Anda di halaman 1dari 306

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

ed'gef;
jrefrmou&mZf 841 ckESpf (at'D - 1479) wGif yJcl; ([Hom0wD) bk&if &mrm"dywd ("rapwD)
rif;onf uvsmPDodrfausmufpma&;xdk;onfhtcg ok0Pblrdt&yf ]Ak'omoem pwifwnf &[ef;
a,mufsm;? &[ef;rde;f r? omraPa,mufsm;? omraPrde;f rwdjhk zpfMuuke\
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bk&m;\ taemufajrmufaxmifh&SdaMumif;? NrdKYwpf0ufum; awmifay:&Sd? tjcm;wbufum; nDaomajrjyif
jzpfaMumif; a&;xdk;azmfjy\/
txufyg uvsmPDord af usmufpmTe;f twdik ;f vdu
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t&mxrf;rsm;jzpfMuaom a'gufwmtD;? azmfcrf;rm;ESifh rpwmawmfpdefcdkwdkYESpfOD;onf rGefjynfe,f? oxHkcdkif?
bD;vif;NrdKYe,f auvmoawmifajcodkY uGif;qif;avhvmcJhMu\/ auvmoawmifajc0if;u&GmESifh uif;&Gm
tMum; a&S;ok0PblrdNrdKYdk; ESifh usHK;wdkYt<uif;tusefrsm;udk awGYcJh&aMumif; if;wdkY\ tpD&ifcHpmrsm;wGif
toD;oD;azmfjycJhMum\/ 1958 - ckESpfodkY a&mufonfhtcg a&S;a[mif;okawoeTefMum;a&;0efOD;zdk;vwf?
jrefrmEdkifiHordkif;aumfr&SiftzGJY0if ygarmuvkpfESifh a'gufwma':oif;MunfwdkY tzGJYonf auvmoawmifajcrS
wdkufukvm;NrdKUa[mif;ae&mudkvnf;aumif;? ,ckoxHkNrdKYae&m&Sd oxHkNrdKYa[mif;wdkYudkvnf;aumif;? uGif;qif;
azmfxkwfay;cJhMu\/ 1974 ckESpfodkYa&muf onfUtcg? ok0PblrdNrdKYa[mif;wl;azmfokawoevkyfief;udk
a&S;a[mif;okawoeXmeu pwifaqmif&GufcJh&m? 1975 ckESpfrS 1978 ckESpftxd rGefjynfe,f? oxHkcdkif?
bD;vif;NrdKYe,f? auvmoawmifajcrS t,uforESifh 0if;uaus;&Gmwl;azmfrIrsm;? 1986-ckESpfrS? 2000jynfhESpf
txd usdKuomNrdKYa[mif;wl;azmfokawoevkyfief;ESifh 2000 jynfhESpf oxHkNrdKYa[mif; wl;azmfokawoe
vkyif ef;rsm;udk aqmif&u
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Ykd ;l azmfoak woevkyif ef;rsm;rS yPmrwl;azmfrt
I pD&ifcpH mrsm;
toD;oD;azmfjyxm;csuft& ok0PblrdNrdKYa[mif;acwf (bDpD 3 &mpkESpf) txd a&S;usEdkifaom taxmuf
txm;rsm;udk cdkifcdkifrmrmawGY&Sd&aMumif;rod&ao;yJ? taxmuftxm;trsm;pkrSm yk*Hacwf(c&pf 11-&mpkESpf)
,Ofaus;rItaxmuftxm;rsm;om jzpfaMumif;od&ygonf/

-1 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

tjcm;wpfzufwGif 1980 jynfhvGefESpfrsm;rSp aumif;uif"gwfyHkavhvmrIrSwpfqifh? a&S;NrdKUa[mif;


ae&mrsm;pGmudk auvmoawmifajca'oESihf teD;0ef;usiaf 'owdrYk aS wG&Y cdS &hJ \/ auvmoawmif\ajrmufbuf
wGif ppfawmif;? usKd uo
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uav;? ZGJ*vm? 0dkif;ywf? rkoif? rkqdk;ruRef; (uuwpf)? vdyfcHk;paom NrdKYa[mif;rsm;&SdMu\/ bD;vif;jrpf0
uRef;ay:ta&SYydkif; uwdkufuav;? uwdkufBuD;? qdyfuRef;? r&rf;ukef;? 'Hk0ef;paom NrdKYa[mif;ukef;rsm;udk
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oxHkNrdKUa[mif;tapmydkif; acwftaxmuftxm;[k qdkEdkif\/ oxHk\taY&SawmifbufwGif rkwrNrdKYteD;
prge*d&k f (vuGe;f Asn;f ) NrKd aY [mif;udak wG&Y \/ if;azmfjyyg NrKd aY [mif;uke;f rsm;udk uGi;f qif;okawoejyKonft
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hf Ofaus;rIqikd &f m ajrrD;zkwf
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NrKd aY [mif;rsm;onf yHo
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okawoeawGY&Sdcsufrsm;udk aygif;pyfNyD; ok0Pblrd,Ofaus;rIe,fajrudk azmfxkwf&ef MudK;yrf;xm;ygonf/
ok0PblrdNrdKYawmfa[mif;wnfae&mESifhywfouf taY&Sawmiftm&Sa'otwGif; ae&mtoD;oD;udk
owfrSwfTefjyxm;onfvnf;&Sd\/ taY&Sawmiftm&Sa'owpfckvHk;udk ac:qdkjcif;jzpfaMumif; NcHKiHkoHk;oyfxm;
yHkudkvnf;awGY&\/ odkY&mwGif uGif;qif;okawoe awGY&SdcsufwdkYt& atmufjrefrmEdkifiH? rGefjynfe,f?
oxHkcdkifa'otwGif;rS oxHkNrdKUa[mif;BuD;udkom ok0Pblrd trSefjzpfaMumif; tqdkjyKwifjyxm;ygonf/

-2 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

ok0Pbrl d okawoe
jrefrmEdkifiHonf ok0PblrdNrdKYa[mif;wnf&mXmejzpfaMumif;
uGi;f qif;okawoe taxmuftxm;ESiw
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d pm
udak &;ygonf/ ajray:wiG af wmzH;k vsuf uG,af ysmufaeao;aom NrKd aY [mif;
rsm;udk pepfwus uGi;f qif;avhvmjcif; rjyKEidk af o;ouJo
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wGief pfjrKyaf eqJ ]ok0Pbrl }d ,Ofaus;rItarGtESprf sm;udk okawoDwYdk
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tvmcufcjJ cif;? e,fajrrNird ;f csr;f ao;jcif;wkaYd Mumifh okawoDrsm; ta&muf
taygufenf;aeygao;onf/ xdkYtjyif y"meusaom tcsdKY NrdKYa[mif;
ae&mrsm;udk 1970 jynfv
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-3 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

ok0Pbrl d trnfwiG yf kH
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NrdKYawmfa[mif;onf ,ckoxHkNrdKUae&myifjzpfaMumif;? ,if;NrdKYawmfudk jrefrmhtpOftvmrSwf wrf;rsm;wGif
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Y rnfwiG cf ahJ Mumif; ]oxH&k mZ0if}udk jyKpo
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Ykd qdyk gonf/
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f yfaom tif;tdik pf onfwYkd aygrsm;aomaMumif}h ok0Pbrl [
d k
a&S;tcguyifac:Muonf/ (oxH&k mZ0if? pm-30)
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d jynfot
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hf uG uko0wD
(tdEd,)jynfrScGJxGufvmNyD;? pnfrsufESmjyifuJhokdY om,mnDGwfaom oxHkNrdKYwnf&mt&yf? awmBuD;odkY
a&mufvmcJah Mumif;? xdt
k cgawmtajc? awmif\tajcajrjyif a&Tajr&wem aygi;f rsm;pGmwdu
Yk kd aumif;pGm
jrifawG&Y ojzifh pdwEf v
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Yk dk ckwx
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axmifvsuf ol&,
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hf al omaMumifh
ok"r0wD[ak c:wiG f aMumif;azmfjyonf/} (oxH&k mZ0if? pm- 19-20)

-4 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

yd#uwfawmfEiS Uf t|uxmvm ok0Pbrl d


t*Fw
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-5 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

[ke?f rek w
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tema&m*gEydS pf ufaom ukeo
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xdkaooGm;aom ukefonfonf jyKNyD;tyfaomukodkvfaumif;rI&Sdygaomfvnf; ewfjynf rjzpfbJ rdef;r
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(ayw-t|-254)

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wHye*a[wGm? ok0Pbrl d H
*Em"[k"eH tm[&dwmG /

-6 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

&ZH *PS
d mrDw?d aomOyH
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O'get|uxm
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twaem em&H Oy*d / /
t|ar *ga&ye ]ok0Pbrl d H trdmrd} wd

-7 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

tma&mydw ba@g em0H tbd[


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[ljzpfygonf/

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-8 -

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-9 -

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- 10 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

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- 11 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

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- 12 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

4/ pwkwj zpf&yfrmS Ak'v


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l aygi;f wdYk

- 13 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

BuKd qMdk uNy;D ? dak oav;jrwfpmG a&Teef;awmfO;D ok"rmr@yfaqmuf yd#uwfawmf[al om "rapwDawmfukd


oGi;f xm;&aMumif;azmfjyygonf/ (rSeef ef;? 211)
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(,cif BURMA HISTORICAL COMMISSION LIBERARY) wdkufydkiftrSwf (2982)
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axmifrnft
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Y aMumif;? ok"r0wD
oxHNk rKd Y xlaxmifyt
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hf uG [Hom0wDacwfordik ;f qdik &f m
rif;pOfrif;quftjzpftysufrsm;yg&Sdonf/
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kH sr;f tao;
pdwyf g&NdS yjD zpfonf/ yJc;l udk orv? 0drvxlaxmifyEkH iS hf if;rif;qufrsm;? if;xufy
kd apmonfh ok"r0wD
oxHrk if;qufrsm;? wnfaxmifcahJ om NrKd aY wmfrsm;taMumif;udrk l rGe&f mZ0if tjynft
U pHak zmfjyxm;onfukd
awGY&ygonf/

- 14 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

]rkwr NrKd Y r[mydEb


J ek ;f awmfBu;D xH rGet
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Y yk o
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(1000) a0cJah om pmtkyjf zpfonf/ &mrna'orS NrKd aY ygi;f (70) ausmw
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ud;k um;azmfjycsut
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tygt0if? oxH&k mZ0if (OD;ynm) rS aumufEw
k af zmfjycsurf sm;udk wifjyoGm;rnfjzpfygonf/

- 15 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

oxH&k mZ0if(OD;ynm)
yxrok"r0wD
](jrefrmou&mZf) 1185 ck (c&pfEpS f 1796)? owif;uRwv
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wGi;f rS i&Jo-D i&rfryd vJ-ZmwwGew
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10/ O'kr&&mZm
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5/ a'0wd&mZm
7/ eE&mZm
9/ omrn&mZm
11/ umv0gEk&mZm
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15/ r[mom&&mZm
17/ tEkr&mZm
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aeav\/ (oxH&k mZ0if? pm - 36 - 37)

- 16 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

'kw,
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2/ Ava'0rif;
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3/
5/
7/
9/
11/
13/
15/

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AE0rif;
okbm0dwrif;
r[maomurif;

- 17 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

16/ wdrif; paom rif;aygi;f wpfq,fah jcmufqufwo


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(oxH&k mZ0if? pm - 36-40)
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(ok"r&mZmrif;)? 'kw,
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wnf&adS ecJah om ok0Pbrl Nd rKd u
Y kd oD[&mZm rif;vufxufwiG f wnfcjhJ yefonf/ (oxH&k mZ0if? pm- 42)

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Yk nf odMum;rif;ESiw
hf idk yf ifNy;D

- 18 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

NrKd eY ef;udk topfxyfrjH yKjyifMuum NrKaYd wmfopfukd ok"r0wD[o


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k 0k Pwikd ;f &Sif
bk&ifrmS vnf; b0a[mif;u nDaemifjzpfczhJ ;l aMumif;udv
k nf; od&ojzif?h bk&m;xHwiG f cGiyhf ef<uvmcJ\
h /
w&m;awmfuv
kd nf;a[m\/ yg&rD&ifo
h efBu;D olrsm; w&m;& aumif;jrwfaomtusiu
fh kd usiMhf uavonf/
oD[&mZmrif;vnf; *0Hywdtm; eef;awmfoyYkd if
h w&m;em\/ txufunDaemifjzpfczhJ ;l aMumif;udk odMuNy;D vQif
oD[&mZmrif;onf bk&m;&Siu
f ,
kd af wmfwikd t
f m;zl;jrifv
kd yifah qmifay;&ef *0HywdxaH wmif;yefonf/ *0Hywd
vnf; bk&m;ae&mAdrmefudk OD;pGmaqmufap\/ ausmif;awmfNyD;vQif yef;qDrD;aygufaygufwdkhjzifh ylaZmfNyD;
yifah wmfro
l nf/ (oxH&k mZ0if? pm 5. 7-60)

ok0Pbrl o
d Ykd jrwfpmG bk&m;<uvmawmfrjl cif;
jrwfpmG bk&m;onf *0Hywdyifah Mumif;udo
k
d ypE& mZf omoemawmft&Snx
f eG ;f vif;rnf taMumif;udk
jrifawmfr
l r[mou&mZf 111 ckEpS t
f wGi;f <uvmNy;D ok0Pbrl o
d aYkd &mufonf/ wdro[
D &mZmrif;ESihf
jynfolrsm;obifBuD;pGmcHvsuf w&m;emMu\/ teDta0;&Sd&aohwdkYvnf; w&m;awmfema&mufvmMu?
bk&m;&Six
f rH S ud;k uG,pf &mqHawmfukd vdck sipf w
d &f MdS uuke\
f / xdt
k aMumif;udk odawmfr
l bk&m;&Siu
f &aohukd
udk;uG,f&ef qHawmfrsm;ay;oem;awmfrlonf/
1/ *p*D&dawmif? wdukrm&aoh
2/ AE0*D&dawmif? oD[ukrm&&aoh
3/ 'd;k uarmhuwG*H vdik af wmif (usKu
d x
f ;D d;k )? Ak'O mP&aoh (wd&aohBu;D )
4/ 'd;k cvGe;f (auvmo) awmif&aoh
5/ rJvHawmif&aoh
6/ ukodem&Hawmif&aoh
wdYk aygi;f (6) a,mufaom &aohwq
Ykd aH wmfO;D pGm&Mu\/ rMumrD

- 19 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

7/ rGwv
f tdawmif? uy&aoh
8/ rGwv
f tyfawmif? em&'&aoh
9/ usKdurDawmif&aoh
10/ aum,uZkwfokwfuRef;rS ewfbDvl;nDaemif-2-a,muf
12/ 'dk;,Gef;awmif&aoh
13/ aqmifcJawmifrS tvuy&aoh
aygi;f (7) OD;aom yk*Kd vx
f ;l wdYk jrwfpmG bk&m;xHtzl;tajrmfa&mufMu qHawmfwpfqpl D ay;oem;awmfro
l nf/
wd"ro[
D &mZmrif;tm;vnf; qHawmfEpS q
f al y;oem;awmfrjl yefonf/ xdt
Yk jyif bk&m;y&deAd m efpH
vGefawmfrlaomf oGm;awmfrsm;udk*0Hywdaqmif,l oD[&mZmrif;tm;ay;vmvdrfhrnf/ apwDjyK xyfrH
ud;k uG,af wmh[k Asm'dwaf y;cJo
h nf/ uJo
h Ykd bk&m;&Siq
f aH wmf (15)ql&aMumif;udk rGe&f mZ0if apwDawmf
ordik ;f aygi;f csKyu
f qdyk gonf/ (oxH&k mZ0if? pm 6. 0-63)
oD[&mZmrif;onf w&m;awmfuekd mcdu
k ?f aowwfaomoabmudk jrifojzifh xdwv
f ef
Y ]aeYao
rnf? naornfrod? rjrifEdkif (37) ESpfMumrS pG,fawmfudk udk;uG,f&[efr&Sd} [k pdwfu&SdaMumif;udk
bk&m;&Sio
f ad wmfro
l nf/ odjhk zpf bk&m;&Si\
f kyw
f ak wmfukd vky
f ud;k uG,&f efciG hf jyKawmfro
l nf/ &ufvnfatmif
aeawmfr
l bk&m;a&SaY wmfwiG f a&Tqif;wkukd bk&m;ud,
k af wmftwdik ;f oGe;f oD[&mZmrif;ud;k uG,&f onf
[kqo
kd nf/ (oxH&k mZm0if? pm- 61-2) (rSe&f mZm0if? pm-4-5)

qHawmf? kyyf mG ;awmf? "gwfawmfrsm; Xmyem apwDwnfMujcif;


wd"ro[
D &mZmrif;onf jrwfpmG bk&m;&Si\
f qHawmfEpS q
f u
l kd ok0Pbrl jd ynftwGi;f ou&mZf
111 ckEpS rf mS yif Xmyem apwDawmfwnfvyk u
f ;kd uG,o
f nf/ (,ck a&Tpm&HapwD[k trnfwiG o
f nf/)
xdak emuf ou&mZf 148 ck? tZmwowfrif;NzKd aomESp?f bk&m;y&deAd m ef pHveG af wmfral om tcg?
oGm;awmf "gwaf wmf 33 qlukd txufAsm'dwpf um;twdik ;f *0Hywd&[EmydaYk y;vmojzif?h 4if;ESpt
f wGi;f rSmyif
wd"ro[
D &mZmrif;onf oGm;awmf 33 qlwu
Ykd kd rdz&k m; 33 yg;? wpfyg;vQif wpfqu
l spaD y;tyf?
ausmufapwD 33 qlwnfvyk af p\/ (OD;a&Taemf? pm -24)
*p*&D ad wmifu wdukrm&&aohonf rdr&d aom bk&m;&Sif qHawmfwpfqu
l kd *p*&D ad wmifxyd f
tpGe;f wGif Xmyemvdo
k nfjzpf oD[&mZmrif;ESihf wdik yf ifNy;D ? bdeyfawmf (10) awmif apwDwnfvyk o
f nf/
xdkapwDtapmifhtxdef;vl tdrfaygif; 50 udk (oD[&mZmrif;u) awmifajc&if;wGif &Gmwnfvkyfap\/
4if;&Gm trnfum; ]uGr;f Zdik ;f usy}f wGi\
f / jrefrmjyefaom uGr;f = &Gm/ Zdik ;f = ajc/ usyf ^ usmuf = bk&m;
]bk&m;ajc (&if;) &Gm}[kq\
kd / xd&k mG trnfukd pGNJ y;D vQif aemufom;? aemufajr;wdu
Yk ]Zdik ;f usy}f &Gmudk
]Zif;usKduf&Gm}[kvnf;aumif;? bk&m;udkvnf; Zif;usKdufbk&m;[kvnf;aumif; rrSefruefac:Mu\/ 4if;
bk&m;apwD\ rlvbGJYawmfrSm ]usKdufajAmfewf}ac:\/ jrefrmbmomjyefaomf usKduf = bk&m;/ ajAmf =
rde;f r/ ewf = e*g;/ ]e*g; rde;f rbk&m;} ]e*g;rbk&m;} [k qd\
k / awmiftrnfrmS ]*p*&D }d [k rlvtrnfwiG af e\/
(OD;a&Taemf? pm- 24-25) odhkaomfvnf;? aemiftcg Zif;usKu
d af wmif[yk ifac:Muawmhonf/

- 20 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

AE0*D&ad wmifae oD[ukrm& &aohuvnf;? rdr&d &Sx


d m;aom qHawmfwpfqu
l kd rdro
d w
D if;oH;k aeaom
awmifxyd t
f pGe;f wGif Xmyemvdo
k jzifh aumZmou&mZf 113 ckEpS f aemifawmf wdukrm&&aoh? wlawmf
ok0Pbrl b
d &k ifwEYkd iS hf wdik yf ifNy;D qHawmfuXkd myem\/ AE0*D&ad wmif bk&m;[kyif ac:Mu\/ usKu
d af jAmfewf
apwDEiS hf t&G,w
f yl ifjzpfonf/ AE0*D&ad wmifajc&if;rSm avS? oabFmrsm; rMumrMumcdu
k yf csaD ESmifwwfMu
aomaMumifh (xdpk Ofu oHviG jf rpfaMumif;onf awmifajc&if;rS pD;qif;cJzh ;l [efw\
l ) rGev
f w
l u
Ykd ]'d;k u&G,f
uyef}ac:Mu\/ ]oabFmcsnf aomawmif} [kt"dyg ,&f ? bk&m;udv
k nf; ]usKu
d *f &G,u
f yef}? ]oabFmcsnf
aombk&m;} [k ac:Muonf/ umva&GUavsm ]*&G,fuyef} rS ]ZGJuAef}? ]ZGJuyif} jzpfvmcJhonf/
(OD;a&Taemf? pm- 26)
'd;k uarmhcwG*H vdik ;f ? 'd;k ukoed m&H? 'd;k cvGe;f [laom awmifo;kH vH;k u &aoho;kH yg;&aom qHawmfrsm;udk
oHk;ESpftxd Xmyemjcif;rjyK&ao;bJ? 'kd;cvGef;? 'dk;ukodemHkawmifwdkYu &aohESpfyg; tema&m*gpGJuyf
'd;k uarmhcwG*H vdik ;f awmif Ak'O mP&aohxH rdrw
d &Ykd aomqHawmfrsm;udk ay;tyfNy;D rMumrDaovGeu
f ek Mf u\/
Ak'O mP&aohvnf; qHawmfo;kH qlraysmufrysu&f atmif rdrq
d u
H sprf mS pnf;aESmifxm;\/ xdaYk emuf Z&mzdq;D
ESyd pf uf pkawawmhrnfupkd ;dk &dr\
f / odMum;rif; qif;vmNy;D &Si&f aohqaH wmfo;kH acsmif; Xmyem&efun
l o
D nf/
wpfqu
l kd &aohO;D acgi;f ESiw
hf al om ausmufw;kH ud&k mS azGNy;D aumZmou&mZf 118 ckEpS t
f wGi;f ausmufw;kH udk
xGif;azmuf qHawmfXmyem\/ &aohwjynfUvufom;wdkYu apwDwnfvkyfudk;uG,fMuonf/ rGefbmom
]usKu
d t
f o
d d }kd jrefrmbmom ]&aoh&u
G x
f m;aombk&m;} qd\
k /
useaf om qHawmfEpS q
f t
l eufwpfqu
l kd odMum;rif;u 'd;k cvGe;f awmifxyd f wpfql awmifxyd af usmuf
udx
k iG ;f Xmyemay;\/ wdu
k v
m;NrKd Y oay:rif;ESihf vltaygi;f wdu
Yk bdeyfawmftawmif (50) apwDwnfvyk f
Mu\/ rGeb
f mom ]usKu
d af uom&} ac:\/ wdu
k v
m;NrKd Y oay:rif;wnf ]usKu
d o
f v
D ay: } vnf;ac:\/
(OD;a&Taemf? pm 2. 6-29)
useaf omqHawmfwpfqu
l kd bD;vif;NrKd aY ';cifawmifwef;\ taemufajrmufaxmift
h &yf ukoed m&H
trnf&adS omawmifwiG f odMum;rif;Xmyemay;jyef\/ qHawmfXmyemaom ausmufw;kH ay:u apwDi,fwpfqu
l kd
'g,umwdu
Yk wnfvyk u
f ;kd uG,Mf u\/ bGt
YJ rnfrmS ]usKu
d u
f o
k ed m&H}ac:\/
xdkYaemuf omoemESpf 235 wGif aomPax&f? Ow&ax&fwdkYonf 'kwd,wnfaom
ok"r0wDoxHjk ynf (auvmoawmifajcrSNrKd Y )udk omoemjyKvma&muf\/ aemufomoemESpf 250 ausmw
f iG f
(xdt
k &SiEf pS yf g;) y&deAd m efjyKawmfrMl uuke\
f / tavmif;awmfukd ukoed m&H bk&m;apwDxm;\/ xdaYk Mumifh
ukEd m Ht
k rnf ajymif; wGiaf vonf/ (OD;a&Taemf? pm 3. 0-31)
rJvaH wmifum; bD;vif;NrKd eY ,f? ,if;tk&H mG txuf bD;vif;acsmif;rucGo
J mG ;aom rJvaH csmif;ajrmuf
buf&So
d nf/ a&S;u em*yAwawmifjzpf\/ awmifay: ausmufw;kH Bu;D oH;k vH;k &S\
d / tay:ausmufv;kH udk
odMum;vm oefvsuEf iS hf oH;k awmifwrdu
k af v;opfeufatmif xGi;f azmufay;ojzifh (rJvaH wmif) &aohu
ou&mZf 119 ckEpS t
f wGi;f qHawmfwpfqXl myem\/ awmifteD;tyg;vlwYkd apwDwnfvyk u
f ;kd uG,Mf uNy;D ?
qHawmfb&k m;[lyifac:Mu\/ (OD;a&Taemf? pm 3. 1)
aqmifcaJ wmifum; auvmoawmifapwDawmf\ ta&SaU jrmufbuf? oJjzLacsmif;urf; em;wGi&f \
dS /
]tvl;} &GmESiehf ;D onf/ xdak wmifrS tvuy&aohonf rdr&d aomqHawmfwpfqu
l kd awmifpeG ;f ay: Xmyemvd
k
wdu
k u
f v
k m;NrKd U oay:rif;ESiw
hf idk yf ifNy;D ou&mZf 113 ckEpS t
f wGi;f aqmifcaJ wmifpeG ;f ay:wiG f XmyemMu\/

- 21 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

Zif;usKd uf qHawmfapwD
apwDawmfvnf;wnfvyk x
f m;\/ 4if;bk&m;onf bdeyfawmfajcmufq,fah v;awmift&G,f apwDBu;D jzpfonf/
awmifcyferd ehf rd ahf y:wiG f wnfxm;rxif r&Sm;&So
d nf/
rGwv
f tdawmifonf armfvNrKd iNf rKrUd S txufyikd ;f a[mifoa&macsmif;zsm;wGif usw
d Nf rK&Ud \
dS / 4if;usw
d Nf rKd U
ta&Sw
U nfw
h nfh c&D;wmaygi;f wpfaomif;ESpaf xmif (rkid f 50 cefY ) tuGm&S\
d / xdak wmifxyd f rGwv
f tdb&k m;
apwD&\
dS / rGwv
f tdawmifwiG f oDwif;oH;k aeaom tvuy&iS f &aohonf rdr&d cJah om qHawmfuw
kd ifw
h ,fpmG
Xmyemvk
d usw
d ?f awmifbt
Ykd p&Sad om a[mif oa&macsmif;zsm;wpfavQmuf tkypf ;kd aomukvmykrif;ESiw
hf idk yf ifNy;D
ou&mZf 114 ckESpfwGif rGwfvtdawmifxdyf Xmyemwkdufvkyf\/ qHawmfudk a&TMuKwfESifhoGwfoGif;
Xmyem\/ bdeyfawmf q,fawmif? OmPfawmf wq,fhig;awmifausmufapwDwnfvkyf udk;uG,fMu\/
awmifxyd jf yif tus,f ta&St
U aemuf tawmifav;q,f? (ay 80)? awmifEiS ahf jrmufEpS q
f ,fih g;awmif
(ay 50)&S\
d / apwDbaYGJ wmfum; ]usKu
d rf w
G v
f td}? rGerf mbmom ]tNrx
J ifay:aombk&m;} qd\
k / awmiftjrihrf mS
(ay 6000) cef&Y o
dS nf/
rGwv
f tdawmifrS awmifbufc&D;jrefrmoH;k wkid f (6 rkid )f tuGm? ewfbv
D ;l awmif [kac:aom
awmif&\
dS / xdak wmifrS ta&SY p;l pl;&Sprf ikd cf eft
Y uGmwGif rGwv
f tyfawmifBu;D &S\
d / xdak wmifukd ,d;k ',m;&Sr;f wdu
Yk ydik f
\/ 4if;rGwv
f tyfawmif oDwif;oH;k aom em&'&Si&f aohonf ok0Pbrl o
d xHjk ynf jrwfpmG bk&m;<uvmpOfu
qHawmfwpfql&cJh\/ qHawmfjrwfudkaumif;rGefBuD;us,fpGm Xmyemvdkojzifh rGwfvtdXmyem wdkufuJhodkY
pDr
H rGwv
f tyfawmifxyd f Xmyem\/ bk&m;apwDbaYJG wmfrmS ]usKu
d rf w
G v
f tyf} ac:\/ rGwv
f tyf
awmiftjrifrh mS ayaygi;f (6500) jrif\
h / (OD;a&Taemf? pm 3. 9-40)
0gclNrKd aY wmifbuf? vrkid ;f NrKd t
Y wGi;f auvmoawmifb&k m;apwD&\
dS / auvmo&Sif &aohvnf;
qHawmfwpfq&l xm;\/ if;qHawmfukd rGwv
f td? rGwv
f tyfawmifxyd zf sm;rS apwD wnfvyk u
f ;kd uG,o
f uJo
h Ykd
wnfvyk u
f ;kd uG,Mf uuke\
f / (OD;a&Taemf? pm 4. 0)

- 22 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

ukoed mHk qHawmfapwD

rJvaH wmif qHawmfapwD

aqmifcJawmifusdKufwJqHawmfapwD

- 23 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

usKu
d r b
D &k m;apwDrmS ? usKu
d r aD wmif&aohxq
H aH wmfwpfq&l Ny;D ? 4if;usKu
d r aD wmifay:wiG f (,ckqif
yke;f *lteD;) Xmyemwnfvyk u
f ;kd uG,Mf u\/ apwDbaYJG wmfrmS ]usKu
d r }D ac:\/ ]arQmMf unfb
h &k m;} [kvnf;
t"dyg ,&f onf/ ,ckausmufaqmifay:rS a&v,fb&k m;r[kwaf y/ (OD;a&Taemf? pm 4. 1)
bD;vif;e,fZw
k o
f w
k t
f &yfonf bk&m;ryGirhf u
DS mv ewfbv
D ;l rsm;aeaom uRe;f jzpf\/ ok0Pbrl o
d Ykd
bk&m;&Si<f uvmawmfrpl Of 4if;uRe;f aeewfbv
D ;l nDaemifEpS yf g;oGm;a&mufz;l ajrmf MuNy;D ? qHawmfwpfq&l cJo
h nf/
ou&mZf 113 ckEpS u
f p *0Hausmuftw
k w
f jhkd zifh bk&m;apwDwnf vkyNf y;D ? Xmyemwdu
fk rf mS qHawmfuakd &TMuKwf
xnfhoGif;Xmyem\/ ewfbDvl;nDaemifESpfa,mufwdkY\ orD;awmfewforD;rsm;u bk&m;ocifOD;acgif;xuf
ayguaf omqHyiftvGew
f &m twkr&Sjd rwfay onf/ igwOhdk ;D acgi;f u qHyifuv
kd nf;jzwfv;DS ylaZmfXmyemaomf
aumif;\[k oabm& rdrw
d Ykd OD;acgi;f rSqyH ifukd jzwfv;DS umBuKd ;uJo
h u
Ykd spNf y;D Xmyem\/ 4if;ewforD;qHyif
BuKd ;ylaZmfXmyem jcif;aMumifh ]usKu
d Zf w
k o
f w
G }f ac:\/ ewfbv
D ;l wnfaombk&m;jzpf ]usKu
d u
f vGw'f uf}
[l vnf;ac:onf/ apwDatmuf bdeyfawmftawmif 90? (135 ay)? 4if;bdeyfcHk (*0Hausmuf
tkwpf )D tjrifh 23awmif (35 ay) xdck akH y:rS wpfzef 'kw,
d bdeyfawmf tawmif 36 awmif (54 ay)?
8 ajrm if?h wpfajrm ifv
h Qif 18 awmif (27 ay)? OmPfawmftawmif 60 (90 ay) wnf vkyMf u\/
apwDywfvnfwiG f (*0H) ausmufx;D &Gu?f AsuEf pS af wmifwpfru
kd f (3 ay? 6 vu)? 12 pif;vSL'ge;f ylaZmf\/
xkdbk&m;apwDwnfvkyfaom *0HtkwfwdkYonf bdeyfawmfu wwd,yp,Htxd 4if;twGif;ti,fqHk;
vlwpfa,mufvQif ESpjf ym;,laqmifEidk o
f nf/ tvwfpm;tkwrf mS vl 20-25 a,mufyifch s,
D al qmifEikd o
f nf/
tBu;D qH;k tkwrf mS vl 70-80 rS ,laqmifEikd o
f nf/ (OD;a&T aemf? pm.43-44)
'd;k ,Ge;f awmifonf 'd;k cvGe;f (bDvif;auvmo) awmifxyd u
f sKu
d af uom&ESihf wpfquf wnf;?
wpfwef;wnf; ta&SpY ;l pl;&S\
d / xd'k ;kd ,Ge;f awmif&aohonf jrwfpmG bk&m;&Six
f rH &S aom qHawmfurdk rd o
d w
D if;
oHk;ae&m 'dk;,Gef;awmifxdyfwGif oifhawmfavsmufywfpGm ausmufwHk;ausmufcJ Xmyemwdkufkvkyf
qHawmfuakd &TMuKwt
f wGi;f xnfo
h iG ;f Xmyem\/ bk&m;apwDuv
kd nf; ausmuf wpfcsK?Ud ajrtkww
f pfcsKaUd &maESm
wnfvyk \
f / ,ckb&k m;apwDawmf bdeyfawmf 10 awmifcefY avmufNyKd ysuv
f suf ikww
f t
kd a[mif;twd&adS e\/
bk&m;apwD bGaYJ wmfrmS ]usKu
d 'f ;kd ,Ge;f } ac:\/ xdak pwDoYkd tzl;tajrmfwufaomtcg apwDa&mufcge;D wGif
acsmufurf;yg; jzpfaomaMumifh tvGeftoGm;cufojzifh acsmufurf;yg;udktpGJjyK 'kd;,Gef;[krGefwdkYac:\/
(,ck usKu
d af ';,sKH [k ac:Muonf) (OD;a&Taemf? pm 4. 4-45)

- 24 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

ok0Pbrl ?d ok"r0wD-oxHjk ynf (topfwnfpwkw ok"r0wD) pd;k pHMuaomrif;rsm;


wd"ro[
D &mZmrif; pnf;pdrt
f ESpf (60) pHawmfr
l ewf&mG pH\/ xdrk if;vufxuf ukoed mHak wmif
teD; r*FvmblrNd rKd u
U w
kd nfco
hJ nf/ a&Tpm&HapwDEiS hf aumif;rIuo
k v
kd rf sm;pGm vSL'ge;f cJo
h nf/ xdrk if;vGeaf omf
2/ om;awmf oD&d"rmaomu&mZmrif;jyKonf/
3/ om; "rygv&mZmrif;jyKonf/
4/ om; ok0P&mZm? r[m"r"Z rif;jyKonf/
xdrk if;vufxuf &wemoH;k yg;udk txl;ojzifh ,HMk unfjcif;jzpf bk;d awmfo[
D &mZmrif; wnfcahJ om
pd&aH pwD (a&Tpm&H) udk xyfrjH yKjyifco
hJ nf/ xdrk if; rdz&k m;Bu;D ok0Pa'0DrmS yxrt&G,w
f iG f om;awmf?
orD;awmfrjrifacs/ rif;Bu;D onf xD;arGeef;arGqufco
H rl &S
d olqif;&J orD;wpfa,mufukd rdz&k m;ajrm uf&m
(ok'0 o
H a'0D) bJ&YJG \/ om;awmfwpfyg;? orD;awmfEpS yf g; tpOftwdik ;f bGm;jrif\/ om;awmfukd &mZ0HotuF&k ukrm
trnfay;onf/ orD;awmftBu;D udk pEmoD&?d ti,fukd eef;OD;oD&d bGaYJ wmfrsm;ay;onf/
xd k o k 0 P r if ; BuD ; vuf x uf rZ d r a'orS toQif r [d E E S i f h toQif a omPpaom &[E m
ig;yg;<uvmonf/ aomPkw& paom&[Emrsm;r[kwaf o;? wpfjcm;yifjzpfonf/ &[Emt&Siw
f x
Ykd rH S qHawmf
(8) qlu&kd av\/ qHawmfrsm;udk &[Emt&Siw
f
hdk eT jf yaeaom? ok"r0wDNrKd Y ta&SaY wmif&?dS od*e u
d a wmif
xdyf? omoemESpf (128)? (bDpD 416) ckESpfwGif qHawmfESpfqludk XmyemapwDwnf\/ aemiftcg
xdak pwDukd ]o*ew
d }f apwD[k trnfwiG \
f / (,ckjroydwf apwDjzpfonf/)
xdaYk emuf ok"r0wDNrKd \
Y taemufajrmufwm (500) cefY (wpfrikd cf ef)Y tuGm? om& uvsmPDuek ;f
vnf; &[EwdkhTefjy qHawmfESpfqludkXmyemNyD; apwDwpfqlwnfawmfrl\/ (,ck oxHkNrdKUajrmufbuf
ajreDuek ;f &Gmay:awmfral pwDjzpf\/) xdak pwD\ bGaYJ wmfrmS ]om&uvsmPDapwD} [kwiG o
f nf/
useaf omqHawmfav;qlukd orD;awmfEpS af ,mufwt
Ydk m; ESpq
f pl t
D yf apwDwnfxm; ud;k uG,af ponf/
orD;awmftBu;D pEmoD&rD if;orD;&aomqHawmfEpS q
f u
l kd &[Emt&Siw
f Ykd Tejf yonfah e&m? pd&aH pwD\ taemuf
ajrmufwm 700 (wpfridk cf cJG ef)h tuGmwGif XmyemoGi;f apwDwnfav\/ xdak pwDukd pEmoD&ad pwD[
l yif
wGiaf v\/ umva&GaY vsm pHo;D apwD[k ac: Mujyefavonf/

- 25 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

orD;awmfti,f&aom qHawmfEpS q
f u
l v
kd nf; pd&aH pwDEiS hf pEmoD&ad pwDttMum; wnfxm;ud;k uG,f
av\/ xdak pwDukd orD;awmfti,f eef;OD;oD&u
d w
kd nfapaomaMumifh eef;OD;apwD[
l yifac:Muonf/ umv
&Sn
f emrnfa&GaY vsmojzif?h ,cktcg eef;awmfO;D apwD[ak c: Muonf/ (,ck oxHNk rKd eY ef;awmfO;D ausmif;0if;
awmifbuf&Sd\/)
xdo
k 0k P&mZmrif;Bu;D onf ok0Pbrl Nd rKd \
Y aemufbuf? jrpfi,f\wbufurf;? om& uvsmPD
apwD\ awmifbuf? wm (300) cefY (udu
k f 1050) tuGmwGif ausmif;wdu
k w
f nf t&Sirf [dEp aom
&[Emwdu
k u
f kd wnfaqmufNy;D t&[Em&mr[korkwcf o
hJ nf/ aemufvrl sm;u xdak usmif;awmf&mudk &[Emwdu
k f
[kac:Mu\/ ,ckwikd f xif&mS ;&S\
d / (oxH&k mZ0if? pm 6. 6-70)
xdkok0P&mZmrif;BuD;\ rdzk&m;BuD;ok0Pa'0DrSm t&G,fvGefrSom;awmfESpfyg;udk tpOftwdkif;
bGm;jrifjyefonf/ rif;Bu;D u rif;rsK;d -rif;EG,rf eS af om awmifeef;pHrzd &k m;Bu;D rS om;awmfrsm;bGm;jrifjcif; aemuf
usavpG[k oHa0*&om;Bu;D udk Oya'0&mZmoHa0? om;i,fukd O'dE& mZmoHa0[k trnftoD;oD;ay;onf/
rdz&k m;i,fraS rG;aom om;awmfBu;D tuF&k rif;om;onf rif;pnf;pdru
f rkd ufarmNy;D crnf;awmfrif;Bu;D
tm;ypfrSm;ojzifh tusOf;csumxm;onf/ tpmiwfa&iwfvnf;xm;avonf/ awmifeef;pHrdzk&m;BuD;u
Oyg,fESifhtpm;taomufay;onfudkvnf; cGifhrjyKay/ aemufqHk;crnf;awmfBuD;aoavonf/ awmifeef;pH
rdz&k m;Bu;D vnf; NrKd \
Y ajrmufbuf&dS jrpfi,f (acsmif;)wpfcw
k iG f a&odYk qif;vsuu
f ,
kd u
hf u
kd ,
kd o
f wfavonf/
xdkjrpf acsmif;i,fudk ]&dyHke'D}? ]&efolaMumifhaoaomjrpf}[k qdkMuonf/ (,ck oxHkNrdKY ajrmufbuf
a&ykyfprf;jzpf\/)
5/ xdt
k uF&k rif;om;onf crnf;awmfuo
kd wfNy;D eef;wufonf/ rif;usiw
hf &m;q,fyg;? ty&d[ed,
w&m;q,fyg;? o*F[w&m;av;yg;paom aumif;aomtrlt&mwdu
Yk kd tvH;k pHpk eG v
Yf suf rw&m;aomtrIujkd yK
onf/ crnf;awmfEiS w
hf uG bd;k avmif;awmf? ab;avmif;awmfwYkd aumif;rI apwDyx
k ;kd rsm;udv
k nf;NzKd zsu
f
XmyemwdkuftwGif;&Sd a&TaiG&wemOpmESifhwuG kyfwk-qif;wkrsm;udk ,liifoHk;pGJjcif;jyKav\/ txl;ojzifh
ab;avmif;awmf wd"ro[
D &mZmrif;rSp crnf;awmfo0k Prif;Bu;D vufxuftxd rif;wdt
Yk rSeo
f iG ;f ESH
XmyemcJah om pd&aH pwD (a&Tpm&H) twGi;f &Sd Xmyemypn;f rsm;udk NzKd zsux
f w
k ,
f o
l ;kH pGaJ vonf/ if;ESit
hf wl
tdraf &St
Y &mcefx
Y m;aom OD;&D;awmfEiS w
hf uG aoemywdrLS ;rwfwv
Ykd nf; rw&m;usiMhf u olawmfw&m;ysujf ym;
Muaomtcg ewfwo
Ykd nf;rcHEikd Mf uojzifh rd;k BuKd ;ypfjcif;? avmifr;D usjcif;? ajrBu;D tufysK
d ajrrsKjd cif; ponfjzifh
tuF&k ESiw
hf uG rw&m;usio
hf w
l Ykd aoMuavuke\
f / odMum;rif;ESihf &aohjrwfwzYkd efqif; wnfaxmif ay;cJah om
NrKd aY wmfwiG f roifrh avsmu
f siBhf uMH uaomaMumifh rif;ESiw
hf uG NrKd u
Y akd jrNrKd avonf/ (OD;ynm? pm 6. 6-73)

yrok0Pbrl d - ok"ry&l NrdKY


tuF&k rif;udk rd;k BuKd ;ypf? avmifr;D us? ajrrsKNd y;D NrKd Y Bu;D yg aysmufomG ;Ny;D aemuf ok0P&mZmrif;Bu;D \
awmifeef;pHrzd &k m;Bu;D ok0Pa'0DraS rG;zGm;aom om;awmfEpS af ,mufwo
Ykd nf NrKd yY suaf omtcg xGuaf jy;wdr;f
a&Smif toufab;rSvw
G Mf u\/ aemifawmf Oya'0&mZoHa0rif;om;onf rdrEd iS o
hf abmwlov
l t
l aygi;f udk
pkapmif;pnf;Muyfvsuf ajrrsKo
d mG ;aom NrKd &Y ma[mif;\awmifbufuyfvsuf NrKd Y ;kd oH;k xyf? usK;H oH;k xyfEiS Nhf rKd Y
Bu;D wnf\/ xdNk rKd u
Y kd ok0Pbrl w
d ikd ;f ? ok"ry&l NrKd [
Y k orkwaf v xD;eef;pd;k pHawmfrjl yefonf/

