN operates 16 Seahawks. The Sikorsky Aircraft Division of United Technologies Corporation in Florida, USA, manufactured the first batch of eight aircraft. Aerospace Technologies Australia (ASTA) at Avalon in Victoriaassembledasecondbatchofeightaircraft.ThefinalaircraftwasdeliveredtotheRANin1992. The S70B2 is powered by twin T700GE401C turbine jet engines. To detect submarines, it is equipped with radar, acoustic processor and magnetic anomaly detector and can use a wide range of expendable sonobuoys. The avionics system is built around a dual MILSTD1553B data bus controlled by two computers.Oncedetectedandclassified,submarinecontactscanbedealtwithbylaunchingMk46lightweight torpedoes. In its role of antisubmarine warfare, the aircrew employs the aircraft's acoustic system to simultaneouslymonitoranumberofsonobuoys,whicharedeployedfromtheaircraftinflight.Intheaircraft's role of antisurface warfare, the lightweight radar is capable of automatically tracking contacts. The radar can detecttargetsatrangesfarbeyondthecoverageprovidedbysurfaceshipsinataskforce,withallinformation processedonboardbeingcapableoftransmissioninhighspeedbursts(viasecuredatalink)totheoperations roomsoftheNavy'sFFGs. The aircraft's navigation suite, which integrates data from GPS, doppler and airdata computers, producesaconstantlyupdatedpositionwhichallowsforaccuratetargetingforaship'sHarpoonmissiles. The aircraft is operated by a crew of three one pilot (who is the aircraft captain), one observer and one aircrewman.Inadditiontoitsprimarywarfareroles,theS70B2,withitsbuiltinwinchandcargohook,isalso used extensively at sea to transfer personnel and for the vertical replenishment of stores to ships while they remainunderway. With minor modification, the aircraft is capable of being converted to a troopcarrying role, lifting up to 10 troops at a time. It also makes a capable maritime search and rescue platform capable of day and night rescues,asshownbyrescuesduringthe1998SydneytoHobartyachtrace.TheSeahawkisexpectedtobethe mainstayoftheFleetAirArmforatleastthenext20years.

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EUROCOPTER TIGER ARH


22aircraftoperatedby161stand162ndSquadron

Introduction
TheEurocopterTigerisanattackhelicoptermanufacturedbytheEurocopterGroup.InGermanyitisknownas theTiger;inFranceandSpainitiscalledtheTigre.ItisalsodesignatedtheEC665orPAH2.

Loadouts Loadout Outerholder 2xMistral/Stinger ATA ATALR 2xMistral/Stinger PGMM 4xPARS3LRATGM

Innerholder 2xMistral/Stinger 1x350litredroptank 4xPARS3LRATGM

Innerholder 2xMistral/Stinger 1x350litredroptank 4xPARS3LRATGM 4xPARS3LRATGM 4xEuromissileHOTIII 4xEuromissileHOTIII 4xPARS3LR ATGM/HOTIII 1x350litredroptank

Outerholder 2xMistral/Stinger 2xMistral/Stinger 4xPARS3LRATGM 1x22SNEB68mm Rocket/19Hydra70mm Rocket 4xEuromissileHOTIII 1x22SNEB68mm Rocket/19Hydra70mm Rocket 2xMistral/Stinger 4xPARS3LR ATGM/HOTIII

1x22SNEB68mm PGMM Rocket/19Hydra70mm 4xPARS3LRATGM Rocket PGMM 4xEuromissileHOTIII 4xEuromissileHOTIII 1x22SNEB68mm PGMM Rocket/19Hydra70mm 4xEuromissileHOTIII Rocket PGMM 2xMistral/Stinger PGMM 4xPARS3LR LR ATGM/HOTIII UGR 4xPARS3LR ATGM/HOTIII 1x350litredroptank

1x22SNEB68mm 1x22SNEB68mm 1x22SNEB68mm 1x22SNEB68mm Rocket/19Hydra70mm Rocket/19Hydra70mm Rocket/19Hydra70mm Rocket/19Hydra70mm Rocket Rocket Rocket Rocket 57|P a g e

www.vostokstation.com.au Onlymostcommonloadoutspresented. The Tiger ARH(ArmedReconnaissance Helicopter) is theversion ordered by theAustralian Armyto replace its OH58 Kiowas and UH1 Iroquoisbased 'Bushranger' gunships.[3] The Tiger ARH is a modified and upgraded version of theTiger HAP with upgradedMTR390 enginesas well as a laser designator incorporated in the Strix sight for the firing of Hellfire II airtoground missiles. Instead of SNEB unguided rockets, the ARH will operate 70mm(2.75in.)rocketsfromBelgiandeveloper,ForgesdeZeebruges(FZ).