- 26 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

nDawmf O'dE& mZmoHa0rif;om;onfvnf; rdrEd iS o


hf abmwlol vltaygi;f ESiw
hf ikd yf if ok"r0wD
NrKd &Y ma[mif;\ta&SaY wmifay: NrKd w
Y nfvsuf &rm0wDNrKd [
Y k orkwNf y;D vQiaf emifawmfEiS hf xD;NyKd ief ef;NyKd if pd;k pHMu\/
wd"ro[
D &mZmrif;tm; odMum;rif;zefqif;ay;aom ok"r0wDNrKd u
U m; ,ckumv ok"rmuke;f jzpf
ownf;/ Oya'0rif;wnfaom ok"ry&l NrKd u
Y m; ,ckumvxif&mS ;&Sad om oxHNk rKd yY ifwnf;/ O'dEr if;wnfaom
&rm0wDNrKd o
Y nfum; ,ckoxHNk rKd \
Y ta&SaY wmifay:&Sad om v0NrKd Y ac:aom NrKd &Y ma[mif;yifwnf/
(OD;ynm? pm 7. 5)
Oya'0rif;onf omoemou&mZf (161) ckEpS f (bDpD 382) wGif ok"ry&l NrKd u
Y kd wnfaxmif
rif;usiw
Uf &m;q,fyg;paom usi0hf wfEiS jhf ynfph pkH mG rif;jyK Edik if aH wmfom,m\/ ok&Yd mwGif aemifawmftuF&k rif;
vufxuf bk&m;ykx;kd ponfwu
Ykd kd NzKd zsu
f &aom a&T? aiG? &wem wdu
Yk kd rodoH;k pGrJ &d mwGif rif;Bu;D \ud,
k f
uk|a&m*gpu
JG yfav\/ xdt
k cg rSL;rwf? aoemywdpaom jynfow
l u
Ykd xD;jzLaqmif;csi;f wpfyg;aom rif;wdMhk um;
ravsmo
f jzifh NrKd aY wmf\taemufawmif yifv,fwiG ;f &Sd uRe;f i,f wpfco
k Ykd ydv
Yk u
dk Mf u\/ xdo
k Ykd uRe;f i,foYkd
tydcYk &H onft
h cg rif;\pnf;pdrt
f ouf (30) &S
d ? uRe;f i,foYkd a&mufNy;D rMumrDuu
H ek af v\/

q|rok0Pbrl d - "n0wD (rkwr ) jrdKY


ok"ry&l NrKd &U iS f aemifawmfOya'0rif;tm; uk|a&m*gEel mpGu
J yf uRe;f i,foyYkd aYkd Mumif;udk &rm0wD
NrKd &Y iS f nDawmfO'dE& mZmrif;Mum;odvQif xdwv
f efjh cif;jzpf tuF&k rif;wdu
Yk kd ajrrsKad om ok"r0wDNrKd aY [mif;ESihf
eD;aomaMumifh jzpf&onf[x
k ifvsu?f a0;&modaYk jymif;a&TrY aS wmfrnf[k rSL;rwfrsm;ESiw
hf ikd yf ifNy;D vQif &r0wDNrKd rY S
onf awmifpOfawmifwef;wpfavQmufoYkd ajymif;a&TaY v aemufq;kH wpfcak om awmifwef;\tpGe;f tzsm;?
yifv,furf;em;odYk a&mufaomtcg awmBu;D udk ckwx
f iG &f iS ;f vif;apvsuf NrKd w
Y nf "n0wDNrKd [
Y k orkwNf y;D vQif
rif;vkyaf wmfro
l nf/ xdk "n0wDNrKd u
Y kd awmifpeG ;f ausmufpeG ;f wnfonfjzpfaomaMumifh rGeb
f momtm;jzifh
'Hrk ;l warmh[k ac:Muonf/ aemufpum;a&GaY vsm rkwr [kjzpfvmonf/ (OD;ynm? pm- 76-77) xd"k n0wD
(rkwr )NrKd Y O'dE& mZmtp? ode**Fgrif;tqH;k rif;aygi;f 12 qufwiG f xD;eef;ysu
f awmBu;D twdjzpfav\/
"n0wDNrdKYwnfaomESpfrSm omoemawmf 236 ckESpfjzpfonf[k rGef&mZm0ifqdk\/ aemufqHk;
ode**Fgrif;vufxufwiG f e*g;rOrSayguzf mG ;aomoli,frudk rdz&k m;ajrm uf om;awmfEpS yf g; orvESi0hf rd vwdu
Yk kd
zGm;onf/ e*g;rrSe;f od&aomtcg rdz&k m;udo
k wfavonf/ om;i,f ESpaf ,muftrdrjhJ zpf bd;k awmf&iS &f aohxH
tyfavonf/ &Si&f aohvnf; ajr;ESpaf ,mufukd auR;arG; t&G,af &mufaomf oxHrk if;xHtyfxm;onf/
rMumrD orvrif;om;ESihf oxHrk if;orD;wdYk &nfiMH uonfukd rif;uodvQin
f t
D pfuEkd pS af ,muf &aohxx
H u
G af jy;
vm&jyefonf/ bd;k awmf&aohvnf; nDaemifwu
Ykd kd [Hom0wD&&dS mod
hk eT jf yNy;D oGm;a&mufumrif;jyKaponf/
[Hom0wDwiG f orv? 0drvwdYk rif;jyKMuum yxr[Hom0wDrif;qufux
kd al xmifMuonf/

owrok"r0wD? r&dblrd (NrdKufobH)k NrdKY


Oya'0rif;udk xD;eef;ucs uRef;i,fodkYtydkYcH&onfhtcg xdkrif;\om;awmf &mZmaZmeDrif;om;
(oD0d&mZmrif;) ESifh om;awmf&mZmaZma0ac: aZmwukrmrif;om;wdkYonf ok0Pblrd? ok"r0wD?
ok"ry&l ae&monf igwEYkd iS rhf xdu
k w
f efNy[
D k oabmydu
k Nf y;D vQif xdwv
f efaY Mumuf&v
YHG su?f xdak e&mudk pGechf mG
xGuaf jy;Mu&efBuMH uonf/ rSL;rwfwEYkd iS w
hf idk yf ifNy;D aemuf omoemawmfou&mZf 191 ckEpS f (353 bDp)D

- 27 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

uwdu
k Bf u;D NrKd aY [mif; ESiUf eef;awmf&muke;f
wGif &mZmaZmeDrif;om;onf aus;vufawm&Gmaetdraf jcaygi;f (6700) ausmw
f u
kdY kd qifah c:ppk nf;Ny;D vQif
xdo
k 0k Pbrl d oxHNk rKd \
Y taemufajrmufwmaygi;f (4000) cefY (8 rdik cf ef)Y uGmaomt&yf uRe;f i,fig;uRe;f
wdkYudkaygif; NrdKYwnfaxmifxD;eef;pdkufaqmufvsuf crnf;awmfuJhodkY &mZmaZmeDrif;om;pdk;pHonf/
Oya'0NrKd rY yS gcahJ om "g;? vS?H av;jrm ; paomvufeufwu
Ykd v
kd nf; a&uefBu;D wl; aq;aMumonf/
apwDBu;D wpfqw
l nfNy;D vQi?f vufeufwu
Ykd dk XmyemoGi;f xm;avonf/ odaYk omf oH;k ESpw
f ikd af tmif NrKd aU wmf
vnf;rNy;D ? apwDawmfBu;D vnf;rNy;D rD? crnf;awmfOya'0rif;tedpd jzpf&onft
h wGuf pdwrf csr;f om? a&m*g
pGu
J yf ewf&mG pHonf/
crnf;awmfewf&GmpHvQif &mZmaZmeDrif;\om;awmf &mZmaZma0ac: aZmwukrmrif;om;onf
xD;eef;qufc
H rif;vky\
f / NrKd aY wmfEiS ahf pwDawmfwu
Ykd v
kd nf; qufvuftNy;D owfwnf onf/ Ny;D vQif r&do
blr-d ok"r0wD [korkwaf wmfro
l nf/ ,ckxNdk rKd aY [mif;udk rdu
k o
f zH;k [k ac:Muavonf/ (OD;ynm?pm 7. 879)? &mrna'o "gwfawmforkdif;wGifrl xdkNrdKUudk 'HkNrdKufobHk[kazmfjyygonf/ rGef&mZ0ifwGifrl NrdKY
wnfaMumif;udk azmfjyrxm;ay/ jiKyfaumif;yifrsm;pGm aygufaomuRef;udk ygVdwpf0uf? rGefwpf0ufjzifh
aumhr&dof[k ac:jcif;jzpfonf/ xkdrS r&doblrd[laomNrdKYtrnfjzpfonf[kqdk\/
uRef;i,fig;ckwdkY\trnfrsm;rSm
1/ aumhcwwfww
G f - (vTi,fuRe;f )? uwku
d u
f av;
2/ aumhcwwfEw
T f - (vTBu;D uRe;f )? uwdu
k Bf u;D
3/ aumhuoD - (pyg;avSu
h Re;f )? aumhuoJuRe;f
4/ aumhEiS ;f ES;D - (avSqyd u
f Re;f )? qdyu
f Re;f
5/ aumhr&dof - (jiKyaf umif;uRe;f )? r&rf;uke;f
wdjhk zpfMu\/ vTi,fuRe;f ? vTBu;D uRe;f ac:onfrmS xdpk OfubD;vif;jrpfonf ta&SzY ufurf;odx
Yk u
G
f ,ck
uwdu
k u
f av;ESihf uwku
d Bf u;D wdrYk mS jrpf0em;&Scd [
hJ efw\
l / aumif;uif"gwyf akH y:wiG v
f nf; xdu
k wdu
k u
f av;ESifh

- 28 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

uwkdufBuD;wdkY teD;v,fuGif;jyif jrpfaMumif;a[mif;ae&mudk awGYEdkifygonf/ uJhodkY uRef;ig;uRef;udk


pkaygi;f NrKd w
Y nfaomaMumifh ypKd iyf [
kH v
k nf; ac:Muonf/ (oxH&k mZ0if? pm- 80)

t|rok0Pbrl ?d [&do&blr?d a&Tavmif;NrdKY


xdkjiKyfaumif;aygaom r&doblrd-ok"r0wDNrdKYonf a&v,fuRef;jzpf jynfolqif;&Jom;wdkYrSm
rd;k umvwGif toGm;tvmcufcv
J o
S nf/ bd;k oGm;rdbwdaYk oausysupf ;D aomaMumifh pdwaf omu jzpf&jcif;
aMumifv
h nf; t&yfwiG f raevdak wmhNy?D qif;&Jom;wdv
kY yk u
f ikd pf m;aomuf&ef jyefjh yL;us,0f ef;aomae&m?
NrKd EY iS hf a0;aomt&yfa'oodYk a&TaY jymif;vdo
k nf[t
k Bu&H NdS y;D ? rSL;rwfaoemywdwEYkd iS w
hf ikd yf if&m oabmwlMu
ojzifh xdNk rKd rY S taemufajrmufc&D;wmaygi;f (15000)? (rkid f 30 cef)Y uGma0;aomt&yf? aqmifcaJ wmifteD;?
a&Txu
G af omtif;Bu;D wpfc\
k teD;odYk tdrf af jcaygi;f 6000 ausmEf iS ahf &TaY jymif;cJ\
h / omoemou&mZf (196)
ckEpS w
f iG f NrKd w
Y nfaxmifvsuf xD;eef;topfpu
kd x
f o
l nf/ xdNk rKd u
Y kd a&Txu
G af omtif;\teD; wnfaomaMumifh
[&do&blr?d ok"r0wDNrKd [
Y k orkwaf wmfru
l ek \
f / a&Tavmif;NrKd [
Y
k vnf; ac:Muonf/( oxH&k mZ0if? pm
8. 0-81) xdNk rKd \
Y ae&monf usKu
d w
f b
J &k m;Bu;D taemufajrmufcyf,eG ;f ,Ge;f ? wm (700)? (1 1^2 rdik cf ef)h tuGm
oJjzLacsmif;\ taemufbufurf;? awmifylpmac:ukef;jrifhjrifhapmif;&Sdaomae&mjzpfonf [kqdk\/
,ckxdkae&mudkar;vQif ('kwd,oxHk&m)[k ajymMuonf[kvnf;qdkygonf/
xdk [&do&blr-d ok"r0wDNrKd U &mZmaZma0rif;onf (12) ESpef ef;pHco
hJ nf/ aqmifcaJ wmif(qHawmf)
bk&m; (usKu
d w
f aJ pwD)udv
k nf; tBu;D tus,x
f yfr
H wnfavonf/ xdt
k cg rSp usKu
d 'f [
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f nf[k
qd\
k / (oxH&k mZ0if? pm 8. 1)/ (yk*u
H sepf pfom;rif;ausmufpmwGif ]usKu
d w
f }J [la&;onf/)

e0rok0Pbrl ?d wdu
k u
f v
k m;NrdKY
omoemou&mZf (208)? (336 bDp)D ckEpS o
f aYkd &mufaomtcg &mZmaZma0rif;onf (a&Ttif;NrKd ?Y
a&Tavmif;NrKd Y a&m*gtemxlajym qif;&Jom;ESiw
hf uG uR-J EGm;paom ow0gw?Ykd taotaysmufrsm;onf?
yifv,furf;em;odYk a&TaY jymif; NrKd eY ef;wnf&jyefaomf oifah vQmrf nf? roifah vQmrf nf? rSL;rwfwEYkd iS w
hf idk yf ifjyef\/
rSL;rwfaoemywdrsm;u NrKd eY ef;a&Tajymif;&efoabmwlMu\/ xdaYk Mumifh omoemou&mZf (208-215) ckEpS f
twGi;f usKu
d af uom&bk&m;apwD\ taemufawmifaxmif?h awmifapmif;wpf0uf? ajrnDwpf0uf? t&yf
a'oodYk ajymif;a&TY NrKd Y jyxD;eef;wnfpu
kd jf yefav\/ NrKd t
Y eHum; ta&SaY emuf wm 500 (udu
k f 1750?
rDwm 1000)? tvsm;um; awmifajrmufwmaygi;f 750 (udu
k f 2625? rDwm 2400) &S\
d / NrKd \
Y trnfrmS

wdu
k u
f v
k m;? 0if;u NrKd aY [mif;ae&m

- 29 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

ab;avmif;awmfwd"roD[&mZmrif;BuD;tm; odMum;rif;zefqif;ay;aomNrdKYESifh ajr&mXme awmif


yifv,fjrpfacsmif;rSp tvH;k pHv
k Qit
f vGew
f al omaMumifh ok0Pbrl /d &|/ ok"r0wD[k orkwaf wmfr\
l /
xdo
k Ydk orkwcf ahJ omfvnf; wku
d u
f v
k m;NrKd aY [mif;e,ftwGi;f usaomaMumifh wdu
k u
f v
k m;[lvnf; ac:Mu
uke\
f / (oxH&k mZ0if? pm 8. 1-82)
xdNk rKd EU iS hf e,fcsi;f pyfaeaom wdu
k u
f v
k m;NrKd aY [mif;ae&mrSm 'd;k cvGe;f awmif (auvmo awmif)\
taemufajrmufbuf? awmifwef;awmifajc&if;wGi&f o
dS nf/ (,ck t,ufor&Gmae&mjzpf\/) xdNhk rKd w
Y nfxm;
yHrk mS awmifbufrsuEf mS u awmifurf;yg;,Hausmufurf;yg;,Hwu
Ykd kd NrKd Y ;kd vky\
f / ta&Sb
Y uftaemufbuf
rsuEf mS wdw
Yk iG v
f nf; ausmufurf;yg;w0ufEiS v
hf yk
f tay:uausmufcpJ cD o
hJ nf/ ausmufcw
J pf0ufukd NrKd Y ;kd
vkyo
f nf/ ajrmufbufwpfrsuEf mS rSm ausmufEiS ahf jra&maESmzd
hk NrKd Y ;kd vky\
f / wHcg;rSm ta&S?Y taemuf? ajrmuf?
awmifaygi;f (1000)?(457 rDwm)? ta&SEY iS t
hf aemufawmifaygi;f (2000)? (915 rDwm)om&So
d nf/(41 8. 2)
wufwmcefY us,f0ef;rnf/ &mZmaZma0rif;wnfaom ok"r0wD? ok0Pblrdf wdkufukvm;NrdKYu (384
[wfwm) t&G,ftpm;rQ&Sdonf/ xdkhaMumifh 4if;wdkufukvm;(0if;u)onf? t,uforwdkufukvm;xuf
t&G,t
f pm;csi;f EdiI ;f ,SOv
f Qif &Spq
f ausmrf QyBkd u;D onf/

- 30 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

t&Siaf omPrax&fEiS hf t&SiOf w&rax&fwYkd ok0Pbrl wd ikd ;f odYk <uvmNyD; omoemjyKjcif;


&mZmaZma0rif;onf NrKd jU yxD;eef;wnfaxmifNy;D aomf rdr\
d bGt
YJ rnfuv
kd nf; od&"D rmaomu&mZm
[kbGJYudkcH,lonf/
oD&"d rmaomurif;? ok"r0wDNrKd w
Y nf eef;pHEpS f (27)ESpcf ef&Y adS omtcg omoem ou&mZf (235)
ckEpS f (309 bDp)D twGi;f ok"rm0wDoxHjk ynf( wdu
k u
f v
k m;?0if;uNrKd )Y odYk toQiaf omPESihf toQiOf w&
wdo
Yk nf tazmf&[EmBu;D oH;k yg;ESiw
hf uG omoemjyK&ef<uvmawmfro
l nf/ aygi;f &[EmBu;D ig;yg;jzpfonf/
xdktoQifoljrwfwdkYum;
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/

toQifaomP
toQifOw&
toQiftEkk'g
toQifwd*kw
toQifaomrm, [krGef&mZ0ifqdkonf/

xdo
k Ykd aomPkw& paomt&Siw
f Ykd omoemjyK<uvmawmfral omtcg xdo
k xHjk ynf (wdu
k u
f v
k m;?
0if;u) onf ork'& mESiehf ;D uyfaomaMumifh a&apmifb
h v
D ;l rwdo
Yk nf rif;\tdrf om;zGm;wdik ;f vQif pm;av\/
rax&fjrwfwdkYa&mufaomaeYwGifvnf; rif;tdrf om;zGm;cdkufBuHK bDvl;rwdkYonf pm;ygrnf[k
t&Hig;&mESiv
hf monf/ vlwjhkd rifMuvQif aMumufvef
h a<u;aMumfMu\/ xdpk Of rax&fwv
Ykd nf; aMumufrufb,
G f
aom jcaoFEh iS w
hf al om acgi;f wpfv;kH wGif ESpcf &k adS omud,
k Ef iS hf rEk[
D o@mefa&bDv;l wdx
Yk uf t&nftwGuf
ESpfqomatmifzefqif;NyD;rS? bDvl;rwdkYukdvdkuf ydwfqD;ukefvQif? bDvl;rwdkYonfvnf;ajy;oGm;Muukef\/

- 31 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

xdktcg rax&fwdkYonf wpfzefbDvl;rwdkY rvmpdrfhaomiSm y&dwft&Htwm;udkjyK\/ xdkumv


pnf;a0;a&mufvmMuukeaf omolwt
Ykd m; jA[Zmvokww
f &m;udk a[mawmfrv
l ufaomf ajcmufaxmifrQaom
olwo
Ykd nf tuRww
f &m;&Mu t&d,mjzpfuek \
f / oH;k axmifig;&maom a,musmf ;wdo
Yk nfvnf; &[ef;jyK
Muuke\
f / xdo
k Ykd &[ef;jyKaomolww
Ykd iG f rif;om;csn;f yif wpfaxmifjynfah tmif&\
dS / <uif;useo
f w
l v
Ykd nf;
o&P*Hkwnfap\/
xdu
k mvrSp ,aehzmG ;pjzpfaom rif;om;i,ftm; aomPkw& [laomtrnfay;Mu\/ vltaygi;f
tm;vnf; bDv;l ab;udw
k m;qD;Edik af pjcif;iSm? xef;&Guo
f vl&u
G f ponfww
Ydk iG f rax&fwzYkd efqif;aom? rEk[
D
kyu
f akd &;ukev
f suf OD;acgi;f xufwifxm;Mu\/ xdt
k kyo
f @mefukd oxHNk rKd (Y ok0Pbrl ?d wdu
k u
f v
k m;)(0if;u)
\ ta&SaY jrmufaxmifah wmifxyd w
f iG f ausmufyk x
f
k ,ckxufwidk x
f if&mS ;&So
d nf[k omoem0Hopmwrf;
azmfjyxm;onf/ (oxH&k mZ0if? pm 8. 5-86)
vGecf ahJ omumv wd"ro[
D &mZmrif;tm; pG,af wmf(33)acsmif; ukEd m Hjk ynfrS &[Em*0Hywd
aqmif,al y;cJo
h nf/ umv&SnMf umonfEiS hf opfE,
G zf ;kH vsuaf wmBu;D jzpfaeonfEiS Uf uG,
f rjrif&jzpfonfukd
aomPESifhOw&rax&fwdkYu Tefjyay;vQif pG,fawmfoGm;awmfrsm;&Mu\/ NrdKYawmfBuD;\ ajrmufbuf
a&TOrifwnf pG,af wmf 33 qlukd XmyemNy;D apwDBu;D wnfonf/ ok0Pbrl Nd rKd w
Y iG ;f ? NrKd Y jyift&yfXme
&S&d o
dS rQ pG,af wmf? arGawmf[o
l rQwu
Ykd v
dk nf; apwDwnf ud;k uG,Mf uonf/
&[Emig;yg; oxHkodkYa&mufawmfrl&mwGif qHawmf? pG,fawmf? o&D&"gwfawmf? y&dabm*apwD?
y&d,wpd aom yd#uwfo;kH yHw
k wfaom t&d,oCFm? &[ef;? oljrwfwEYkd iS hf ynm&So
d al wmfaumif;? aA'if
*Pmef;wwfo?l vltoH;k taqmifypn;f jyKvyk w
f wfow
l EYkd iS hf jynfpU akH vonf/ jynfow
l cYkd sr;f ompGm ok"r0wD
NrdKYawmfonf &mZXmeDrif;aejynfawmfBuD;[l xif&Sm;pnfyifavonf/
xdo
k &D rd maomurif;vufxufwiG f rlvok"r0wDoxHjk ynf (wwd,ESiphf wkwo
"k r0wD)udk ajrrsKd
ysupf ;D oGm;pOfu qHawmfEiS o
hf mG ;awmfapwDrsm; aysmufu,
G q
f ;kH yg;aeonf/ t&Sijf rwfwu
Ykd jyefvnf&mS azG
azmfxkwfay;yg&ef rif;BuD;awmif;yefojzihf oGm;a&muf&SmazGay;onf/ qHawmfESpfql? oGm;awmf(33)ql

- 32 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

tukejf yef&onf/ ,cifu pd&aH pwD (a&Tpm&H) ae&ma[mif;rSmyif qHawmf (2) qlukd Xmyem bdeyfawmf
tawmif(50)? OmPfawmftjrift
h awmif (70) apwDwnfonf/
oGm;awmf"gwf (33) acsmif;udk rnforl qdu
k ;kd uG,v
f v
kd Qif vma&mufyifMh u[kaMujimonf/ xdt
k cg
(11) qlaom oGm;awmfwu
Ykd kd ta0;teD;NrKd &U mG rsm;u yifv
h mMu rdrw
d NYkd rKd &U mG apwDwnf vsuu
f ;kd uG,f
Muonf/ <uif;useaf om oGm;awmf"gwf (22) qlukd ,cifqaH wmfb&k m;teD;wGif Xmyem apwDBu;D wnfvsuf
ud;k uG,Mf uonf/ (11) qlaom oGm;awmf"gwu
f kd apwDwnf ud;k uG,Mf uaom NrKd Y &Gmrsm;ESiahf pwDbaYJG wmf
rsm;rSm 1/ &rm0wDac: armfvNrKd if usKu
d o
f v
H ifapwD
2/ bDv;l uRe;f NrKd Y usKu
d rf El ikd ;f apwD
3/ armfvNrKd irf ;l yGe&f yf? usKu
d rf ;l yGeaf pwD
4/ Zmojyif&yf? usKu
d yf idk Bf uKH apwD
5/ tom;NrKd -U usKu
d t
f om; (usKu
d u
f omapwD)
6/ ppfawmif;NrKd Y aZ,yAwawmifpeG ;f usKu
d u
f vGyH aHG pwD
7/ 'Hpk &pfNrKd Y usKu
d rf ;l wvifapwD
8/ yJc;l NrKd Y usKu
d rf ;l wm;ac: a&Tarmfa"mapwD (xyfoiG ;f Xmyemonf)
9/ rl;ckid Bf u;D &yf usKu
d rf ;l uarmETwaf pwD
10/ rl;cdkifuav;&yf? usKdufrl;uarmhwGwfapwD
11/ u0NrKd Y ? usKu
d u
f aG pwD
aygi;f apwD (11) ql&adS Mumif; rGe&f mZ0ifEiS ahf pwDawmforkid ;f aygi;f csKyu
f sr;f wGif azmfjyxm;onf/
(oxH&k mZ0if? pm 8. 9-90)

ok0Pbrl ?d ok"r0wDrif;qufrsm;
pOf/
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/
7/
8/

rif;trnf
oD[&mZm
oD&d"rmaomu
"rygv
"rZ (ok0P)
tuFk&
Oya'0
oD0d&mZm
aZmwukrm
("rmaomu)

tdrfedrfh
pnf;pdrf
17?
60?
20?
57?
25?
50?
30?
32?
(wpfESpfrjynfhvydkif;)
20?
32?
22?
30?
25?
45?

oufawmf
77
77
75
62

omoem

c&pf

52
52
70

wdu
k u
f v
k m;e,f? ok"r0wDrif;qufrsm;
&mZmaZma0? aZmwukrm ? "rmaomu trnfrsm;&aomrif;onf rku
d o
f zH;k NrKd U eef;pH (2) ESp?f
a&Tavmif;tif;NrKd Y eef;pHEpS f (12) ESp?f ok"r0wDwu
kd u
f v
k m;NrKd Y eef;pHEpS f (31) ESp?f tdref rd hf (25) ESpf
aygi;f oufawmf (70) wGif tedpj zpfonf/

- 33 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

9/
10/
11/
12/
13/
14/
15/
16/
17/

om;?
om;?
om;?
om;?
om;?
om;?
om;?
om;?
om;?

ok aw o e

aomPkw& ukrm
umv0P&mZm
r[momv&mZm
&mru&mZm
e&ol&mZm
r[mbj'&mZm
t&"&mZm
od*w
kF & &mZm
Okem*b0&mZm

rif;jyKav\/ oD&"d raomutp? Okem*b0tqH;k &Sad om xdw


k pfusyd af omrif;wdo
Yk nf rud#k o
f &zl? av;?
oefvsu?f ig;yg;aom rif;ajrmufwefqmud&k Mu\/

'r ok0Pbrl ?d ok"ry&l


wdu
k u
f v
k m;e,f ok"r0wDoxHjk ynfwiG f Olem*b0&mZmrif;ewf&mG pH xdrk if;\ om;awmf18/
,k*Eurk o
nf xD;arGeef;arGu&kd rMumrD ok"r0wDwu
dk u
f v
k m;NrKd o
U nf yifv,fEiS ehf ;D uyfonfjzpf
yifv,furf;NyKd ysuo
f jzifh NrKd w
Y pfyikd ;f ygNyKd ysuaf v\/ wdik ;f oljynfom;wdo
Yk nf tdr,
f mNyKyd sujf cif;? v,f,m
ajr? O,smOf? yef;ref? tm&mrf ponfNyKd ysuMf u\/ qif;&JBu;D pGmawGBY uKMH u&avonf/ xdt
k cg ,k*Eurk m rif;onf
jynfolqif;&Jom;wdkY 'kuawGY BuHKqJjzpf wdkif;jynfukd tkyfcsKyfrif;vkyfaomfvnf;? tbdodufudkrcHao;yJ?
rSL;awmfrwfawmfrsm;ESiw
hf idk yf ifNy;D a&S;tcgu bd;k avmif;awmf Oya'0&mZmoHa0rif;Bu;D wnfaxmifcahJ om
ok"ry&l NrKd aU wmfa[mif;ae&modYk jyefajymif;a&TY Ny;D vQif xD;eef;pdu
k x
f
l eef;pHonf/ ok"r0wDwu
dk u
f v
k m;NrKd rY S
ok"ry&l oxHjk ynfoYkd jyefajymif;vmaom omoemou&mZf (450) jynfEh pS f (94 bDp)D jzpfonf/
wdu
k u
f v
k m;ok"r0wD? oxHjk ynf oD&"d raomurif;tp? Okem*b0rif;tqH;k rif;aygi;f wpfusyd f
NrKd o
Y uf (24) ESp&f cdS \
hJ / omoem (450) jynfEh pS w
f iG f ok0Pbrl ?d ok"ry&l ? Oya'0NrKd o
Y Ykd jyefajymif;cJo
h nf/
xdrk if;vufxuf ork'& murf;NyKd uRe;f i,fwyYkd suv
f Qif xdNk yKd &muRe;f i,facsmif;wpfcrk S a0blv?
ywjrm;&wemudk& rif;tm;qufonf/ xdka0blvywjrm;udk&aomaMumifh aZmwdygvbGJYudkcJh,lonf/
19/
20/
21/
22/
23/
24/
25/

,k*E&mZm? aZmwdygvrif;tedpjzpfNyD;aemuf
om;? okeE&mZm
om;? jA['|&mZm
om;? y&mZm
om;? t"du&mZm
om;? tya&m"d&mZm
om;? om"k&mZm
om;? "rygv&mZm

rif;jyKMuonf/ (oxH&k mZ0if? pm 9. 1-93)

- 34 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

"rygvrif;vufxuf toQifr[mAk'a Cmorax&f<uvmjcif;? yd#uwfawmfrsm;a&mufjcif;?


y&d,wod ifMum;ydcYk sMu omoemawmfxeG ;f vif;jcif;

oxHNk rKd Y azmifawmfO;D bk&m;

ok0Pbrl o
d xHjk ynfwiG f "rygvrif;vufxuf omoem 930 jynfEh pS o
f aYkd &mufaomtcg t&Sirf [m
Ak'a Cmorax&f? oD[|kd u
f Re;f rS yd#uwfo;kH yHyk gVad wmfEiS hf t|uxmudk rm*"bmom jzifah &;ul; ok0Pbrl d
oxHkjynfodkY ,laqmifcJhonf/
t&Sirf [m Ak'a Cmorax&f pD;eif;vdu
k yf gvmaom oabFmazmifawmfonf ok0Pbrl q
d yd u
f rf;odYk
qku
d o
f jzifh jynfo?l vl? &Si?f &[ef;wdpYk pkH rf;ar;jref;Muonf/ yd#uwfawmf? edAm efuek u
f dk oxHjk ynfow
l \
Ykd
tusK;d iSm ul;,laqmifMuOf;cJah Mumif;udk odMuav\/ xdt
k cg vGepf mG 0rf;ajrmuf Muukev
f su?f ylaZmfMuNy;D vQif
yGo
J bifBu;D pGmcH rif;ESiw
hf uGjynfot
l aygi;f onf yd#uwfawmf wifvmaomavS? azmifawmfukd ok0Pbrl Nd rKd \
Y
taemufrsuEf mS NrKd Y ;dk oH;k xyfusK;H oH;k xyf&o
dS nfaU e&mwGif tjyifbufq;kH aomtxyfusK;H odaYk &mufatmif yifv,frS
azmifawmf0if&ef awmif;yefMuukef\/
azmifawmfqu
kd u
f yfrv
d Qif pnfarmif;ywfom? wl&,
d mrsK;d wdjhk zif?h ylaZmfa<u;aMumfvsuf yd#uwfawmfukd
NrdKYwGif;odkYyifhaqmifonf/ NyD;vQif pd&HapwDawmf r[m&mrfwHwkdif;\twGif; ajrmufwHcg;\teD; &wem

- 35 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

oxHkNrdKY? a&Tpm&HapwDawmf0if;twGif;&Sd yd#duwdkufapwDawmf

(7) yg;jzifNh y;D aom r@dKyBf u;D aqmufvyk


f yd#uwfawmfukd aumif;pGmxm;vsuf &[ef;&Siv
f w
l Ykd zwfMuonf/
xdkYaemuf jynfoljynfom;wdkYonf yd#uwfawmfwdkYukd &ufvnfatmifylaZmfMuavukef\/
xdaYk emuf "rygvrif;Bu;D uvnf; &wemr@yfae&m tkw?f ausmuf? t*Fawwdjhk zifh OrifBu;D
wnf txufwiG af pwDqifv
h suf xdt
k wGi;f yd#uwfawmfrsm;udk xnfo
h iG ;f Ny;D aomf xdOk rifapwDawmfukd
yd#uw,apwD[k orkwfonf/ jynfol? vl? &[ef;wdkYonf rnfolrqdk OrifwGif;&Sd yd#uwfawmfudk
zwfemoifMum;ap[k trdex
Yf w
k jf yefxm;onf/ uJo
h yYkd if xdu
k mvrSp oxHjk ynf yd#uwfawmfjyefyh mG ;
av\/ y#dyw?d y#da0"wnf;[laom omoemawmfvnf; xGe;f um;jyefonf/
xdyk #d uwfxm;aom apwDukd ,ckumv yd#uwfb&k m;[k ac:Muonf/
t&Sirf [mAk'a Cmorax&fazmifawmfqu
kd
f yd#uwfawmfukd NrKd aY wmfoYkd yifah qmif&mqdyu
f rf;
aemifvmaemufom;wdkY trSwfw&jzpfapjcif;iSm? apwDwpfqlwnfxm;avonf/ xdkapwDudk ,ckumv
azmifawmfOD;bk&m;[k ac:Muonf/
t&Sifr[mAk'aCmorax&fonf a&S;tcgu ok0P&mZm r[m"rZrif;BuD;\aumif;rIawmf
t&[Em&mrausmif;wkdufBuD;udk xyfrHjyKjyifap xdkausmif;wkduf oDwif;oHk;aexdkifawmfrlvsuf&Sdaom
t&SifaomPkw&rax&fwdkY\ tquftEG,foHCmawmfwkdYESifh twlwuG oDwif;oHk;aexdkifawmfrlonf/
y&d,wdpmayrsm;udkvnf; ydkYcsay;awmfrlonf/
xdkausmif;wkduf\taemufajrmuf wm 1000 (udkuf 1050 cefY) tuGm? om&uvsmPD
qHawmfapwD\ ta&SaY jrmufaxmifh odrBf u;D wpford v
f nf; orkwaf wmfryl gonf/ xdo
k rd u
f kd t&SiAf 'k a Cmo

- 36 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

odrf[ktrnfwGifavonf/(,ck oxHkay:awmfrl&Gm? ay:awmfrlbk&m;wHwdkif;twGif; ta&SYajrmufaxmifh


&Sd\)/
oxHNk rKd w
Y iG f t&Sirf [mAk'a CmowdYk oDwif;oH;k aexdik af om t&[Em&mrausmif;wdu
k Bf u;D udk ,ck
tcg &[Emwdu
k [
f k ac:Muonf/
t&Sifr[mAk'aCmoonf y&d,wd? y#dywd? y#da0"wnf;[laom omoemawmfoHk;&yfudk
xGe;f vif;awmufyapvsu?f toufawmf\tqH;k oxHjk ynf y&deAd m efjyKawmfr\
l / xdt
k cg t&SiAf 'k a Cmo
tavmif;awmfukd om&uvsmPD (ay:awmfr)l apwD\ taemufawmifaxmift
h &yf rif;ESiw
hf uG jynfow
l Ykd
onf aumif;pGmoN*F dKvfMu\/ om&uvsmPDapwDawmf\ taemufaxmifb
h ufvnf; t&SiAf 'k a Cmo\
ud,
k af wmfpm;? kyyf mG ;awmfBu;D jyKvyk u
f ek
f ud;k uG,Mf uonf/ ,ckwikd f xif&mS ;awGY jrifMu&\/ xdt
k &Sijf rwf\
"gwaf wmfrsm;udv
k nf; a&S;&[EmBu;D wk\
Yd "gwak pwDawmfrsm;\teD; apwDwpfqx
l yfr
H wnfxm;Muonf/

"rygvrif;rSp rEk[mrif;txd oxHjk ynfrif;qufrsm;


xd"k rygvrif;onf w&m;awmfEiS rhf nD rif;jyKawmfrNl y;D vQif omoemawmfukd cs;D ajrm ufvsuf touf
twkid ;f ae ewf&mG pHonf/ "rygvrif;r&So
d nfah emuf?
26/
27/
28/
29/
30/
31/
32/
33/
34/

om;?
om;?
om;?
om;?
om;?
om;?
om;?
om;?
om;?

ok'e&mZm
'dA& mZm
to*&mZm
bkr& mZm
AE&mZm
r[d o
H &mZm
"rpu&mZm
olZrw&d mZm
AE&mZm

35/
36/
37/
38/
39/
40/
41/
42/

om;?
om;?
om;?
om;?
om;?
om;?
om;?
om;?

e&ol& ZrL'dA& mZm


oDv&mZm
Agvu
d &mZm
ZrKw& &mZm
a'0&mZm
oD0&d mZm
r[mpu0&mZm
auo&mZm

rif;jyKonf/ xdrk if;onf rif;jzpfrMumrD?S yifv,f0odYk xGuaf omacsmif;jrpf0,f a&obifusi;f y aysmyf g;&mwGif
ab;avmif;awmf aZmwdygvrif; (trSw-f 18) vufxufawmfr&S xm;cJah om a0blvywjrm;&Sio
f nf a&odYk
usaysmufqHk;av\/
xdak 0blvywjrm;udk awm0ufBu;D wpfaumifjrif tpmtrSwjf zifu
h u
kd o
f nft
h cg rudu
k Ef ikd
f iHo
k nf
ESio
hf rk'& ma&jyifay:vrS ;f oGm;Edik af Mumif;od&\/ xdyk wjrm;ud0k ufBu;D xHrS rkq;kd wpfa,muf& Bw[
d ukrN rKd Y
(oHvsi)f rif;xHqufonf/
xdo
k Ydk ywjrm;&wema&odu
Yk s aysmufq;kH aomok"r0wD? oxHrk if;auo&mZmonf vGepf mG pd;k &drf
ylyefjcif;jzpf rpm;Edik ?f rtdyEf ikd &f adS ejcif;aMumifh jynfow
l u
Ykd xdrk if;udrk [maomurif;[k orkwMf uonf/
auo&mZm-r[maomu rif;BuD;vufxufwGif? rif;BuD;\ol&JBuD;Z,"&ESifh &ra'0ESpfa,muf
wd&hk MdS u\/ xko
d &l BJ u;D wdo
Yk nf jcaoFw
h pfaumifuakd wmrSm& zrf;,lcNhJ y;D vQif rif;tm;quf\/ ykPE iS Zhf eu

- 37 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

trnf&Sdaom rkqdk;ESpfa,mufvnf;&SdMu\/ zm;BuD;wpfaumifudkawmrSm& rif;xHqufoMu\/ rkqdk;


wpfa,mufuvnf; c&rf;uapmhyifBuD;udk &av,lcJhonf/ odkYaom tjcif;t&mrsm;udk raemrkE&D
trnf&adS om rkq;kd \q&monfMum;od jynf&h iS rf if;xHyefMum;Ny;D c&rf;uapmhyifukd pnfvyk o
f nf/ zm;\
om;a&udk pnfrsuEf mS usuo
f nf/ jcaoFo
h m;a&udk BuKd ;jyKpnfBu;D udck wfonf/ jcaoF\
h vuf;kH d;k udk pnf
vufcwfjyKonf/ odpYk rD NH y;D vQif rif;Bu;D tm;qufavonf/
pnfukd wD;cwfaomtcg toHMum;olx;D jzLaqmif;rif;wdo
Yk nf raeEdik
f orD;unm? &wema&TaiG
ay;qufvmMu&onf/ xdt
k cg rif;onfaysmufq;kH aom ywjrm;&wemaMumifh pd;k &drjf cif;uif;av wpfzef
&J&ifjh cif;ow&d v
dS maomaMumifh r[maomu[laom trnfaysmuf auo&mZmbGt
YJ rnfa[mif;wGijf yefonf/
auo&mZmrif;tedpa&mufvQif
43/
44/
45/
46/
47/
48/
49/

om;?
om;?
om;?
om;?
om;?
om;?
om;?

red&mZm
wu&mZm
uko&mZm
Ze'dA& mZm
okv&k mZm
pdw& mZm
'DC&mZm

50/
51/
52/
53/
54/
55/
56/

om;?
om;?
om;?
om;?
om;?
om;?
om;?

Owr&mZm
oD&"d r&mZm
r[mpdw& mZm
0E&mZm
Z,okre&mZm
0'u&mZm
tZdP& mZm

rif;jyK\/ xdrk if;vufxufwiG f ol&BJ u;D ? ykwBf u;D ? ykwif ,fEpS af ,muf&o
dS nf/ (rGe&f mZ0ifwiG f ol&BJ u;D ?
y&wfBuD;? y&wfi,f[l azmfjyonf/ if; pm 11) jAwf0d? jAw[kac:aom ol&JBuD;rsm;yifjzpfMu\/
(oxH&k mZ0if? pm 9. 6-100)
xdkrif;tedpjzpfvQif
57/
om;? O'dE& mZm rif;jyK\/ rif; 48 quf (wku
d u
f v
k m;e,f? ok"r0wDrif;qufrsm;ryg) wGif
ok"r0wDNrdKUpnfyifom,monf/ omoemawmfxGef;awmufy a&Tausmif;? a&TZ&yf? a&Tjy'fapwD?
kyfwkqif;wkawmfrsm;? y#dywdESifhjynfhpHkaom &[ef;ynm&Sd? ykPm;? aA'ifwwf vlynm&SdoljrwfwdkYESifh
jynhpf jkH yefyh mG ;jcif;ESiw
hf uG wm0wd o
H muJo
h Ykd Nird ;f csr;f om,m0ajympGm&Sad vonf/ (rGe&f mZ0if? pm 1. 1)
O'dE&mZmrif;tedpa&mufvQif58/

om;? rEk[mrif;onf touf 18 ESp&f


dS rif;jyKonf/

xdkrif;vufxufwGif q'gefqifrsKd;csnf;ESifESifjzpfaom qifjzLawmfoHk;q,fhESpfpD; &awmfrlonf/


xdrk if;onf ]oD&Bd wb
d 0em"dwsmy0& "r&mZm} [laom bGt
YJ rnfuckd
H bdou
d cf v
H surf if;jyK\/ bd;k awmf
tZdPr if;ESifh crnf;awmfO'dEr if;wdYk cs;D ajrm ufoal umif;jyKcahJ om ol&BJ u;D ukvm;nDaemif jAuf0?d jAwwu
kY d v
kd nf;
txufuenf;wl NrKd pY m;? &Gmpm;ay; cs;D yifah pvsuf trIxrf;aponf/ ab;avmif;awmf auo&mZmrif;Bu;D
vufxufu&aom &eftaygif;udkatmifEdkifaom zm;pnfawmfBuD;udkvnf;&awmfrlonf/

- 38 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

oxHyk suf&onfU taMumif;t&if;


xdt
k cg ytm0eNrKd Y rif;Bu;D xHorD;unmvufaqmifyEmquf o&efawmif;onf/ ytm0erif;vnf;
orD;awmfudkrvTJomay;&awmhrnfh tcsdefwGiforD;udkac: rEk[mrif;onf ukvm;nDaemifvlpGrf;aumif;
jAwf0?d jAwEpS af ,mufEiS hf zm;pnfBu;D ? qifjzLawmf (32) pD;wd\
Yk wefc;dk aMumifh bke;f wefc;kd tmabmfBu;D
rckc?H raeomvSy?J orD;awmfuq
kd uf&awmhrnf/ xdrk Ek[mrif; tcspt
f cifBu;D vQif zm;pnfBu;D ESihf ol&BJ u;D jAwf0?d
jAwwahkd ysmufysu
f zsuq
f ;D &atmifvv
hkH jyKyg/ odaYk ysmufysuv
f Qif trsK;d wumudk Nird ;f atmifjyKonfvnf;
rnfonf/ ig\orD;onfvnf; rdbxHwpfzefjyef a&muf&awmhrnf[k rSmvdu
k
f orD;udak y;qufvu
kd \
f /
ytm0erif;orD;vnf; ok0Pbrl jd ynf rEk[mrif;xHa&mufvQif rdz&k m;jzpf rEk[mrif;u cspcf if?
arwmBu;D aMumif;udk ytm0erdz&k m;odavvQif rde;f rwd\
Yk rm,mtm;jzifh crnf;awmfrmS vdu
k o
f nfh pum;twdik ;f
tm;xkwfBuHpnfBudK;pm;av\/
ytm0eNrKd o
Y nf ,cktcg 'ke&f if;[kac:aomt&yfteD;&Sad om NrKd aY [mif;? NrKd yY suyf ifjzpfonf/ AEm*D&d
(ZJGuyif)awmif\teD;&Sdaom awmBuD;udk a&S;u ytm0e-ytm0kPfawmBuD; [kac:onf/ xdkawm
wnfaxmifaom NrKd u
Y v
kd nf; ytm0eNrKd [
Y
l yifac:onf/ ytm0eNrKd &Y ma[mif;udk 'ke&f if;[kac:MuNy;D aemuf
xdyk tm0e[laomtrnfa[mif;onf rlvNrKd &Y ma[mif;\ taemufajrmufteD;&Sd zm;tH(bm;tH) [kac:aom
t&yfoaYkd &mufonf/ xdb
k m;tHtrnfonf ytm0eNrKd t
Y rnfa[mif;jzpfonf/ (OD;ynm? pm 1. 06)
ol&JBuD;nDaemifwdkYonfvnf; rif;oHk;qufajrmufatmif olrwlaompGrf;&nfowdESifh jynfhpHk
rmefrmeaxmifvmT ;vsu&f MdS u\/ Asw0f o
d nf oxHNk rKd 0Y ef\ orD;rtdpk mudk r,m;jyKonf/ rtdpk mu MunfjzL
ojzifh tjypfrjzpfay/ nDi,fAswu 0if;awmfrSL;orD;rapmeef;udk,lonf/ xdkrapmeef;um;Aswudk rESpf
oufojzifU eef;awmfwiG ;f od0hk if; ytm0erdz&k m;Bu;D xH cHpm;Ny;D vQif Aswt
m; raumif;BuaH wmhonf/
ytm0erdz&k m;Bu;D vnf; rif;Bu;D urdrt
d m; cspMf unfav;jrwfonfukd tcGiahf umif;,l ukvm;nDaemif
wdo
Yk nf rif;Bu;D udv
k nf;ta&;rjyK? eef;awmfx0J if rdz&k m;armif;rwdu
Yk kd usL;vGeaf pmfum;aMumif;? r,Hv
k Qif
NrKd 0Y efEiS hf 0if;awmfrLS ;ygppfar;awmfryl g[k avQmuf\/ xdo
k Ydk tBurd Bf urd *f ek ;f acsmpum;jzifh ajymqdzk efrsm;vQif
rSL;awmfrwfawmfwdkYukd ar;jref;&mtrIxif&Sm;ojzifh rdzk&m;pum;atmifavonf/
oxHrk if;rEk[mvnf; ukvm;nDaemifuzkd rf;ap\/ tpfuu
kd rkd v
d Qio
f wfav\/ nDi,fru
l m; oxHjk ynfrS
xGuaf jy; yk*g&mr (yk*)H odaYk &mufvQif taemf&xmrif;apmxH cpm;\/
rEk[mrif;vnf; jAwf0t
d avmif;udk ya&m*pD&if jrKyaf v\/ xdak eYrpS oxHNk rKd u
Y kd &eftaygi;f wdYk
rvIyfacsmufjcm;EdkifyJjzpf\/
ytm0erdz&k m;onf zm;pnfBu;D udzk suq
f ;D &ef tBujH yKjyef\/ ,HMk unf&olukd wHp;kd vufaqmifay;
apcdik ;f onf/ xdo
k o
l nf reD;ra0;t&yfwnf;cdNk y;D vl,MkH unfatmif ynm&St
d a,mifaqmif a[majymvsuf
aeonf/ ausmaf pmxif&mS ; vlwq
Ykd nf;uyfu;kd uG,o
f nft
h cg rif;Bu;D xHa&mufvmonf/ rEk[mrif;Bu;D vnf;
xdkoludk,HkMunfvmonf/ xdktcg zm;pnfBuD;a[mif;EGrf;vSaomaMumifh wefckd;tmPmaumif;pGm r&Sdjzpf
aeygonf/ tu,f zm;pnfBu;D udzk suNf y;D EGm;eufa&jzifjh yif usu&f vQif a&S;uxuf wHc;kd Bu;D rnf[k

- 39 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

avQmuf\/ xdo
k al wmfa&mif vlpOf;vJ\pum;udk vku
d ef m bd;k avmif;awmfw\
hkd vufxufrS zm;&nfpnfBu;D udk
zsu
f EGm;eufa&udx
k nfah ponf/ xdzk m;a&udk zsuo
f nfrpS rEk[mrif;Bu;D wefc;kd tmPm,kwaf vsmah v\/
olawmfa,mif ipOf;vJvnf;xGuf ajy;wdr;f a&Smifav\/
ok"r0wDjynf&h iS rf if; bke;f tmPmedrv
hf suf aus;vuf&mG jynf rk'ed ;f xlxyf tiwftrGwBf u;D onf/
t&d,moHCmawmfwdkYvnf; vGifhjym;av\/
wpfyg;aom omraPrSm t&dr'emyl& yk*NH rKd \
Y e,fy,foYkd a&mufojzifh rkq;kd wpfa,mufuawGaY v
xdkomraPtm; tEkk'a'0rif;odkY qufonf/ xdkrif;onf &wemoHk;yg; txl;ESpfoufygaomfvnf;
y&d,wdooemawmftrSefudk rMum;em&ao; tvZD&[ef;wdkYESifhom ae&avonf/ oxHkjynfonf
omoemwnf yd#uwfwwfajrmufaom &[ef;awmftrsm;&Sad Mumif; omraPxHrMS um;od&vQif omoemawmf
udk taMumif;jyK ppfonfAv
dk yf grsm;ESihf ok"r0wDoYkd csw
D ufNy;D wpfq,fw
h pfvvkyBf uv
H Qif oxHjk ynfysuaf v\/
(oxH&k m Z0if? pm 1. 08-110)

rGe&f mZ0if
oxHNk rKd yY su&f aMumif;udk rGe&f mZ0ifwiG f atmufygtwkid ;f azmfjyxm;onfukd awG&Y \/
oxHNk rKd o
Y nf omoemawmfwnf "E"&l ? 0dyem"l&udk usiahf om&[ef;rsm;&Sad Mumif;? &wem
oH;k yg;? pG,af wmf"gwaf wmfrsm;&Sad Mumif;? yd#uwfawmfrsm;&Sad Mumif;? omoemawmfwnfrnfuv
kd nf; taMumif;
jyK ppfav;rsuEf mS Adv
k yf gtrsm;ESihf odE0 jrif;udpk ;D ok"r0wDNrKd u
Y adk &muf &Jrufwo
Ykd nf wq,fw
h pfv
0ef;&HaerS NrdKYysufavonf/ tEkk'ga'0rif;vnf; rEk[mrif;udk oHusKdifvkyf csnfaESmif? avSmiftdrf
ESifh,lcJhonf/ trwfrsm;udkvnf; NrJNrHatmif? qdkifoihfooludktyf ,lcJhonf/ *E'l&? 0dyem'l&udk
usifhaqmifaom &[ef;? oDv0k'd? *kP0k'd&Sdaom &[ef;? yd#uwfwwfaom&[ef; jrwf&maqmif&Guf
aA'ifav;yHw
k wfaomykPm ;? AdaEmybw
k f usr;f *Hwwfaom aq;orm;ynm&S?d rEmefwwfaomol? tvkyf
wwfaomynmonftaygi;f olaX;ol<u,fwEYkd iS hf rqkid o
f ifrh awmfou
l ckd sxm; tEk'k g rif;onf Adv
k yf grsm;ESihf
tol&mrif;udk odMum;rif;Edik o
f uJo
h Ykd om,mpGmt&dr'emyl&jynfoYkd jyefawmfro
l nf/. (rGe&f mZ0if;? pm-12)

"rapwDrif;\ rSww
f rf;
"rapwDrif;\ yJcl;uvsmPDodrfausmufpmrl oxHkjynfysufokOf;onfrSm rEk[mrif;vufxuf
tm;enf;vsu&f adS om taMumif;aMumifjh zpf&onf[q
k \
kd / xdt
k aMumif;udk uvsmPDygVd ausmufpmjrefrmjyef
wGifaMumif; 23/ odv
Yk Qif &mrna'o omoemwnfonfrpS Mumjrifph mG aomumvywfv;kH wifw
h ,f
ajymif&Tef;xGef;ycJh\/ &SnfjrifhpGmaomumvvGefvwfaomf &mrnwdkif;onf us,f0ef;aom
t0ef;&Sad omfvnf; toD;oD;rif;tjzpfukd tvk&d o
dS jzifh vk,ufaESmuf,u
S jf cif;udk jyKaomtm;jzihf
aMumif; 24/ ysuaf omaMumifv
h nf;aumif;? ,iftemjzifEh ydS pf yfaomaMumifv
h nf;aumif;? rGwo
f yd f jcif;ESyd pf uf
aomaMumifhvnf;aumif;? jrwfaomomoemudkusOf;ajrmif;apwwfaom rif ; ck E S p f O D ; wd k Y \
ppfonf ESdyfpufaomaMumifhvnf;aumif; &mrnt&yfonf tm;enf;jcif;jzpfvm\/

- 40 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

25/ xko
d t
Ydk m;enf;aomaMumifh xk&d mrnwkid ;f aeukeaf om &[ef;wkt
Ud m; csr;f omojzifh y&d,wfukd
vnf;aumif;? y#dywfuv
kd nf;aumif; jznfph rG ;f jcif;iSm rwwfEidk af omaMumifh omoemonf
wjznf;jznf;tm;enf;vm\/ txl;ojzifh tm;enf;onfrmS ol&,
d rif;om;[l i,frnf&adS om
rEk[mrif;jyKaomtcg xk&d mrnwkid ;f t&yfonf vGe
f yiftm;enf;vm\/
26/ xkt
d cgjrwfpmG bk&m;y&deAd m efpv
H eG o
f nfrS (1600) o
. m&SNd y[
D
l rSwt
f yf\/
omoemou&mZf (1601) ckEpS jf refrmou&mZf (419) ckEpS af &mufaomtcg t&dr'emrnfaom
yk*Hjynfudktpkd;&aom

27/ taemf&xmrif;apmonf yd#duwfoHk;yHkESifhwuG &[ef;oHCmtaygif;udk &mrnwkdif;rS


aqmif,cl
hJ t&dr'em yk*jH ynfBu;D omoemawmfjrwfuw
kd nfapcJo
h nf . . .

[ltusO;f H;k azmfjyxm;onf/ (jrifo


h ef;aiG? pm? 82) (oxHu
k kd taemf&xmwku
d af Mumif; tus,u
f kd rSeef ef;
&mZ0ifwiG Mf unhyf g/ )
taemf&xmESiphf pfjyKaom oxHo
k nf,ck (atmufjrefrmEkid if )H oxHrk [kw?f xkid ;f (,k;d ',m;) Ekid if ?H
euGeyf xkrjf zpfrnf[al om t,ltqESiyhf wfouf OD;ynmjyKpak om oxH&k mZ0ifrS atmufazmfjyygtaMumif;
t&mwku
Yd kd qufvufzwfyI g/
yk*jH ynf (tEk'k a '0) taemf&xmrif;apmESihf oxHjk ynf(raem[&D)rEk[mrif;wkYd ppfBu;D jzpfMupOf
taemf&xmrif;apmonf twkid ;f rod ppfonfo&l w
J jhdk zifw
h yfBu;D csv
D m\/ xkt
d aMumif;udk rEk[mrif;
Mum;vQif ok"r0wDNrKd aY wmf usKH ;(3)xyf&o
dS nfukd xyfrjH yKjyif\/
ajrmufrsuEf mS rSm NrKd t
Y a&SaY jrmuf (v0) NrKd aY [mif;&mESihf wpfqufwnf;jzpfaom awmifneG ahf wmif
wef;rSquf taemufpl;pl;okdYyifv,furf;ajcta&muf usKH;ajrmif;ESifh NrdKYdk;BuD;jyKvkyf\/ xkdcHwyfNrdKUdk;ESifh
rlv&S&d if; NrKd Y ;kd wkt
Yd Mum;tMum;vnf; qifcvkw?f jrif;cvkwf jzpfapjcif;iSm? NrKd Y ;kd usK;H ajrmif; (2) xyfpv
D yk f
ap\/ xkaYd Mumifo
U xHNk rKd rY mS y|ruNrKd Y ;kd (3)xyf? usK;H oH;k xyf&adS omfvnf;? ,cktcg ajrmufrsuEf mS u NrKd Y ;kd
(6) xyf? usK;H (6) xyf&adS vonf/
okNhd rKd aY wmfukd ckid v
f akH tmifjyKvyk Nf y;D vQif ypfpif? &ifwm;? vufeufvo
l pl rD NH y;D vQif tjyif bufcH
wyfrsm;udv
k nf;vuf0?J vuf,m (4) wyfpw
D nfvyk af ponf/ cHwyfw\
Ydk trnfrsm;um;
1/
aumhcwyfwGwf
(uwkdufuav;)
2/
aumhcwyfEGwf
(uwku
d Bf u;D )
3/
r&doblrdNrdKYa[mif;&m
(rdu
k o
f zH;k ) (r&rf;uke;f )
4/
aumhumvmaomu
(qifjzLuRef;)
vuf0rJ S (4) wyfprD
H rsKd ;d;k &dum ? vufeufvo
l t
l jynft
h pHo
k iG ;f ckcaH ponf/ vuf,m
bufvnf;
1/ usKd uaf umfb&k m;a&SY uzawmif\ta&SaY jrmufwiG f 0uFygcw
H yf (,ck0if;y&Gm)
2/ uzawmif\taemufawmifaxmifh Akv
d cf idk cf w
H yf/ aemufxadk e&m bk&m;wnf usKd uAf v
dk f
ckdifbk&m;ac:onf/

- 41 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

3/
4/

ok aw o e

a';wGwf (ac:) uke;f uav;cHwyf? ,ckom,muke;f [kac:onf/


ETwu
f v
k m;cHwyf/ ,ckaemifuv
k m;&GmcHwyfrsm;jzifch ck aH ponf/

taemf&xmrif;\ yk*HjynfrS a&aMumif;ESifh Munf;aMumif;csDwufppfonfrsm;? OyJcl;


NrKd Y aygi;f qH
k ppfawmif;jrpfuu
kd ;l Ny;D vQif oxHNk rKd aY us;pyf a&S;tom;rif;ae&m uom(usKd uu
f om)rnfaom
t&yf wyfwnfvsufpcef;csonf/ ppfonfol&JwkdYudk oHk;aMumif;oHk;oG,fcGJcsDwufap\/
Munf;wyfrmS usepf pfom;Akv
d rf LS ;jyK taemufbufaMumif;cs&D \/ iaxG;l udAk v
kd rf LS ;jyK ta&Sb
Y uf
aMumif;csw
D ufvyk Bf uaH p\/ yifv,fa&aMumif;rS anmifO;D bD;ESihf ivH;k vufz,fwu
Ydk kd yifv,fraS pvTw
f
ok"r0wDNrdKYudkawmifuwkdufckdufap\/
taemf&xmrif;onf ajrmufrsuEf mS uomvQif tBu;D tus,cf w
H yfjyK ckcaH ponf/ yifv,fc&D;rS
csDwufvmaom a&aMumif;wyfonfoxHkNrdKYudk taemufrSauGYywfvsuf &if;Nidrfqdyfuwufavonf/
xk&d if;Nird q
f yd rf S wufwyfawmfukd (2) pkcjJG yefonf/ ivH;k vufz,ftyk cf sKyaf omwyfonf ta&So
Y Ydk
,Ge;f awmifajc(Zif;usKu
d )f okYd uyfvsuw
f u
dk cf u
dk o
f rd ;f ,lNy;D oxHNk rKd \
Y ta&SaY wmif (aumh) rnfaomt&yf
wGif wyfpv
JG su0f ef;&Honf/ anmifO;D zD;tkycf sKyaf omwyfonf&if;Nird rf S ajrmufoaYdk wmifpOfwavsmuf wku
d cf u
dk f
odr;f ,l&ef awmifwef;\tqH;k rkcp&eDjrpf (,ckqm;acsmif;) urf; wyfwnfoxHNk rKd u
Y 0kd ef;&Hav\/
xkdokdYa&aMumif;? Munf;aMumif;ppfBuD;csDvmaomtcg rEk[mrif;\vuf0J? vuf,mcHwyfwkdYonf
wpfwyfNyD;wpfwyf qkwfcGgvsufaemufqHk;NrdKYwGif;uom pkckcHMu&awmhonf/
taemf&xm\uke;f aMumif;ppfonf wkv
Yd nf; tpOftwkid ;f atmifjrif taemufaMumif; ppfonfwo
Ydk nf
rEk[mrif;\qifjzLawmf 32 pD;xm; &mumvaomuac: (qifjzLuRe;f cHwyf)u wyfp
JG oxHu
k kd 0ef;&Honf/
ta&Sb
Y uf Munf;aMumif;wyfuvnf; oxHNk rKd \
Y ta&SaY jrmuf usKd uaf uom& taemufawmifajc&if; wyfp
JG
oxHk NrKd u
Y 0kd ef;&Honf/

oxHkajreDukef;(Z,blrd)ay:awmfjyefapwD

- 42 -

taemf&xmrif;apmvnf; uom
wyfawmfpcef;rScsaD wmfr
l rl;oD(rkoif)
wyfpcef;csonf/ xkrd cS sjD yefaomf
usKu
d af umfb&k m;\ ajrmufbufwiG f
pcef;csonf/ xkpd cef;rSae pnf;pdrf
rysu?f toufrao? aevkv
d Qif "gwf
awmf? arGawmf? yd#uwfawmfrsm;ESihf
xD;eef;udt
k yf&rnf[k rEk[mrif;xHap
vTw
f awmif;ap\/ rEk[mrif;vnf;
NrKd u
Y v
kd NkH cKH pmG ydw
f wdwq
f w
d pf mG ae\/
pum;rjyefacs/ taemf&xmrif;vnf;
a&SYokdYqufvufcsDcJhjyef ok"r0wD
oxHNk rKd \
Y ajrmufbufuek ;f jyifwpfck
wyfp
JG oxHNk rKd u
Y v
kd yk Bf uaH wmfr\
l /

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

xdt
k cg oxH\
k ta&SY awmifrS aumhwyf? taemufawmifrS rkcp&eD wyf? taemufajrmufrS umvmaom
uwyf? ta&SaY jrmufrS usKd uaf uom &wyf? ajrmufwnfw
h nfrh S bk&ifrif;\ wyfawmfukd oxHNk rKd u
Y (kd 5)wyf
vH;k 0kid ;f wku
d cf u
dk af omaMumifh atmifjrif Ekid ef if;av\/ xko
d Ydk ajrmufbuf wyfawmfpcef;cs&mae&mudZk ,blrd
[korkwcf o
hJ nf/ ,ckajreDuek ;f [k ac:onf/ taemf&xmrif;onf Z, blrw
d yfawmf\a&Sw
Y yfO;D oxHu
k kd
atmifjyefawmfro
l nft
h xde;f trSwf apwDwpfqw
l nfxm;onf/ ,ck ay:awmfjyef[ak c:aom apwDjzpf\/
taemf&xmrif;apmvnf; oxHjk ynfuakd tmifawmfr
l ? rif;rdz&k m;ESiw
hf uG? yd#u
d wfawmf? "gwaf wmf?
arGawmf? kyw
f ak wmf? qifjzLawmfrpS ,loif&h m&modr;f ,lawmfrNl y;D vQif t&d,moHCmawmf(1000)udv
k nf;
yifhaqmifawmfrl wyfawmftpOftwkdif;EIwfNyD;vQif yk*Hjynfokdhjyefonf/
xkt
d cg ok0Pbrl w
d idk ;f ? ok"r0wD? oxHNk rKd eY ,fq;kH uom (usKd uu
f om) wyfawmfpcef;okYd a&muf
aomtcg? oxHjk ynfryS ifch ahJ om oHCmawmf (1000) wko
Yd nf? igwyhdk *k jH ynfoYdk vku
d yf goGm;vQi?f oxHjk ynf
bk&m;ocif\ vufxufawmfrpS wnfxeG ;f cJah om omoemawmfBu;D oH;k &yfonf arS;rSed u
f ,
G yf &pfawmhrnf
[k owdoaH 0*jzpfawmfru
l ek Mf u? wyfawmfpcef;ESihf reD;ra0;awmBu;D ok0Yd if psmeformywfjzifh aeawmfrl
Muuke\
f / xkt
d cgtaemf&xmrif;u yifah omfvnf;r&ojzifh ynm&Srd LS ;rwfrsm;ESihf wkid yf ifaomtcg ynm&Sw
d u
Ydk
omoemuG,faysmufrnfpdk; rvdkufvdkMuojzifU psmef0ifpm;aeaMumif; avQmufxm;Muav\/ yifh
&rnfr[kwaf Mumif; Oyg,w
f rQijf zifU avQmufwifMuuke\
f /
rSL;rwfynm&Sw
d aYdk vQmufonft
h wkid ;f t&d,moHCmawmf (1000) wk\
Yd ae&mawmf bk&m;aygi;f
apwDaygi;f (1000) wnfNy;D rS ]t&Sib
f &k m;wkyhd *k jH ynfo<hdk u omoemawmfujkd yKpck s;D jri ahf wmfryl g/ oxHNk rKd Y

usdKuom bk&m;wpfaxmifukef;rS a&S;a[mif;(apwD;ukef;)rsm;

- 43 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

t&Siw
f \
Ydk q&mjrwfpmG bk&m;\ O'd
apwDawmf (1000) vnf;&S&d pfygNy/D aemufaemifuv
kd nf; omoemawmf
ruG,fyatmifapmifha&Smufygrnf}[k avQmufawmfrlMuukef\/
xkt
d cgwnfaom apwDawmfaygi;f (1000) udrk eG v
f rl sKd ;wku
Yd usKd uv
f iD;[kac:Muonf/ ,cktcg
awmNcKH wt
Ydk wGi;f ysKd ysuv
f su&f adS eMu? xkb
d &k m;rsm;&S&d m awmBu;D udb
k &k m;wpfaxmifawm[k jrefrmbmom
jzifh yifah c:Muuke\
f / (if;bk&m;wpfaxmifawmESihf bk&m;wpfaxmif apwDi,frsm;udk usKd uo
m&Gm? bk&m;
wpfaxmifuek ;f awGEY idk yf gonf/) (oxH&k mZ0if? pm 113-19)

oxHrk if;qufrsm;udak zmfjyjcif;


ok0Pbrl ?d ok"r0wD? oxHjk ynfonfum; bk;d awmfterif;NzKd <uif; ou&mZf (110) jynfEh pS f
(682 bDpD) oD[&mZmrif;tm;? odMum;rif;zefqif;ay;aom ok0Pblrd? ok"r0wDNrdKY oD[&mZmtp
tuk&F rif; tqk;H rif;(5)quf/
xdaYk emuf ok0Pbrl ?d ok"ry&l NrKd Y Oya'0&mZoHa0rif; tpwnfpHaeonf rif; (1) quf/
xdaYk emuf r&doblr?d ok"r0wDNrKd U &mZmaZmeDrif; if;aemufom;awmf&mZmaZma0rif; ESihf aygi;f rif;
(2) quf/
xdkYaemuf if;&mZmaZma0rif;yif [&do&blrd? ok"r0wD a&Tavmif;tif;NrdKYudkwnf (12)ESpf
eef;pHNy;D rS? wdu
k u
f v
k m;e,f? ok0Pbrl +d ok"r0wDNrKd u
Y w
kd nf eef;pHjyefonf/ (31)ESp&f rdS mS NrKd aY ygi;f (3)NrKd Y
eef;pH pnf;pdrf (45)? tdref rd hf (25)? touf (70) wGif tedpj zpfonf/ xdw
k u
kd u
f v
k m; ok0Pbrl ?d
ok"r0wDNrKd Y &mZmaZma0ac: oD&"d rmaomutp Okem*b0rif;tqH;k rif;aygi;f (10) quf/
xdrk if;onf ,k*E&mZm? aZmwdygvrif;\vufxuf Oya'0rif;wnfcahJ om ok0Pbrl ?d ok"ry&l NrKd o
Y Ykd
ajymif;cJjh yef xdak Zmwdygvrif;tp? rEk[mrif;tqH;k rif;aygi;f (41) quf? aygi;f (6) NrKd rY mS rif;aygi;f
(58) qufjynfaU v\/
rif;trnfrsm;udk ,d;k ',m; (xdik ;f ) edik if rH &S aom aypmrlrS ygV*d gxmudak tmufygtwkid ;f awG&Y ygonf/
ok"r0wdre rd H / / uwarxmZm/ / oD[ukrm ok"r&mZm/ oD&"d rmaomu&mZm/ oD&"d r&mZm/
"r'D&mZm/ "r'Z&mZm/ tuF&k &mZm/ Ava'0&mZm/ oD&&d mZm/ aZmwukrm &mZm/ oD&"d rmaomuH
yumodwH/ wawmy&H 'k',&mZm/ umv0P&mZm/ tZdEu&mZm/ r[mov&mZm/ OkPu&mZm/
e&ol&mZm/ r[mbj'&mZm/ tEk"0&&mZm/ oD&d*kwd,&mZm/ OkPu&mZm/ ,k*E&mZm/ okeE&mZm/
jA['w&mZm/ ykn&mZm/ b0du&mZm/ yla&m"dw&mZm/ om"k&mZm/ "rygv&mZm/ 'e&mZm/
a,m*'d,&mZm/ tou &mZm/ y'kr& mZm/ AEK&mZm/ oDv&mZm/ r[d o
H &mZm/ Amvdu&mZm/ ZrKw& &mZm/
a'0&mZm/ auo&mZm/ rle&d mZm/ ou&mZm/ uko&mZm/ e&m"dw&mZm/ a0vk&mZm/ pdw& mZm/ AE&mZm/
'DC&mZm/ od0d&mZm/ Oku&mZm/ "nw&mZm/ oD&d"rmaomu - r[mpu0&mZm/ AE&&mZm/
Z,okre&mZm/ AE&mZm/ tZdE& mZm/ O'dE& mZm/ rEk[m&mZm/ arememowynmo&mZm/ r[d'u
d m/
omoeywdwDwm/

- 44 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

ygVd*gxm rif; (57) quf&SdaMumif;udk qdkonf/ odkY&mwGif omoemjyKaomrif; (57)


quf[q
k akd omaMumifh omoemudzk suaf om (tuF&k ) rif;ESiahf ygi;f aomf rif; (58) qufEiS hf nDavonf/
,d;k ',m;rIEiS hf oxH&k mZ0ifr?l rif;trnfrwlujJG ym;rIrsm;&Syd gonf/ odaYk omf rif;wpfa,mufwnf;udyk if? ESprf nf?
oHk;rnfwGif&aMumif; a&SYwGifazmfjyNyD;jzpf emrnfomuGJjym;aomfvnf; rif;qufudktwlwlyif,lMuyg/
(OD;ynm? pm 1. 19-121)

rEk[mrif;yk*o
H yYkd goGm;NyD;aemuf oxHrk if;qufrsm;
oxHNk rKd u
Y kd taemf&xmodr;f Ny;D vQif rif;udyk g,al qmifomG ;Ny;D aemuf
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/

ppfolBuD;vuf0Jol&rif;jyK
om; eEo&l
Muufzrif;jyK
usm;rif;jyK
usm;aoonfhae&m NrdKYwnf
As*blrdNrdKYac:wGif?
yk*rH if;om; As*& mZmrif;jyK
6/ jcaoFhrif;jyK
7/ yk*rH if;om; aZmwa'0rif;jyK
aygif;

25 ESpf
12 ESpf
11 ESpf
1 ESpf 2 v
12 ESpf
1 ESpf
24 ESpf
86 ESpf 2 v

xdaYk emuf rif;qufjywf oxHq


k akd om ok"ry&l NrKd o
U nf aysmufu,
G
f vGijf zpf&av\/ (OD;ynm? pm.122)
oxH&k mZ0ifygtaMumif;t&mwdo
Yk nf acwfNyKd iaf usmufpmvnf;r[kw?f ordik ;f rSww
f rf;[kvnf;
rqdkom/ '@m&DygtaMumif;t&mwdkYukd ordkif;enf;jzifh tcsdefumv? ae&ma'oESifh tjzpftysufrsm;udk
xkwfEIwfNyD;qef;ppfwifjyygOD;rnf/
tcsdefumvtm;jzifh Ak'rwdkifrDacwf? Ak'acwfESifhAk'vGefacwftaMumif;wdkY yg0ifaeygonf/
ok0PblrdoxHkjynfudk Ak'jrwfpGmryGifhrDumvyif pwifwnfaxmifonf[kqdk\/ tdEd,rS pGefYpm;vm
a&mufaom rif;om;wpfyg;ESihf aemufvu
dk af emufygrsm;jzpfMuygonf/ vma&mufonfU &ufpu
JG rkd od&yg/
wpfzef odMum;? &aoh? 0dZm "d&k w
f Ykd zefqif;wnfaxmifay;cJMh uaom ok"r0wD? ok0Pbrl d NrKd aY wmfrsm;
ay:ayguv
f mMu\/ yxrok"r0wD? 'kw,
d ok"r0wDNrKd rY sm; jzpfMu\/ yxrok"r0wDonf ]ok'r me0}
udk ]ok"r&mZm}tjzpf eef;wifay;aomNrKd Y jzpfonf/ odMum;rif;u xdNk rKd Yukd NrKd Y ;kd ckEpS x
f yf? usK;H ckEpS x
f yfjzefY
zefqif;wnfaxmifay;onfq\
kd / xdt
k csurf mS rSwo
f m;p&maumif;ovd?k pdw0f ifpm;zG,f vnf;aumif;\/
taMumif;rl oxHak 'owGif NrKd Y ;kd txyfrsm;rsm;ESihf wnfxm;aomNrKd aY [mif;&mrsm;udk aumif; uif"gwyf akH y:rS
&SmazGawG&Y x
dS m;jcif;aMumifyh ifjzpf\/ Oyrm usKu
d o
mNrKd aU [mif;qdv
k Qif NrKd Y ;kd txyf (7) xyf xufrenf;&So
d nf/
ZkwfokwfNrdKYa[mif;rSmvnf; xdkenf;twkdif;yif NrKdYdk;txyfrsm;ygonf/ NrdKYa[mif;ESpfNrdKYrSm t&G,ftpm;
vnf;rao;i,fvSay/ NrdKYwnf&mtaetxm;uvnf;aumif;onf/ usKduomrSm ppfawmif;jrpf0 &Sd?

- 45 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

ZkwfokwfrSm bD;vif;jrpf0wGif&Sdonf/ a&S;a[mif;taqmufttHkt<uif;tusef? ,Ofaus;rIvuf&mt<uif;


tuserf sm;vnf; awG&Y &dS ygonf/
'kw,
d ok"r0wDNrKd u
U kd oD&,
d ukrm rif;om;twGuf &aohEpS yf g;wdu
Yk pDrzH efw;D ay;\/ odMum;rif;u
ulno
D nf/ NrKd Y ;kd (7) xyf? usK;H (7) xyfEiS yhf ifwnfco
hJ nf/ xdNk rKd w
YU nfaxmifcsed u
f kd rod&ay/ Ak'b
&k m;
ryGirhf u
D [komrSw
S &f \/ NrKd w
Y nf&mXmerSm &aohEpS yf g;wd\
Yk ocFe;f ausmif; ESpcf t
k Mum;ae&m[lom od&ygonf/
oxHka'owGif &aohwdkYoDwif;oHk;aom awmifrsm;&SdMuygonf/ xdkawmifESpfawmiftMum;jzpfrnf[lom
rSef;qEdkifygonf/
wwd,ok"r0wDwnfaxmifonfh &ufpu
JG v
kd nf;rod&ao;ay/ wnfaxmifay;olwrhkd mS Zif;usKu
d f
awmif&aohEiS hf ZGu
J Aifawmif&aohwhkd jzpfaMumif;od&onf/ 0dZm Zd&k u
f uln
D a&Ttw
k rf sm;jzifh NrKd Y ;kd wnfay;
aMumif;? xdka&Ttkwfrsm;pGmudktaMumif;jyKNyD; ok0Pblrdac:aMumif; t"dyg,fwpfrsKd;od&\/ NrdKUwnfaom
ae&mrSm ,ckoxHNk rKd Y ta&SaY wmifwef;Bu;D rS a*gah wmif\ ajrmufbuft&yf[k ae&mtnTe;f ay;xm;onf/
,ck oxkNH rKd aY [mif;teD;ywf0ef;usiyf ifjzpfygonf/ xkNd rKd w
Y iG f "rZrif;rsK;d (16) qufEpS af ygi;f (237) ESpo
f uf
wrf;MumjrifhcJhMuaMumif; tqdk&Sdaomfvnf; tpESpfESifhtqHk;ESpfudkrod&ao;ay/
pwkwo
0k Pbrl ?d ok"r0wDNrKd rY mS wwd,o"r0wDNrKd aY e&mrSmyif topfxyfrjH yKjyif wnfaomNrKd Y
jzpfygonf/ &aohESpfyg;tjyif odMum;rif;vnf;ygonf/ 0dZmESifhe*g;rwdkYrS&aom OBuD;ESpfvHk;vnf;ygonf/
Ouayguaf omvlom;taMumif;rSm tvGe'f @m&Dqefygonf/ tcsed u
f mvtm;jzifh Ak'y iG chf sed Ef iS w
hf u
kd q
f idk af e\/
tdEd,EdkifiHAk'usrf;pmrsm;rawGY&aom *0Hywd&[EmtaMumif;yg0ifaeonfrSm odyHynm&Sifrsm;twGuf
txl;uefYuGufp&mjzpfaeygonf/ *0Hywd&[Em\trnfonf tdEd,wGifordkif;0if xif&Sm;vSonfr[kwf
aomfvnf; jrefrmhordkif;rlxif&Sm;onf/ yk*Hacwfrlv xdk;ausmufpmwpfcsyfwGif *0Hywdtrnfyg&Sd\/
atmufjrefrmEdik if H oxHak 'otwGuf *0Hywd&[Emonf z,fxw
k yf pfr&aom ordik ;f 0ify*k Kd vjf zpfaeygonf/
oxHo
k nf Ak'E iS ahf cwfNyKd iw
f nf&adS eaMumif; *0Hywd&[Em ,HMk unfro
I ufaoxljyovsu&f o
dS nf/ t&Si*f 0H
ywdaqmif,v
l mcJah om oGm;awmf"gwXf myemonfU apwDrsm;&So
d nf/ Ak'q
aH wmfapwDawmfrsm;vnf; trsm;
tjym;yif&SdNyD; ,aeYwdkif,HkMunfudk;uG,ftm;xm;aeMuygonf/
a&S;a[mif;okawoetjrift&qkv
d Qif pwkwo
0k Pbrl u
d v
kd nf; NrKd Y ;kd (7) xyf? usK;H (7)xyf
jzifh wnfxm;cJah Mumif;rSmta&;Bu;D onf/ wnfaxmifaomckEpS o
f u&mZfukd NrKd u
Y srS taotcsmod&onf
rSmvnf; ta&;Bu;D ygonf/ oD[&mZmrif;touf (17) ESpt
f G,?f bd;k awmftOerif;NzKd <uif;ou&mZf(100)
jynfEh pS [
f k tnTe;f yg&\
dS / c&pfEpS o
f zUdk vS,af omf xd&k ufprJG mS (bDpD 582) wGif usa&mufvsu&f \
dS / xk&d ufpo
JG nf
pwkwo
0k Pbrl Nd rKd \
Y NrKd w
Y nf&ufpyJG if jzpfawmhonf/ (Ak'b
&k m;&Siyf &deAd m efpEH pS u
f kd bDpD 544 jzifh zvS,f
wGuf,lonf/)
pwkwo
"k r0wDNrKd w
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okawoeenf;jzifh pl;prf;avhvm tajz&Sm&rnfUae&mXmersm;yifjzpfMu\/

- 46 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

xkx
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&pfao;\/ ,ckoxHNk rKd o
Y pfwnf&m &Syd gonf/

- 47 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

oxHw
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rEk[mrif;vufxufwGifysuf\/

- 48 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

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- 49 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

] yk8tH vGef ok0Pbrl d }


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,HMk unfpmG jzifh . . .

- 50 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

Zif;usKd uaf wmif qHawmf&iS af pwD (ac: ) usKd ujf Aif;ewfb&k m;awmif

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- 51 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

ok0Pblrdacwf a&S;NrdKYa[mif;BuD;wpfckwnf&SdaMumif; owdjyKrdNyD;? *kwpdkufazmfxkwfay;olrSm


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Yd kd awGY jrif&Ny;D ? ]um; ok0Pbrl d
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o'gjcif;jzpf\/ Ny;D vQiv
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hf uGom;? r,m;? trSL;trwfwu
Ydk kd
zrf; taemf&xmrif;tm;qufonf[kazmfjyygonf/ (rSefeef;? 246) xkdYaemufqufvuf oxHkjynf
taMumif;udk
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l aygi;f wko
Yd nfvnf; 'ge? oDvtp&Sad om aus;Zl;ESijhf ynfph MkH u

- 52 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

onfjzpf ewfjynfuo
hJ Ydk tvGe0f ajym om,mpGmjzpfonf / / (rSeef ef;? pm 248)
[lazmfusL;xm;yHkudkawGY&ygonf/
oxHkysufonfhtaMumif;ESifhywfoufvnf; jrefrmtaxmuftxm;rsm;wGifxko
d pYdk nfyifjyefaY jympGmwnfaom oxHjk ynfBu;D udk tpk;d &aom qifjzLoH;k q,fEpS pf ;D &Sijf zpfaom
oD&Bd wb
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pum;jzifh qkdrdjcif;aMumifh rdrdudk,frSp wpfjynfvHk;ysufpD;jcif;okdYa&mufawmfrlacsonf/
(rSeef ef;? pm-249)
[l azmfjyxm;ygonf/
yk*o
H aYdk &mufvQif taemf&xmrif;aqmif,cl aJh omoxHrk S ol&o
J cl uf tp&Sad om ynmonf taygi;f wku
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toD;oD;tpktuGucf sae&aMumif;? o&D&"mwfawmftaygi;f wku
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wGiXf myem acgi;f &if;awmftNrx
J m; ud;k uG,af Mumif;? yd#uwftpHk ok;H q,fuv
kd nf; &wemtwdNy;D aom
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onf/ ,if;tjzpftysuw
f u
Ydk m; tESp(f 1000) eD;yg;Mumanmif;cJNh y;D jzpfygonf/

- 53 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

udvk ekd aD cwf ok"r0wD


NAw
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kd edk t
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f mcJo
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k cf if;wk;d csYJ jcif;? uRe;f opfEiS o
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rsm;wifydkYEkdifa&;twGuf vrf;rsm;azmufjcif;? a&wm;wrHrsm;wnfaqmufjcif; ponfUacwfopfESifh tnD
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1921 ckEpS w
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f m;\/ rD;&xm;vrf;udk taemuf
NrdKYkd;ESifh teD;uyfazmufvkyfvsufxm;&Sdayonf/

- 54 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

NAdwv
d sudv
k ekd aD cwf (1945)ckEpS ?f Zefe0g&DvwGif a&;qGaJ om oxHNk rdKaY jryHk
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ponfU taqmufttHrk sm; wnfxm;yHu
k kd awG&Y onf/

a'gufwm tJvpfZbufrdk;xHrS&onfU oxHkNrdKYajryHk

- 55 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

oa&acw&mESiUf ok0Pbrl d
aemufxyfta&;Bu;D onfh udpw
pfc&k adS o;\/ aumif;uif"gwyf rkH aS wG&Y aom topfawGY NrKd aY [mif;
uke;f rsm; oxHak 'owGi&f MdS u\/ NrKd aU [mif;uke;f rsm;rSm ysLNrKd rY sm;omjzpfrnf/ ok0Pbrl d oxHo
k rdik ;f ESirhf qdik f
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wl;azmfoak woeOD;pGmvkycf MhJ uyHu
k kd trsm;odNy;D jzpfygonf/ ysL,Ofaus;rIuOkd ;D pm;ay; okawoejyKcMhJ ujcif;vnf;
jzpf\/ ,if;ysLNrKd rY sm;awG&Y aom ,Ofaus;rI taxmuftxm;rsm;ESihf qifwo
l nfU tjcm;,Ofaus;rIypn;f rsK;d
udk oxHak 'orSmawG&Y vQif oxHu
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ok0Pbrl d taxmuftxm;[kyif owfrw
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f mpDtAdk vuf'ifzwfaI y;Ny;D

- 56 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

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dS nf/ xkt
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Yd nfynmjzifBh u
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k ;dk a,mifvyk Nf y;D vQif ykq;dk jzLudk vTr;f xD;wif
av\/ urf;,Hwu
Ydk jrifavaomf igwhdk ;IH acsNy[
D
l ajy;av\/ urf;,Hajy;avNy;D aomf ysLtcsi;f csi;f
ppfjzpfMujyef oHk;pkuGJjyef\/ wpfpkudkusyif;wkdh,lav\/ wpfpkudkoufwkdY,lav\/ wpfpkum;
awmifndK[laomt&yfudkjynfwnfaxmif aeav\/ oHk;ESpf&SdaomtcgrGefwkdYu wkdufjyefav
aomaMumifh ysuaf cs\/ xdu
k onf yef;awmif;oufom t&yfuw
kd nfjyefaejyefav\/ ajcmufEpS &f dS
vQifurf;,HwkdYu wkdufjyefav ysufjyefacs\/ xkdurS rif;wkef;udkwnfaxmif oHk;ESpfaejyef
av\/ rif;wke;f wGio
f ;kH ESpaf erS ou&mZfwEkd pS q
f ,fu
h ;kd ck (at'D 127)ckwiG f ,kev
f w
T u
f Re;f t&yf
ork'& mZfrif;wnfaxmifpjyKonf/ (rSeef ef;? 1992? y? pm 186-7)
[lazmfjyxm;ygonf/
yk*HwGif&Gmaygif;wpfq,hfudk;&Gmpkpnf; NrdKUwnfNyD;aemuf &aohaMumifrif;? ysLapmxD;rif;wkdYrSp
rif;aygi;f (42quf) taemf&xmrif; (at'D 1044) eef;wufonfu
h mvtxd oxHEk iS hf acwfNyKd ijf zpfaecJyh gonf/
ae&mwGif oa&acw&mysLwkyYd sucf NhJ y;D aemuf ysLvlO;D a&trsm;pkwrYdk mS oa&acw&mrS ajrmufbuft&yfy*k o
H Ydk
ajymif;a&To
U mG ;yHu
k kd awG&U rnfjzpfygonf/ tb,fah Mumifh awmifbuf? ta&SaY wmifbufo?Ydk ra&TcY MhJ uygoenf;/
taMumif;rSmoxH&k adS ecJjh cif;aMumifo
h mjzpfygonf/ yk*o
H rYdk a&mufrD (,kev
f w
T u
f Re;f NrKd rU wnfr)D ae&mrsm;pGm
(awmifnKd ? yef;awmif;? rif;wke;f ) odahk &TaY jymif;cJMh uao;\/ xkad e&mrsm;wGif oxHrk yg&adS y/
rSeef ef;&mZ0ifawmfBu;D rSmyif oa&acw&mysupf Oftcgu yJc;l (oxH)k ESio
hf a&acw&m qufqrH u
I kd
azmfjyxm;ao;\/ if;qufqHrIrSm qHawmfbk&m;udk;uG,frItaMumif;ESifhoufqkdif\/
rSeef ef;&mZ0if (1992-y? pm? 267) wGit
f aemf&xmrif;udk O(yJc;l ) orD;awmf rPdpEmESit
hf wl
qHawmf"gww
f pfqq
l ufoaMumif;yg&\
dS / xkq
d aH wmfut
kd aemf&xmrif;u yk*w
H iG f bk&m;pnf;cHk (a&Tpnf;cHrk [kw)f
wpfqw
l nf ud;k uG,af wmfro
l nf/ xkb
kd &k m;udrk [mydEJ (a&TqaH wmf) [lorkwcf yhJ gonf/ ,if;taMumif;udk
rSeef ef;&mZ0ifwiG f -