General characteristics
*Crew:2(pilot,weaponsystemsofficer) *Length:14.08mfuselage(46ft2in) *Rotordiameter:13.00m(42ft8in) *Height:3.83m(12ft7in) *Discarea:133m(1,430ft) *Emptyweight:3,060kg(6,750lb) *Maxtakeoffweight:6,000kg(13,000lb) *Internalfuelcapacity:1,080kg(2,380lb) *Powerplant:2RollsRoyce/Turbomca/MTUMTR390turboshafts,873kW(1,170shp)each

Performance
* Maximum speed: 290 km/h with mast, 315 km/h without mast (157 knots, 181 mph with mast, 170 knots or196mphwithoutmast) *Range:800km(430nm,500mi)combat *Ferryrange:1,300km(700nm,800mi) *Serviceceiling4,000m(13,000ft) *Rateofclimb:10.7m/s(2,105ft/min)

Armament
*Guns: o130mm(1.18in)GIAT30cannoninchinturret(HAP,HAD,ARH)or o112.7mm(0.50in)or20mm(0.787in)guninpod(UHT) *Rockets:Podsof o1970mm(2.76in)SNEB(HAD),or o1970mmHydra(UHT,ARH),or o2268mm(2.68in)SNEB(HAP),or o770mmSNEBorunguidedrockets(HAD) *Missiles: o8PARS3LRand/orHOT3(UHT)or o8RafaelSpikeER(SpanishHAD)or o8AGM114Hellfireantitankmissiles(ARH,FrenchHAD) o4AIM92Stingerairtoairmissiles(UHT,ARH)or o4Mistralairtoairmissiles(HAP,HAD)

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CH47D CHINOOK
TheCH47DChinookisoperatedbyCSquadron,5AviationRegiment.

Photo:CH47DWikipedia

Introduction
The Boeing CH47 Chinook is a versatile, twinengine, tandem rotor heavylift helicopter. Its top speed of 170 knots(196mph,315km/h)wasfasterthanutilityandattackhelicoptersofthe1960sandevenmanyoftoday. Its primary roles include troop movement, artillery emplacement and battlefield resupply. There is a wide loadingrampattherearofthefuselageandthreeexternalcargohooks. TheCH47DwasoriginallypoweredbytwoT55L712engines,butmostarenowfittedwiththeT55GA714A. ModelsCH47A,CH47B,andCH47C,allusedthesameairframe,butlatermodelsfeaturedupgradedengines. With its triplehook cargo system, the CH47D can carry heavy payloads internally and up to 26,000 pounds externally, for example, bulldozers and 40foot containers, at speeds over 155 mph (250 km/h). In air assault operations, it often serves as the principal mover of the 155 mm M198 howitzer, 30 rounds of ammunition, and an 11man crew. Like most US Army helicopters, the Chinook has advanced avionics and electronics, including the Global Positioning System. The MH47D and MH47E variants are intended for special forces operationsandhaveinflightrefueling,afastroperappellingsystemandotherupgrades.TheMH47Dwasan earlyspecialoperationsversionfortheUSArmy.

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Specifications (CH47D)

General characteristics
*Crew:3:pilot,copilot,flightengineer *Capacity: o3355troopsor o24littersand3attendants o28,000poundscargo *Length:98ft10in(30.1m) *Rotordiameter:60ft0in(18.3m) *Height:18ft11in(5.7m) *Discarea:2,800ft(260m) *Emptyweight:23,400lb(10,185kg) *Loadedweight:26,680lb(12,100kg) *Maxtakeoffweight:50,000lb(22,680kg) *Powerplant:2LycomingT55GA712turboshafts,3,750hp(2,796kW)each

Performance
*Maximumspeed:170knots(196mph,315km/h) *Cruisespeed:130kt(137mph,220km/h) *Range:400nmi(450mi,741km) *Serviceceiling18,500ft(5,640m) *Rateofclimb:1,522ft/min(10.1m/s) *Discloading:9.5lb/ft(47kg/m) *Power/mass:0.28hp/lb(460W/kg)

Armament
M134,7.62minigun,M2407.62machinegun

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