- 57 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

Omrif;uqufvkdufaom qHawmftaMumif;um; wykbvdu nDaemifESpfyg;wnfaom


apwDEpS q
f w
l iG f bvduwnfaomapwDukd (oa&acw&m) 'Gwa ygirf if;Bu;D zsu
f qHawmfav;acsmif;udk
,lNy;D aomf oa&acw&mjynf apwDwnf ud;k uG,af wmfr\
l /
oa&acw&mysuv
f Qif rGerf if;wkYd xdak pwDuzdk su
f qHawmfav;acsmif;udyk ifjU yefav\/ a&Tarmfa"m
bk&m;rSm qHawmfEpS q
f l usKd uu
f b
Ykd &k m;rSm wpfqXl myemavonf/ qHawmfwpfqu
l u
kd m; &wemyef;
awmif;ESix
hf m; rGerf if;tqufqufwYdk (yJc;l ) eef;awmfwiG x
f m; ud;k uG,af omqHawmfwnf;/
[lawG&Y ygonf/ (4if;pmrsuEf mS yif- ]oxHrk if;rEk[mudv
k nf; om;r,m;ta>ct&HEiS w
hf uG? aumif;rIawmf
a&Tpnf;cHb
k &k m;rSm vSLawmfr
l tBu;D jyK&\/ [kawG&Y ygao;onf/)
pifppf oxHo
k nf yk*x
H ufvnf;apmonf? oa&acw&mxufvnf;apmygonf/ waumif;wnfaxmif
aomacwfESifh acwfNydKifNrdKUa[mif;[kyifqkdEkdifygonf/
'Gwa ygirf if;Bu;D onf bke;f Bu;D aomrif;jzpf\/ ZrL'DyguRe;f rSp tol&mjynf? e*g;jynfwidk af tmif
vufeufEdkifiHjzpf tcGefcH&onf[kqkd\/ xdkrif;tdrfedrfh (35) ESpf? pnf;pdrf (70) oufawmf (105)
ESpw
f iG f tedpa &mufonf[k rSeef ef;&mZ0ifwiG af wG&Y ygonf/ (rSeef ef;? pm 172) 'Gwa ygiu
f o
kd moem
(66) ckEpS f (bDp-D 488) wGizf mG ;onf? omoem (171) ckEpS f (bDp-D 373) wGif tedpa &mufonf[q
k o
dk jzif?h
oxHrk if; oD[&mZmwuf? oufawmftESpf (120) i,fayonf/ oxHb
k &k if wd"ro[
D &mZmrif;qufrS
ok0P&mZmrif;? tuF&k rif;? Oya'0rif;ESihf &mZmaZmeDac: oD0&d mZmrif;wkEYd iS hf acwfNyKd ijf zpfaMumif;awG&Y \/
if;oxHrk if;rsm;\ eef;oufrsm;rSmatmufyg twdik ;f jzpf\/
1/ oD[&mZmrif;? r[mou&mZf (89) ckEpS f (bDpD 603) zGm;?
tdref rd hf 20? pnf;pdrf 60? oufawmf 80/
(omoem 21-ckEpS f (bDp-D 523) wGit
f edpa &muf
2/ om;oD&"d rmaomu (omoem? 21? bDpD 523 eefwuf?
tdref rd hf 20? pnf;pdrf 53? oufawmf& 3/
(omoem 124? bDpD 420) wGit
f edpa &muf/
3/ om;? ok0P&mZm? "rZrif; (omoem? 124? bDpD 420 eef;wuf)
tdref rd hf 30? pnf;pdrf 35? oufawmf 62?
(omoem 156? bDp?D 385) wGit
f pd a &muf
5/ om;tuF&k - (eef;oufwpfEpS rf jynf)h
6/ nD-Oya'0rif; (omoem 160? bDpD 384-eef;wuf)
tdref rd hf 20? pnf;pdrf 32? oufawmf 52?
(omoem 192? bDpD 352) wGit
f edpa &muf
(xdkrif;vufxuf ok"ryl&udkwnfonf/)
7/ om;? &mZmaZmeDac:
oD0&d mZmrif; (omoem 192? bDp-D 352) eef;wuf?
tdref rd hf 22? bDp?D 322) wGit
f edpa &muf
(if;rif;-7-quf? eef;oufaygi;f 260? yQr;f rQwpfyg; 37 ESpf

- 58 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

8/ om;aZmwukrm? "rmaomu
(omoem 222? bDpD 322) eef;wuf
tdref rd hf 25? pnf;pdrf 45? oufawmf 70?
(omoem 267? bDpD 275) wGit
f edpa &muf)
xkdrif;vufxufwGif rm&dblrdok"r0wD
a&Tavmif;NrdKYESifh ok"r0wD-ok0Pblrd-wkdufukvm;NrdKUwkdYudkwnfonf/)
omoemou&mZf 235-ckESpf? bDpD 309? ckESpfwGifaomPESifh Ow&ax&fwkdYtzGJYom oemjyK
<ua&mufvmcJhonf/)
if;aZmwukrm ? "raomurif;quf (10) quf? wko
Yd nfeef;ouf 214 ESpMf umatmif? wdu
k f
ukvm; ok"r0wDwiG pf ;dk pHMu\/ if;rif;wpfyg;ysr;f rQeef;ouf (24) ESp&f MdS u\/
xkaYd emufomoemESpf 450? bDp-D 94-ckEpS w
f iG f wku
d u
f v
k m;rS,ckoxH?k ok"ry&l NrKd aY [mif;ae&mokYd
a&TaY jymif;xD;eef;pdu
k x
f o
l nf/ rif;aygi;f 41 quftyk pf ;dk onf/ NrKd o
Y uf (1151) ESp&f
dS rif;wpfyg;ysr;f rQ
eef;pHEpS f (28) ESppf &D MdS uygonf/ omoemESpf 1601? ckEpS f (at'D 1057) a&mufonft
h cg yk*rH if;taemf&xm
ESihf ppfjzpfrif;qufjywfc\
hJ / (Tun Aung Chain, 2010, PP-11-20)
tcsufrsm;udkaxmufvQif oxHkonfoa&acw&mwnfaxmifonfrS? yk*HokdYa&mufNyD;? yk*Hrif;
taemf&xmvufxufwidk af tmif ('Gwa ygirf pS ? taemf&xmtqH;k ) rif;aygi;f (67) qufwEYdk iS ahf cwfNyKd ijf zpf
vsu&f adS Mumif;awG&Y onf/ oufwrf;tm;jzifh ESpaf ygi;f (1500) jzpfygonf/
a&S;acwfa[mif;jrefrmEkid if o
H rkid ;f wGif ok0Pbrl [
d
l r&Sad Mumif;? oxHk (ok"r0wD) vnf;r&Scd ahJ Mumif;?
orkid ;f ynm&Sit
f csKd u
U awG;awm,lqxm;ayonf/ tcsKd u
U vnf;oa&acw&m uJo
h Ydk ysLNrKd Y Bu;D wpfNrKd w
Y nfwefY
ae&m? if;ywf0ef;usirf mS oxH&k v
dS Qiv
f nf; oa&acw&m\ vufatmufco
H mjzpfrnf/ oa&acw&m\
e,fpeG ef ,fzsm; (Periphery) ydik ;f omjzpfrnf/ okrYd [kwf tapmif?h cHwyfNrKd Y (garrison) rQomjzpfEidk rf nf/
xkaYd Mumifh oxH,
k Ofaus;rIrmS vnf; ysL,Ofaus;rIo
Y mjzpfrnfponfjzifh aqG;aEG;wifjycJMh uygonf/ ( Aung
Thwin, 2005. )

a&S;a[mif;okawoetjrift& Munfv
h Qiv
f nf; oa&acw&mNrKd aY [mif;Bu;D onf t0kid ;f t0ef;yHpk rH sKd ;
jzpfaom jrefrmEkid if t
H Bu;D qH;k NrKd aY [mif;Bu;D jzpfayonf/ ta&SaU wmiftm&SwpfciG rf mS yif uJo
h cYdk ef;em;Bu;D
us,faomNrdKUa[mif;udk &SmrawGY&ay/ a&S;NrdKYa[mif;BuD;wpfckyDopGm? Adokumvuf&m taqmufttHkrsm;
xif&mS ;&S\
d / ,Ofaus;rI tEkynmvuf&mypn;f rsm;? ausmufpma[mif;taxmuftxm;rsm;ESiv
hf nf; jynfph pkH mG &S\
d /
oxHrk mS rl [Hom0wD (yJc;l )? auwkrwDawmifi?l tr&yl&ESihf rEav;NrKd aY [mif; xku
d o
hJ hkd av;axmifh
yHo
k @mef&\
dS / NrKd aY [mif;\yEuyf pkH t
H & oa&acw&m? rkid ;f arm? 0wD;paom ysLNrKd aY [mif;rsm;uJo
h Ydk t0ef;
t0dik ;f yHrk sKd ;r[kwo
f jzifh a&S;usaomtoGit
f jyifr&Sad Mumif; axmufjyygonf/ ( Aung Thwin, 2005. )
pifppfuJo
h Ydk rsO;f ajzmifEh iS hf rsO;f auG;yHo
k @mefjzifah &S;vlae&Gma[mif;uke;f ? NrKd aY [mif;uke;f rsm; wnfxm;
avh&adS Mumif;rSm tjiif;yGm;zG,rf &Sad y/ jrefrmEkid if w
H iG af wG&Y aom a&S;NrKd aY [mif;rsm;udk aumif;uif"gwyf akH y:rS
wpfqifh zwfaI vhvmNy;D ? ajray:wiG v
f nf;uGi;f qif;um a&;om;jyKpck ahJ om? opfawmrif;Bu;D OD;atmifjrifh
(opfawm"gwyf kH tif*sief ,
D m) uif;\ ]aumif;uif "gwyf rkH aS wG&Y aom jrefrmhNrKd aY [mif;rsm;} pmtkyw
f iG f

- 59 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

t,ltqrsdK;wifjyxm; uREkfyfwkdYod&Sd vdkufemrSwfom;&ayonf/ odkYaomfa&S;NrdKUa[mif; avhvmtuJ


jzwfou
l pOf;pm;qH;k jzwf&rnfh taMumif;t&m? tcsut
f vufrsm;pGm&Syd gonf/ ud,
k w
f idk u
f ,
dk u
f s uGi;f qif;
dS ? tb,ftaMumif;
ppfaq; ajrjyiftajctae Topography udk pl;prf;&ygrnf/ tb,fah Mumifh rsO;f ajzmifyh &kH
aMumifh rsO;f auG;? t0ef;t0dik ;f yHrk sKd ;&Syd goenf;qko
d nfukd qef;ppf&ygrnf/ av;axmifyh kH rsO;f ajzmifh yHyk Eu&f w
dS idk ;f
oxHkudkacwfopfNrdKY (odyfra[mif;bl;)[k qHk;jzwfonfrSm a,sbk,sqefvGef;ygonf/
oa&acw&m NrKd aY [mif;\aumif;uif"gwyf u
kH Mkd unfyh g/ t0ef;t0dik ;f yHt
k jyif NrKd Y ;kd \ tv,fA[kcd suf
ae&m (arSmfZm&Gmpufwkdifbk&m;udkA[kdjyKvsuf) wGif av;axifhyHkNrdKYuGufi,ftm; awGYEdkifygonf/ xkdyHkrSm
oa&acw&mNrKd aY [mif; eef;awmf&mtuGuyf ifjzpfygonf/ tjyifut0ef; t0dik ;f yHpk jH zpf a&S;usaMumif;,lqvQif
twGi;f uav;axmifyh u
kH akd &m rnfuo
hJ q
Ykd ;kH jzwf&rnfenf;/ pifppf? av;axmifah &m? t0kid ;f yHu
k akd &m? wpfcsed f
wnf;wnfaqmufcJhjcif;omjzpfygonf/
xked nf;wlpmG t0ef;t0kid ;f yH&k adS om rkid ;f arm (yifv,f) NrKd aY [mif;yHrk mS vnf; tjyifu t0kid ;f yHt
k v,f
av;axmifhNrdKYuGufwpfckyg&Sdaeygonf/
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m? oJuek ;f ponft
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ESprf sm;u opfawmrif;Bu;D azmfxw
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Yd nf yHo
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csuw
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f vufrsm;vnf; &Syd gao;onf/
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k ;D aphrsm;? tjcm;pmayta&;tom;taxmuftxm;paom
a&S;a[mif;ypn;f udv
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ttHrk sm;? ,Ofaus;rIypn;f rsm; awG&Y x
dS m;Ny;D jzpfygonf/ if;taxmuftxm;rsm;udk arhxm;Ny;D yHo
k @mefrmS
axmifrh eS pf wk*jH zpf a&S;a[mif;NrKd rU [kw[
f
l tjiif;yGm;&eftaMumif;r&Syd g/
oxHNk rKd aY [mif;yHo
k @mefEiS yhf wfouf NrKd aY [mif;&mudk 1865-ckEpS u
f pwifawGcY o
hJ ?l oxHck dik f
vufaxmufaumfr&Sifemrif;BuD;u oxHkNrdKYa[mif;onf jrefrmEkdifiHa&S;NrdKYa[mif;BuD;rsm;jzpfaom? rEav;?
dS nf[k OD;pGmwifjyxm;cJjh cif;jzpfyg
tr&yl&wku
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l u
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onf/ if;tpD&ifcpH mudk NAw
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a*Zufw;D ,m;(Burma Gazeteer, Thaton District) wGiaf zmfjycsut
f wkid ;f ]if;av;axmifyh kH NrKd u
Y u
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NrKd aY xmifrh sm;onf 0ef;0kid ;f aomo@mef&adS Mumif;} xnfo
h iG ;f azmfjyxm;ayonf/ ok&Yd mwGif if;usr;f udx
k yfrH
ud;k um;azmfjyMuonft
h cg xkt
d csuu
f ckd sev
f yS x
f m;cJMh u\/ (Aung Thaw, Aung Thwin) oxHNk rKd aY xmifrh sm;
onf 90 'D*&Daxmifrh eS u
f saxmifrh sm;r[kwaf Mumif;? NrKd aY xmifrh sm;onf axmifcU Rerf sm;r[kwyf J axmifv
h ;kH rsm;
omjzpfaMumif; azmfjyrxm;Muawmhay/ okjhd zpf oxHNk rKd aY [mif;yHo
k @mefonf 19-&mpkEpS u
f wnfxm;aom
rEav;? tr&yl&NrKd rY sm;ESiv
hf nf;aumif;? 16 &mpkEpS u
f wnfonfU yJc;l (uarmZom'D)? awmifil (auwkrwD)?
wkEYd iS v
hf nf;aumif; wpfwef;wnf;usomG ;awmhonf/ oxHNk rKd Y ;kd rsm;onf ajrmufreS t
f wkid ;f wnfraeyJtaemuf
okYd 15 'D*&Dapmif;aejcif;udv
k nf; azmfjyjcif;rjyKcMhJ uay/ tcsuu
f o
kd ;kH Ny;D q&mBu;D a'guw
f moef;xGe;f u
oxHu
k akd t'D 4-&mpkxuf aemufrusaom NrKd aY [mif;rsm;pm&if;wGif xnfo
h iG ;f azmfjycJNh y;D jzpfygonf/
(oef;xGef;? awmifajrmufwef;ESifh jrefrmhNrdKYa[mif;rsm;)
oxHNk rKd w
Y nfyu
kH kd aumif;uif"gwyf EkH iS hf ppfo;kH ajryHrk sm;wGif avhvmrnfqv
dk Qif NrKd w
Y nfyt
kH aetxm;udk
tvG,w
f uloabmayguEf idk yf gonf/ NrKd aY [mif;\ ta&SY NrKd Y ;kd rsm;ESihf ajrmufbufNrKd Y ;kd rsm;udk aumif;uif

- 60 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

oxHNk rKd aY [mif; aumif;uif"mwfykH

"gwfyHkwGif ay:vGifxif&Sm;pGmjrifEkdif\/ ta&SYajrmufNrdKYaxmifh? taemufajrmufNrdKYaxmifhESifh ta&SYawmifNrdKY


axmifhae&mrsm;udkvnf; xif&Sm;pGmjrif&\/ taemufawmifNrdKYaxmifhrSmrl vHk;0aysmufuG,foGm;NyDjzpfonf/
taemufNrdKYdk;rsm;ESifh awmifbufNrdKYkd;rsm;wdrfaumaeNyD? ay:vGifxif&Sm;jcif;r&Sdawmhay/
aumif;uif"gwyf akH y:rS ta&SaY jrmufNrKd aY xmifu
h kd tvku
d o
f ifah uG;aeyHt
k wkid ;f jrifEidk o
f nf/ tvm;wl
pGm taemufajrmufNrKd aY xmifu
h v
kd nf; auG;0ku
d v
f suaf wGEY idk o
f nf/ NrKd aY xmifrh sm;onf axmifu
h s,f 95
'D*&D ESiahf xmifu
h sO;f 85 'D*&Dp&D MdS u NrKd Y ;kd rsm;rsO;f NyKd if taetxm;wnfaeMuonf/ [(4? 1? 58) &ufaeYu
kd f
aumif;uif"gwyf t
kH rSw-f 94-H-5, 5, (515-146) ESihf (515-147)? (12? 12? 58) aeYu
kd f aumif;uif"gwyf kH
trSw?f 94-H-5, 5, (674-13)] [ pH0if;? ppfawmif;ESifh oHvGifjrpfESpfoG,fpyfMum;&Sd a&S;NrdKYa[mif;rsm;tm;
yPmravhvmcsuf? r[m0dZbGJY,lusrf;? &efukefwuokdvforkdif;Xme? 1986/ pm-145
pm-145]

- 61 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

oxHkNrdKYa[mif; ajryHk

ppfo;kH ajryHk (94? H. 5) ay:wiG o


f xHNk rKd aY [mif;&mudk &SmazGawGEY idk yf gonf/ NrKd aY [mif;\ ta&Sb
Y uf?
awmifbufEiS t
hf aemufbufwhdk awmifwef;rsm;ywfvnf0ef;&Hxm;\/ awmifbufu Zif;usKd uaf wmifx;kH ESihf
NrKd aY [mif;tMum;ajrjyefrh mS vnf; v,fuiG ;f jyifukd awmifwef;ywfvnf&u
H mvsuNf rKd aY [mif;uke;f ESihf wpfquf
wnf;awG&Y \/ taemufbufyikd ;f rSm yifv,fpyftxd 10 rkid rf S 15 rkid t
f xd v,fuiG ;f jyifus,Bf u;D &S\
d /
ajrmufbufwiG f ay 50 rS 100 tMum;qifajcavsm uke;f jyifus,&f
dS taemufbufv,fuiG ;f pyfwiG f

- 62 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

tem;oyfxm;onf/ ajrjyiftaetxm;t& awmifwef;ESihf v,fuiG ;f tMum;awmifEiS ahf jrmuf tvsm;&Snf


uke;f ajray:wiG f tvsm;&Snpf wk*NH rKd u
Y u
G u
f kd tvku
d o
f ifw
h nfxm;jcif;jzpfaMumif;awG&Y ygrnf/ ta&Sb
Y ufNrKd Y ;dk onf
awmifajc&if;wGi&f
dS ? taemufbufNrKd Y ;kd onf v,fuiG ;f pyfoaYdk &mufvsu&f \
dS / NrKd aY jrjyifonf ta&SrY t
S aemuf
ok?Yd ta&SaY jrmufrt
S aemufawmifoYdk wjznf;jznf;edrahf vsmaeonf/ taetxm;wGif t0kid ;f yHNk rKd Y Bu;D udw
k nf
NrdKUuGufus,fus,f&Ekdifrnfr[kwfay/
oxHkNrdKYa[mif;awmifbuf NrdKYdk;rsm;tjyifrSm Zif;usdKufawmifajctpyftxd v,fuGif;rsm;onf
NrdKYa[mif;acwfu pkdufysdK;ajryifjzpf\/ if;pdkufysdK;ajrudk NrdKYa[mif;twGif;xnfhoGif;xm;&rnfomjzpfonf/
oa&acw&mNrKd aY [mif;twGi;f pyg;pku
d v
f ,fuiG ;f rsm; xnfx
h m;onfo
h abmESihf qifwal yonf/ xkt
d csuu
f kd
axmufxm;vQif oxHkNrdKY\ta&SYbuf? awmifbufESifh taemufawmifbufwkdYrS ywf&HumqD;xm;aom
obm0awmifwef;rsm;onf? NrdKYa[mif;\ tjyifNrdKYdk;BuD;yifjzpf&ayrnf/ twkdif;rSefygonf/ uGif;qif;
ppfaq;csut
f & oxHt
k a&SaY jrmufoydwf awmifwef;rSta&SaY wmifwef;? 0if;pdeaf wmifwef;rsm;txd? awmifxrd f
ausmwpfavsmuf ausmufw;kH pD NrKd Y ;kd a[mif;ae&mrsm;udak wG&Y ygonf/ taemufawmifbuf atmif;pdik af wmifpeG ;f
rSp &if;Nird ?f jzLbpaom awmifwef;ay:wiG f ausmufw;kH pDNrKd Y ;kd a[mif;ae&mrsm;awG&Y onf/okjhd zpfoxHNk rKd aY [mif;
tus,t
f 0ef;ud?k awmifwef;wpfywf twkid ;f twmESihf wGuq
f rnfqv
dk Qif oa&acw&mNrKd aY [mif;xufy
kd
BuD;us,faeayonf/
NrKd aY [mif;\ajrmufbuf? ay:awmfr&l mG ? ajreDuek ;f &Gm? aemifuv
k m;&Gm? aemifb&dk mG ESihf usKd uaf umf&mG
txdukef;ajrrSm? a&S;a[mif;ok"r0wDNrdKYa[mif;rsm;wnfcJhaom *0HajrcHukef;jyifBuD;jzpfonf/ oxHkNrdKYonf
if;awmifbufv,fuiG ;f rsm;rS &dum twGupf yg;pdu
k yf sKd ;Ekid Nf y;D ? ajrmufbuf *0Huek ;f rsm;wGif NrKd u
Y w
kd nfaxmif
xm;cJjh cif;jzpfonf/ ta&Sb
U ufawmifwef;udyk if ta&SY NrKd Y ;kd jyKxm;onf/ taemufbufv,fuiG ;f rsm;rS wl;ajrmif;
qufo,
G af &;jzifh oHviG jf rpf0ESihf bD;vif;jrpf0? ppfawmif;jrpf0wkt
Yd xd a&aMumif;qufo,
G af &;jzifh jynforl sm;
azmufum;a&mif;0,fomG ;vmEdik f ap&efvnf;aumif;? b*Fvm;yifv,fuek o
f ,
G af &mif;0,fa&; avSBu;D ? avSi,f
rsm;0ifxu
G q
f u
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f yfEidk af p&efvnf;aumif; pDrzH efw;D xm;cJah yonf/ taMumif;rsm;aMumifh ok"r0wD? oxHk
jynfonf tdE,
d ? oD[Vdk u
f Re;f paom Ekid if &H yfjcm;a'orsm;u ok0Pbrl Nd rKd aY wmfBu;D tjzpfocd MhJ uaom yifv,f
qdyfurf;NrdKY BuD;jzpfcJhayonf/
oxHNk rKd aY [mif;onf oa&acw&mNrKd EY iS rhf wl? uGjJ ym;onft
U csurf sm;&Sad eonfrmS vnf; if;\yifukd
tm;jzifx
h ;l jcm;rI[q
k &dk rnf/ NrKd aY [mif;ESpcf w
k \
Ydk NrKd w
Y nfykH tpOftvmcsi;f vnf; rwlnMD uay/
oa&acw&mudk bk;d awmf&aohBu;D ESiw
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Ydk wnfay;cJo
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tqkEd iS hf oxHNk rKd u
Y &kd aohEpS yf g;? odMum;? 0dZm wkw
Yd nfaxmifzefqif;ay;&onf[al om oxH&k mZ0iftqkw
d rYdk mS
tpOftvmqefcsi;f qifwal yonf/ okaYd omf oa&acw&mNrKd w
Y nfyo
kH nf txufjrefrmEkid if H waumif;NrKd aY [mif;
tpOftvmud,
k x
l m; oxHo
k nfrw
k r yifv,fauGY 0ef;usi&f dS a&S;NrKd aY [mif;tpOftvmudk ,lxm;ygonf/
oa&acw&mwnfonfh acy'lw&aohBuD;onf waumif;rif;owkd;r[m&mZ\ a,uawmfol?
tdraf &SrY if;om;jzpfczhJ ;l oljzpfonf/ r[mor0? plVor0wkEYd iS hf awGY Ny;D NrKd w
Y nfay;&ef pDpOfMuonft
h cg orm0
nDaemifwu
Ydk waumif;rif;xHomG ; NrKd w
Y nfciG ahf wmif;onf/ xkt
d cg zcifrif;Bu;D uom;a&wpfcsyu
f akd y;
xko
d m;a&jzifeh ef;qGNJ y;D NrKd u
U u
G w
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dk / (waumif;&mZ0if) if;wkjhd yefa&mufvmonft
h cg
tif;rtif;\ta&SYbuf? if;tif;ESifh dk;rawmifajctMum;ajrjyefhvGifjyif &aohNrdKYac: oJukef;NrdKYudkwnf
onf/ xkNd rKd yY o
kH @mefrsKd ;udk waumif;NrKd aY [mif;trSwf (3) wGiaf wG&Y onf/ okjhd zpfwaumif; trSwf (3)
NrKd EY iS hf oJuek ;f NrKd Y (&aohNrKd )Y a[mif;wkYd yHo
k @mefcsi;f qifwv
l su&f o
dS nf/ t&G,t
f pm;rSmvnf; qwlrQyif{u

- 63 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

(700) cefpY &D MdS uonf/ waumif;rS a&mufvmaomrif;nD? rif;om;wku


Yd Bu;D Muyfvsuw
f nfonfh NrKd Y jzpfjcif;aMumifh
waumif;yHpk ?H qifwjl zpf&onf[q
k &dk rnf/ aemufwpfzef oa&acw&mudw
k nfo
U nft
U cg if; tvsm;&SnNf rKd Y
k rJ u onfyU o
kH @mefjzpfvmonf/
0ef;yHu
k ykd if ab;ESpzf ufum;Ny;D puf0ef;vnf;rus? tvsm;&Snf oblong yHv
okjhd zpf oa&acw&mwnfxm;onfyU pkH o
H nf waumif;NrKd w
Y nf Adou
k mtpOftvmwkid ;f wnfonf[k qd&k ygrnf/
ok"r0wDoxHNk rKd w
Y nfyrkH mS if;waumif;tpOftvmyHpk EH iS hf jcm;em;ayonf/ tjyif0ef; NrKd u
Y u
G yf rkH mS
ajcz0g;yHo
k @mef&\
dS / twGi;f xyfNrKd u
Y u
G rf mS av;axmifyh &kH \
dS / if;av;axmifyh u
kH kd NrKd Y ;kd txyfrsm;rsm; xyfqif&h NH y;D
wnfygonf/ oxH&k mZ0ifwiG f yxrok0Pbrl ?d ok"r0wDNrKd u
Y kd ok'r me0vkviftm; odMum;rif;u wnfaxmif
ay;onft
h cg NrKd Y ;kd ckEpS x
f yf? usK;H ckEpS x
f yfwnfvyk zf efqif;ay;cJah Mumif; azmfjyxm;\/ wpfzef 'kw,
d ok"r0wDukd
oD&,
d ukrm rif;om;tm; &aohEpS yf g;ESio
hf Md um;rif;wku
Yd wnfaxmifay;cJjh yefonft
U cgvnf; if;twkid ;f yif
NrdKUdk;ckESpfxyfusHK;ckESpfxyf tpDtpOftwkdif;wnfcJhonf[kqkd\/ tpOftvmudk wwd,ok"r0wD?
pwkwo
"k r0wDww
Ydk nfpOfvnf; vdu
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hf v
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Yk Mum;
yifv,furf;d;k wef;wpfavsmuf? awmifwef;ESiyhf ifv,ftMum;rSmyif wpfae&mNy;D ? wpfae&ma&TaY jymif; wnf
axmifMujcif;jzpf\/ xdahk Mumifh tpOftvmysurf oGm;bJ? ok"ry&l (,ckoxHNk rKd aY [mif;) wnfonftxd
vkdufemcJhjcif;jzpf\/
NrKd Y ;kd txyf? t&pfrsm;rsm;twGi;f xyfwnhx
f m;Ny;D tjyifuajcz0g;yH&k adS omNrKd Y ;kd ukd
1/ usKu
d o
m (usKu
d x
f )kd (ajrmuf 17? 12'? 70'? ta&SY 96? 55')
2/ Zkwo
f w
k f (2) (bD;vif;) (ajrmuf 17? 10'? ESifh ta&SY 97? 10')
3/ uwdu
k Bf u;D (oxH)k (ajrmuf 17? 1'? 30'ESihf ta&SY 97? 14'? 30')
4/ uwdu
k u
f av; (oxH)k (ajrmuf 17? 3' ESifh ta&SY 97? 14')
wdkhwGifawGYEdkifygonf/
usKu
d o
monf tus,f 693 {u (289 [ufwm) rQBu;D onf/ xkrd QBu;D rif;aejynfNrKd Y wpfNrKd Y
[k owfrw
S Ef ikd yf gonf/ Zkwo
f w
k f (2) rSm tus,f 450 {u (182 [ufwm) rQtG,&f o
dS nf/ xdZk w
k f
okwf (2) \ xl;jcm;csurf mS vnf; pdw0f ifpm;zG,af umif;\/ if;\ajrmufbufwiG f uyfvsuw
f nfaeaom
Zkwo
f w
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dS nf/
Zkwo
f w
k f (2) u uke;f ydBk u;D onft
U jyif? yd
k vnf;jrihyf gonf/ rif;aejynfNrKd aY wmfwpfct
k oGiu
f akd qmifonfh
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&pfywfwnfxm;jcif;jzpf\/ xdAk [du
k ek ;f ukd Zkwo
f w
k f (1)u ajrmuf bufu&Hxm;yH?k ta&Sb
Y ufrS aumhuu
JG ek ;f ?
awmifbufrZS *JG vmuke;f wd&hk aH eyHo
k nf [dEL jA[PESihf Ak'b
mom0ifw,
hkd MkH unfrt
I & pBumF 0Vmwnf[efEiS fh
wlonf/ jrif;rd&k f (odMum;rif;ae&m)awmifukd A[kx
d m;vsuf uRe;f Bu;D av;uRe;f ywfvnf&v
H su&f ydS rkH sK;d yifjzpfyg
onf/ t&HuRe;f i,f (500) vnf; yg0ifvsu&f o
dS nfo
h abmt&? if;Zkwo
f w
k f (1) ESiUf (2) wkyYd wfvnfwiG f
aumhuwGw?f rkoif? 0kid ;f ywf? opfwu
kd Re;f ? rde;f rvSuRe;f ? rkq;kd ruRe;f ? a&jzLuef? anmifyvif? anmifvef;?
vdyfcHk;? a&TavS ponfh uRef;yHko@mef *0Hukef;rsm;0dkif;&Hxm;ayonf/ ta&SYbuf? awmifbufESihf
taemufbufwiG f bD;vif;jrpf0u 0ef;&H&pfywf pD;qif;aeNy;D ? ajrmufbufwiG f oJjzLacsmif;pD;qif;vsu?f
a&ywfvnf0ikd ;f xm;vsuf &S\
d / ywf0ef;usiaf jrjyifrmS vnf; a&eufuiG ;f rsm;ESihf acsmif;ajrmif;rsm; omjzpf

- 64 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

ppfawmif; NrKd aY [mif;

rkoifNrKd aY [mif;

uuwpfNrKd aY [mif;

vdycf ;kH NrKd aY [mif;

- 65 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

r[mork'& mtoGit
f jyifrsK;d o@mefwal eayonf/ uJo
h hkd NrKd w
Y nfyt
kH uGut
f uGi;f rsK;d ukd jrefrmEdik if w
H iG f
erlemjyp&m[l oxHak 'o Zkwo
f w
k rf mS yif&o
dS nf[k qdEk ikd yf gonf/
uwku
d Bf u;D (230 {u? 96 [ufwm) ESifh uwdu
k u
f av; (50 {u? 21 [ufwm) wdo
hk nf
oxHrk t
S aemufajrmufbuf (8) rdik cf eft
Y uGm&SMd u\/ uwdu
k Bf u;D rSm tvsm;ykww
kd Edk iS fh ajcz0g;yHw
k iG t
f v,f
av;axmifyh NkH rKd Y ;kd oH;k xyf? usK;H oH;k xyfxif&mS ;ay:viG v
f su&f \
dS / tjyif0ef; NrKd t
Y xyfrnfrQ&cdS rhJ nfukd rcefrh eS ;f ao;ay/
uwdu
k u
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f ek ;f uGJ
vsuf ta&SEY iS t
hf aemufwnfaeMuNy;D NrKd Y ;kd t&pf ryDrouseyf gao;onf/
oxHNk rKd aY [mif; (ajrmuf 16? 54'? 46'' ESifh ta&SY 97? 22') onf tBu;D qH;k NrKd aY [mif;jzpf\/
tG,t
f pm; {u 700 (283 [ufwm) rQ&ydS gonf/ oxHNk rKd aY [mif;\ ajrmufbufwiG f NrKd Y ;kd txyf (6)
xyfukd xifxif&mS ;&Sm;awGEY ikd yf gao;onf/ ta&Sb
U ufwiG f awmifajc&if;NrKd Y ;kd (2) xyfEiS hf awmifapmif;ay:&dS
NrKd Y ;kd rsm;udak ygi;f vQif oH;k xyfxufru&SEd ikd \
f / taemufbufrmS vnf; NrKd Y ;kd ig;xyfcefaY &wGu
f &ygao;onf/
awmifbufNrKd Y ;kd rsm;yGe;f wD;rIrsm;jcif;? NrKd o
Y pfval etd;k tdrf xlxyfjcif;aMumifh rrSe;f qEdik af y/ uJo
h hkd oxHNk rKd u
Y u
G f
yHo
k @mef? tG,t
f pm;ESihf NrKd w
Y nfyu
kH dk Munf
h oxHo
k nf oa&acw&mESiv
hf nf;rwl? tjcm;aomysLa'o
NrKd aY [mif;rsm;ESiv
fh nf;rwly?J uk,
d yf ikd t
f pOftvmt& NrKd w
Y nfyAkH o
d u
k mpepfukd vdu
k ef mNy;D wnfaqmufxm;onfh
NrKd aY [mif; wpfc[
k k ,lq&jcif;jzpfygonf/
oxHkNrdKYa[mif;a'orSmyifppfawmif;
aumhxif;
wdu
k u
f v
k m; (t,ufonfr)
wdu
k u
f v
k m; (0if;u)
rkoif
uuwpf
vdyfcHk;
r&rf;uke;f
qifjzLuRef;
prge*d&k f
uwku
d Bf u;D
Zkwo
f w
k f (1)
Zkwo
f w
k f (2)

88 {u
40 {u
64 {u
307 {u
153 {u
30 {u
30 {u
200 {u
67 {u
311 {u
230 {u (96 [ufwm)
92 {u (37 [ufwm)
450 {u (182 [ufwm)

wdu
hk akd wGEY ikd yf gao;onf/ if;NrKd aY [mif;i,frsm;rSmvnf; NrKd Y ;kd txyft&pf rsm;rsm;wnfxm;Muygonf/ NrKd u
Y ek ;f
ay:wiG f vufa&;pif;trSwf tom;ygaom tkwcf syEf iS t
hf aqmufttHu
k ek ;f rsm;udak wG&Y Ny;D ? NrKd Y ;kd tkwcf syrf sm;rSm
vnf; vufpif;tkwfrsm;yifjzpfaMumif; ppfaq;awGY&Sd&\/ oxHka'otwGif;awGY&SdNyD; orQNrdKYa[mif;rsm;
pkpak ygi;f tus,t
f 0ef;rSm (3601 {u) (1468 [ufwm) rQ&o
dS nf/ odjhk zpf oxHo
k nf NrKd aY [mif;r[kw[
f k
vnf;aumif;? NrKd Y jyjynfmG xGe;f um;cJjh cif; r&S[
d
l vnf;aumif; r,lqoifah Mumif; odomxif&mS ;aeayNy/D

- 66 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

tarGvck &H aom ok0Pbrl d


jrefrmEkdifiH\tdrfeD;csif;xkdif;EkdifiHonf jrefrmESifha&? ajr&moDOwkodyfruGm? &Srf;dk;r? a'geESifh
weoFm&Dawmifwef;\ wpfzufyifkd ;f wGi&f \
dS / awmifwef;\ta&SY rd;k uG,af 'o jzpfaomaMumifh rkwy ifv,fauGY
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z&mjrpfu tv,fyikd ;f rSae awmifbuf ,d;k ',m;(xkid ;f )yifv,fauGx
Y o
J Ykd pD;qif;aevsu&f \
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yifv,fauGY ywf0ef;usiaf 'oudk ok0Pbrl rd if;Ekid if H wnfae&mXmejzpfrnf[k pGv
J ef;,HMk unfr&I ydS gonf/
rkwr yifv,fauGEY iS hf ,d;k ',m; (xkid ;f ) yifv,fauGw
Y u
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f xd
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ta&SEY iS t
hf aemuf ausmckid ;f eHpyftaetxm;rsKd ;jzpfonf/ ouf&ifah wmifwef;Bu;D rS wGi;f xGuo
f bm0"gwf
owKrsm;xGu&f ydS gonf/ ausmufacwfopfukd vGeaf jrmufNy;D aemuf aMu;acwf? oHacwf(bDpD 2000-500)
okaYd &mufvmonft
h cg ouf&ifah wmifwef;Bu;D rS aiG? cJ? cJrjzL? tNzKd uef uf? caemufprd ;f ponfU owKikd ;f
rsm;rSm tzk;d wefypn;f rsm;jzpfvmonf/ a'oESpcf t
k wGi;f jrpfBu;D rsm;\ oJaomifajrjyifrS a&Tuv
kd nf;
]usif} ,l&Ekdifojzifh owKacwftpydkif;rSmyif ok0Pblrd[l trnfausmfMum;aecJhayvdrfh rnf/
awmifwef;BuD;\ taemufbufu rkwrauGYywf0ef;usifwGif ok0PblrdtpOftvm&SdouJhokdYyif?
awmifwef;Bu;D \ ta&Sb
Y uf&dS xkid ;f yifv,fauGY ywf0ef;usirf mS vnf; ok0Pbrl t
d pOftvm&Sad ejyefygonf/
,if;tpOftvmudk a&S;a[mif;okawoewl;azmfawG&Y rdS rI sm;u taxmuftyHjh yKygonf/ a'geawmifwef;\
ta&Sb
Y uf awmifajcwGif wap*l (spirit cave) rS ausmufacwf*al e vlom;taxmuftxm;? befah umuf
(Ban Kao) &GmrS ausmufacwfopf&mG a[mif;uke;f ? 'Hw
k m;zuf&mG rS aMu;ESio
hf aH cwfO;D &Gma[mif;uke;f wku
Yd kd
wl;azmfawGY&SdcJh\/ oHacwfa&S;NrdKYa[mif;,Ofaus;rIudk OD;axmif;NrdKYa[mif;? euGef;yxkrf NrdKYa[mif;? ulbl;
0g;NrKd aY [mif;ESihf ykew
f w
k Nf rKd aY [mif;uke;f wkhd awG&Y onf/ xkid ;f yifv,fauGY a&S;NrKd aY [mif;,Ofaus;rIukd 'Gg&0wD
NrdKYa[mif;rsm;[kac:ygonf/
tdEd,wkdif;&if;pum;jzifh ok0Pblrd[lvnf;aumif;? wkwfwkdif;&if;pum;jzifh ]usifvif} [k
vnf;aumif;ac:onfh rif;EkdifiHwpfckudk xdkif;wkdYuvnf; xkdif;EkdfifiH 'Gg&0wDrif;EkdifiHjzpfaMumif; if;wkdY\
okawoe&v'ftajzrsm;ESifh oufaoxljyo&ef BudK;yrf;vsuf&Sdygonf/ xkdif;wkdY,lqaom ok0Pblrd
ESiyhf wfouf xkid ;f Ekid if H ausmif;oH;k pmtkyf (Text Book) wpftyk rf S azmfjycsurf mS atmufygtwkid ;f jzpf\/
Suvarnabhumi, meaning The land of gold, was known to the Romans as Chryse Chersonesus. It
must have been located in Indo-China and especially within the boundaries of present day Thailand,
where gold has been discovered; some of it was at one time collected from the alluvial soil at
Kamnerd nophakun in the Bang Saphan district of the province of Prachuap khiri khan, while gold
mining was operated at Tohmoh in Narathiwat, and the metal has been found by geologists in Kabin
Buri in Prachin Buri. There has been a difference of opinion among some archaeologists and
historians as to the exact centre of Suvarnabhumi, Would it be Thaton in South Burma, Chaiya in
South Thailand, or Nakhon Pathom or Suphan Buri in the Central plain of Thailand? On account of
many relics typifying the age of Ashoka such as a Wheel of Law, a deer statue and a stupa built in
the same style at Sanchi in India, it has been established that the area extending from Nakhon
Pathom to Suphan Buri constituted the centre of Suvarnabhumi.
(Thai Civilization, Text Book, G.S. 1001 p.14)

- 67 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

if;bmomjyefrSm
]a&Gajr} [kt"dyg ,&f aom ok0Pbrl u
d kd a&mrwkid ;f om;wku
Yd cdkifpDcsmqkdaepyf [lodMuygonf/
if;ae&mXmeudk tif'ckd sKid ;f em;uRe;f qG,rf S ae&mwpfcck u
k kd owfrw
S &f ygrnf/ txl;jzifh a&TowKukd
&SmazG awG&Y &dS aom rsuaf rSmufacwf,;kd ',m; (xkid ;f ) Ekid if eH ,f edrw
d rf sm;twGi;f omvQif wnf&cdS \
hJ /
(xkdif;EkdifiHwGif) a&TowKudk y&mcRwfuD&dcefjynfe,f befpzef;cdkif? urfewfEkdzuGeft&yf&Sd
EHKS ;ajrrsm;rSpak qmif; &,lEidk o
f nf/ xkjhd yif e&moD0yfjynfe,f wkrd adk 'ovnf; a&TowKxw
k v
f yk if ef;
&Syd gonf/ blrad Aynm&Sirf sm;u y&mcsib
f &l D cdik ?f uAifb&l rD v
S nf; a&TowKawG&Y ao; onf[q
k \
dk /
ok0Pbrl Nd rKd aY [mif; wnf&mXme ae&mtwdtusukd a&S;a[mif;okawoDrsm;ESihf orkid ;f okawoDrsm;
tcsi;f csi;f rwlujJG ym;aomt,ltqwkYd &Scd MhJ uzl;ygonf/ atmuf jrefrmEkid if u
H oxHjk zpfovm;?
xkid ;f awmifyikd ;f ucsKd i;f , (Z,bkr)d jzpfovm; odrYk [kwf xkid ;f tv,fyikd ;f vGijf yifrS euGeyf xkrv
f m;?
pkzefb&l D (ok0Py&l )D vm;qko
d nft
U csuyf ifjzpf\/ taomuacwfEiS ahf cwfNyKd if a&S;a[mif;,Ofaus;rI
f v
kd nf;aumif;?
ypn;f rsm;jzpfMuonfh "rpBumF vSn;f bD; (Wheel of Law) ESihf orifyakH usmufqpf kyu
tdE,
d Ekid if q
H efcsyD x
k ;dk awmfBu;D yHpk jH zifh apwDwpfqw
l nf&adS ejcif;udv
k nf;aumif; axmufxm; vQif
euGeyf xkrrf S pkzefb&l D (ok0Py&l )D txdjzefu
h suf aeaoma'oudk ok0Pbrl \
d A[dck suaf e&m[k
tckdiftrmowfrSwfEkdifayonf/
[ljzpfygonf/
arm&d,acwftEd ,
d tifyikd ,
f mocifBu;D taomu (274-236bDp)D onf if; ok0Pbrl w
d iG f
Ak'b
momudk xlaxmif&ef aomPESihf Ow&wkyYd g0ifaom omoemjyKtzGw
YJ pfzu
YJG kd apvTwcf ahJ Mumif;vnf;
azmfjyonf/ t,ltqudk twnfjyK&ef xkid ;f a&S;a[mif;okawoDwo
Ydk nf tESpf (40) rQtm;xkwBf uKd ;yrf;
cJh&ayonf/

xdik ;f Edik if H ok0Pbrl d pl;prf;avhvmrIaemufco


H rdik ;f
xkid ;f Ekid if H a&S;a[mif;okawoe pl;prf;&SmazGrt
I pudk ta&SaU wmiftm&Sa'oodYk Oa&mywku
d o
f m;rsm;
a&mufvmcJyh rkH S ajc&maumuf&ayrnf/ 19-&mpkEpS w
f pfavsmufv;kH Oa&mywGif odyyH nmpl;prf;avhvmrIrsm;ESihf
acwfa[mif;udk acwfopfEiS t
hf pm;xk;d aecsed f ta&SaU wmiftm&SrmS xl;jcm;ajymif;vJrrI &Sad o;ay/ a&S;a[mif;
okawoe pl;prf;avhvmrIuv
kd nf; Oa&mywku
d o
f m;rsm;uom tajccHtw
k jf rpfcsay;cJ&h ayonf/ a&mrwdik ;f om;
rmukdydkvkdrSp? aygwl*D? jyifopfynm&SiftoD;oD; tif'kdcsdKifem;a'oodkY a&mufvmcJhMuonf/ tpydkif;rSm
ukeo
f ,
G pf ;D yGm;twGuo
f mjzpfaomfvnf; aemufyikd ;f wGio
f yd n
H mpl;prf;avhvma&;? orkid ;f ESihf ,Ofaus;rIoak woe
jyKpka&;wkdYyg0ifvmonf/

[ife&D rk[
d w
G f
jyifopfvrl sKd ;[ife&D rk[
d w
G f (Henri Mouhot) (1864) onf ta&SaY wmiftm&SwiG f yxrqH;k tBurd f
odyyH nmpl;prf;avhvma&;twGuf c&D;xGucf o
hJ jl zpf\/ olonf vef'efrS 1858 ckEpS ?f {Nyv
D wGif pwif

- 68 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

xGucf gG vmcJNh y;D 1861 ckEpS f Ek0d ifbmwGif vmtkEd idk if H (iSuzf sm;a&m*gjzif)h tedpa &mufco
hJ nf/ tyifrsm;?
wd&pd m efrsm;? ausmd;k rJo
h w0grsm;rSp a'ocHwidk ;f &if;om;wkEYd iS hf if;wkx
Yd ;kH pHavhrsm;udyk g pl;prf;avhvmcJo
h nfU
ol\ c&D;oGm;rSww
f rf;udk 1864 ckEpS f (if;uG,v
f eG f Ny;D oH;k ESpt
f Mum)wGif yHEk ydS x
f w
k af 0onft
h cg vltrsm;
pdw0f ifpm;cJMh u\/ okawoec&D; tpD&ifcpH mu tif'ckd sKd i;f em;wGif jyifopfta&SzY sm;a'oavhvma&;XmeBu;D
(Ecole Franoise d Extreme Orient) udk pwifxlaxmifMu&ef EId;aqmfvkdufayonf/ 1898 ckESpf
'DZifbmv (15) &ufaeUpjJG zifh toif;Bu;D xlaxmif&ef jyefwrf;xkwo
f nft
h cg tif'ckd sKd i;f em; uRe;f qG,Bf u;D twGi;f
a&S;a[mif;okawoe pl;prf;avhvma&;twGuf tNrw
J rf;tzGu
YJ kd zGpYJ nf;ay;&ef txl;u@wpfck xnfo
h iG ;f
xm;&S\
d / jywku
d Ef iS phf mMunfw
h u
dk u
f v
kd nf; wGzJ ufziG v
hf pS af pygonf/ xdt
k oif;Bu;D \ yxrqH;k nTeMf um;a&;rSL;
jzpfvmol vl0pfzad emuf (Louis Finot) \ OD;aqmifrjI zifh ta&SaY wmif tm&S (jrefrmryg) a&S;a[mif;okawoe
a&TacwfBu;D wpfacwfa&mufco
hJ nf[k qkyd gonf/ (Charles Higham, Early Cultures of Mainland Southeast
Asia, Bangkok, River Books Ltd, 2002. pp. 16-21)

vl0pfzad emuf
vl0pfzad emufonf jrefrmho0k Pbrl ad &S;a[mif; okawoetwGuq
f v
dk Qif zsujf rif;wpfaumifEiS hf
wlae\/ ok0Pbrl d oxHak 'ookhd t&Sirf [mAk'a Cmorax&fBu;D u Ak'y #d uwfawmf? tXuxmusr;f
ponfrsm; yifhaqmifvmonf[laomtcsufudk r[kwfrrSefaMumif;? Ak'aCmoonf vlyk*dKvfr[kwfyJ
pdwful;,OfZmwfaumifomjzpfaMumif;? vlyk*dKvfjzpfvQifvnf; atmufjrefrmEkdifiHom;wpfOD;rjzpfEkdifaMumif;
ponfjzifh uefYuGufcJholyifjzpf\/ jrefrmokawoezufrS q&mBuD;OD;azarmifwifESifh OD;vlaz0if;wkdYu
wefjyefajz&Si;f onfph mwrf;rsm;jzifh zdaemuf\tqdu
k kd wkejhf yefacsycJ&h \/ 1899 ckEpS w
f iG f wkwb
f mom
uRrf;usifol aygvfayvD,dk (Paul Pelliot) onf toif;BuD;\ tzGJY0ifwpfa,mufjzpfvm\/ if;u
ta&SaY wmiftm&Srif;Ekid if rH sm; wnfaxmifMuyHt
k aMumif;okawoejyKonf/ 1900 jynfEh pS w
f iG f a&S;a[mif;
h m;cJNh y;D aemuf wl;azmfoak woevkyif ef;
okawoeynm&Si[
f ife&Dygrifw&D m (Henri Parmentier) udk cefx
rsm;udk AD,uferfEkdifiHwGifpwifcJh\/ toif;BuD;onf tif'dkcsdKif;em;rS a&S;a[mif;taqmufttHktm;vHk;?
ausmufpmwkid rf sm;? kyw
f k yk yf mG ;ponfrsm;udk pm&if;jyKpNk y;D jyKjyif xde;f odr;f onf/ 1902 ckEpS o
f Ykd a&mufonfU
tcg toif;Bu;D \vkyif ef;e,fy,fukd xdik ;f Ekid if t
H xdw;kd csx
YJ nfo
h iG ;f cJyh gonf/

a*smhaq;a';
zdaemuf\&mxl;udk a*smah q;a'; (G. Coedes) uqufc\
H / aq;a';onf tif'cdk sKd i;f em; uRe;f qG,rf S
ausmufpmrsm;aygi;f csKyu
f sr;f pmtkyBf u;D 6-tkyu
f kd wnf;jzwfyEkH ydS cf o
hJ nf/ xkid ;f Ekid if H ykew
f w
k Nf rKd aY [mif;uke;f
wl;azmfrt
I pD&ifcpH m (The excavations of Pong Tuk and Their importance for the ancient history of
d MoZmoufa&mufr&I adS om ta&SaY wmiftm&SrS rif;Ekid if rH sm; (The Indianised States of
Siam) ESihf tdE,
ko
hJ nf/ toif;Bu;D uvnf;
Southeast Asia) usr;f pmtkyf tygt0if tjcm;okawoepmwrf;aygi;f rsm;pGmudk jyKpc
(bulletin) okawoepmapmifudkyHkrSefxkwfa0onf/ 1904 ckESpfxkwfokawoepmapmifxJwGif xkdif;EkdifiH
twGuf ynm&yfqkdif&mtoif;wpfckxlaxmif&eftaMumif; owif;wpfyk'fyg&SdcJhNyD;? xkdESpf azazmf0g&D 26
&ufaehwiG f befaumufNrKd t
Y a&Sw
Y idk ;f a[mfw,f (Oriental Hotel in Bangkok) pnf;a0;yGw
J pfcjk yKvyk
f
xkdif;okawoetoif; (The Siam Society) udkxnfaxmifcJhonf/ toif;\&nf&G,fcsufrSm (for the
investigation and encouragement of arts, seiences and literature in relation to Siam and neighbouring

- 69 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

]xkid ;f Ekid if EH iS w
hf uG tdref ;D csi;f Ekid if rH sm;rS tEkynm? odyyH nmESiphf may,Ofaus;rIwu
Ydk kd pl;prf;avhvm&ef
ESihf tm;ay;uln&D ef} yifjzpf\ (Higham 2002, 23)/ toif;xlaxmifcgp tpd;k &axmufyahH omaiGr&ao;
bJ? a&S;a[mif;okawoe0efxrf;rsm;vnf;r&Scd ahJ y/ ok&Yd mwGif 1911 ckEpS ?f rwfv 22 &ufaeY q|r&mrrif;
(King Rama VI) u xdi
k ;f ,Ofaus;rSKXme Fine Arts Department udk a&S;a[mif; okawoetygt0if
xkid ;f Ekid if &H dS a&S;a[mif;,Ofaus;rItarGtESprf sm; xde;f odr;f apmifah &SmufomG ;&ef &nf&,
G cf sujf zifw
h nfaxmif
apcJhonf/ if;XmeBuD;ay:aygufvmcJhojzifh ordkif;0iftaqmuf ttHkrsm;ESifh a&S;a[mif;ypnf;rsm;udk
xde;f odr;f apmifah &Smufjcif;? jywku
d rf sm;xlaxmifjcif;? a&S;a[mif;okawoeenf;jzifh pepfwusw;l azmfjcif;vkyif ef;
rsm; taumiftxnfay:vmcJhonf/
Countries)

rif;om;BuD;'ifra&mif;\ t,ltq
xkid ;f okawoetoif;udk bk&ifah wmf0ifro
d m;pku OD;pD;wnfaxmifjcif;jzpf\/ xkid ;f Ekid if H rif;om;Bu;D
'ifra&mif; (Prince Damrong) onf toif;Bu;D wGif ]t,k',
NrKd aY wmfwnfaxmify}kH (The Founding of
G ;f oljzpfonf/ rif;om;Bu;D onf ordik ;f ESiahf &S;a[mif;okawoe
Ayuthaya) pmwef;udk yxrOD;pGmzwfMum;wifoi
tay: OD;aqmifO;D &Gujf yKojl zpfvmonf/ atmufjrefrmEkid if rH S ok0Pbrl u
d o
dk o
H ,pdwjf zifh pdw0f ifpm;oljzpfonfh
tm;avsmpf mG 1935- ckEpS w
f iG f jrefrmEkid if yH *k ?H &efuek Ef iS hf oxHak 'orsm;okYd ud,
k w
f ikd u
f ,
kd u
f sc&D;xGu
f
pl;prf;avhvmjcif;jyKcJh\/
if;\tjrifwGif oxHkNrdKYa[mif;rSm a&S;a[mif;aqmufttHk t<uif;tusefenf;vGef;onf [k
txif&o
dS nf/ jrefrmEkid if o
H rkid ;f udk uRr;f usio
f u
l v
kd ekd t
D &m&SBd u;D qma*smph aumh (a&T;kd ) xHrv
S nf; oxHk
taMumif;udpk pkH rf;onf/ xdt
k cg weoFm&Dwidk ;f oxHak 'orSm tpd;k &jyefwrf;0if a&S;a[mif;taqmufttHk
txl;enf;yg;aMumif;tajzud&k cJo
h nf/ xkpd Ofu ]paumh} onf tdE,
d tpk;d &jynfxaJ &;Xme (Government
S Ef iS hf 1919-ckEpS t
f wGi;f xkwjf yefcahJ om trdeYf (Revolution)
of India, Home Department) u 1883-ckEp
rsm;udu
k ;kd um; weoFm&Dwidk ;f (Tenasserim Division) oxHck dik t
f wGi;f a&S;NrKd aY [mif;[l vH;k 0r&Sd
aMumif;? a*Zuf0iftaqmufttHk (bk&m;) a[mif;[l? a&Tpm&H (oxH)k ? odMum;bk&m; (oxH)k ? Zif;usKd ub
f &k m;
(Zif;usKd u)f ? aumh*eG ;f *l (aumh*eG ;f )? ZGu
J yifb&k m; (bm;tH) ESifh usKd ux
f ;D d;k bk&m; (uifreG ;f pcef;) wko
Yd m&So
d nf
[k ajzMum;cJyh gonf/
rdrrd sujf riftm;jzifv
h nf; a&S;a[mif;taqmufttHrk sm;rawG&Y jcif;? MoZmwdur &So
d l ynm&Siw
f pfO;D u
vnf; pdw0f ifpm;zG,af &S;a[mif;,Ofaus;rIrsm;r&Sad Mumif; ajzMum;cJjh cif;wku
Yd akd xmufxm; rif;om;Bu;D 'ifra&mif;
onf oxHu
k o
kd 0k Pbrl Nd rKd aY wmf[k vufrcHawmhonfomru rdrEd idk if H (xkid ;f ) rS euGeyf xkrNf rKd aY [mif;onfom
yk*t
H aemf&xmrif;ESihf acwfNyKd ix
f eG ;f um;cJah om ok0Pbrl jd zpfEidk af Mumif; xifrw
S o
f mG ;awmhonf/ rdrx
d ifjrif
,lqcsuu
f kd oufaoxljyoEkid &f ef a&S;a[mif;okawoe wl;azmfrv
I yk if ef;rsm;udv
k nf; txl;tm;ay;cJah yonf/
I yk if ef;
jyifopf a&S;a[mif;okawoeynm&SiBf u;D 'l;yGeYf (P. Dupont) tm; euGeyf xkrNf rKd aU [mif;wl;azmfrv
rsm;udOk ;D pD;apNy;D ? y&yxkraf pwD? jrifrh &dk af wmifapwD tygt0ifa&S;a[mif;Xmersm;udk okawoejyKazmfxw
k f
aponf/ urn;f ausmufpmynm&Siaf *smah q;a';u euGeyf xkrrf S ]a,"rm} *gxm tkwcf u
G pf mtaxmuf
txm;\ vufa&;udak vhvmc&pfEpS f 7-&mpk &ufpu
JG o
kd wfrw
S af y;cJ\
h / 'l;yGeu
Yf vnf; jrifrh &dk af wmifapwD\
yEuaf wmfyo
kH nf yk*u
H sepf pfom;rif;Bu;D \aumif;rI tmeEm*lb&k m;\yEuyf EkH iS hf qifwal Mumif;aumufcsuf

- 70 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

OD;axmif;NrKd aY [mif; wl;azmfrrI &S aom "rpMumF vSn;f bD;yHk


csay;cJo
h nf/ if;tajzESpcf u
k kd axmufxm; euGeyf xkro
f nf yk*EH iS ahf cwfNyKd ix
f eG ;f um;aom (yk*rH wkid rf u
D )
NrdKYawmfwpfckjzpfcJhaMumif;? xkdYtjyiftaemf&xmrif;BuD; yd#duwfawmfrsm;&,lvkdojzifh ok0PblrdoxHkudk
ppfjyKjcif;r[kwyf ?J rdrEd ikd if (H xdik ;f Edik if )H twGi;f &Sd euGeyf xkrNf rKd Y Bu;D udo
k m taemf&xmuvma&muf wku
d cf u
dk cf jhJ cif;
jzpfrnf[k rif;om;Bu;D aumufcsucf sc\
hJ / taemf&xmESit
hf wl ppfoBl u;D usepf pfom;vnf;ygvmNy;D euGeyf xkrNf rKd rY S
jrifhrkd&fawmifbk&m;udkawGY jrifcJhjcif;aMumifh if;udktwk,l yk*HwGiftmeEmbk&m;udk wnfcJhjcif;jzpfrnf[k
xifrw
S o
f mG ;ayonf/ uJo
h x
Ykd ifjrif ,lqcJjh cif;aMumifh taemf&xmonf oxHt
k pm;euGeyf xkru
f kd ppfcsD
wku
d cf u
dk cf jhJ cif;omjzpfrnf[al om orkid ;f aMumif;aumufcsuu
f ckd scjhJ cif;? ok0Pbrl q
d o
dk nfrmS jrefrmEdik if w
H iG rf &S?d
xkdif;EkdifiHom&Sdonf[laom tajzxkwf,ljcif;rsm; &SdcJhayonf/
'ifra&mif;\ txufygorkdif; t,ltqjzpfay:vmjcif;onf atmufjrefrmEkdifiHrS ok0Pblrdudk
jrLck;d rsm;? wdrw
f u
dk rf sm;zH;k tkyv
f monfEiS w
hf al yonf/ rif;om;Bu;D 'ifra&mif;url (History of Siam in the
Period Antecedent to the Foundiny of Ayuddhya by King Phra Chua U Thong ]z&mhausmuf
Oawmif;rif;u t,k'N rKd u
Y kd rwnfaxmifru
D mv ,d;k ',m;Ekid if o
H rkid ;f } pmwrf;(xdik ;f okawoetoif;*sme,f?
twGJ 13? trSwf 2? pm 30-31) pmwef;wGif ol\t,ltqudw
k ifjycJ\
h / xdaYk emuf tjcm;ynm&Sirf sm;
jzpfMuaom a'guw
f muGm&pfa0;vf (Dr. Quarteh Wales)? aygv0f pS w
f av (Paul Wheatley)? polwu
Ydk vnf;
4if;t,ltqESihf qifw,
l ;kd rSm; a&;om;azmfjyvmcJMh uonf (Quaritch Wales, Anuruddha and the Thaton

- 71 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

euGe;f yxkrNf rKd aY [mif;rS y&yxkraf pwD


Tradition, J.R.A.S, 1947, pp. 152-156; Wheatlay, Nagara and Commandery, University of Chicago,
Department of Geography Research Paper, 1983, p. )/

ygarmu*sD? tdyfcsf? vkpf\ Old Burma Early Pagan wGifazmfjyonfh ok0Pblrdonf rkwr
dS ? oxHak 'ojzpfonf/ xkid ;f Ekid if o
H ak woDw,
Ydk q
l aom
yifv,fauGY (The Culf of Multama/Martaban) wGi&f
(owfrw
S af om) ok0Pbrl o
d nf ,d;k ',m; (xkid ;f ) yifv,fauGY (The Gulf of Siam) rS euGeyf xkrf
a'ojzpfygonf/
euGeyf xkrf (e*&yxr) NrKd aU [mif; (3700 x 2000 rDwm) onf 'g&G 0wDacwfNrKd aU [mif; rsm;
teuf tBu;D qH;k jzpfonf/ jrefrmEdik if yH *k aH cwfrwkid rf u
D a&S;a[mif;omoedu taqmufttHrk sm;? ausmufpm?
urnf;pmtaxmuftxm;rsm; <u,f0onf/ y&yxkrfapwD? plVyxkrfapwD? jrifhrkd&fawmifbk&m; (Wat
f &k m; (Wat Phra Pattom) wku
Yd w
kd ;l azmf awG&Y x
dS m;Ny;D bk&m;Bu;D rsm;wnf&m
Phra Men) ESihf y&yxkrb
f nf/ c&pfEpS f 6-&mpkrS 11-&mpktwGi;f wnfwefaY ecJrh nf[k
NrKd aY wmf (Temple-Cities) [kwifpm;ac:a0:Eidk o
cefYrSef;Ekdif\/
OaxmifNrKd aY [mif; (a&Tyck uf) (1690 x 840 rDwm)onf euGeyf xkr\
f taemufajrmufbuf
uDvrdk w
D m (30) cefY &S
d ydNk y;D a&S;us[efwo
l nf/ NAw
d o
d Qvrl sKd ; uGm;&pfa0;vf qko
d l a&S;a[mif;okawoDBu;D u
1940-jynfv
h eG Ef pS rf sm;twGi;f pwifw;l azmfavhvmNy;D azmfxw
k cf jhJ cif;jzpfonf/ if;Oaxmif;ESihf euGeyf xkrf
wku
Yd Akd [djk yKvsuaf eaom tv,fyikd ;f xkid ;f Ekid if H aemufjcrf;udyk if? aomPESihf Ow&wkq
Yd u
dk af &mufc&hJ m ok0Pbrl d
e,fajrjzpfonf[k xkdif;okawoDwkdYu ,lqMuygonf/

- 72 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

odkYjzifh jrefrmEkdifiHwGif udkvdkeDacwfrSppfBudKacwftxd ok0Pblrdudk pl;prf;&SmazGazmfxkwf


cJhNyD; vGwfvyfNyD;acwfwGif urmodatmif ygarmu vkpfuwifjyxm;cJhaomfvnf;? if;t,ltqESifh
pifNydKif,dk;',m;(xdkif;)EkdifiHonfom ok0PblrdjzpfxkdufaMumif; ordkif;tqdkwpf&yf xGufay:vmyHkudk
awG Y & ygonf /
,lqcsujf zifyh if xdik ;f Edik if w
H umavqdyBf u;D udk ok0Pbrl [
d
l trnfay;cJyU gonf/ ok0Pbrl d
tarGvkcH&jcif;jzpfygonf/

xdik ;f Edik if H a&S;a[mif;okawoewl;azmfrI *,uf


xkid ;f Edik if H 'g&G m0wD (ok0Pbrl )d acwfw;l azmfoak woevkyif ef;udk waphwapmifv
h n
S Mhf unfyh gO;D rnf/
'kwd,urmppfBuD; NyD;pD;oGm;NyD;aemuf ppftwGif;u 'gwfcsfvlrsdK;ppfoHkhyef; a&S;a[mif;okawoeynm&Sif
Aif[Dau&if (Van Heekeren) qkdolonf aorif;wrmefrD;&xm;vrf;azmufvkyf&myg0ifcJhNyD; ausmuf
acwfvufeufu&d ,
d m tcsKd u
Y kd awG&Y cdS &hJ m? ppfNy;D aomtcg xkid ;f tpd;k &xHciG ahf wmif;um wl;azmfoak woe
jyKvyk cf iG &hf &So
d mG ;cJo
h nf/ if;tcGit
hf a&;rSm tpOftvmwpfcjk zpfomG ;cJ\
h / xkid ;f ESihf tar&duef? Mopaw;vs?
NAdwdef? e,l;ZDvef a&S;a[mif;okawoDrsm;ygwGJzufNyD; okawoevkyfief;rsm;aqmif&GufvmcJhMuonf/
Aif[aD u&if\ orkid ;f rwkid rf aD cwf a&S;a[mif;okawoewl;azmfru
I t
kd wk,
l xkid ;f wku
Yd vnf; orkid ;f rwifrD
acwf okawoetay: pdw0f ifpm;aqmif&u
G v
f mMu&if;? ordik ;f wifacwfO;D wl;azmfrv
I yk if ef;wkrYd sm;pGmvnf;
wGiu
f s,v
f mcJyh gonf/ a&S;NrKd aY [mif;acwf 'Gg&0wD (ok0Pbrl )d NrKd aY [mif;rsm;wl;azmfru
I kd ppfNy;D acwfwiG f
t&Sed t
f [kejf zifh aqmif&u
G v
f mcJ&h m - 1959 ckEpS Ef iS hf 1984 ckEpS w
f w
Ydk iG f euGeyf xkrNf rKd aY [mif;?
- 1961 ckEpS ?f ulb;l 0g (Ku Bua) NrKd aY [mif;?
- 1963 ckEpS ?f Owmaygif (U-Taphao) NrKd aY [mif;?
- 1968 ckEpS ?f rl0ifzm'uf (Maung Fa Daet) NrKd aY [mif;?
- 1971 ckEpS ?f pyfcsryf g (Sab Champa) NrKd aY [mif;?
- 1972 ckEpS ?f uE&0dcsKd i;f (uE&0dZ,) NrKd aY [mif;?
- 1980 jynfEh pS ?f befcrl 0l if (Ban Khu Maung) NrKd aY [mif;?
- 1981 ckEpS ?f avmhy&l D (Lop buri) NrKd aY [mif;?
- 1987 ckEpS f rl0ifz&m&Guf (Maung Phra Rot) NrKd aY [mif;?
- 1987 ckEpS rf 0l if'u
kH rG f (Maung Dongkorm) NrKd aY [mif;?
- 1991 ckEpS f pDxuf (od&ad '0) (Sri Thep) NrKd aY [mif; (jyefw;l )?
- 1992 ckEpS f 'Hpk rD [mpGwf (Dong Si Mamasod) NrKd aY [mif;? ESihf
- 1996 ckEpS f 'Hv
k cGef (Dong Lakhon) NrKd aY [mif; ponfjzifah &S;NrKd aY [mif;wl;azmfoak woeudk
aqmif&u
G af Mumif;awG&Y onf (Higham and Thosarat, 1998, pp. 126-186)/
xkid ;f ta&SaY jrmufa'oud&k wfuek ;f jrifw
h iG f 1975-ckEpS f (t&uforwl;azmfcsed )f befcY s,
D if (Ban
Chiang) aMu;oHacwfwl;azmfrIonf xdkif;EdkifiHwGif txl;ausmfMum;oGm;cJhonf/ xkdif;wkdY\ a&S;a[mif;
okawoevkyif ef;tay: urmutmHpk u
kd v
f monftxd atmifjrifco
hJ nf wl;azmfrKS [q
k &dk rnf/ xkt
d csed rf mS yif
jrefrmhok0Pblrd wl;azmfokawoevkyfief;rsm;&yfqkdif;oGm;csdefvnf; jzpfygonf/

- 73 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

oDrm;NrKd aY [mif;rS ausmufqpfavsmif;awmfrl kyyf mG ;awmf

a'gufwmomvS
xkpd Oftcsed rf mS yif urmph m;eyf&u
d (FAO) tzGYJ nTeMf um;a&;rSL;tjzpfxidk ;f Edik if o
H Ydk a&muf&v
dS suaf eaom
&efukefuodkvf tNidrf;pm;ygarmucsKyfq&mBuD;a'gufwmomvSonf xkdif;EkdifiHwGif a&S;a[mif;okawoe
aqmif&u
G yf rkH sm;udk ud,
k w
f idk af wGjY rifc&hJ onf/ atmufjrefrmekid if H ok0Pbrl [
d q
k akd om oxHak 'owGio
f ak woe
&v'fuckd sed x
f ;kd xdik ;f zufutaxmuftxm;ESihf EIid ;f ,SOMf unfcU o
hJ nf/ jrefrmEdik if zH ufrS okawoe&vm'frmS
tm;enf;aeNy;D ? xdik ;f okawoe&vm'frsm;u tm;omaeyHu
k akd wG&Y \/ q&mBu;D onf ]oxHEk iS ehf uGeyf xkr}f
[laomtrnfjzifh okawoeaqmif;yg; wpfapmifa&;ygonf/ ((Tha Hla, Dr, Thaton and Nakorn
d qmif;yg;udk *syefEidk if w
H u
dk sKd NrKd rU S Iddkulpmapmif wGif
Pathom SHIROKU, No 16, Kyoto, 1983)) xka
xnfo
h iG ;f azmfjyygonf/ ,if;aqmif;yg;wGif oxHo
k nfo0k Pbrl rd [kwaf Mumif;? xkid ;f Ekid if ?H befaumufNrKd rY S
taemufp;l pl; 60 uDvrkd w
D mtuGm&Sed uGeyf xkrf (17? 47'ajrmuf? 100 ta&S)Y onfom ok0Pbrl Nd rKd aY [mif;jzpf
EkdifaMumif;azmfjyygonf/ odkhjzifhqufvuf taemf&xmonf atmufjrefrmEkdifiHoxHkudkppfjyKcJhjcif;
r[kwEf ikd af Mumif;? oxHrk t
S a&SaY wmifuv
D rdk w
D m (450) tuGm&Sd euGeyf xkro
f Ydk bk&m;oH;k qlawmifMum;vrf;jzifh
oGm;a&mufNy;D ppfjyKcjhJ cif;omjzpfaMumif;? xkrd rS if;pd;k &mZmwku
Yd kd yk*o
H ,
Ydk al qmifvmcJNh y;D aemuf xkNd rKd w
Y iG u
f se&f pfcahJ om
NrKd o
Y m;wko
Yd nf ,ckoxHw
k nf&mXmeodYk ajymif;a&TaY exkid v
f mcJMh uNy;D ? xko
d w
l u
Ydk rdrad e&if;a'oudk pGv
J ef;
aompdwjf zifh ae&mopfukd oxHt
k rnfay;cJMh ujcif;omjzpfaMumif;? xkaYd Mumifrh v
l ok"r0wD (oxH)k onf
euGeyf xkrf NrKd aY [mif;omjzpfEidk af Mumif; azmfjyxm;ygonf/

- 74 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

a'gufwmOD;Edik yf ef;vS
xkid ;f Edik if w
H iG f a&S;a[mif;okawoewl;azmfrt
I &Sed t
f [keaf Mumifh taxmuftxm;aumif;rsm;awG&Y jcif;
rSeaf omfvnf;? jrefrmEkid if w
H iG f oxHNk rKd aU [mif; rlvur&Scd ahJ Mumif;t,ltqrSmrl jrefrmhtpOftvmESiw
hf uf
wufpifatmifvaJT eygonf/ okjYd zpfa&S;a[mif;okawoe? urn;f ausmufpmXmecGrJ LS ; OD;Ekid yf efvS (a'guw
f m
Ekid yf ef;vS) ua'guw
f momvSt,ltqtay:wek jhf yefaom aqmif;yg;rsm;acsya&;om;cJo
h nf/ 4if;wkEYd pS Of ;D tjyef
tvSeaf y;pmjyefpm (Tha Hla and Pan Hla Cornespondence) udk vkyo
f m;jynfoaYl eYpOf owif;pmwGiaf wG&Y yg
onf/ aemufq;kH wGif a'guw
f momvSu ]rGejf ynfe,frmS 'l;&if;oD;omaygonf} [krw
S cf sujf zifh wkejhf yef&if;
NyD;qHk;oGm;cJhygonf/
a'guw
f momvSonf 1986 ckEpS ?f arv xkwcf su&f rD *Zif;wGiv
f nf; ]oxHEk iS hf ok0Pbrl t
d pGt
J vef;}
aqmif;yg;udk qufvufa&;om;wifjycJyh gao;onf/ OD;Ekid yf ef;vSuvnf; ]ok0Pbrl o
d Ydk Ak'o
moemysEYH ahSH &muf&dS
~
vmyH}k (Nai Pan Hla, Advent of Buddhism into Suvannabhumi) acgi;f pOfjzifh aqmif;yg;rsm;qufvufa&;om;
onf (WPD. 20-6-86), 4-6-86, 16-6-86, 17-6-86 and 18-6-86)/ &efuek w
f uov
kd f ta&Sw
U idk ;f ynmXmerS
ygarmu OD;wifv
h iG u
f vnf; ]jrefrmEdik if o
H Ydk Ak'o
moemysEYH ahHS &muf&v
dS myHo
k rkid ;f } (Tint Lwin, Introduction
l o
d nf atmufjrefrm
of Buddhism into Burma, Legend and History ) aqmif;yg;rsm;a&;om; ok0Pbr
Ekid if rH S oxHak 'oomvQijf zpfaMumif; azmfjya&;om;cJyh gonf (WPD, 24-2, 86, 25-2-86, 26-2-86, 27-286, and 1-3. 86)/

Za0Z0g ok0Pbrl d
rdcsD*efwuokdvf ta&SUawmiftm&Sa&;&m ygarmuapmqkdifrGefrif;&Ju oxHk (&mrn) okdY
aomPESifhOw&rax&fESpfyg;a&muf&Sdjcif;rSm jzpfEkdifaMumif;? oa&acw&mNrdKYa[mif;rS wl;azmfawGY&Sd&aom
Ak'0 gpu a&Taypmrsm;t& oufaojyygonf/ (Sao Saimong Mangrai, Did Sona and Uttara Come
S f 5-&mpkEpS ?f 7to Lower Burma, JBRS, LIX pp. 155-165)/ 4if;a&TayvTmrsm;\vufa&;onf c&pfEp
&mpkEpS rf sm;txd a&S;usEikd af Mumif;od&ojzifh atmufjrefrmEkid if o
H Ykd Ak'o
moemonf bDp-D 3 &mpkEpS f (aomPOw&acwf) avmufuyif a&muf&cdS w
hJ ef&monf[k cefrh eS ;f wifjyxm;jcif;jzpfygonf/ odahk omf]ok0Pbrl d
b,f[mvJ? b,frmS vJ}[lonfo
h rkid ;f jyemudk &mpkEpS w
f pfcrk uatmif tajz&Smr&ao;aom jyemBu;D jzpf
vsu&f adS yNy/D jrefrmynm&Sirf sm;yifvQif raorcsm? Za00gEiS ?hf xifaMu;trsKd ;rsKd ;ay;aecJMh uygonf/

awmifaygufq&mawmf
armfvNrdKifNrdKY awmifaygufausmif;q&mawmfOD;puygvjyKpkaom? Ak'omoeduyx0D0ifusrf;rl
ok0Pblrdjzpfxkdufaome&mudk
0a*Fgyom*&ac:b*Fvm;yifv,frSta&SUbufwGif&Sdjcif;? wmrvdwd(**Fgjrpf0)rS ,lZemckESpf&ma0;
uGmjcif;? uke;f ajrr[kwaf &ywfvnf0idk ;f vsu&f adS om uke;f ajrjzpfjcif;? avSoabFmvrf;? a&aMumif;
vrf;? avSaMumif;vrf;oif
h toGm;tvmrsm;&mXmejzpfjcif;? ,aeYwikd af &S;a[mif;omoetaqmuf
ttHkrsm;pGm&Sdaejcif;

- 75 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

paomvuPmrsm;ESifhjynfhpHk&rnf/ ,if;tcsufrsm;ESifh jynfhpHkaomae&monf oxH k r [k w f ?


pkrm;Mwm;uRef;omjzpfonf[kqkd\ (puygv? Ak'omoeduyx0D0ifusrf;? oxH?k ok"r0wDyEkH ydS w
f u
dk ?f
1958? b 232-5)/ ,if;t,ltqonf oxHu
k kd ok0Pbrl jd zpfaMumif;tqdu
k kd vH;k vH;k ypfy,fvu
kd jf cif;yifjzpf\/

OD;wifvaS omf
ynm&SiOf ;D wifvaS omfuvnf; txufygO;D puygvESihf cyfqifqift,ltqudw
k ifjyonf/ if;u
taomurif;Bu;D apckid ;f csut
f & ok0Pbrl o
d aYdk omeESihf Ow& &[ef;ESpyf g;a&mufvmNy;D Ak'0 g'
jzefo
Y nf[k r[m0ifuqk\
d / ok0Pbrl o
d nf oxHjk zpfonf[k 15-&mpkaESmif;ydik ;f xk;d uvsmPD
rGeaf usmufpmuqkjd yef\/ oxHo
k nf ok0Pbrl [
d k wxpfcsrqkEd idk af y/ odaYk omf &ckid ?f atmufjrefrm
Ekid if ?H xkid ;f Ekid if EH iS hf rav;uRe;f qG,w
f o
Ydk nf ok0Pbrl jd zpfEidk \
f /
[kqydk gonf (wifvaS omf? ]a&Tw*d akH pwD\oufawmf} uefompdrf;vJhpmwrf;rsm;
rsm;? &efuek ?f rif;vSpmyHEk ydS w
f u
dk ?f
1969? pm? 65-6)/

rdu
k u
f ,fatmifoiG f
atmufjrefrmEkid if w
H iG f &mrna'o[kac:aomrGeEf idk if [
H
l yk*aH cwf (11-&mpkEpS )f xufapmNy;D r&Scd /hJ
oxHkNrdKUvnf;r&Sd? aomP? Ow&wkdYrSmvnf; jrefrmEkdifiHAk'bmomorkdif;wGif r&Sdbl;cJhojzifh ok0Pblrd
vnf;r&SEd ifdk af Mumif; tqkw
d pf&yf vwfwavmumvrSmyif ay:xu
G v
f mcJyh gonf/ ,if;tqku
d kd rdcs*d efwuov
kd ?f
tm&Sa'oavhvma&;Xme ygarmu a'guw
f mrku
d u
f ,fatmifoiG u
f wifjyxm;jcif;jzpfonf/ pmrsuEf mS aygi;f
(400) ausm&f o
dS nfU jrLck;d a0aom&mrn (The Mist of Ramaan: The Legend That was Lower
f iG f
Burma) [k trnfay;xm;aom pmtkyw
For the historical reality is that the Mon Paradigm is a myth: Sona and Uttara had nothing
to do with the origins of Theravade Buddhism in Burma, and perhaps even in the rest of
Southeast Asia; there was no Mon Kingdom in Lower Burma called Rmaadesa that
preceded Pagan (Bagan); there was no conquest of Thaton by Aniruddha in 1057; and as
a consequence Lower Burma did not civilized Upper Burma. It was the other way
around: Pagan settled, developed, and civilized Lower Burma.

[k ed*;kH csKyu
f mazmfjyxm;onf

(Aung Thwin, 2005, p. 321)/

rdu
k u
f ,fatmifoiG \
f wifjycsurf sm;wGif atmufjrefrmEkid if rH S ok0Pbrl Ed iS hf &mrna'o (rGeEf idk if )H
wnf&SdcJhaMumif;t,ltqrSm 20-&mpkESpftwGif;jrefrmEkdifiH udkvkdeDacwforkdif;bmom&yfwGif acwfpm;vm
k ,
d wGJ ajryHq
k NJG y;D atmufjrefrmEkid if u
H kd
cJah Mumif;? ygarmuvpk o
f nf Old Burma- Early Pagan pmtky'f w
&mrna'o? ok0Pbrl [
d ak zmfjyxm;aMumif;? tjcm;jrefrmEkid if H ordik ;f ynm&Sirf sm;uvnf; atmufjrefrmEkid if u
H kd
ok0Pbrl [
d t
k ckid t
f rmajymqkcd ahJ Mumif;? od&Yk mwGif ,ckacwfopfoak woeawG&Y cdS surf sm;u ,if;ok0Pbrl d
t,ltqrrSeu
f efaMumif; ESpaf ygi;f tawmfrsm;rsm;uyif qefu
Y siaf zmfjyaeNyjD zpfaomfvnf; if;jrefrmynm&Siw
f ?Ydk
rwkefrvIyf&SdaecJhaMumif; ponfjzifhazmfjyxm;onfudkawGY&\/

- 76 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

bmom&yf (ok0Pbrl t
d ,ltq) ESiyhf wfoufrku
d u
f ,fatmifoiG o
f nf uG,v
f eG o
f o
l ak woe
0g&ifyh *k Kd vw
f pfO;D jzpfol ygarmuaygv0f pS w
f av(Paul Wheatly) udt
k m;ud;k tm;xm; jyKxm;aMumif;awG&Y onf/
0Spfwavonf *&d? tm&yf? wkyfESifh tdEd,wkdYrS a&S;a[mif;acwftaxmuftxm;rsm;ESifh wkdufqkdifNyD;
tao;pdyo
f kycf u
JG m vGecf ahJ omESpaf ygi;f (40) uyifwpdu
k f rwfrwfqefu
Y siu
f efu
Y u
G v
f mcJo
h nf/ if;u
ok0Pbrl q
d o
dk nf (tdE,
d Ekid if rH t
S y) ta&SaY wmiftm&Sa'owpfcpk vH;k udk pkaygi;f ac:a0:aom trnfjzpf
onf[w
k ifjyxm;cJo
h nf/ ta&SaY wmiftm&SrmS yif uke;f ydik ;f udq
k jdk cif;r[kw?f uRe;f qG,yf ikd ;f uko
d m ac:jcif;jzpf
onf[kqkdonf/ wpfzefok0Pblrdtrnfonf ta&SUawmiftm&SwGifr&Sd? b*Fvm;e,fwGifom&Sdonf[k
qkx
d m;jyefonf/ tqkrd sm;udk 0Spfwav \ 1975-ckEpS af &; The Golden Khersonese pmtkyEf iS hf 1985ckEpS x
f w
k f Nagara and Commandary pmtkyw
f w
Ydk iG af wGEU idk af Mumif;atmifoiG u
f ud;k um;azmfjyonf/
xkt
Yd jyifo&D v
d uFmEkid if rH S ynm&Sif (Senarat Paranavitana) \ ( Ceylon and Malaya, Colambo,
f mS (2) tm; ud;k um; oD[Vdk af &S;a[mif;ausmufpmwkw
Yd iG f
Lake House Investment Ltd. 1966) pmtkyf pmrsuE
]&mrn} trnfurkd awG&Y aMumif;? okjhd zpf oD[Vdk Ef idk if o
H m;wko
Yd nf ok0Pbrl u
d v
kd nf; odMurnfr[kwf
aMumif; wifjyxm;\ (Aung Thwin, 2005. p. 76, Note 182)/ tjcm;ynm&Siw
f pfO;D jzpfol (J.F. Fleet)
uvnf; ok0Pblrdonf ta&SYawmiftm&Sa'owGif vHk;0r&SdEkdif[kqkdxm;NyD; b*Fvm;e,fudkom
nTejf yxm;onf[q
k \
dk / (Aung Thwin, 2005, p. 16, Note, 184)/
rdu
k u
f ,fatmifoiG o
f nf rdru
d ,
kd w
f idk t
f yifyrf;cH a&S;a[mif;ausmufpmrsm;udk avhvm&if; ok0Pbrl d
trnfu&kd mS azGygonf/ yk*u
H sepf pfom;rif;vufxufrpS 15-&mpkEpS af &mufonf txda&S;a[mif;rGeaf usmufpm
wkdYwGif ]ok0Pblrd? &mrnf? oxHk? rEk[m} paomtrnfrsm;udk vHk0&SmrawGY&yJ? at'D 1486-ckESpf
xk"d rapwD\uvsmPDord af usmufpmomvQif xkt
d rnfrsm;udk awG&Y onf/ tvGeaf emufusveG ;f onf[q
k \
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xdaYk Mumifh uvsmPDord af usmufpmrS oxHNk rKd o
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vkyBf uv
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2005, pp. 83-103)/
if;\tqdt
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cJhjcif;jzpfonf/
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H iG o
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wetrnfEpS cf w
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Ykd Mum; ]&mrnf} [lonft
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tdE,
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Yd kd atmufjrefrmEkid if &H efuek af 'ojzpfav
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(3) tdE,
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kd nf; rGe&f mZ0ifxrJ mS oD&rd maomurif;trnfwiG f a&mxnfU
vdu
k o
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Yd nf taomurif;Bu;D ESihf acwfNyKd ijf zpfav[ef
zefw;D onf/ okjhd zpf taomuacwftEd ,
d Ekid if &H dS ok0Pbrl u
d rkd rd Ed idk if rH S ok0Pbrl Ed iS hf

- 77 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

qufpyfay;onf/ okaYd qmif&u


G &f m tvGeo
f rd af rGY pGm y&d&m,fuo
kd ;kH xm;onf/ xked nf;jzifh
"rapwDrif;onf ESpfaygif;rsm;pGmMumjrifhNyD;? wpfcsdefpDoD;jcm;jzpfay:aecJhaomvlyk*dKvfrsm;?
ae&ma'orsm; ESihf tjzpftysurf sm;udk bmvduESiw
hf zkwku
Yd Ak'a cwftwGi;f jzpfav[ef?
aomPESihf Ow&wku
Yd taomuacwfjzpfav[ef? taMumif;tcsuEf pS rf sKd ;pvH;k wko
Yd nf
atmufjrefrmEkdifiHwGifjzpfav[eff qufpyfzefwD;cJhonf
[k pGypf x
JG m;aMumif;awG&Y onf/
if;uqufvuf ok0Pbrl ?d aomP-Ow&? oD&rd maomu? bmvduESihf wzk? a&Tw*d akH pwD?
&mrna'o paom taMumif;t&mtm;vHk;wkdYonf "rapwDaMumifh wpfckESifhwpfck qufpyfrdoGm;MuNyD;
Ak'a cwftEd ,
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Yd nf atmufjrefrmEdik if \
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tajccHtw
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(Paul Whearly) \ (Nagara and Commandary) pmtkyfpmrsufESmwGif zwfIEdkifyg onf/ od k h j zpf
rdkufu,fatmifoGifonf usrf;wpfapmifwGifawGY&aom orkdif;t,ltqwpf&yfudk yHkaopGJrSwfvsuf
jrefrmhok0Pblrd t,ltqudk jiif;y,fxm;aMumif;awGY&ygonf/

euGe;f yxkrNf rKd rY S wl;azmf&&Sad om ajrrD;zkwZf mwfawmf ky<f uyHrk sm;

ok"r0wD ESiUf 'Gg&0wD


oxHkonf 4if;\ta&SYbuf a&S;a[mif;'Gg&0wDrif;EdkifiH\ tpG,ftyGm; vufatmufcHNrdKYvm;
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okawoDrsm;u tifwu
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azmfxw
k af y;cJNh yjD zpfaMumif; od&ygonf/ t"duNrKd aY [mif;Bu;D rsm; jzpfMuaom-

- 78 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

euGe;f oD;rm; NrKd aY [mif; a&usKH ;ESiUf NrKd Y ;kd


euGefyxkrf
Oaxmif;
yHkxkwf
ul;bl;0g;
avmh,l&D
rl0ifz&mGwf
'Hkp&Dr[dkpGwf
p&Dxuf
befclrl0if
pyfcsefyg
vefzkef;
ponfU 'Gg&owDNrKd aU [mif;Bu;D rsm;

Nakhon Pathom (3700 x 2000 metres)


(U- Thong) (1690 x 840 metres)
(Pong Tuk)
(Ku Bua) (200 x 800 metres)
(Lop buri)
(Muang Phra Rot) (1350 x 700 metres)
(Dong Si Mahosod)
(Sri Thep) 4.7 km2 )
(Ban Khu Muong) (650 x 750)
(Sab Champa) (834 x 700 metres)
(Lanphun) (Haripunchai)

xGe;f um;cJyh gonf/

'gG&0wDNrdKYa[mif;rsm;wGifawGY&aom taqmufttHka[mif;rsm;\ Adokumvuf&mrSm tdEd,ta&SY


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tom;rSmvnf; *kyw
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jcif;r&S?d oD;jcm;&yfwnfEikd rf nfh NrKd Y jyEdik if w
H pfcv
k nf; r[kwaf Mumif; ,lqMuayonf/

- 79 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

ckoif; yH@
k mef&dS xdik ;f Edik if H NrdKaY [mif;rsm;

[&dbkO,NrdKYa[mif;(vefzHk;)
z&J(Asnf;)NrdKYa[mif;

v0yl&(avmhyl&D)NrdKYa[mif;

&weaumorf(befaumuf)NrdKYa[mif;

- 80 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

euGeyf xkr?f Oaxmif;? ul;bl;0g; paom'Gg&0wDNrKd aY [mif;rsm;\ NrKd w


Y nfyu
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a[mif;rsm;\tv,fwiG f eef;awmf&muke;f a[mif;ae&m yDyjD yifjyifrawG&Y ay/ euGeyf xkrf 3700 _ 2000
(740 [ufwm) NrKd Y Bu;D rSv
JG useaf omNrKd rY sm;\ tG,t
f pm;rSm oxHNk rKd aY [mif;ESihf qwlrQom&Syd gonf/
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k jzpf awG&Y &dS ayonf/

- 81 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

oxHNk rdKaY [mif;udk pwifrwS wf rf;wifcoUJ l


qm? pde?hf tif'l; pde*hf Ref;
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- 82 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

oxHNk rKd Y a&Tpm&Hb&k m;Bu;D

]t"du bk&m;(apwD)rsm;udk eef;awmfuek ;f ESihf awmifbufNrKd Y ;kd tMum;awG&Y onf/ ,ckcsed w


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h Ydk wyfqifxm;\/ bk&m;Bu;D rsm;twGi;f if;wku
Yd rkd awG&Y yJ
cyfvSrf;vSrf;rSm odkYta&twGufrsm;rsm;awGY&jcif;\ t"dyg,fudk rcefYrSef;Ekdifao;yg/
apwDi,ftcsKd u
Y kd wl;NzKd xm;MuNyjD zpf txJrrS ;D aoG;pESihf tk;d uGrJ sm;xGuaf y:vmaMumif;od&\/
aoqH;k olaqGrsKd ;wk\
Yd tk;d jymay:wiG f apwDwnfxm;wmvm;? okrYd [kwf taemf&xmrif;\
ppfonfawmfrsm;twGuf wnfxm;cJMh uaom (td;k tk;d ) apwDvm;qko
d nfukd rod&yg/

- 83 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

vufaxmufaumfr&Sief mrif;Bu;D pdet


Yf if;l pde*hf Re;f onf tkycf sKyaf &;t&m&SBd u;D wpfO;D om jzpfonf/
oxHkNrdKYudkxlaxmifNyD; (10)ESpfcefhMumrS vma&mufwm0efxrf;aqmif&onf/ okdYaomf if;xufapmNyD;
a&mufco
hJ t
l &m&Srd sm;ESirhf wl? oxHNk rKd aY [mif;udk azmfxw
k af y;cJo
h jl zpfonf/ if; aus;Zl;aMumifh oxHo
k nf
a&S;NrdKYa[mif;jzpfaMumif; xdkpOftcguyif odcGifh&cJhayonf/ xkdYjyifru a&S;a[mif;tEkynmvuf&mwefzkd;
odol? ta&SYwkdif;,Ofaus;rIudk em;vnfolwpfOD;tjzpfvnf; csD;rGrf;xkdufoljzpfonf/ oxHkorkdif;twGuf
pdefh*Ref;ua&S;a[mif;ypnf;udk tuJjzwfvsuf oufaoxljyocJhjcif;aMumifhyifjzpf\/
pde*hf Re;f onf oxHNk rKd aY [mif;udw
k idk ;f wmrSwo
f m;Ny;D azmfxw
k af y;onft
U jyif NrKd w
Y iG ;f &Sd awmifbufNrKd Y
wHwkdif;teD;rS a&Tpm&Hy&0PfwGif rdrdawGY&aom omoedutaqmufttHkrsm;udkvnf; rSwfwrf;wifay;
cJhonf/ 4if;ae&mwGifa&Tpm&HapwDBuD;tjyif? av;axmifhyHk&SdaomapwDBuD; (3)qludkvnf; awGY&aMumif;
tpD&ifccH yhJ gonf/ if;wkt
Yd eufrS odMum;bk&m;ac: jrode;f wefapwDwiG f uyfpv
D suw
f efqmqifxm;aom
ajrrD;zkwf yk <f uyHw
k u
Ydk kd t"dyg ,af y:atmif avhvm Ak'b
mom qkid &f mypn;f rsm;jzpfaMumif; tuJjzwfay;cJo
h nf/

odMum;bk&m;
odMum;bk&m;onf a&Tpm&HapwDBuD;
ESihf uyfvsuf ta&SaY wmifbufwnf&o
dS nf/
apwDwpfqv
l ;kH udk *0Htw
k cf syBf u;D rsm;jzifU wnf
aqmufxm;\/ zdeyfawmfrmS tvsm;? teH 104
aypD? pwk&ef;yHjk zpfNy;D yp,moH;k qif&h \
dS / yxr
yp,mokw
Yd uf&ef ajrmufbuf? taemufbuf
ESiahf wmifbufq;kH rsuEf mS wkhd ewfvrf;avSum;
Bu;D rsm;&So
d nf/ zdeyfawmfrS yxryp,mtxd
18 ayjrifo
h nf/ if; txufrS 'kw,
d yp,m
onf ay 70 pwk&ef;yH&k
dS tjrifh 16 ay
&So
d nf/ wwd,yp,mrSm tem;wpfzuf 48
aypwk&ef;yHkjzpfNyD; 12 ayjrifhygonf/ if;
txufrS apwDtxGww
f ifxm;onf/ yp,m
\ab;eH&yH wfvnfrmS oyg,v
f \
S / yxryp,m
\ ab;eH&yH wfvnfrmS 1 ay 11 vufr
t&G,f av;axmifyh rkH ck u
f yfrsm;&SMd u xkrd ck u
f yf
rsm;twGi;f ajrrD;zkwf ky<f ucsyrf sm;udk xnfh
oGif;ylaZmfxm;\/ ewfvrf;avSum;xdyfwnfh
wnfhwGif &yfawmfrlqif;wkudk rkcfuyfBuD;
twGi;f ylaZmfxm;\/ apwDwpfql vH;k tjrifrh mS
nPfawmf 85 ay&So
d nf/

oxHk oMum;bk&m;(ac:)
jrode;f wefapwD

- 84 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

pOfu
U iG ;f ky<f ursm;
yxryp,meH&aH v;zufpvH;k &Sd rkcu
f yfrsm;twGi;f ky<f ucsyf (pOfu
h iG ;f ) ta&twGuf (60) ausmrf Q&rdS nf/
okaYd omf pde*hf Re;f rSww
f rf;wifonfu
h mvwGif ta&twGuq
f ,fck auQmrf Q omawG&Y Ny;D ? useaf omky<f ucsyrf sm;
aysmufqHk;ukefNyD/ tcsdKYrSm vnf; uGJtufaMurGvsufwpfydkif;wpfpomusefygonf/ apwD\ taemuf
ajrmufaxmifrh pS trSwpf Oftwdik ;f a&wGu
f &aom ky<f ucsyw
f u
Ydk kd pde*hf Re;f u atmufygtwkid ;f t"dyg ,af zmfay;
cJhygonf/

a0oE&mZmwfuu
G f
ky<f uyHt
k rSwf (1) onf tcsKd ;tpm;useaom qifwpf
aumifyHkjzpfonf/ qifay:wGif vlwpfpkxkdifaeonf/ qif
aemufrv
S El pS af ,mufuvku
d
f qifay:rv
S pl u
k kd cJEiS yhf pfayguf
aeyHkjzpfonf/
Zmwfuu
G rf q
S ifonf a0oE&mZmwfawmfrS Oayg
oxqifjzLawmfjzpf\/ qifaMumuke;f ay:wiG f rkwq
f w
d Ef iS hf
tkyfqkd;qkd;vlwpfpkrSm qifjzLawmfudktvSLcHoGm;Muaom
ykPm;rsm;jzpfonf/ a0oE&mrif;BuD;xHrS qifjzLawmfudk
ykPm;rsm;u tvSLcHNyD;NrdKUwGif;udk jzwfvsuf,loGm;MupOf
apwkw& m NrKd o
U m;rsm;rausreyfjzpfum cJjzifh ypfaygu[
f efudk
okyfazmfxm;ygonf/
a0oE&mZmwfuu
G f

0d"&l Zmwfuu
G f
kyf<uyHktrSwf(2)onf vlkyfyHkoHk;a,mufwpfwef;yg
&So
d nf/ b,fbufvo
l nf o&zlaqmif;vsuf jrif;udpk ;D xm;
onf/ nmvufwiG "f g;udu
k ikd o
f nf/ b,fvufu jrif;ZufBuKd ;
udq
k o
JG nf/ nmbufrv
S l yk o
f nf o&zlaqmif;vsu?f nmvuf
wGif ypn;f wpfcu
k u
kd ikd x
f m;onf/ ol\ajcaxmufuakd uG;xm;
Ny;D xkid v
f suaf e\/ tv,fvo
l nf &yfvsuaf eNy;D nmbufu
vl\vufuu
kd ikd q
f x
JG m;[ef&\
dS / xkyd \
kH atmufajcwGif vdiI ;f wGeYf
o@mefrsOf;aMumif;oHk;ckyg&Sdonf/
yHu
k t
kd "dyg ,af zmf&efcufco
J nft
h wGuf csucf si;f tajz
r&cJah y/ xkaYd Mumifph ed *hf Re;f onf yk*NH rKd aY [mif; oko
Yd mG ;a&mufNy;D
0D"&l Zmwfuu
G f
zufvyd b
f &k m;rS pOfu
h iG ;f rsm;udak vhvm&onf/ zufvyd pf Ofu
h iG ;f
rsm;rSm kyyf EkH iS t
hf wlpmjzifh Zmwfawmftrnfa&; xk;d xm;\/ oxHo
k Md um;bk&m; trSw(f 2)yHEk iS w
hf u
dk q
f idk pf pfaq;
od&aomzufvyd f pOfu
h iG ;f yHrk mS 0d"&l Zmwfuu
G jf zpfaMumif;odc&hJ \/ okjYd zifo
h &zlaqmif;vsujf rif;pD;xm;olrmS
ykPubDvl;jzpfaMumif;? nmbufrSo&zlaqmif;xm;olrSmvnf; ykPuyifjzpf tv,frSvlkyfrSm
&m'wDewforD;kyfjzpfaMumif; t"dyg,fay:vmonf/ atmufajcrSvdIif;wGefhrSm bD;vl;ESifhewforD;wkdYqHk

- 85 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

awGY Mu&m awmawmifyu


kH kd okyaf zmfxm;jcif;jzpfonf/

0d"&l Zmwfuu
G f
ky<f uyk(H 4)onf txufEiS ahf tmufEpS u
f efyY ikd ;f xm;onf/
txufyikd ;f wpfuefw
Y iG f vlEpS af ,muf xkid v
f suaf e[ef&o
dS nf/
nmbufuvlonfoufawmifhoufom(rif;xkdif)xkdifvsuf?
xD;rk;d xm;onf/ b,fzuf 'l;udak xmifxm;Ny;D ? nmzuf';l udk
qefx
Y m;onf/ OD;acgi;f rSmaysmufq;kH ae\/ b,fbufuvlrmS
wifysOaf cGxidk f vsu&f o
dS nf/ rdrad &SrY v
S x
l o
H rYdk suEf mS rlxm;\/
qHyifuq
kd x
H ;kH Bu;D Bu;D xH;k onf/ OD;acgi;f ay: a&mifvsH puf0ef;
yH&k o
dS nf/ xkt
d kyaf &Sw
Y iG f aowmwpfv;kH &So
d nf/

0d"&l Zmwfuu
G f

atmufydkif;tuefYwGif pD;olrygyJjrif;wpfaumifudk
wdik w
f iG cf snx
f m;\/ xkjd rif;\a&Sw
Y iG f Mumyef; o@meft0kid ;f yHk
ypn;f wpfc&k o
dS nf/ taemufbufwiG v
f nf; vlwpfa,muf
'l;axmufvsufxkdifaeonf/

okyaf zmfy?kH Zmwfuu


G Ef iS q
hf ifwyl *k zH ufvyd b
f &k m;pOfu
h iG ;f wpfcw
k iG f urn;f ausmufpm a&;xk;d xm;
&m? (0d'&l Zmwf? 549)[kawG&Y \/ okjhd zpfqm? tif;I ? pde*hf Re;f onf odMum;bk&m;rS eHygw(f 4) (pOfu
h iG ;f rkcu
f yf
eHygwf 6) onf 0d'&l ZmwfyifjzpfaMumif; t"dyg ,af zmf&oGm;onf/ okyaf zmfuu
G o
f nf ykPu
bDv;l udk
pD;awmfjrif;? vuf0wfawmfywjrm;vufpyG ?f aemufvu
dk f tapcHwpfO;D wkEYd iS hf twlazmfjyxm;jcif;jzpfonf/
Mumyef;o@meft0kid ;f yHo
k nf a<utHupm;&m oH;k aomtHpmwH;k jzpfonf/ txufyikd ;f tuefrY S vlEpS af ,muf
wkrYd mS ykPu
ESib
hf &k ifBu;D wkYd xkid v
f suaf <utHupm;aeyHjk zpf\/ xkaYd Mumifh odMum;bk&m;ky<f uyHk trSw(f 2)
ESihf (4)wko
Yd nf? 0d'&l Zmwfokyaf zmfuu
G rf sm;jzpfaMumif;od&onf/
pde*hf Re;f onf trSwf (1) ky<f uyHrk mS a0oE&mZmwfuu
G Ef iS hf trSw(f 2)ESit
hf rSwf (4)wkrYd S ky<f uyHw
k rYdk mS
0d'&l Zmwfuu
G w
f jhdk zpfaMumif;od&aomtcg usef yk <f uyHw
k \
Ydk t"dyg ,u
f rkd eS ;f q&ef odyrf cufawmhay/ Ak'0 if
r[medygwfawmfZmwfBuD;q,fbGJY okyfazmfyHkrsm;omjzpfrnf[k wGufq&oGm;awmhonf/

ra[mfo"m Zmwfuu
G f
ky<f uyHt
k rSwf (5) (pOfu
h iG ;f rkcu
f yfeyH gwf
16) onfvlkyfyHkrsm;pGmygaom ZmwfuGufjzpf
onf/ xkdyHk\b,fbufjcrf;rSmyvifyHk&Sdonf/
yvix
f ufwiG v
f w
l pfa,mufxidk v
f su?f yviaf jc
&if;wGif rif;csi;f wpfa,muf&yfvsu?f tjcm;wpf
zufwGif rif;csif;wpfa,muf'l;wkyfcpm;vsuf
&Sdonf/ &yfaeaomrif;csif;\ vufwGif yef;
okrYd [kwf pm;p&mwpfcck u
k idk x
f m;onf/ xkyd \
kH
nmbufwiG f eef;0wfeef;pm;ESiv
hf w
l pfa,mufukd
ra[mfo"m Zmwfuu
G f

- 86 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

rif;csi;f wku
Yd xrf;pifay:wifvsuf ac:aqmifomG ;yHk &So
d nf/ xko
d \
l acgi;f wGif ruk#d jf rifjh rifah qmif;xm;vsuf
tay:rx
S ;D rk;d oGm;onf/ xD;awmfrS wHceG ?f ukum ;wkv
Yd iG yhf saH eyHu
k kd aemufyikd ;f wGijf rif&\/
Zmwfuu
G o
f nf ra[mfo"m (r[mOr*F) Zmwfuu
G o
f kyaf zmfyjkH zpf\/ ra[mfo"monf ZeD;avmif;
&Sm&ef tyfcsKyo
f rm;toGijf zifU NrKd rY x
S u
G o
f mG ;Ny;D tr&mESiahf wGo
Y nf/ Ny;D aemuf wHcg;rSL;tdrw
f iG f tyfxm;Ny;D
NrKd w
Y iG ;f ok0Yd ifonf/ xkad emufrif;csi;f wpfa,mufuakd p rdrad &So
Y Ydk ta&mufac:,Nl y;D tr&m\odum pifMu,fru
I kd
prf;oyfonf/ tr&monf xko
d u
l rkd a[mfo"mrSe;f roday/ tyfcsKyo
f nft0wftpm;ESirhf [kwo
f jzifh rrSwrf d
jcif;jzpfonf/ xkaYd Mumift
h r&ma'0Du ra[mfo"mtm; vif&rdS ,m;udk rjypfrmS ;xku
d af Mumif; qH;k rpum;qk\
d /
ra[mfo"mvnf; tr&m\odum pifMu,fru
I o
kd &d Ny;D aemuf eef;awmfo0Ydk ifNy;D rdz&k m;Bu;D tm; taMumif;pHak jymjy
onf/ rdz&k m;Bu;D u rif;Bu;D xHoYdk qufvufavsmufwifNy;D vQif tr&mtm;eef;wGi;f okaYd c:,&l ef rif;Bu;D u
trdeaYf y;onf/ tr&ma'0Dukd 0wfpm;wefqmqifjref;ap a0g,mOfjzifh Bu;D Mu,fcef;em;pGmaqmif,o
l nf/
bk&m;avmif;awmf ra[mfo"mudv
k nf; tojymaxmifwefaom yPmawmfuckd s;D jri o
hf nf/ NrKd o
Y Nl rKd o
Y m;taygi;f
wku
Yd vnf; wHcg;rSL;tdro
f v
Ydk ufaqmifyPmrsm; ykq
hd ufMuavonf/
yH\
k vuf0b
J ufjcrf; xkid af eolrmS ra[mfo"mjzpf\/ ol\aetdrw
f iG f vufaqmifyPmudv
k ufcH
aeyHjk zpfonf/ nmbufjcrf;rSa0g,Ofp;D aeolrmS tr&ma'0Djzpfonf/ ra[mfo"mESihf xdr;f jrm;&ef aqmif,l
oGm;yHkjzpfygonf/

bl&'d wfZmwfuu
G f
kyf<uyHktrSwf (6) (rkcfuyfeHygwf-20) onf oxHkorkdif;twGuf txl;yifta&;BuD;vSygonf/
yHu
k kd aemufraS wGaY omynm&Siw
f u
Ydk [dEL bmoma&;qkid &f m &mr,eZmwfawmfrS okyaf zmfuu
G jf zpfaMumif;
t"dyg ,af zmfcMhJ u\/ xkaYd Mumifo
h xHrk AS 'k b
momonf ax&0gppfppfrjzpfEidk af Mumif;? [dEL jA[mPt,ltq
vTrf;rkd;vsuf&SdaMumif; wifjycJhMu\/ kyf<uyHktrSwf(3)rS vlkyfyHkudkvnf; cuf&if;cGudkifvsufxkdifaeaom
[dELewfrif;oD0yHkjzpfonf[k,lqonf/ okdhjzpf kyfyHkESpfckqufpyfrI &SdoGm;onf/

- 87 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

yHo
k nf tjynfrh [kw?f wpfyikd ;f usKd ;aeonf/ useaf omtydik ;f udyk if ESpu
f efch x
JG m;onf/ txuf
ydik ;f tuefw
Y iG v
f w
l pfa,mufrwfwyf&yfaeyH&k o
dS nf/ xko
d \
l aemufausmwGif csKd i;f atmufrS tNr;D ESiw
hf al om
&Snfarsmarsmt&mwpfck xkd;xGufaevsuf&Sdonf/
atmufb,ftuefw
Y iG f vlav;a,mufxidk v
f suyf w
kH &Ydk MdS uonf/ b,fbuftpGerf v
S o
l nf o&zlukd
aqmif;Ny;D ? useaf omoH;k a,mufwrYdk mS e*g;acgi;f aqmif;xm;Muonf/ if;wku
Yd yxrvltm; dak opGmavQmuf
xm;vsufae[ef&Sd\/
kyf<uyHkudk pdefY? tifI;? pdefY*Ref;utvr,fq&mESifh a>rBuD;wpfaumifyHk[k t"dyg,f
aumuf,yl gonf/ O,smOfxw
J iG af >rtvr,q
f &mu bl&'d wfe*g;rif; (a>rBu;D ) udk ud,
k rf mS ywf tvr,f
(a>rupm;)jyaeyHjk zpfonf/ atmufajcrSyrkH mS e*g;jynfreS *g;rif;Bu;D ESihf e*g;rif;orD;rsm;yHjk zpfonf/
tvr,fonf Am&mPoDjynfrif;BuD;\a&SYawmfwGif bk&m;tavmif;awmfbl&d'wfe*g;rif;udk
jyyGv
J yk
f jyovsu&f \
dS / xkjd yyGw
J iG f bl&'d wf\nDawmf ok'eu&aohtoGijf zifh a&mufae\/ ESrawmf
e*g;rif;orD;vnf; twl&SdaeMu\/ &aohESifhtvr,fwkdY ynmNydKifMu&m &aohuEkdif bl&d'wfudk
vTwaf y;vku
d &f onf/ atmufyw
kH iG f bl&'d wfEiS n
hf aD wmf? ESrawmfwYdk e*g;jynfojhdk yefa&muf e*g;rif;Bu;D xH
taMumif;pHkavQmufxm;aeMuyHkjzpfonf/
ky<f uyHt
k rSwf (7) (rkcu
f yftrSwf 25) rSm tysut
f pD;rsm; t"dyg ,rf azmfEidk yf g/
ky<f uyHt
k rSwf (8) (rkcu
f yftrSwf 26) onf xH;k jzLtxyfxyfvrd ;f Bux
H m;ojzifh yHyk suaf e\/
odkYaomf bl&d'wfZmwfawmfrS jyuGufjzpfaMumif;odomonf/
bl&'d wfonf rkq
k ;dk wpfa,mufEiS hf ol\om;wpfa,mufukd e*g;jynfoaYdk c:aqmifomG ;cJ\
h / if;wkYd
e*g;jynfrSjyefcsifvmaomtcg e*g;rif;? rkqkd;ESifhol\om;wkdY aqG;aEG;ajymqkdaeMuyHkjzpfonf/

ra[mfo"mZmwfuu
G f
kyf<uyHktrSwf (9) (rkcfuyftrSwf 30) onf tusdK;wpfydkif;omusefonf/ b,fbuf
atmuftpGef;usdK;yJhae\/ if;udk tuefYESpfuefYydkif;jcm;xm;\/ txuftuefYwGif vlav;a,muf&Sdonf/
xkdifvsufaeolESpfOD;rSm bk&ifBuD;ESifhrdzk&m;BuD;wkdYjzpfMuonf/ tv,fem;rSihHkNyD;aqmifhaMumifh xkdifaeolESifh
nmbufwiG 'f ;l udk axmufum&ifbwfay: vufEpS zf ufwif xdik af eolwrYdk mS trwfBu;D ESpaf ,mufjzpfMu\/
aqmifhaMumifhxkdifol\atmufem;wGifvnf; trwfBuD;tkyfwpfkyf&Sdao;\/ yHkudkyHktrSwf (10)ESifhwGJ
MunfhrSydk t"dyg,faygufEkdifonf/
ky<f uyHt
k rSwf (10) (rkcu
f yftrSwf 31)
yHkonf jynfhpHkaumif;rGefonf/ yHk (9) ESifheD;uyfpGm&Sd ESpfyHkwGJNyD; t"dyg,fazmf&onf/
aumfr&Sief mpde*hf Re;f onf yHEk pS yf u
kH kd ra[mfo"mZmwfuu
G rf sm;jzpfaMumif; t"dyg ,af zmfjyygonf/
'kw,
d yH\
k txufyikd ;f wGif 0wfpm;qif,ifvsuf trsKd ;om;ESit
hf rsKd ;orD;jrif;vSn;f ay:xikd af eMu
onf/ atmufbufwiG f tk;d xde;f onf\tk;d zk&d o
dS nf/ td;k xde;f pufuv
kd n
S
hf tk;d yHak zmfaeolwpfa,mufvnf;
&So
d nf/ tjcm;vlwpfa,mufu taemufem;wGif &Gw
YH ;kH udek ,fvsu&f \
dS / pifay:wiG t
f ;dk rsm;udk wifxm;onf/

- 88 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

ra[mfo"m Zmufuu
G f

ZmwfawmfrmS okjhd zpf\/ ra[mfo"monf if;tm;remvko


d l trwfBu;D av;yg;u taumufBu
H
o&zlckd;,lonfhtrIay:aygufvmNyD; rif;'Pfoifhojzifh xGufajy;wdrf;a&Smifae&\/ tkd;xdef;onf\tdrfwGif
tk;d vkyo
f rm;oGijf zifah &mufaepOf trwfBu;D av;yg;wku
Yd tr&ma'0Duakd oG;aqmifjzm;a,mif&ef BuKd ;yrf;Muonf/
tr&ma'0Duvnf; trwfBu;D wku
Yd kd axmifacsmufqifum rpifusi;f xJvrd u
hf sapNy;D zrf;rdavonf/ Ny;D vQif
vJrrYId sm;vdr;f Bu
H arsmufjzLav;aumiftjzpf BuKd ;ESiq
hf u
JG m rif;Bu;D xHqufoonf/ ra[mfo"m tjypfr&Sd
aMumif;udkvnf; rif;BuD;xHavQmufxm;avonf/ o&zlckd;xm;oltppfrSm trwfBuD;av;yg;yifjzpfaMumif;
xkwfazmfvkdufEkdif\/ okdYaomf ra[mfo"m tjypfr&SdaMumif;udk rif;BuD;ucsufcsif;rqHk;jzwfEkdifyJ&Sdonf/
xkt
d cg xD;csuaf qmifeh wforD;u ra[mfo"mtm;csucf si;f ac:,&l efwu
dk w
f eG ;f avonf/ rif;Bu;D vnf; rif;csi;f
av;a,mufuakd pvTw
f NrKd w
U cH g;av;&yfwiG f ra[mfo"mtm;&SmazG&ef trdeaYf y;onf/ awmifwcH g;oko
Yd mG ;aom
rif;csi;f u ra[mfo"mudk tk;d xde;f onf\aetdrf awGY Ny;D bk&ifBu;D xHac:,v
l mcJo
h nf/
txufygZmwfvrf;t& yHt
k rSw(f 9)rSm jA['wfrif;Bu;D ESihf rdb&k m;O'kr& a'0DwYdk txufyikd ;f vuf0J
bufwiG &f o
dS nf/ arsmufjzLtoGijf zifh trwfBu;D wpfyg;ESit
hf r&mwku
Yd tjcm;wpfzufwiG &f o
dS nf/ atmufajc
tuefw
Y iG f arsmufjzLtrwfBu;D wpfyg;teuf wpfyg;udak wG&Y onf/

- 89 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

ra[mfo"m Zmufuu
G f
trSwf (10)yHrk mS tk;d xde;f onf\aetdrf ra[mfo"ma&mufaeyHjk zpfonf/ xkt
d rd rf mS yif rif;csi;f
wpfa,mufESifhawGY&NyD; rif;BuD;xHjrif;vSnf;jzifhwif jyefac:,laqmifoGm;avonf/

awrd,Zmwf

awrd, Zmufuu
G f
ky<f uyHt
k rSwf (11) (rkcu
f yftrSwf 55) onf a0oE&mZmwfuu
G v
f m;? awrd,Zmwfuu
G v
f m;
qHk;jzwf&efcufcJaeygonf/
yHk\vuf0JbufwGif bk&m;tavmif;awmfonf rudk#fjrifhjrifhaqmif;xm;NyD; rwfwyf&yfaeonf/

- 90 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

ol\nmbufvufrmS aysmufq;kH ae\/ b,fbufvufarmif;udak uG;nTwv


f suf ykc;kH ay:wifxm;onf/ if;\a&Sw
Y iG f
vlwpfa,muf';l wkycf pm;vsu&f o
dS nf/ aemufvw
l pfa,mufrmS jrif;vSn;f ay:wiG &f o
dS nf/ xko
d o
l nfvn
S ;f udk
vSnu
hf m armif;ESirf nf[
h ef&\
dS / yHo
k nfa0oE&mZmwf(tqH;k Zmwf)ESihf eD;uyfpmG &S
d ? awrd,Zmwf (tpZmwf)
uGujf zpfrnf[k pde*hf Re;f ucefrY eS ;f ygonf/ yH\
k Zmwfvrf;rSm atmufygtwkid ;f jzpf\/
jrif;vSn;f orm;onf bk&ifBu;D \trdet
Yf & awrd,rif;om;udjk rif;vSn;f ay:wifum NrKd Y jyifox
Ydk w
k
f
ajrjrKyyf pf&efppD Ofonf/ jrif;vSn;f orm;uajrBu;D wGi;f udw
k ;l onf/ xkt
d cg arG;uif;prSpwpfoufv;kH pum;
rajymbJaevmol awrd,onf xko
d x
l o
H o
Ydk mG ; ajrwl;&jcif; taMumif;udak r;avonf/ jrif;vSn;f orm;u
taMumif;pHu
k &kd iS ;f jyonft
h cg awrd,vnf; rdr\
d okyo
f @meftppftrSeu
f kd azmfxw
k jf yvku
d o
f nf/
yHw
k iG &f yfaeolrmS awrd,rif;om;jzpfonf/ 4if;a&Sw
Y iG f 'l;axmufvsuaf eol jrif;vSn;f orm;udk
pum;ajymqkad eyHjk zpf\/ jrif;vSn;f ay:rS aemufvw
l pfa,mufrmS vnf; jrif;vSn;f orm;yifjzpf awrd,\
r,fawmfxH rif;om;pum;ajymwwfaMumif; 0rf;ajrmufb,
G o
f wif;udk avQmufxm;&ef jyefvn
S o
hf mG ;onfyh kH
jzpfonf/
yH(k 12) yHo
k nf odMum;bk&m;rS aysmufq;kH oGm;aom ajrrD;zkwf yk <f ucsyrf sm;teufrS wpfcsyu
f kd
a&Tpm&Ha&TwyD &k 0kP&f dS a&S;a[mif;okawoeausmufpmHk xde;f odr;f xm;vQuf awG&Y yHjk zpf\/ aerdrif;om;
Zmwfuu
G f okyaf zmfykH jzpfygonf/

aerdZmwfuGuf

oxHNk rKd Y odMum;bk&m;rkcu


f yfrsm;wGif uyfpv
D suyf al Zmfxm;cJah om r[mAk'0 ifZmwfuu
G f okyaf zmfykH
rsm;udk aumfr&Sief mrif;Bu;D pde*hf Re;f onf? wpfxidk w
f nf;MunfNh y;D qH;k jzwfvsuf t"dyg ,af zmfEidk cf o
hJ nfr[kwyf /
wpdrphf rd Mhf unf&h if;? wpfEpS af usmrf Qtcsed ,
f u
l m avhvmcJ&h ayrnf/ xkpd Ofu jrefrmbk&ifyikd ef uf txufjrefrmjynf
yk*NH rKd aY [mif;oko
Yd mG ; a&Tpnf;ck?H tmeEm? "r&mZdu? r*Fvm apwDpaombk&m;rsm;rS ZmwfawmfpOfu
h iG ;f rsm;udk
vnf;avhvm&onf/ aemufq;kH zufvyd b
f &k m;ESpq
f w
l iG af wG&Y aom ajrrD;zkwf yk <f ucsyrf sm;rS oxHEk iS q
hf ifwl
Zmwfuu
G rf sm;udak wG&Y Ny;D ? if;Zmwfuu
G t
f rnfuykd g odc&hJ ayonf/

- 91 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

pde*hf Re;f \Ak'0 ifZmwfuu


G yf rkH sm; t"dyg ,af zmfxw
k cf suu
f kd if;aemuf (25)ESpaf usmcf efMh umonft
U cg
oxHo
k aYdk &mufvmcJo
h l ausmufpm0efrpwmawmfped cf Edk iS hf tm&fp?D wify,fwu
Ydk vnf; rdrw
d x
Ydk ifjrifonft
h wkid ;f
t"dyg,fazmfcJhMujyefygonf/
rpwmawmfped cf u
dk okyaf zmfyk <f uyHw
k rYdk mS Ak'b
momESirhf oufqidk af Mumif;? [dEL jA[P0gqidk &f m?
&mrm,eZmwfuGufrsm;jzpfEdkifaMumif; xifjrif,lqcJhygonf/ tm&f? pD? wify,furl aumfr&Sifemrif;BuD;
k abmwlpmG jzifh r[mAk'0 ifZmwfuu
G rf sm;
qmtif;I pde*hf Re;f \ t"dyg ,af zmfxw
k cf suf (Interpretation) udo
jzpfaMumif; twnfjyKvufcHcJhygonf/

ed[m&m*sefa&; trSm;awmfykH
rpwmawmfped cf \
dk uGi;f qif;okawoe
tpD&ifcpH mudk rSjD irf;ud;k um;vsuf a'guw
f med[m
&rf*seaf &;uvnf; if;\ jrefrmEkdifiH[dELewf
bk&m;rsm;taMumif; pmtkyu
f akd &;om;onft
h cg
oxHo
k Md um;bk&m; pOfu
h iG ;f wko
Yd nf [dEL jA[P
0g'ESifhomoufqkdifonf Ak'bmomESifh rouf
qkdifaMumif; xyfrHwifjyvmcJhonf/
a'gufwmed[m&rf*sefa&;onf yk*HNrdKY
a[mif;wGiaf wG&Y aom ewfavSmifausmif; (ewf
avsmif;ausmif;) *lb&k m;rS [dEL ewfyk rf sm;? ,cky*k H
jywkduf&Sd AdEdk;ewfrif;ausmufkyf<ursm;udk
axmufxm;vnf;aumif;? atmufjrefrmEkdifiH
oa&acw&mNrKd aY [mif;rS AdEd;k ausmufqpfyk ?f
oD0ewfrif;ausmufqpfkyfudkawGY&SdrIudk vnf;
aumif;? oxHkNrdKYa[mif;rSvnf; AdEdk;ewfrif;
kyfwkrsm;awGY&SdrIwkdhaMumifhvnf;aumif; jrefrm
EkdifiHwGif [dELt,l0gonf Ak'0g'ESifhpifNydKif
xGe;f um;cJrh nf[,
k q
l onf/ txl;ojzihf oxHrk mS
[dELewfkyfwkrsm;awGY&yHk udktaMumif;jyKum oxHkomoemonf ax&0g'ppfppfrjzpfEkdifaMumif; a0zef
axmufjycJhygonf/
uJhokdYa0zefaxmufjycsufudkyif a*smh a q;a';
q;a';? y,f v D , d kESifh 0S w f w av
avwkdYu qufvuf
ud;k um; oxHrk mS [dEL jA[P0g' xGe;f um;cJah Mumif; t,lt
l qudx
k ifay:vmatmif jzefcY scD MhJ uonfrmS
aemufq;kH rdu
k u
f ,fatmifoiG f (2005)u ud;k um;cJo
h nftxd jzpfvmcJo
U nf/
a'guw
f ma&;onf if;\t,ltqudk jznfpU u
G af xmufcrH nfh taxmuftxm;wpfct
k jzpf oxHo
k Md um;
bk&m;pOfu
h iG ;f ky<f u? yxryp,m taemufawmifaxmifrh S awG&Y aomky<f ucsyf wpfcw
k iG f rif;0wfrif;wefqmjzifh
vl\vufrS cuf&if;cGoPmef (Bwo
d v
l )udak wG&Y ojzif?h xkt
d kyu
f kd oD0ewfrif;ky[
f v
k nf;aumif;? ky<f uyHk

- 92 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

a'gufwma&;u
[efEkrmefarsmufrif;yHk[k
,lqaom
bl&d'wfZmwfuGufrS
a>rESifUtvr,fjyupm;aeyHk

trSwf (6)(rkcu
f yftrSwf 20)udv
k nf; &mrm,eZmwf0ifcef;wpfc[
k
l vnf;aumif; t"dyg ,af umuf,cl yhJ gonf/
ky<f uyHt
k rSwf (6) rStvr,Ef iS b
hf &l 'd wfe*g;rif; kyyf w
kH u
Ydk kd a'guw
f ma&;u [mEkrmarsmufrif;yHk
[k,q
l onf/ tvr,cf sKd i;f atmufEiS hf aemufausmud&k pfywfxm;onfah >rBu;D udk [mEkrmarsmufrif;\tNr;D
jzpfonf[k qdyk gonf/ uJo
h t
Ydk "dyg ,af umuf,Nl y;D xkyd o
kH nf &mrm,eZmwfuu
G jf zpfaMumif; oufaojy
cJhygonf/
a'guw
f ma&;onf oxHrk aS wG&Y onfAh
d Ed;k ewfyk w
f k oJausmufqpfyk <f uyHrk mS ,cifu odMum;bk&m;
xnfo
h iG ;f ylaZmfxm;onft
h kyyf if jzpfrnf[
l vnf; cefrY eS ;f onf/ if;\pmtkyw
f iG f odMum;bk&m;\trnfukd
a&Tpm&HapwD[rk mS ;,Gi;f pGmazmfjycJyh gonf/ okjhd zifh a'guw
f ma&;onf aumfr&Sief mrif;Bu;D pde*hf Re;f \ tpD&ifcpH m
wGiw
f ifjyxm;aom odMum;bk&m;ky<f uyHrk sm;\ t"dyg ,u
f kd vH;k 0ypfy,fvu
kd Nf y;D rdrt
d ,ltqopfukd zefw;D
cJhaMumif; awGY&ygonf/
a'guw
f med[m&rf*seaf &;\t,ltqrSm;,Gi;f aMumif;od&aom urn;f ausmufpm0efO;D jr onf (1932)
ckESpfwGif oxHkNrdKUudkuGif;qif;NyD; udk,fwkdifudk,fusppfaq;cJhygonf/ OD;jronf odMum;bk&m;kyf<uyHkrsm;rSm
aumfr&Sief mrif;Bu;D pde*hf Re;f \ t"dyg ,af zmfay;xm;onft
h wkid ;f r[medygwaf wmf okyaf zmfyrkH sm;jzpfaMumif;
tpD&ifcw
H ifjycJyh gonf/ (U Mya, Terracotta Plaques of the Thagyapaya at Thaton. ASI, 1930-34,
d ef rd w
d w
f idk rf sm;&So
d nf/
vol I, pp. 196-230) oMum;bk&m;teD;rSmyif a&Tpm&HapwDawmifbuf&dS uvsmPDor
xko
d rd ef rd w
d w
f idk rf sm;wGif oJausmufjzifh ky<f uyHrk sm;xkqpfxm;\/ 4if;ky<f uyHw
k rYdk mS vnf; r[medygwaf wmfZmwf
uGuf okyaf zmfyw
kH yYdk if jzpfMu odMum;bk&m;ajrrD;zkwyf kH yk <f ursm;ESit
hf vm;wl Ak'0 ifZmwfawmfrsm;jzpfaMumif;
avhvm awG&Y cdS \
hJ / (OD;jr\tdE,
d a&S;a[mif;okawoeXme ESpcf sKyt
f pD&ifcpH m (1930-34)? tydik ;f (1)?
pmrsuEf mS 203-4 wGif 4if;Zmwfeyd gwaf wmfrsm; taMumif;tpD&ifcH azmfjyxm;cJyh gonf/ (U Mya, Pillers
with Kalyani Sima, Thaton, ASI, 1930-34, Part I, pp. 230-4).

- 93 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

a'guw
f medrm&rf*seaf &;\ rSm;,Gi;f pGmMunfh t
I uJjzwfcahJ om qH;k jzwfcsuo
f nf oxHo
k rkid ;f wGuf
rnfrQta&;BuD;ygoenf;/ rnfokdYxdckdufEdkifygoenf;/
rsm;pGmxdckdufepfemvSygonf [kqkd&ygrnf/ tb,fhaMumifhqkdaomf oxHkorkdif;wGif'kwd,ajrmuf
ta&;ygaom t&Sifr[mAk'aCmoESifhyd#uwfawmfrsm; oxHkodkYqkdufa&mufvmjcif;udk vHk;0jypfy,fvkduf
onfh t"dyg,f&SdjzpfaMumifhjzpfygonf/
,if;t"dyg ,o
f ufa&mufru
I kd tcsuaf umif;,l t&Sirf [mAk'a Cmoonf orkid ;f 0ify*k Kd vw
f pfO;D
r[kwaf Mumif;? &Sirf [mAk'a Cmo wu,fr&Sad Mumif; orkid ;f okawoDwpfcsKd u
Y ,lqvmMuonf/ tu,f
&Sirf [mAk'a Cmoyifah qmifvmojzifh oxHu
k ykd #d u
d wfawmfrsm; qku
d af &mufvmcJjh cif;rSev
f Qi?f rQta&;ygaom
orkid ;f jzpf&yfukd "rapwDrif;Bu;D onf ol\uvsmPDord af usmufpm xnfo
h iG ;f a&;xk;d oifo
h nf/ ,ckuvsmPD
odraf usmufpmwGif Ak'a CmotaMumif; wpfpeG ;f wprQrygaMumif; axmufjyolwv
Ydk nf;&Sv
d monf/ okjhd zifh
&Sifr[mAk'aCmoudkY orkdif;xJrS qGJxkwfypfy,fvkdufMuayawmhonf/
oxHrk S a&S;a[mif;taqmuftODww
Ydk iG f txifu&use&f adS eaom azmifawmfO;D apwDonf yd#uwf
awmfrsm; yifhaqmifvmcJhpOfu? avSazmifqkduf&mae&m oxHkjynfom;wkdY txdef;trSwfapwDwnfonfh
oxHkorkdif;rSwfwkdif wpfckyifjzpfonf/ yd # uwf w d k u f a pwD rSmvnf; a&Tpm&HapwDawmf0if;twGif;
"rygvrif;Bu;D u vkP
d *f l bk&m;wnfxm; yd#uwfawmfrsm;udk okrd ;DS odr;f qnf;xm;&m taqmuftODjzpfonf/
Ak'a CmoESihf yd#uwfawmfrsm;qku
d af &mufjcif;a&S;a[mif;trSwt
f om;wko
Yd nf a'guw
f ma&;\ rSm;,Gi;f
pGmtuJjzwfcsuaf Mumifh a&S;a[mif;wefz;dk uif;rJo
h mG ;awmhonf/ tusKd ;qufaMumifyh if 1883-ckEpS f Ek0d ifbmv
26 &ufpJG jzifh NAw
d o
d QtEd ,
d tpk;d &? jynfxaJ &;Xmeu trdeaYf MumfjimpmtrSwf (3-168-83) t&owfrw
S cf NhJ y;D ?
1919-ckEpS af zaz:0g&v
D 21 &ufaeYwiG f tdE,
d tpk;d &ynma&;Xmeu? trdeaYf MumfjimpmtrSw(f 48)jzifh xkwjf yef
aMujimcJah om oxHck kid t
f wGi;f &Sd a&S;a[mif;aqmuftODrsm;pm&if;wGi?f azmifawmfO;D bk&m;ESihf yd#uwfwu
dk f
apwDwu
Ydk kd csev
f yS x
f m;cJ\
h /
trSwfpOf - 14? a&Tpm&HapwD
- 15? odMum; (jrode;f wef) apwD
- 16? Zif;usKd ub
f &k m;
- 17? aumh*eG ;f *l
- 18? ZGu
J yifb&k m;ESihf
- 19? usKd ux
f ;D d;k bk&m;
wkdYudkom pm&if;0iftaqmufttHkrsm;tjzpf owfrSwfonf/ xkdpm&if;udk 1960 jynfhESpfwGif? &efukef?
jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if t
H pk;d &yHEk ydS w
f u
dk u
f jyefvnfyEkH ydS Nf y;D xkwjf yefcahJ om ( AMENDED LIST OF ANCIENT
MONUMENTS IN BURMA, 1960 (Reprint) ? (Rangoon, Supdt, Govt, Printing and Staty, Union
f vnf; oxHak zmifawmfO;D ESihf yd#uwfwu
dk af pwDwu
Ydk kd xnfo
h iG ;f azmfjyjcif;rjyKcahJ y/
of Burma) pm&if;pmtky

rQaompm&if;0if taqmufttHrk sm;udk taxmuftxm;jyK qma*smph aumhu? xkid ;f Ekid if H rif;om;BuD;


'ifra&mif; tm;? oxHk a&S;a[mif;taqmuftODrsm;enf;yg;vGe;f onf[k qkcd jhJ cif;vnf;jzpfygonf/
atmufjrefrmEkid if H oxHak 'owGif [dEL jA[Pwk\
Yd &mrm,eZmwfawmf tpOftvmr&Scd ahJ Mumif;
t&Sifr[mAk'aCmoaqmif,lvmcJhaom t|uxmusrf;rsm;rS Zmwuusrf;xGuf r[medygwfawmfudkom
tpOftquf,MkH unf rSwo
f m;vmcJjh cif;omjzpfaMumif;? jrefrmh,Ofaus;rIe,fy,fwiG f ]&mrm,e}? ]r[mbm&w}

- 94 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

paom [dELZmwfawmfrsm;twGuf ae&mr&SdcJhonfrSm a&S;tcguwnf;uyifjzpfaMumif; ygVdyg&*lq&mBuD;


OD;vlaz0if;u &Si;f vif;wifjyxm;ygonf/ (U Li Pe Win, Buddhaghosa and Burma, J.B.R.S. LVIII,
part I. October, 1975)

pde*hf Re;f onf oxHo


k Md um;bk&m;udk jrefrmEkid if rH t
S xl;jcm;qH;k bk&m;wpfqt
l jzpfowfrw
S o
f nf/ ouf
wrf;tm;jzifv
h nf; Ak'a Cmovufxufavmufu wnfcrhJ nfjzpf ESpaf ygi;f (1380) ausmNf y[
D ck efrY eS ;f onf/
apwD\yHpk rH mS oD[Vdk b
f &k m;yHpk jH zpfonf[v
k nf;qk\
d / aESmif;acwfumvrsm;wGif tb,fah Mumifh apwD
yHkpHrsdK;qufvufwnfaqmufjcif;r&Sdonfudkvnf; rdrdtHUMordaMumif; tpD&ifcHwifjyxm;ygonf/

aumh*eG ;f *l eH&u
H yfA'k yk yf mG ;awmfrsm;

- 95 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

azmfcrf;rm;\ tpD&ifcpH m azmfjyaom(rEko[


D )kyx
f k vdyo
f aJ usmufw;kH Bu;D udk
jcaoFh yk rf suEf mS xkqpfyakH zmfxm;onf/ (0if;u&Gm ukrm&apwD\ awmifbufuyfvsu&f \
dS )

azmfcrf;rm;\ oxHuk iG ;f qif;c&D;


ok0Pbrl ?d oxHNk rKd aY [mif;udk yxruGi;f qif;avhvmcJo
h Ol a&mywku
d o
f m;rSm a'guw
f mtD;az:crf;rm;
yifjzpfonf/ olonf rpwmpde*hf Re;f uJo
h Ydk tkycf sKyaf &;t&m&SBd u;D wpfO;D r[kwaf y/ ygVpd mayyg&*lb&YJG olwpfO;D
jzpf\/ tpk;d &u cefx
h m;aom a&S;a[mif;okawoetxl;t&m&SBd u;D (Government Archaeologist) wpfO;D
vnf;jzpfonf/
azmfcrf;rm;onf yJc;l uvsmPDord af usmufpm azmfjyxm;aom t&Siaf omPESihf Ow&wkq
hd u
dk af &muf
cJ&h m ok0Pbrl u
d akd zmfxw
k &f ef &nf&,
G cf sujf zifh 1881-ckEpS w
f iG f uGi;f qif;cJ\
h / if;tpD&ifcpH m (Note on
The Early History and Geography of Birtish Burma Mission To Suvannabhumi) wGif bD;vif;e,f
auvmoawmifajcrS wkdufukvm;NrdKYa[mif;udk OD;pGmazmfjyxm;ygonf/

- 96 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

0if;u ukrm&apwD(rlvyH)k
azmfcrf;rm;onf ygVpd may? yg&*lwpfO;D jzpfonft
h m;avsmpf mG uvsPo
D rd af usmufpm? ygVb
d momudk
Ekid ef if;pGmzwfEI idk af yonf/ if;ausmufpmaMumif;a& (12) rS (15) txdazmfjyxm;aom atmufygtaMumif;
t&mwku
Yd azmfcrf;rm;tm; wku
d u
f v
k m;NrKd aU [mif;ud&k mS azG&ef vrf;nTecf ahJ yonf/
12/

. . w
. wd,o*Fg,emwifNy;D aomtqH;k arm*vyd w
k w

d rax&fonf tem*wfumv
wGio
f moemawmfonf yp E& pft&yfwhdk wnfvw[
hH k odawmfr
l omoemwnfprd aUf omiSg
rZ Eu
d rax&ftp&Sad om xkx
d rdk ax&fwu
Ydk kd xkx
d t
dk &yfwo
Ydk aYdk pvTw\
f / xkrd ax&fww
Ydk iG f
r[mr[dErax&fudk oD[kdVfuRef; omoemwnfpdrfhaomiSmapvTwf\/

13/

aomPrax&fEiS hf Ow&rax&fwu
Ydk kd ok0Pbrl w
d idk ;f [kqt
dk yfaom &mrnrnfaomt&yf
omoemwnfprd ahf omiSgapvTw\
f / xkrd ax&fEpS yf g;a&mufaomtcsed w
f iG f ok0Pbrl w
d idk ;f
oD&drmaomurnfaomrif;onf rif;jyK\/

14/

xkrd if;\aejynfawmfonf auvmoawmifapwD\ taemufajrmufaxmifh jzpf\/ NrKd w


Y pf0uf
ta&SyY ikd ;f onf awmifay:&S
d taemufxuf0uftydik ;f onf ajrnDjzpf\/

15/

xkNd rKd o
Y nf wifvcJ suaf oma*gVvlrsKd ;wk\
Yd tdrw
f u
Ydk o
hJ Ydk ajrusnaf omtdrrf sm;aomaMumifh
aESmif;vlwkdYonf wkdufukvm;NrdKY[kac:Muukef\/

- 97 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

0if;u ukrm&apwD (jyKjyifNy;D yH)k


tnTef;ausmufpmonf 15-&mpkESpf ukefqHk;csdefavmufusrS a&;xkd;xm;cJhonfrSefaomfvnf;
if;ausmufpmxJwiG f ]ok0Pbrl }d ]&mrna'o}? auvmoyAwESihf a*gVrwdu
em*&paom yx0D0if
ae&mXmetrnfrsm;yg0ifaeygonf/ ausmufpmwGif aomPESiOhf w&wkYd qku
d af &mufco
hJ nfah e&mudk wdwd
ususneT jf yxm;onfjzpfaomaMumifh azmfcrf;rm;twGuf okoPbrl Nd rKd aY [mif;Bu;D udk oGm;a&muf&mS azGazmfxw
k f
&eftcuftcJodyfr&Sdawmhay/

auvmoapwD
azmfcrf;rm;onf auvmaoawmifajc&if;t&ufor&Gm? 0if;u&Gm? awmifBuD;&GmESifh uif;&GmwkdY
wpfavsmuf&dS wku
d u
f v
k m;NrKd aY [mif;udk rdrad wGcY &hJ aMumif; tpD&ifccH o
hJ nf/ 4if;\tpD&ifcpH mwGif
],ckumvyifv,furf;ajcrS 12 rkid cf eft
Y uGm uke;f wGi;f ydik ;f vnf;aumif;? oxHNk rKd rY S taemufajrmuf
22 rkdiftuGmvnf;aumif;/ auvmoawmif[kac:aom awmifwef; onf&Sd\/ tv,fA[dk?
tjrifq
h ;Hk awmifxyd f (vwDw
'G f 17 'D*&D 2 rdepf? avmif*sw
D w
G f 97 'D*&D 2 rdepf) udk auvm
oawmifxdyf[kac:\/
[lazmfjyonf/
if;qkdufa&mufonfhtcgu auvmoawmifapmif;rSm acsmufurf;yg;,H&SdNyD;? taemufawmif
bufapmif;rSm opfawmBu;D xlxyfpmG zk;H tkyv
f su&f adS Mumif;? awmifajcajrjyefrY mS wqufwnf;nDnmpGmjzifh
yifv,furf;pyf? ppfawmif;jrpf0okdYa&mufaMumif;azmfjyygonf/

- 98 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

awmifxyd &f adS uvmoapwDrmS ausmufpmxJygaom auvmoyAwapwDyifjzpf? rdrq


d u
kd af &mufpOf
(1881-ckESpf) topfrGrf;rHjyKjyifxm;NyD;jzpfonf/ rGefwkdYa'ousdKuom? ppfawmif;? odrfZ&yf? oxHk?
t&ufonfr? a&T*Bl u;D (yJc;l ) wk&Yd adS pwDrsm;uJo
h aYdk jrrD;zkwt
f w
k Ef iS hf *0Htw
k cf syrf sm;jzifw
h nfxm;onf/ apwD\
yHo
k PmefrmS yp,moH;k qifyh g&
dS tv,fwiG ef wfvrf;rsm;xm;&So
d nfh yHpk rH sKd ;jzpfonf[k azmfjyonf/
"rapwDrif;vufxufwiG f auvmoapwDukd jyKjyifrrG ;f rHczhJ ;l aMumif; urn;f armfueG ;f ausmufpm (tjrifh
10ay? Asuf 3ayt&G,f ESpyf ikd ;f usKd ;yJah eonf)udv
k nf; rdrad wGcY &hJ onfq\
dk /

auvmo0d[m& ausmif;awmf
azmfcrf;rm;onf awmifxyd rf aS vSum;xpfvrf;twkid ;f qif;oufc\
hJ / vlomG ;vrf;onf ajrnDajrjyefY
wpfae&mokYd a&SY IoGm;aeonf/ xkad jrjyefaY e&mrSm wpfcsed w
f pfcgu ]auvmo0d[m&} ausmif;awmfBu;D
ae&mjzpfrnf[k cefYrSef;onf/ ,if;auvmo0d[m&ausmif;awmfonf oD[kdVfuRef; rSr[m0d[m&
ausmif;awmfBu;D uJo
h yYdk if ok0Pbrl rd mS vnf; trnfxif&mS ;ausmMf um;aecJah om omoemhe,fajrwpfcyk ifjzpfchJ
aMumif;? ausmif;awmfBu;D pwif wnfaxmifyrkH mS aomPESiOhf w&rax&fwYdk <ua&mufawmfrv
l mjcif;ESihf
qufpyfr&I adS Mumif;? if;tjyifreG w
f \
Ydk tpOftvmqkpd um;t& Ak'a Cmot&Sio
f jl rwfonfvnf; &mrn
a'ookq
Yd u
dk af &mufcNhJ y;D aemuf omoeme,fajrrSmyif oDwif;oH;k aexkid cf o
hJ nf[k tqk&d adS Mumif; tpD&ifcpH m
wifjyxm;ygonf/ taMumif;t&m rsm;ESiyhf wfouf r[m0Housr;f pmrsuEf mS 172 wGif
ol&d,*kawm r[maxa&m
auvmor[m0d[m&awm
qE0wdo[ed bduL
tm'g, tm*rm/ [lazmfjyxm;onf[q
k \
dk /
at'D 328-ckEpS f oD[Vdk u
f Re;f r[mxlygapwDBu;D Xmyemydwyf JG tcrf;tem;okYd wufa&muf&ef
Ekid if &H yfjcm;rS oHCmawmfrsm;udk (ausmif;uke)f yifzh w
d o
f nft
h cg auvmo0d[m&ausmif;rS &[ef;awmfrsm;
vnf;<ua&mufum cs;D jri chf MhJ uonf [kazmfjyxm;jcif;jzpfonf/ if;r[m0Housr;f awG&Y onfh auvmo0d[m&
ausmif;ae&mudk ,cktcsed t
f xd&mS rawGcY &hJ ao;aMumif;? if;oD[Vdk &f mZ0ifrS auvmo0d[m& ausmif;awmfBu;D
ae&mrSm ,ckawGY jrif&aom auvmoawmifay:rS ausmif;awmfBu;D yifjzpfrnf[k rdr,
d q
l aMumif; azmfjy
xm;ygonf/
auvmo0d[m&ausmif;awmfBu;D ae&mrS a&mufonft
h cg vlomG ;vrf;onf taemufajrmufbuf
qDoYdk qufvufqif;oGm;Ny;D awmifajc&if;&St
d ,ufonfr&GmESihf uif;&Gmwkt
Yd Mum; (0if;u&Gm)okYd qdu
k af &muf
onf[q
k ydk gonf/ xkad e&mwGif awmifwef;onftv,fA[kad wmifxw
G rf S wjznf;jznf;edrq
hf if;oGm;Ny;D ? aemuf
qHk;awmifpG,fESpfckuGJoGm;um ajrjyefYokdYqif;onf/ if;taemufbuf awmifajcwpfavsmuf&Sd t,ufo
r&GmESihf if;teD;uif;&Gmwkrhd mS ,cifuwku
d u
f v
k m;NrKd [
Y k ac:aomNrKd aY [mif;yif jzpfonf[q
k ydk gonf/ ,ck
yifv,furf;ajconf taemufoYdk 12 rkid cf efh tuGm tvSr;f a0;aeao;aomfvnf; 16 &mpkEpS Ef iS hf 17
&mpkESpf rsm;uta&;ygaom yifv,fqdyfurf;wpfae&mjzpfcJhaMumif; odomxif&Sm;onf[kvnf;qdkygonf/
azmfcrf;rm;onf auvmoawmifajcrSif;awGYcJh&aom ok0PblrdNrdKYa[mif;ae&m\ jrifuGif;udk
okdYqufvuf azmfjyygonf/
awmifwef;\ta&Sb
U ufEiS hf taemufbufawmifapmif;ae&mwkw
Yd iG f tBu;D tus,,
f ,
dk iG ;f ysupf ;D
aeaom tysut
f pD;rsm;ESihf zH;k vTr;f aevsu&f \
dS / if;tysut
f pD;rsm;onf awmifajc&if;txd

- 99 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

auvmoawmif aumif;uif"mwfykH

a&mufygonf/ xkdYtjyiftaemufESifh ta&SUawmifajcrS t,ufonfr&Gm\ aemufaMumESifh


uif;&Gmra&mufrv
D rf;cGwv
f yftxd ae&mrsm;qDoYdk ysEYH v
hHS suw
f nf&adS e\/
. . . uJo
h Ydk t,ufonfr&GmrS uif;&GmtMum; <uif;use&f pfaom tysut
f pD;rsm;rSm (uvsmPD
odraf usmufpm azmfjyxm;aom) a*gVrwu
d e*&NrKd aY [mif;Bu;D yifjzpf&rnfrmS oHo,&Spd &m
rvkday/
azmfcsr;f rm;onf rdrad wGcY &hJ onft
h csuaf y:rw
l nf aumufcsuEf pS cf w
k ifjyxm;\/ if;wkrYd mS
(1) aomPESifhOw&wkdY qkdufa&muf&mae&mrSm oxHkr[kwf? oxHkrS 22 rkdiftuGm
ta0;wGi&f adS om wpfcguyifv,fqyd u
f rf;jzpfco
hJ nfh a*gVrwu
d e*&omjzpf onf/
(2) taemufwidk ;f om;wdu
Yk kd ]ukvm;} [k ac:Muaom a0g[m&pum;\ &if;jrpf t"dyg ,u
f kd
wkdufukvm;NrdKYtrnfrS oJvGefp&cJhonf/
[lonft
h csurf sm;yifjzpfMuygonf/ okjhd zpfok"ry&l trnfraS &GaY vsmvmaom oxHo
k nf aomP? Ow&wkYd
qku
d af &mufvmonfh ae&m[k*P
k ,
f 0l if<U um;&rnfU ae&mr[kwo
f nfjU yif? jrefrmEkid if AH 'k b
mom pwifxeG ;f
um;&mt&yf[lvnf; rqkdEkdifaMumif;aumufcsufcsxm;cJhygonf/

- 100 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

oxHNk rKd EY iS yhf wfouf azmfcrf;rm;u oxHEk iS 4hf if;teD;0ef;usirf aS wG&Y aom a&S;NrKd aY [mif; tysut
f pD;
rsm;? kyv
f ;kH kyw
f rk sm;ESihf ausmufpmrsm;onf c&pfEpS f 3-&mpkEpS rf S 4-&mpkEpS cf eft
Y xdom a&S;usEidk af Mumif;?
if;taxmuftxm;rsm;onf a*gVrwu
d e*& (wdu
k u
f v
k m;)rSqif;oufvmaom rl&if;rlv,Ofaus;rIr[kwf
aMumif;? oxHkwGifawGY&aom yp,mqifhrsm;rsm;ESifh apwDrsm;? AdEkd;ewfkyfwkyHk? jA[m? AdEdk;ESifh
f Ek iS hf oxHak usmufpmrsm;rS tu&mta&;tom;
oD0ewfb&k m;oH;k qlygaom xif&mS ;vSonfh (Trimurti) kyw
wko
Yd nf tdE,
d awmifyikd ;f u rl&if;? vl,
Y Of aus;rIjzpfaMumif; azmfjyvsu&f adS Mumif;? pmaytu&m ta&;tom;
onf awv*luem&D (Telugu-Canarese) tu&mta&;tom;yifjzpfNy;D tapmqH;k yHpk rH sKd ;jzpfaMumif;? 4if;wkYd
onf 4-&mpkESpfAif*D (Vengi) a'orSqif;oufvm[efwlaMumif;? xkdYaMumifh oxHkudktdEd,,Ofaus;rI
a&mufvmonfrSm tjcm;aoma'opGJwpfckckrSjzpfEkdifaMumif;? tdEd,awmifydkif;ta&SUbufurf;ajc&Sd(uvd*F)
pmvkusrif;quf (Kalinga Clukya dynashy) wkYd tkypf ;dk &ma'ojzpfz,
G &f adS Mumif;? odaYk omfoxHt
k apmydik ;f
orkdif;twGuf ,ckxufydkavhvmMu&OD;rSmjzpfaMumif;wifjyxm;\/
azmfcrf;rm;onf wdkufukvm;ac:a*gVrwdue*&NrdKYonf ,cktdEd,EkdifiHb*Fvm;e,f tv,f
A[kcd su0f if* (Wanga) rS Mo&djynfe,fpyftxdjzefu
Y sux
f m;aom a*gcdik f (district of Gour) a'oom;
wk\
Yd udv
k edk w
D pfcjk zpfNy;D ? oxHrk mS rl tdEd ,
d ta&SaY wmifyikd ;f urf;ajc&Sd uvd*aF 'orSvma&mufxal xmifaom
udkvkdeDjzpfrnf[k,lqygonf/

rEk[
D ausmufyk f
azmfcsr;f rm;\tpD&ifcpH mwGif pdw0f ifpm;zG,t
f aMumif;rSm uvsmPDausmufpm &nfneT ;f yg&adS om
(rEk[
D ) ausmufyk u
f kd awG&Y aMumif;yifjzpf\/ 4if;onf ukrm&apwD\awmifbuf a&uefi,fwpfct
k eD;wGif
ajrxJwpfyikd ;f epfjrKyv
f su&f o
dS nfq\
dk / tvGeBf u;D rm;aom ausmufw;kH udk xl;axGqef;jym;pGm rjrifpzl;ow0g
wpfaumifyHk xkqpfxm;onf[kqkd\/

- 101 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

auvmoawmifay:apwD yp,mrS rEk[


D kyw
f k

awmfped cf \
kd ok0Pbrl cd &D;pOf
yJc;l uvsmPDord af usmufpmtnTe;f twkid ;f azmfcrf;rm;uJo
h yYdk if ok0Pbrl u
d kd ajc&mcHvu
dk cf o
hJ rl mS
rpwmawmfpdefckdyifjzpfygonf/ 1891-ckESpf'DZifbmv 5 &ufaeYwGif &efukefrS (xkdpOfuc&D;pOftwkdif;)
armfvNrKd io
f Ydk c&D;pwifxu
G cf &hJ m pufavSjzifu
h sKd ur o
D Ohdk ;D pGmoGm;&\/ usKd ur rD S armfvNrKd io
f cYdk &D;qufonft
U cg
0g*lNrKd aY [mif;udk acw0ifMunfjh zpfco
hJ nf/ xkt
d cg usKd ur ED iS hf oHjzLZ&yfukd jynfov
Yl yk if ef;Xme (Public
d Ef iS hf BuKH BuKd uaf e\/ vrf;cif;ausmufukd 0g*lNrKd aY [mif;NrKd Y ;kd rS
Work Department, P.W.D) u vrf;cif;aecse
*0Htw
k cf syrf sm;xkw,
f l oH;k pGv
J su&f adS Mumif;udv
k nf; awGcY &hJ onfq\
dk /
armfvNrKd io
f aYdk &mufvQif zm;uyfocYdk &D;qufygonf/ 'DZifbmv (1) &ufaeY zm;uyfoaYdk &mufonfh
tcg zm;uyfteD;rS ausmufvP
dk *f rl sm;wGif a&S;a[mif;aypmrsm; owif;&aMumif; azmfcrf;rm;urdeMhf um;zl;ojzifh
if;*lrsm;okdYoGm;a&mufcJhonf/ tcsdefr&aumh*Gef;*lESifh zm;uyf*lwkdYudkomMunfhcJh&\/ xkdYaemuf 'DZifbm
(14)wGif aumhu&dwo
f o
Ydk mG ;onf/ xkrd &S efuek o
f Ydk ynma&;Xmeudpj zifh 'DZifbm(19)&ufaeh jyefvmcJo
h nf/
Ny;D aemuf 'DZifbm(26)&ufaeYwiG f armfvNrKd io
f Ydk xyfrcH &D;xGucf jhJ yef&m xdrk w
S pfqifh 'DZifbmv(28 )&ufaeYwiG f
oxHkNrdKYodkY qdkufa&mufcJhonf/

- 102 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

oxHek ef;awmfuek ;f udk OD;pGmppfaq;onft


h cg NAw
d o
d Qtpd;k &u oxHu
k pkd wifxal wmifonfh (25)
jynfh aiG&wktxdr;f trSwf a&yef; (Jubilee Memorial Fountain) udk eef;awmfuek ;f ay: wnfxm;onfukd
awGYcJh&\/ NrdKYa[mif;ta&SYbufu od*Fedufawmifwef;rS pD;qif;vmaomprf;acsmif;wGif rdk;tcgvltrsm;
a&Tusio
f nfh vkyif ef;&Sad Mumif; pHpk rf;od&&dS \/ a&S;a[mif;rGeaf usmufpmig;csyu
f kd a&Tpm&HapwD0if;rSav;csy?f
anmif0ikd ;f &yfuu
G f anmifyifBu;D atmufrw
S pfcsyaf wG&Y onf/ a&Tpm&HapwD0if;xJwiG f taqmufttHBk u;D oH;k ckrmS
taemf&xmrif;u at'D 1057 ckEpS w
f iG f qifig;pD;ay:wif yk*o
H aYkd qmif,o
l mG ;cJah om yd#uwfawmfrsm;udk
odkrSD;xm;cJh&m yd#uwfwdkufrsm;jzpfaMumif;od&onf/
odMum;bk&m;rS rkcu
f yfrsm;wGif xnfo
h iG ;f xm;aom ajrrD;zkwf yk <f ursm;udk awmfped cf o
kd nf rsm;pGm
pdw0f if;pm;cJah yonf/ ky<f ucsyt
f rsm;pkrmS aysmufq;kH oGm;NyjD zpfaomfvnf; <uif;use\
f orQukd avhvmMunft
h cg
]kyf<uyHkcsyfrsm;udk jyKvkyfolwdkYonf rnfonfhvlrsKd;rSef;rod&aomfvnf; [dELjA[P0gudk
ouf0if,MkH unf&olrsm;jzpfaMumif; oHo,&Spd &mrvdak y/ ,Ofaus;rI&NdS y;D olrsm;vnf;jzpfMuyg
onf/ kyyf rkH sm;wGif oH;k cGredS ;f (Bwo
d v
l ) udik x
f m;aom oD0ewfrif;yHo
k nf tay:viG q
f ;kH jzpf\/
trsK;d orD;rsm;u olwq
Ykd yH ifukd OD;acgi;f aemufbufwiG f qHx;kH Bu;D Bu;D xH;k zGMYJ uonf/ olwt
Ykd oGif
tjyifrmS rGe*f v
dk KdG uq
f efonf/
[l tuJjzwfygonf/
cdik 0f ef;kH odaYk &mufomG ;aomtcg &efuek Nf rKd zY ,f&mjywku
d o
f Ykd ydahk y;&efjyifqifaeaom ausmufqpfyk <f u
oH;k csyu
f akd wG&Y onf/ AdEd;k ewfrif;udk ud,
k pf m;jyKxm;onfh kyw
f rk sm;yifjzpfMu\/ xdrk w
S pfqifNh rKd aY [mif;
awmifbufu oxHNk rKd b
Y ;kd bk;d Bu;D ewfpifoaYkd &mufomG ;Ny;D awmfped cf \
kd oxHNk rKd aY vhvma&;c&D; Ny;D qH;k oGm;cJyh gonf/

oxHkNrdKYa[mif;rS awGY&aom ydEdk;ewfrif;udk,fpm;jyK ausmufqpfkyfwkrsm;

- 103 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

oxHkNrdKYa[mif;rS awGY&aom ydEdk;ewfrif;udk,fpm;jyK ausmufqpfkyfwk

'DZifbmv (31) &ufaeYwiG f bD;vif;NrKd rY S 8 rdik cf eft


Y uGm&Sd uked mHak wmifay:oYkd rpawmfped cf dk
oGm;a&mufc\
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d v
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D m vJavsmif;aeaom
t&Siaf omPESihf Ow&ud,
k af wmfyk w
f Ek pS cf u
k akd wGo
Y nf/ ausmufoydwaf wmfrmS qHawmfux
kd nfo
h iG ;f Xmyem
xm;onf[kod&onfqdk\/ kyfwkawmfwdkYywfvnfwGif &[Emkyfwkrsm;udk 0ef;&Hvsufxm;&m wkwfwkwf
cdkifckdifjynfhNzdK;aom udk,fawmfrsm;jzpfonf/ ESmzl;us,fNyD; rdkYarmufaeonf/ ESmacgif;awmfBuD;&Snfonf?
EIwcf rf;xlonf[q
k \
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h hkd rEk[
D [kac:aom xl;xl;qef;qef;wd&pd m ef
kyw
f rk sm;udk awG&Y onf[q
k ykd gonf/ kyw
f rk sm;rSm uvsmPDausmufpmwGif azmfjyxm;aom vlom;pm;bDv;l
wdkYudk ajcmufvSefYarmif;ESifxkwfcJhonfh vlwpfydkif;jcaoFhwpfydkif;kyfwkrsm;yifjzpfEkdifaMumif;tpD&ifcHcJhonf/
ZE0g&D (1) &ufaeYwiG f bD;vif;rS (6) rkid t
f uGm&Sd Zkwo
f w
k &f mG usKu
d x
f ;D aqmif;bk&m;odYk a&mufonf/
apwD\bdeyfawmfrmS *0Htw
k Bf u;D rsm;jzifw
h nfxm; kyw
f ak wmfrsm;? ausmufx;D ? ausmufoydw?f paom
vSLzG,f0wKrsm;udkvnf; *0Hausmufjzifhom vuf&majrmufpGmxkqpfxm;onf/ 4if;apwDteD;rSmyif
*0Hausmufjym;Bu;D rsm;udk azmif;<ukyx
f v
k suf tvsm;ay 450 ceft
Y &Snaf jrNrKd U ;kd uyfpx
D m;onf tjrifh
12 aycef&Y o
dS nf/ if;wdu
Yk kd qifwyfjrif;wyf[ak c:Muonf/ tkyrf sm;rSm jcaoFEh iS q
hf ifyw
kH jhkd zpfMu if;wkYd
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k ydk gonf/
ZE0g&v
D (2) &ufaeYwiG f rpwmawmfped cf o
kd nf auvmoawmifay:apwDoaYkd &mufc\
hJ / auvmo
&aohBuD;tm; jrwfpGmbk&m;ay;oem;cJhaom qHawmfukdXmyemxm;onf[kqdkaom xdkapwDrStopfrGrf;rH
xm;Ny;D jzpfonf/ &ifjyifwiG f "rapwDrif;\ ausmufpmESpcf syaf wG&Y onf/ yifv,fbufoYkd rsuEf mS rlvsux
f m;aom
rEkD[kyfwkudkvnf; &ifjyifaxmifhae&m awGY&onf[kqdk\/

- 104 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

xdak eYrmS yif av;rdik cf &D;cef&h o


dS nfh t,ufonfr&GmodYk a&mufomG ;cJo
h nf/ a'guw
f mazmfcsr;f rm;\
tpD&ifcpH mxJwiG f azmfjyxm;onft
h wkid ;f a*gVrwu
d e*&? wku
d u
f v
k m;NrKd aY [mif;ae&myifjzpfaMumif;? t,uf
onfr&GmrS ausmufpmwpfcsyu
f kd &efuek Nf rKd zY ,f,mjywku
d o
f Ykd vGecf ahJ om(8)ESpcf efu
h a&TaY jymif;cJNh y;D jzpfaMumif;
od&onf[q
k \
kd / if;t,ufonfr&GmwGif NrKd Y ;kd a[mif; usK;H a[mif;ae&mrsm;udk rdrad wG&Y &dS ygonf[
l vnf;
rpwmawmfped cf u
kd tpD&ifcx
H m;onf/ if;tpD&ifccH suw
f iG f rSwo
f m;p&mwpfcrk mS azmfcrf;rm;a&mufco
hJ nfU
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a&mufoGm;onfUtcsdef (1892-ckESpf)wGif yifv,fa&0ifa&mufwdkufpm;ojzifhurf;NydKaeygonf/ pyg;pdkuf
ysKd;a&;aMumifh csrf;omaeaom&GmtcsdKYvnf; a&xJygukefMuNyDjzpfaMumif; awGY&onf[kqdkygonf/
rpwmawmfped cf o
kd nf ZE0g&v
D (3) &ufaeUnaeydik ;f wGif yJc;l oku
Yd ;l oGm;Ny;D ZE0g&v
D (5) &ufaehtxd
uGi;f qif;onf/ uvsmPDord ?f r[mapwD? &aohNrKd ?Y usKu
d yf eG Ef iS hf a&T*Bl u;D wdu
Yk kd OD;pGmoGm; ausmufpmcsyrf sm;
pkaqmif;&onf/ a&T*u
l av;? a&Teo
hH mbk&m;rsm;odv
Yk nf; a&mufco
hJ nf/ ZE0g&D 15 &ufaeYwiG f yJc;l NrKd t
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Y uf&dS
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avhvmonft
h cg NrKd BU u;D eef;awmfae&mwGif [Hom0wDqifjzLrsm;&Si?f &mZm"d&mZfEiS hf "rapwDrif;wdpYk jH ref;
cJMh uonf/ NrKd Y ;kd ESpx
f yfEiS hf usK;H wdu
Yk v
kd nf; tajctaeaumif;pGmjzifh jrif&onf[q
k ydk gonf/
awmfped cf o
kd nf if;\&mrna'oc&D;pOfwpfcv
k ;kH udk NcKH io
kH ;kH oyfonft
h cg awG&Y &dS aom ausmufpmcsyf
rsm;udk a&S;a[mif;okawoewefz;kd Bu;D rm;onft
h wGuf &efuek Nf rKd zY ,f,mjywdu
k o
f Ykd a&Tajymif;xm;&ef tBujH yK
xm;\/ aypmtaxmuftxm;tvGe&f mS ;yg;aMumif;? a&S;a[mif;bmoma&;taqmufttHrk sm;udk jyefvnfrrG ;f rH
xm; acwfopfypkH aH yguaf eaMumif; azmfjyxm;onf/ tdE,
d Edik if aH jrmufyikd ;f &Sd apwDrsm;ESi*hf o
l csKi ;f rsm;uJo
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taqmufttHw
k pfcw
k pfavrQ rawGcY &hJ yJ? taomuacwfa&;tu&mrsK;d jzifh rSww
f rf;wifxm;aom ausmufpm?
urnf;pm ponfwdkYudkvnf; rdrdrawGYcJh&aMumif; tpD&ifcHxm;\/ uJhodkY a&S;a[mif;taxmuftxm;
rsK;d udk &mrna'orSma&m? jrefrmbk&ifrsm; (oxHu
k )kd atmifEikd Nf y;D o,f,o
l mG ;onfqakd om yk*rH mS a&m rdrd
rawGY&bl;ojzifh aomPESifhOw&wkdY? wwd,o*Fg,emwifyGJtNyD;wGif omoemjyK&ef<ua&mufvmcJhonf
qdak om r[m0Housr;f ESit
hf jcm;Ak'b
momusr;f rsm;rS tqdt
k rderYf sm;tay: rdro
d o
H ,jzpfryd gaMumif; tpD&ifcH
wifjyxm;ygonf/
azmfcrf;rm;\c&D;pOf (1881-ckEpS )f ESihf awmfped cf ckd &D; (1891-92 ckEpS )f wdo
Yk nf NAw
d o
d Quv
kd ekd D
tpk;d &vufxuf atmufjrefrmEdik if w
H iG f ok0Pbrl u
d kd jrefrmEdik if u
H rn;f ausmufpmXme (a&S;a[mif;okawoe
Xme) taejzifh Xmeqdik &f mwm0eft& yxrqH;k BuKd ;yrf;&SmazGjcif;tjzpf rSww
f rf;wif&ygrnf/
jrefrmEdkifiHwGif a&S;a[mif;okawoevkyfief;udk pepfwuspwifzGJYvkyfudkifonfh xdktcsdefup
ok0Pblrdokawoevkyfief; udkvnf; pwifcJhNyD[kqdk&rnf/ xdkynm&SifESpfOD;wdkYonf bD;vif;NrdKYe,f?
auvmoawmifajc&Sd wkdufukvm; NrdKYa[mif;udk ok0PblrdNrdKYawmfa[mif;ae&mtjzpf wpfnDwpfnm
wnf;owfrSwfcJhaMumif;udkvnf; awGY&\/ oxHk (ok"ry&l ) NrKd u
Y rkd l aomPESihf Ow&udk <ua&muf
vmcJah omumv (bDpD 307 ckEpS )f xufaemufusNy;D wnfaomNrKd t
Y jzpf owfrw
S cf MhJ uyH&k ydS gonf/ odjhk zifh
atmufjrefrmEdik if rH S ok0Pbrl d okawoevkyif ef;rSm tpaumif;cJo
h nf[k qdEk ikd af yonf/ odaYk omf aemufxyf
ESpfaygif;(20)rQMumonftxd rnfonfUa&S;a[mif;okawoet&m&SdwpfOD;wpfavrQ atmufjrefrmEdkifiHo
xHka'oodkY ajcOD;rvSnfUEdkifcJhMuay/

- 105 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

Zkwfokwf&Gm qifwyf?jrif;wyfwHwdkif; awmifrSajrmufodkh jrif;uGif; ( 80Hausmufqpfkyfwkrsm; )

rpwmawmfped cf o
kd nf azmfcsr;f rm;vufxufu pkaqmif;xm;cJah om ausmufpmrifu;l rsm;udk zwf&I
wnf;jzwfNy;D yHEk ydS x
f w
k af 0a&;vkyif ef;rsm;ESiv
hf ;kH yrf;ae&\/ olx
Y w
H iG f tpd;k &ynma&;vkyif ef;? bmomjyefvyk if ef;
paom a&S;a[mif;okawoeESihf rqkid o
f nfw
U m0efrsm;vnf;&Sad o;\/ tawmtwGi;f 1901 ckEpS w
f iG f
tdE,
d r[mrif;Bu;D avmhumZGef (Lord Curzon) jrefrmjynfoYkd a&muf&v
dS mcJNh y;D rEav;rif;aejynfawmfukd
jyKjyifxed ;f odr;f &efwm0efay;onf/ 1905 ckEpS w
f iG f rEav;jywku
d u
f kd zGiv
hf pS Ef ifkd cf \
hJ / 1906 ckEpS f yk*NH rKd aY [mif;
yxrOD;pGmwl;azmfoak woevkyif ef;udk pwifaqmif&u
G &f \/ xdEk pS f pufwifbmwGif OD;jronfxed ;f odr;f a&;
tif*sifeD,mtjzpf wm0efpwifxrf;aqmifcJhojzifh awmfpdefcdktwGuf vufaxmufaumif;wpfa,mufwdk;
vmcJo
h nf/ 1907 ckEpS w
f iG f jyifopfvrl sK;d a&S;a[mif;okawoeynm&Sif Adv
k cf sKyv
f ,
D eG 'f ND AaJ v (General
d cf Edk iS t
hf wl oa&acw&marSmZf m&GmwGif prf;oyfw;l azmfjcif; vkyif ef;udk
Leon dc Beyloc) a&mufvmcJNh y;D awmfpe
pwifaqmif&GufcJhonf/ arSmfZmausmufumodrfjywdkufudk xdkESpfrSmyif pwifxlaxmifcJhygonf/ xdkESpf
azazmf0g&v
D wGif awmfped cf o
kd nf tdE,
d Edik if aH &S;a[mif;okawoeXmeu wl;azmfoak woejyKvyk v
f su&f adS om
tdE,
d ajrmufyikd ;f wl;azmfrv
I yk if ef;rsm;ESihf jyKjyifxed ;f odr;f a&;vkyif ef;rsm;udk oGm;a&mufavhvmonf/ OD;jruvnf;
tdE,
d Edik if q
H m&fewf (Sarnath) (rd*'g0ek ?f Am&mPoD) wl;azmfrv
I yk if ef;rsm;udk oGm;a&mufavhvmqnf;
yl;cGifh&cJhonf/ xdkYaemuf 1910 ckESpfa&mufonfhtcg oa&acw&m? arSmfZm&GmwGif wl;azmfokawoe
vkyif ef;rsm; xyfraH qmif&u
G cf yhJ gonf/ (Than Tun, 1981, pp. 25-26)
awmfpdefcdkonf oa&acw&m (jynf) NrdKUa[mif;wGif 1910-11 ckESpf ajcmufaoGY&moDtwGif;
wl;azmfrIvkyfief;rsm;aqmif&Gufonfhtcg xl;xl;jcm;jcm;okawoe&vm'fwpfck &&SdcJhygonf/ 1911 ckESpf
Zefe0g&v
D twGi;f abmabmBu;D bk&m;ywf0ef;usiu
f kd &Si;f vif;a&;vkyif ef;rsm; aqmif&u
G cf phJ Of tvsm; 6
1
vu ESihf teH 3 ^2 vufrt&G,f ausmufjym;wpfcsyaf wG&Y \/ ,if;ausmufjym;rsm;wGif urn;f pmta&;
tom; yg&\
dS /

- 106 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

if;urn;f pmESpcf syu


f kd rifu;l jyifopfEikd if yH &J pfNrKd &U dS ynm&SizdfzdaemhxaH y;yd
Yk zwfaUI vhvmaponfh
tcg ygVb
d momjzifah &;xm;aom Ak'u
sr;f pmaumufEw
k cf sujf zpfaMumif;? vufa&;rSmtvGeaf &S;usNy;D 5 &mpkEpS ?f
u'rvufa&;vufom;jzpfaMumif; jyefvnfajymMum;cJyh gonf/ xdAk 'k u
sr;f pmaumufEw
k cf surf mS ]zyp,m
a0'em} tpcsDonfh *gxmawmfwpfykd'fjzpfaMumif;udkvnf;od&\/ atmufjrefrmEdkifiHwGif ygVdbmomudk
oH;k pGaJ eonft
h axmuftxm;yifjzpfygonf/ awmfped cf o
kd nf ta&SaY wmiftm&SuRe;f qG,Bf u;D rS tjcm;a'owdw
Yk iG f
r[m,meAk'b
momESihf ouwbmompmayrsm;xGe;f um;aecsed w
f iG f atmufjrefrmEdik if H ygVb
d mompmay
xGe;f um;aMumif; taxmuftxm;udak wG&Y ojzifh rsm;pGmpdw0f ifpm;cJah yonf/ ygVyd #d uwfawmfrsm;udk ausmufjym;?
aMu;jym;ponfwdkYtay:wGif a&;xdk;NyD; apwDrsm;wnfxm;&m Xmyemxnfhonfh "avh&SdaMumif;udkvnf;
odciG &hf cJ\
h / okwe u
f sr;f ? 0denf;usr;f ESihf tbd"rmusr;f pmwdt
Yk euf ausmufjym;usK;d ESpyf ikd ;f wGif ygaompmonf
0denf;yd#uwfawmfr[m0*usrf;rS aumufEkwfcsufyifjzpfonf/
f w
k f
if;wl;azmfru
I ek ;f wpfcw
k nf;rSmyif tvsm; 51^2vuEiS hf teH 5 vut&G,&f adS om ajrrD;zkwt
cGub
f &k m;wpfqu
l v
kd nf; &&Scd yhJ gonf/ if;aemufaMumbufwiG f ta&;tom;yg&\
dS / (Taw Sein Ko, 1914,
f mAvuf'if (Blagdon) tm;ay;yd
hk zwfaI ponft
h cg c&pfEpS f 5 &mpkEiS hf 6
Fig. 21) if;pmudk a'guw
&mpkESpfvufa&;jzihf ysLpmjzpfaMumif;od&onf/ odkhjzpf awmfpdefcdktaejzifh jrefrmhordkif;udk c&pfESpf 6
&mpktxd a&So
Y w
Ykd ;kd twnfjyKay;Edifk cf ahJ omaMumifh rsm;pGmauseyfomG ;cJah vonf (Taw Sein Ko, 1914,
p. 93)/
jyifopfvrl sK;d ynm&Sif csm;vfp'f l KdG iZf ,f (Charles Duroiselle) 1? Mo*kw?f 1912 wGif a&S;a[mif;
okawoetprf;cef0Y efxrf;wpfO;D jzpfvm\/ 1914 ckEpS f ZE0g&v
D wGif vufaxmufurn;f ausmufpm0ef
&mxl;udk 'lKdG iZf ,fvufc&H &So
d nf/ 1919 ckEpS w
f iG f awmfped cf t
dk Nird ;f pm;,l oGm;onft
h cg 'lKdG iZf ,fonf
urn;f ausmifpmXmewm0efcjH zpfvmcJo
h nf/ 1920 Ed0k ifbmvrSp Xmewm0eftjyif &efuek af umvdyf ygVd
bmom ygarmuwm0efuv
kd nf; yl;wGx
J rf;aqmif&\/ 1925 -26 ckEpS rf sm;twGi;f 'lKdG iZf ,fonf oa&acw&m
arSmZf m&GmwGif wl;azmfrrI sm;aqmif&u
G &f onf/ xdEk pS rf mS yif yk*aH rmifcsppf uke;f udk wl;azmfygonf/ odjYk zifh
1931 ckEpS w
f iG f 'lKGd iZf ,f&mxl;rS tNird ;f pm;,lonftxd oxHak 'oqDoYkd wpfacguw
f pfavrQ ra&muf&cdS hJ
ao;ay/ if;&mxl;udk OD;jru qufvufwm0ef,x
l rf;aqmifc&hJ onf/

- 107 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

OD;jr\ ok0Pbrl cd &D;pOf


OD;jronf urnf;ausmufpm0efjzpfvmNyD;aemuf 1933-34 ckESpfwGif oxHka'oNrdKUa[mif;udk
(Exploration) uGif;qif;NyD; oxHkrSa&S;a[mif;rGefausmufpmrsm;udk pkaqmif;ygonf/ pkpkaygif;ausmufpm
(7) csyaf wG&Y onf[q
k \
kd (Maung Mya, Exploration in Burma: Inscriptions from Thaton; ASI, 193034, p. 176)/ ygVdbmomESifh rGefbmomrsm;a&;xdk;xm;onf[kqdk\/ ,if;wdkYteuf ausmufpmoHk;csyfudk
a&Tpm&HapwD\ta&Sw
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kd x
f x
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wpfcsyfwGif &yfawmfrlkyfyGm;awmfwpfqlyHkudk cyfa&;a&;jrif&NyD;? 'DyuF&mAk'yHkawmfjzpfrnf[kcefYrSef;onf/
om0u&[ef;wpfyg;yHv
k nf;ygonf/ if;&[ef;\ OD;acgi;f xufuu
G v
f yfwiG f rIrH mT ;rTm;ausmufpmaMumif;rsm;udk
awG&Y Ny;D ? zwfr&ay/ tu&mtcsKu
Yd Mkd unfNh y;D c&pfEpS f 11 &mpk? 12 &mpkEpS f vufa&;jzpfrnf[k OD;jru
cefrh eS ;f onf (Mya, 1930-34, Plate, XII. a)/
'kwd,ausmufpmwkdifonf wpfwef;wnf;wnfaeNyD; tjrifhay 5 ay? 3 vufr&Sdonf/
ausmufpmaMumif;a&rsm;pGmyg&Sdaomfvnf; tu&mrsm;tvGefarS;rSdefvGef;onf/ xdkausmufpmxdyf ydkif;wGif
oH;k axmifyh akH cgi;f pD;ae&m Mumyvix
f ufxikd af eawmfral om Ak' yk yf mG ;awmfo;kH qlwu
Ukd kd xGi;f xkxm;ygonf
(Mya, 1930-37, Plate, XII. b)/ vufa&;pmvH;k wd\
Yk yHpk t
H & 4if;ausmufpm rSmvnf; c&pf 11-12 &mpkavmuf
yifjzpfrnf[kcefYrSef;onf/
wwd,ausmufpmrSm vHk;0ysufpD;oGm;NyDjzpf\/
pwkwa usmufpmwkid u
f kd ta&Sw
U efaqmif;&Sd acgi;f avmif;Bu;D teD;rS awG&Y onf/ ,if;ausmufcsyrf mS
vnf; tBu;D tus,yf supf ;D aeNy;D jzpfaomfvnf; c&pfEpS f 11-12 &mpkcefu
Y yif jzpfrnf[ck efrY eS ;f Edik \
f /
yrausmufpmwdik rf mS vnf; txufuazmfjycJNh y;D aom ausmufpmwdEhk iS w
hf pfwef;pm;xJ owfrw
S
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arS;rSdefuG,faysmufvsuf&Sd\/
q|rausmufpmwdik u
f kd tjcm;wefaqmif;wpfcw
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c&pfEpS f 15 &mpkEpS t
f wGi;f u [Hom0wDb&k if "rapwDrif; (1472-1492) vufxufwiG f pdu
k x
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qdEk ikd yf gonf/ Ak'j rwfpmG \oGm;awmf"gwf 33 qlukd Xmyem apwDwnfxm;aMumif;azmfjyonfh ausmufpm
jzpfygonf/ ausmufw;kH rSmvnf; rsm;pGmysupf ;D aeNyD [kqykd gonf/
owrausmufpmonf tydik ;f usK;d i,frQomjzpf pmudv
k nf;zwfr&awmhay/ if;udk a&Tpm&Hb&k m;0if;
xJrSyif awGY&onf[kqdk\/
ausmufpmwdik rf sm;udk OD;jru wefaqmif;wpfcx
k w
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f x
l m;&ef a&Tpm&H
bk&m;a*gyutzGt
YJ m; arwm&yfco
H nft
h cg if;a*gyutzGu
YJ oabmwlco
hJ nf[q
k \
kd /

- 108 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

r[mZeuZmwf

ok0PomrZmwf
('kuv
l ESihf yg&u
d mwdt
hk m; vrf;Tejf yaeyH)k

a0oE&mZmwfuGuf
(jA[mP ykPm ; 4 a,mufy)kH

0d'&l y@dwZmwf
( rif;av;yg; a&uefteD;xkid u
f m pum;ajymaeyH)k

- 109 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

OD;jr\c&D;pOfwiG f oxHak usmufpmrsm; xde;f odr;f apmifah &Smufa&;udo


k m aqmif&u
G Ef ikd cf NhJ y;D if;wdu
Yk kd
zwfjI cif;? bmomjyefay;jcif;rsm; rvkyEf ikd cf ahJ o;ay/ 'kw,
d ausmufpmwdik u
f kd Mwmyfausmufpm[kvnf;aumif;?
pwkwa usmufpmwdik u
f kd y@dwaf usmufpm[kvnf;aumif; trnfay;um ygarmu? *s?D tdycf sv
f pk Ef iS hf rGeyf nm&Sd
OD;cspfodef;wdkhu zwfINyD;bmomjyefcJhMuygonf/
xdak usmufpmwd\
Yk vufa&;udMk unf
h OD;jruc&pfEpS f 11 &mpkEpS ?f 12 &mpkEpS t
f wGi;f a&;xd;k cJrh nf[k
cefrY eS ;f cJyh gonf/ rpwmawmfped cf u
dk vnf; ESpaf ygi;f 400 cefo
Y ma&S;usEifkd rf nf[k cefrY eS ;f xm;cJo
h nf/ odYk
cefYrSef;csufrsm;aMumifh oxHkordkif;rSmrsm;pGmaemufusaMumif; yk*Htaemf&xmrif;ESifh acwfNydKifyifrjzpfEdkfif
awmhaMumif; tajzxkwfolrsm;&SdvmcJhygonf/
c&pfEpS f 12 &mpk ESpu
f kd &nfeT ;f rnfqykd gvQif yk*w
H iG af &S;a[mif; rGeb
f momjzifh ausmufpma&;xd;k
olrmS usepf pfom;rif;(1084-1112)wpfyg;om&So
d nf/ oxHrk eG af usmufpm wdo
Yk nf usepf pfom;rif;acwfxuf
rsm;pGm apmEdkifonf[k,lq&\/ odkYaomf OD;jr\ &ufpGJcefYrSef;csufaMumifhyif oxHkonfyk*HxufrapmEdkif?
oxH,
k Ofaus;rIonf yk*u
H ,Ofaus;rIa&mufvmNy;D rSom jyefvnfqef;opfjcif;omjzpfrnf? ponfjzifh ajymif;
jyeftawG;tac:t,ltqudk tm;ay;tm;ajrm ufjyKay;ouJo
h Ykd jzpfomG ;yg awmhonf/
OD;jronf oxHo
k Md um;bk&m;rS ajrrD;zkwf yk <f ursm\ &ufpu
JG v
kd nf; c&pf 11-12 &mpkEpS cf efrY eS ;f
&ufpGJudkomay;NyD; oxHkuvsmPDodrfausmufpmESifh odrfedrdwfwdkifausmufqpfkyfwk tEkynmvuf&mwdkY
udkvnf; c&pf 12 &mpkESpfcefYrSef;&ufpGJudkomay;cJhonf/ ,if;&ufpGJwdkYonf oxHkaumif;pm;pOfumvudk
Tejf yjcif;r&Syd ?J oxHyk suNf y;D &ufpu
JG o
kd mazmfjyojzifh ordik ;f pOfyI af xG;rI jzpfay:c&hJ onf/
xdo
k &Ykd adS pumrl OD;jr\ 1933-34 ckEpS f oxHck &D;pOfonf tcsn;f tES;D awmhrjzpfcahJ y/ ok"ry&l
oxHo
k rdik ;f twGuf tusK;d jzpfxeG ;f rIvnf;&Syd gonf/ odMum;bk&m;rS ajrrD;zkwf yk <f uyHw
k u
Ykd kd rpwmawmfped cf ekd iS hf
ed[m&rf*se;f a&;wdu
Yk oD0ewfu;kd uG,rf q
I idk &f m [dEL jA[Pbmoma&;? &mrm,eZmwfuu
G rf sm;[k rSm;,Gi;f pGm
tuJjzwfco
hJ nfukd jyifqif? kyyf rkH sm;rSm r[medygwaf wmf Ak'0 ifZmwfawmfBu;D rsm;udk okyaf zmfxm;jcif;
jzpfaMumif; trSeu
f w
kd ifjyEdik cf o
hJ nft
h wGuf OD;jr\aus;Zl;Bu;D rm;aMumif; azmfjyoifv
h aS yonf/
OD;jronf oxHkaumfrpf&Sifemrif;BuD; tifl;pdefh*Ref;? ar*smtm&fpD? wify,fwdkYESifh ae&m
oabmcsi;f xyfwjl zpf r[medygwaf wmfZmwfuu
G rf sm;jzpfaMumif; okawoejyKpv
k suf trSeaf &mufatmif
wnfrh wfay;Edifk cf yhJ gonf/ xdo
k t
Ykd rSeu
f akd &mufatmif axmufyaUH y;cJo
h nfh taxmuftxm;udv
k nf; oxHk
uvsmPDord ef rd w
d af usmufwikd rf sm;rS ausmufqpfyk <f ursm;wGif OD;jruawGcY &hJ ygonf/ if;okawoeawG&Y cdS suu
f kd
OD;jr\ 1930-34 ckEpS f tpD&ifcpH mwGif atmufygtwkid ;f azmfjyxm;onfukd awGEY ikd \
f /
]odMum;bk&m;teD; vrf;opfazmufxm;aomvrf;r\ awmifbuf? bk&m;(a&Tpm&H)wHwkdif;
tjyifem;wGif a&S;a[mif;odraf y:xyf topfwnfxm;aom odrw
f pfaqmif&\
dS / uvsmPD
odr[
f ak c:aom xdo
k rd yf wfvnfwiG f edrw
d w
f ikd rf sm;&Syd gonf/ oJausmufux
kd q
k pf r[medrw
d f
awmfZmwfuGufrsm; xkqpfxm;onfhausmufwdkifrsm;yif jzpfMuygonf}
]axmifw
h pfae&mwGif r[mZeuZmwfawmfvm Zmwfuu
G w
f pfc&k \
dS / r[mZeu rif;om;onf
yifv,fjyifxufoabmFysuo
f nfEiS hf BuKH awG&Y \/ rPdarcvm ewforD;u avxJys0H v
J suf
rif;om;\txufrS pum;ajymae[efukd xkqpfxm;ygonf/

- 110 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

]aemuferd w
d w
f ikd w
f pfwikd rf mS usK;d yJah e\/ odaYk omfo0k Pomru rsurf jrifrb
d ESpyf g;'kuv
k mESihf
ygvu
d mwdu
Yk v
kd rf;jyay;aeaom omrZmwfuu
G w
f pfcjk zpf\/(Mya, 1930-34, Plate- XVI. a)}
]aerdZmwfawmfrS aerdrif;tm; i&Jjynfujkd yaom Zmwfuu
G u
f o
kd rd \
f axmifw
h pfae&m awGEY ikd yf g
onf/ odMum;rif;\&xm;xde;f rmwvdarmif;ESiaf om &xm;ay:wiG f aerdrif;xdik v
f suaf eonf/
(Mya, 1930-34, Plate-XVI. b)}
]if;odrfwkdifteD;rSmyif tjcm;odrfwdkifwpfck ra[mfo"m\Muif,mawmf rdef;rvdrmtr&m
a'0Donf cifyeG ;f onfxu
G af jy;& td;k xde;f onfxaH &mufaecdu
k ?f trwfBu;D av;yg;udk arsmufjzL
toGif0wfqifapNyD; bk&ifBuD;xHqufoaeyHkZmwfuGufudk awGYEdkifygonf/
(Mya, 1930-34, Plate-XVI. c)}
]0d'&l Zmwfuu
G rf sm;udk odref rd w
d w
f idk Ef pS cf w
k w
Ykd iG f okyaf zmfxm;\/ wkid w
f pfwikd (f usK;d yJah e)wGif
rif;av;yg;a&uefab;xdkifvsuf wpfOD;udkwpfOD;csD;rGrf;pum;ajymqdkaeMu\/
(Mya, 1930-34, Plate-XVV. c)}
]aemufwpfwikd w
f iG f "e&mrif;Bu;D udk ykPu
bDv;l u a<utHupm;&efped af c:aeyH&k \
dS / bk&ifBu;D u
cH;k atmufwiG f yviaf y:xifkd v
f suaf eonf/ ykPb
v
D ;l u ol\a&SaY rSmufwiG f vli,fwpfa,muf
toGijf zifh &yfwnfaeonf/ (Mya, 1930-34, Plate-XVI. t)}
]ESpfydkif;usKd;yJhaeaom aemufxyfedrdwfwkdifwpfwkdifwGif a0oE&mZmwfudkokyfazmf onf/
Zmwfuu
G u
f kd ESpu
f efch x
JG m;\/ txuftuefw
Y iG f a0oE&mrif;Bu;D u qifjzLawmfay;onfh
tcef;jzpfonf/ ausmufwidk w
f pfyikd ;f usK;d yJah eaomfvnf; Zmwf0ifcef;yHyk surf oGm;ay/ atmufyikd ;f
twef;wGif vlyk yf akH v;ck wpfwef;&yfvsuaf eonf/ olwq
Ykd yH ifukd acgi;f taemufbufwiG f
qHx;kH Bu;D Bu;D xH;k zGx
YJ m;Mu\/ t0wftpm;rSm &Sm;yg;pGm vDeifxnfwpfcw
k nf;om 0wfqifxm;
Mu\/ olw\
Ykd ESmacgi;f rsm;onf &Snv
f sm;xdyzf sm;cReo
f nf/ vufarmif;rsm;auG;Twv
f suaf &So
Y Ykd
qefx
Y w
k x
f m;Mu\/ nmbufraS &Sq
Y ;kH vlonf a0oE&mrif;Bu;D udk wdik ;f jynfrES iS x
f w
k Nf y;D [dr0EmodYk
roGm;rD aemufq;kH taejzifh vufaqmifuakd y;quf&eftcGirhf &onfh jrifuiG ;f yifjzpfonf/
(Mya, 1930-34, Plate-XVI. g)}
aemufausmufwpfwidk rf mS vnf; atmufwpfyikd ;f omuseo
f nf/ xdyk w
kH iG f opfyif\yifpnfyikd ;f udjk y
xm;\/ wpfpyd w
f pfyikd ;f ysupf ;D aeaom vlyu
kH opfyif\wpfzufwiG f &yfvsuaf eonf/ ol\toGirf mS
(wpfpw
kH pfwa,muftm;) ajcmufveS aYf eyH&k o
dS nf/ aemufvw
l pfa,muf\vufwiG f av;udu
k ikd pf JG
vsuf txufqDodkYcsdef&G,fxm;onf/
yHo
k nf a0oE&mZmwfrS aemufxyfZmwfuu
G w
f pfuu
G u
f kd yHak zmfxm;onf/ a0oE&mESihf
ZeD;? om;orD;rsm; [dr0EmodaYk &muf&o
dS mG ;onft
h cg awmvdu
k rf q
k ;kd u opfawm\t0rSae
apmifhMuyfay;ygonf/ wpfaeYwGif ykPm;BuD;ZlZumonf rif;om;udk&Sm&ef xGufvmNyD;awm
tkyo
f aYkd &mufonf/ rkq;kd \acG;u olt
Y m;jrifomG ;Ny;D opfyifay:ow
Ykd ufajy;&\/ ol\atmfoaH Mumifh
rkqdk;a&mufvmonf/ rkqdk;onf ykPm;u r'Da'0Dtm;awmif;rSmvm;? uav;rsm;udkawmif;
rSmvm;[k oHo,pdwf&SdvmNyD; av;udkqGJykPm;udkypfcwfajcmufvSefY&ef jyifaeyHkjzpfonf/

- 111 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

(Mya, 1930-34, Plate-XVI. d) yHw


k iG f

acG;kyu
f rkd jrif&ay/ xdt
Yk jyif txufyikd ;f usK;d yJah e?
aysmufq;kH aeojzifh opfyiftxufyikd ;f ESihf ykPm ;Bu;D ZlZumwdYk kyyf u
kH v
kd nf;rjrifEikd af wmhay/
OD;jronf ausmufqpfyk <f u odref rd w
d w
f ikd rf sm;\&ufpu
JG kd c&pf 12 &mpk-13 &mpkEpS f avmufu
vuf&mjzpfrnf[kcefYrSef;xm;jyef\/ xdkodkYcefYrSef;&jcif;taMumif;rSm odrfedrdwfwdkif wpfwdkifwGif&Sdaom
ausmufpmwkid rf S ausmufpmvufa&;udMk unf
h tuJjzwf&aMumif;azmfjyrnf/ (Maung Mya, Explorationd f (oxH)k
Burma, ASI, 1930-34, Part one, Delhi, Manager of Publication, 1936, p. 204) uvsmPDor
edrw
d w
f ikd rf sm;rS r[medygwaf wmfZmwfuu
G "f gwyf rkH sm;udk (Luce, Phases of Pre-Pagan Burma, Languages
Yk iS hf Volume II, Plate-93, a, b, c, d,; Plate-94, a,
and History, Volume I, Catalogue of Plates-93, 94 wdE
Yk iG f yI g/
b, c, d) wdw
OD;jr\ 1933-34 ckEpS f oxHo
k ak woe c&D;pOfwiG f odMum;bk&m;pOfu
h iG ;f ESihf uvsmPD odrf ef rd w
d w
f ikd rf S
okyfazmfyHkrsm;onf r[medygwfawmfZmwfuGufrsm;jzpfaMumif; avhvmtuJjzwfcsufrSefuefaMumif;udk
ygarmu*sDtdyfcsf-vkpfu tjynfht0axmufcHonf/ ol\ (Phases of Pre-Pagan Burma; Volume I)
pmtky?f pmrsuEf mS 171 (Plate. 92. a) wGif odMum;bk&m;rS a0oE&mZmwu ( ykPm ;rsm;qifjzLpD;vsuaf epOf
NrKd o
U m;wdu
Yk cJEiS yhf pfayguyf )kH Zmwf0ifcef;udk azmfjyvsuf
]OD;jronf jrefrmwd\
Yk tawmfq;kH ynm&Siw
f pfO;D yifjzpf\/ olonftjiif;yGm;bG,f jzpfaeonfh
odMum;bk&m;pOfu
h iG ;f rsm;udk Ak'b
momESio
hf m oufqikd af Mumif; oufao xlvsut
f qH;k tjzwfay;
cJhayonf/}}
(It was the late U Mya one of the Burmas finest scholar who first in the face of
general contradiction, proved conclusively that all the plates are Buddhist illustrations
of the Mahnipta Jatka, perhaps the oldest in Burma)

cs;D usL;axmyemjyKcahJ yonf/ ygarmuvpk \


f azmfjycsuw
f iG f oxHo
k Md um;bk&m;ajrrD;zkwf yk <f ucsyrf sm;onf
jrefrmEdik if w
H iG f tapmqH;k vuf&m jzpfaumif;jzpfEidk af yonf[k rSwcf suu
f v
kd nf; ay;xm;cJah yonf/ od&Yk mwGif
OD;jru cefrY eS ;f ay;xm;aom c&pfEpS f 11-12 &mpkEpS &f ufpu
JG rkd l rnforYkd Qa0zefaxmufjyjcif;rjyKcahJ y/
oxHk&ufpGJESifhywfouf OD;jru uJhodkYaemufydkif;ususcefYrSef;&jcif;rSmawGY&Sd&aom a&S;a[mif;
urn;f pm\vufa&;? tu&myHo
k @meft& qH;k jzwf&jcif;rSeaf omfvnf; odMum; bk&m;ESiw
hf uG yd#uwfwu
kd f
apwDpaom taqmufttHrk sm;onf t&Sirf [mAk'a Cmoacwfavmuftxd a&S;usEikd o
f nf[ck efrY eS ;f &aMumif;
aumfrpf&iS ef mrif;Bu;D pde*Yf Re;f \ t,ltqESirhf sm;pGm uGm[vsu&f adS Mumif;awG&Y \/ pde*hf Re;f onf odMum;bk&m;\
yHpk u
H Mkd unf
h oD[Vkd yf pkH rH sK;d jzpfjcif;? Ak'0 ifZmwuZmwfvrf;rSm &Sirf [mAk'a Cmo\ t|uxmusr;f zGiq
hf kd
xm;aom taMumif;t&mrsm;jzpfjcif;? ygVyd #d uwfawmfrsm; a&muf&v
dS mcJph Ofu a&Tpm&Hb&k m;teD;rSmyif
yd#uwfwkdufawmfudkwnfxm;cJhaMumif; tpOftvm&SdcJhjhcif;wdkYudkaxmuf if;kyf<uyHkrsm;\ oufwrf;rSm
ESpaf ygi;f (1380) cefY (1860 ckEpS u
f a&wGuyf )kH &SNd y[
D k cefrY eS ;f xm;cJo
h nf/ if;cefrY eS ;f &ufprJG mS Ak'a Cmo
oxHo
k Ykd a&mufaom omoemESpf (960)? c&pfEpS f 416 ckEpS u
f kd rlwnfxm;aom cefrh eS ;f &ufpyJG ifjzpfygonf/
tpOftvmt& odrw
S x
f m;onft
h csed u
f mvESihf acwfopfoyd eH nf;usp;l prf;avhvm od&aomtcsed u
f mvwdYk
uGm[csuBf u;D rm;aeyHu
k kd awG&Y jcif;yifjzpfygonf/ Ak'a Cmo\ Zmwu0wKZmwfvrf;rsm;oxHo
k Ykd a&mufvm
cJjh cif;aMumifo
h m uJo
h AYkd 'k 0 ifZmwfuu
G rf sm;udk okyaf zmfjyKvyk cf MhJ ujcif;jzpfaMumif;udrk l tjiif;yGm;bG,rf &Sad y/

- 112 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

odkYaomf OD;jrwDxGifay;vdkufaom odMum;bk&m;ajrrD;zkwfkyf<ucsyfrsm; (Terracotta Plaques)


&ufpaJG Mumifyh iftjiif;yGm;bG,f orkid ;f jyemwpf&yfay:c&hJ jcif;jzpfonf/ OD;jr\ if;&ufpu
JG kd OD;atmifaomf
uvnf; if;\jrefrmEdik if o
H rdik ;f 0ifNrKd aY [mif;rsm; (Historical Sites in Burma) pmtkyw
f iG f xyfru
H ;kd um;
azmfjycJyh gonf/ if;&ufpaJG zmfjycsuu
f kd rdu
k u
f ,fatmifoiG u
f xyfqifu
h ;kd um;Ny;D oxHrk &Sad Mumif; oufaoxlchJ
ygonf/ rdu
fk u
f ,fatmifoiG \
f qifajcrSm odjhk zpf\/
ygarmuvkpfonf atmufjrefrmEdkifiHrGefwdkYu yk*HAdokumtEkynmwdk;wuf jzpfay:vm atmif
pGrf;aqmifay;cJhonf[k a&;om;wifjycsufwpf&yf&SdcJhygonf/ xdktcsufudk rdkufu,fatmif oGifu
y,fcsypf&efBuKd ;yrf;ygonf/ 4if;u ]ay:px&uf*si}f (Paul Strachan) \ yk*HtaMumif; pmtkypf mrsuEf mS
41-42 udk ud;k um; ]oxHw
k iG f *lb&k m;Adou
k mvuf&mwpfcrk Q oufaojyp&mr&S}d aMumif; (.. at Thaton,
k ;kd um;Ny;D
not a single example of early temple architecture [of Burma] is to be found) pmom;udu
jiif;qdo
k nf (Aung Thwin, 2005, p. 215, Note. 53)/ xdt
Yk jyif ygarmuvpk w
f ifjycJah om oxHNk rKd aY [mif;
tjyifbuf (trSerf mS NrKd aY [mif;twGi;f om&So
d nf)&Sd jrode;f wefapwD (odMum;bk&m;)rS Zmwfawmfyk <f uyHrk sm;
(Terracota Plaques) udk OD;atmifaomfu c&pfEp
S f 11-12 &mpkEpS f &ufpu
JG o
kd m cefrY eS ;f aMumif;wifjycJh
ayonf/ if;u &ufpo
JG nf taemf&xmoxHu
k kd wku
d cf u
dk o
f rd ;f ,lonfqakd om c&pfEpS f 11 &mpkEpS x
f uf
aemufusaeaMumif;? tu,f taemf&xmuom oxHu
k w
kd u
dk cf u
dk cf jhJ cif;rSev
f Qif ky<f ucsyrf sm;\&ufprJG mS
,ckxufy
kd apm&rnfjzpfaMumif;? odaYk omf 0g&ifah &S;a[mif;okawoe ynm&Sif (OD;atmifaomf) u c&pfEpS f
11-12 &mpkESpf&ufpGJudkom cefYrSef;xm;aMumif; jiif;csufxkwfxm;ayonf/ kyf<ucsyfrsm;onf ykk*Hu
vmNy;D jyKvyk x
f m;jcif;vnf;jzpfEikd yf gao;onf/ (The plaques could just as earily [and more likely] have
come from Pagan) [lvnf; apm'uwufxm;jyefygonf/ (Aung Thwin, 2005, p. 216) if;u
qufvuf &ufpaJG &;xd;k rxm;aom oxHNk rKd aY [mif;rS a&S;rGeaf usmufpmrsm;rSmvnf; c&pf 11 &mpkEpS yf wf0ef;
usiu
f urn;f pmrsm;omjzpfonf[k ynm&Siw
f cYkd efrY eS ;f cJah Mumif;oufaotaxmuftxm;tjzpf wifjycJah yonf/
h nf;aumif;? a&S;a[mif;urn;f tu&mESihf vufa&;
ausmufpmzwfeI nf;ynm (Epigraphy) tm;jzifv
vufom;avhvmenf; (Paleography) tm;jzifv
h nf;aumif;? oxHNk rKd aY &S;a[mif;orkid ;f udk csO;f uyfavhvmMu
onft
U cg ausmufpm0efrpwmawmfped cf Ekd iS hf ausmufpm0efO;D jrwdv
Yk ufxuf okawoe&vm'ftajzrSm 11
&mpk? 12 &mpkEpS rf sm;qDoYkd Te;f qdjk yovsu&f adS Mumif; awGcY &hJ Ny;D jzpfygonf/ if;ynm&Sirf sm;acwfu r&Srd jzpf
oH;k pGMJ uavh&adS om kyv
f ;kH ? kyw
f rk sm;\ tEkynm[efuakd vhvmenf; Iaxmifrh rS nfot
Ykd uJjzwfcMhJ uoenf;/
,ckwifjyaeqJ OD;jr\ 1933-34 ckEpS f uGi;f qif;okawoec&D;rSmyif oxHNk rKd rY S 'DyuF&mjrwfpmG bk&m;
yHkawmf aMu;qif;wkwpfqlawGY&aMumif;udk (A Bronze Image of The Dipankara Buddha, Thaton)
acgi;f pOfjzifh OD;jru tpD&ifccH o
hJ nfuakd wG&Y ygonf/

- 113 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

'DyuF&m aMu;qif;wkawmf

'DyuF&m kyyf mG ;awmf


]oxHkNrdKY? o'raZmwduausmif; y"meq&mawmf OD;tm'dp0H ylaZmfudk;uG,fxm;aom
'DyuF&mjrwfpGmbk&m; aMu;oGef;kyfyGm;awmfwpfqludk awGY&onf/} [k OD;jru tpD&ifcHygonf/
q&mawmf\rdeMhf um;csut
f & kyyf mG ;awmftm; vGecf o
hJ nf(U 25)ESp?f (1908ckEpS )f cefu
Y oxHw
k iG f
ukvm;ulvD (vrf;tvkyform;)rsm; a&ajrmif;wl;pOf awGY&jcif;jzpfonf[k od&\/ 4if;
'DyuF&mjrwfpGmbk&m;yHkawmfrSm ,mbufvufawmfonf ]tb,rkj'm}[efjzifh a&SYodkhrwifxm;
vsu&f NdS y;D ? 0JvufawmfrmS vnf; a&So
Y aYkd uG;qefx
Y m;vsuf ouFe;f pGe;f udk udik x
f m;onf[
h ef? rwf&yf
qif;wkjzpfonf/
(Mya, 1933-34, Plate-XII, d)

ouFe;f awmfonf ud,


k v
f ;kH awmfwiG x
f u
d yfvsuf tHaetHus&o
dS nf/ okaYd omfouFe;f awmf tzsm;pGe;f
wkrYd mS twGeaYf cgurf sm;pGmjzifh wGu
J saeygonf/ twGet
Yf acguw
f o
Ydk nf vufawmfEpS zf ufwrYdk S ajcovH;k awmf
em;txdwv
JG sm;usqif;vuf&NdS y;D 0J? ,m? ab;ESpzf ufpvH;k rSmyifay:viG v
f suf ta&twGurf sm;rsm; xif&mS ;pGm
&Sdygonf/ cg;0wfawmfywfvnfvnf; twGefYtacgufukd jrifEkdifonf/ okdYaomf ajcESpfacsmif;wkdYtMum;
ouFe;f awmfwu
JG saeyHu
k rkd l rsO;f aMumif;i,frsm;a&;qGNJ y;D yHak zmfxm;\/ ykc;kH awmfEpS zf ufpvH;k udk NcKH vsux
f m;\/
0wf\
kH tpudx
k ifjrifomatmif vnfyif;atmufem;rS cyfa&;a&;rsO;f auG;wpfaMumif; a&;qGu
J mxm;onf/
kyyf mG ;awmfukd wl;azmfpOfu aygucf Re;f ESix
hf
d oH;k ydik ;f usK;d yJo
h mG ;onf[q
k \
kd / OD;acgi;f ? ykc;kH ESihf
vnfyifawmfrsm; wpfyikd ;f ? ud,
k v
f ;kH awmfuwpfyikd ;f nmzufvufawmfuwpfyikd ;f ? usK;d oGm;onf/ ESmacgi;f ?
yg;pyfEiS Ehf mS zl;awmfwv
Ykd nf; yGe;f yJu
h ek \
f / odaYk omf rsuEf mS awmf\t"duusaom rlvtoGit
f jyifrmS rl ysupf ;D
oGm;jcif;r&Sday/

- 114 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

wHGYaw;NrdKYe,f? jywdkuf? wHcGefwdkif&GmrS ay:awmfrlbk&m; (3)qlyHk


( tv,fqif;wkonf oxH'k yD uF&m yHw
k jl zpfonf )

kyyf mG ;awmfwiG f xl;jcm;onft


h oGit
f jyifwpf&yfrmS xkvyk x
f m;onfh (Material) ypn;f yifjzpfonf/
aMu;oGef;qif;wkawmfwpfqlvHk;udk tay:rStpdrf;a&mif&Sdaom owK&nfwpfrsKd;udk (acs;rwufatmif)
okwfvdrf;xm;aMumif;awGY&onf/
uJo
h Ykd owK&nfvrd ;f xm;aomqif;wkukd jrefrmEdik if w
H iG f 1926-27 ckEpS af rSmZf m&Gm (oa&acw&m)
wl;azmfrIrSvnf;&cJhzl;ao;\/ oxHkkyfyGm;awmfudk 'kwd,ajrmufwpfql[k rSwf ,l&rnf/ arSmfZm&GmrS
'DyuF&mqif;wkawmfudk c&pfESpf 7 &mpkESpf? 8 &mpkESpfcefYu &ufpGJowfrSwf Edkifaomtjcm;a&S;a[mif;
ypn;f rsm;ESihf yl;wGaJ wG&Y &dS jcif;jzpfonf/ (A.S.L, 1926-27, p. 177)
OD;jruvnf; oxH'k yD uF&mkyyf mG ;awmf &ufpu
JG kd c&pf 7-8 &mpkEpS [
f k owfrw
S o
f nf/ 4if;owfrw
S f
csuEf iS yhf wfouf t,f'w
D m\rSwcf suw
f iG f
]armifjr (OD;jr) \ cefrY eS ;f &ufpo
JG nf rSeu
f efonf[q
k Ekd idk \
f / qif;wkawmfwiG f *kyw
acwf
aESmif;ydkif;tdEd,qif;wkrsm;ESifhwlnDaom vuPm&yfrsm;&Sdonf/ tu,f qif;wkudk
tdE,
d Edik if rH mS om &SmazGawG&Y cdS rhJ nfqv
kd Qif jrefrmEkid if u
H qif;wkwpfq[
l rk nfou
l rQ xifjrif
,lqEdkifMurnfr[kwfay/}
[Maung Mya, Exploration-Burma, A.S.I, Annual Report, 1930-34, Part I, p. 204]

- 115 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

c&pfESpf 7 &mpk-8 &mpkESpfrsm;udk &ufpGJowfrSwfjcif;ESifhywfouf *kywacwfaESmif;ydkif;tdEd,


qif;bvwkrsm;ESifh qifwlaMumif;udk axmufxm;ojzifh odkY kyfwkaA'enf; (Iconography) t&
owfrw
S jf cif;jzpfaMumif; txufygt,f'w
D m\ owfrw
S cf suw
f iG f awGEY ifkd yf gonf/
oa&acw & m apwD y suf X myemwk d u f r S a wG Y & aom pOf h p d r f ; ok w f ' D y uF & mqif ; wk E S i f h oxH k
o'ra Zmwduausmif;wdu
k f 'DyuF&mqif;wkwu
Ykd o
hJ yYdk if pOfph rd ;f okw'f yD uF&m qif;wkawmfwpfqu
l kd atmufjrefrm
Edifk if ?H &efuek w
f ikd ;f wGaH w;NrKd eY ,f? jywdu
k af us;&Gmtkypf ?k wHceG w
f ikd af us;&Gmvnf; 2002 ckEpS u
f &Gmom;
rsm;wl;azmfawG&Y cdS yhJ gonf/ wHceG w
f ikd f 'DyuF&mqif;wkawmfo;kH qlawGcY &hJ \/ t&G,Bf u;D qif;wk (OmPfawmf)
t&G,f vwfqif;wk (OmPfawmf 18 vufr)ESihf t&G,if ,fqif;wk (OmPfawmf15 vufr)wdjhk zpfMu\/
,if;qif;wkawmfo;kH qlteuf t&G,v
f wfqif;wk (OmPfawmf) 18 vufronf oxH?k o'ra Zmwdu
ausmif;wdu
k f 'DyuF&mESihf xyfwx
l yfrQqifwal eNy;D ? ud,
k v
f ;kH awmfwiG f tpdr;f a&mifow&nfwpfrsK;d okwv
f rd ;f
xm;yHu
k v
kd nf;awG&Y ygonf/ odjhk zpf if;wHceG w
f ikd f 'DyuF&mqif;wkukd wwd,ajrmufwpfq[
l k owfrw
S &f rnf
jzpfygonf/ yk*aH cwf (c&pf 11 &mpkcEk pS )f xuf yd
k a&S;usonfh *kyw
acwfaESmif;ydik ;f vuf&mjzpfaMumif;
&ufpJG owfrw
S o
f nf/
(pH0if;? &efuek w
f ikd ;f ? wGaH w;NrKd eY ,f? jyowdu
k t
f yk pf ?k wHceG w
f ikd af us;&Gm? a&S;a[mif;ay:awmfrAl 'k yk yf mG ;awmfrsm;
avhvma&;c&D; tpD&ifcpH m 2005 ckEpS ?f Zlvikd v
f )/
atmufjrefrmEkid if w
H iG f awG&Y aomoa&acw&m 'DyuF&mqif;wkEiS hf oxH'k yD uF&mqif;wkawmfrsm;
awG&Y rdS rI mS Ak'q
if;wkawmfawG&Y rdS o
I rkid ;f wGif a&S;tusq;kH [kq&kd rnfjzpfonf/ yk*NH rKd aY [mif;wGiv
f nf; 'DyuF&m
qif;wkvuf&m[efjzifh aMu;oGe;f kyyf mG ;awmfrsm; xyfraH wG&Y &dS ao;aomfvnf; if;qif;wkawmfrsm;udk yk*aH cwf
(c&pf 11 &mpkEpS )f vuf&mrsm;[lom ynm&Siw
f Ykd owfrw
S x
f m;ygonf/ odjhk zpf jrefrmEdifk if w
H iG f kyw
f ?k
qif;wku;kd uG,rf t
I axmuf txm;awG&Y rdS t
I &qkv
d Qif *kywacwfaESmif;ydik ;f xufy
kd a&S;rusEikd af Mumif; ta&SY
awmiftm&S a&S;a[mif;orkid ;f ynm&Siw
f u
Ykd qH;k jzwfcMhJ u\/ ynm&Siv
f aD r; (Le May) uqkv
d Qif atmufjrefrm
EkdifiHESifhwuG jrefrmEkdifiHwpf0Srf;vHk;wGif *kywacwfxufydk apmonfhqif;wkrsm;udkrawGY&ojzifh jrefrm
Edik if AH 'k b
momysEYH aYHS &muf&adS Mumif; taxmuftxm;t&qdv
k Qif c&pfEpS f (7) &mpkEpS f xufy
kd rapmEdifk f
aMumif;qHk;jzwfcJhygonf/ if;u tdEdEdkifiHrS Ak',Ofaus;rIonf a&vdIif;vHk;BuD;rsm;ozG,f oHk;BudrfoHk;cg
ta&SaY wmiftm&Sa'oodYk ku
d cf wfa&muf&cdS jhJ cif;jzpf&m? yxrvIid ;f vH;k rSm tr&0wDacwf (c&pfEpS f 1 &mpkrS
3 &mpkEpS )f jzpfaMumif;? ('kw,
d vIid ;f vH;k rSm *kyw
acwf) (c&pfEpS f 4 &mpk-7 &mpkEpS jf zpfaMumif;? wwd,vIid ;f vH;k rSm
ygv? aoeacwf) (c&pfEpS f 9 &mpk-11 &mpkEpS )f jzpfaMumif;? if;tdE,
d ,Ofaus;rIviId ;f rsm; yxrtBurd f
(tr&0wDacwf) qdu
k af &mufcahJ Mumif; taxmuftxm; jrefrmEdik if w
H iG f rawGcY &hJ bJ? 'kw,
d tBurd q
f u
kd f
a&mufcahJ Mumif; (*kyw
acwf) taxmuftxm;udo
k m awG&Y onf[q
k ykd gonf/
yx0Dtaetxm;t&MunfUrnfqdkvQif ta&SUawmiftm&Stjcm;a'orsm;xuf jrefrmEdkifiHonf
tdE,
d wdu
k rf Bu;D ESihf teD;uyfq;kH wnf&adS eonfjzpfaomfvnf; yxr,Ofaus;rIa&vdiI ;f [kac:aom tr&0wD
acwfyk w
f ?k qif;wkwpfpw
kH pf&mrawG&Y jcif;udk taMumif;jyKvsuf ,Ofaus;rI vdiI ;f vH;k onf jrefrmEdik if u
H kd
k eG yf xkrf (Nakhon Pathom)?
ausmNf y;D ta&SzY sm;a'o&Sd AD,ufemrf(atmufut
J ?dk OC-EO) NrKd EY iS hf xdik ;f Edifk if EH u
yHak xmuf(Pong Tuk) NrKd rY sm;qDoYkd ausmv
f mT ;a&muf&o
dS mG ;cJjh cif;jzpfaMumif; ynm&Siw
f q
Ykd ;kH jzwfowfrw
S cf jhJ cif;yif
jzpfygonf/

- 116 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

oxHNk rKd Y a&Tpm&HapwD0if;twGi;f &Sd ausmufpmHrk S a&S;a[mif;rGeaf usmufpmwdik rf sm;

- 117 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

MuHKwlrS wlazmfawGY&Sd&aom jcaoFUkyfyg ajrrD;zkwfpOfUuGif;yHk

MuHKwlrS wlazmfawGY&Sd&aom uajconf ajrrD;zkwfkyfwk

- 118 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

yJcl;wdkif; a0gNrdKYe,f MuHKwl&GmrS a&S;a[mif; bk&m;(2)ql

'l&KdG ifZ,f\ ok0Pbrl cd &D;pOf


1935-ckESpfwGif OD;jrtNidrf;pm;,loGm;cJhNyD;aemuf &efukefwuodkvfrS ygVdbGJY& OD;vlaz0if;udk
urn;f ausmufpm0ef&mxl;twGuf a&G;cs,o
f nf/ tvkyo
f iftprf;ceft
Y yf 'l&KdG iZf ,fuv
kd nf; OD;vlaz0if;tm;
avhusiahf y;&efjyefvnfac:,Nl y;D wm0efqufvufxrf;aqmifapygonf/ odjhk zifh 'l&KdG iZf ,f\ ok0Pbrl d
,Ofaus;rI azmfxkwfa&;c&D;wpfckjzpfay:vmcJh\/
'l&GKdifZ,fonf wl;azmfrItawGYtBuHK&Sdoljzpfonf/ 1926-ckESpf arSmfZmwl;azmfrIudk aqmif&GufpOf
ukvm;uefuek ;f &GmteD; OD;cifb\,mcif;twGi;f rS apwDysuu
f ek ;f tm;wl;azmfc&hJ oljzpfonf/ Xmyemwdu
k cf ef;
twGi;f rS (ASI. 1927, pp. 175-176) aiGacgi;f yGMuKwf (Plates, XXX VII d and XXX III e) wpfc?k
txGww
f iG f aAm"danmifyifyEkH iS w
hf uGawG&Y onf/ MuKwyf wfvnfrmS ysLpmESihf ygVpd ma&mvsuf b'urmwGif
yGiafh wmfrNl y;D aom bk&m;av;qltrnfrsm;? t&Sirf [muypaom om0uav;yg;trnfrsm; a&;xm;Ny;D ?
atufajcwGif 'g,umBu;D N*yUD &bk0grefEiS rhf zd &k m; N*yD &bka'0Dtrnfrsm;a&;xd;k xm;\/ a&Tqif;wki,fwpfql
tjrifh 3 vufrcGt
J &G,Ef iS hf aiGqif;wkxikd af wmfrw
l pfq?l aemufxyfa&Tqif;wkwpfql tjrifh 6 vufrcGt
J &G,f
ESihf &yfawmfral Am"dowaMu;kyw
f pfqpl aom a&S;a[mif;ypn;f rsm;udk wl;azmfawG&Y cdS o
hJ nf/ *kyw
tu&mjzifh
ayvTmcsyfa&; (20)udkvnf;&cJhonf/ tbd"rmusrf;aumufEkwfcsufESifh 0denf;usrf;aumufEkwfcsufrsm;
a&;xd;k yg&\
dS [(Duroisell ASI. 1927, 179-80; and Plate XL II (g, h)]/
uJo
h Ydk wl;azmfoak woetawGt
Y BuKH &o
dS El iS hf ygVb
d momyg&*lwpfO;D jzpfol 'likd Zf ,fukd OD;vlaz0if;
tm; avhusiahf y;&ef jyefvnfcefx
Y m;cJjh cif;jzpfonf/ (Than Tun, 1981, 28)

- 119 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

MuHKwlbk&m;rSawGYcJU&aom ajrrD;zkwfkyf<ursm; (uckefjrLwl;[ef) (jrif;pD;wdkufyGJ)

xdpk Ofu urn;f ausmufpm0ef;kH udk rEav;NrKd w


Y iG f zGiv
hf pS x
f m;ayonf/ 1936 ckEpS q
f ef;ydik ;f wGif
&efuek Nf rKd Y tif;pderf cI if;&Jwyfzo
YJG ifwef;ausmif; (pD? tkid ?f 'D) rS ausmif;tkyBf u;D (OD;baomf)xHrS pmwpfapmifEiS hf
twl yJc;l wkid ;f ? a0gNrKd t
Y eD;BuKH wb
l &k m;rS ajrrD;zkwf yk <f ucsyrf sm; ay:xu
G v
f monfo
h wif;udk 'likd Zf ,fvufcH
&&SdcJhonf/ tif;pdefodkY vkdufoGm;NyD;pHkprf;onfUtcg NrdKYe,fynma&;ausmif;rsm; ppfaq;a&;rSL;a':jrpdef\
aetdrfwGifodrf;xm;aom BuHKwlbk&m;ajrrD;zkwfkyf<u wpfcsyfudkawGYcJh&onf/ bk&m;0if;twGif; bkef;BuD;
ausmif;teD;? jrpdr;f uef[ak c:aom a&uefabmifukd &Si;f vif;pOfuxGuaf y:vmonfh if;ajrrD;zkwf yk <f ucsyf
ESit
hf wl? *0Hausmufw;kH tm; jcaoFyh x
kH q
k pfxm;onfh jcaoFEh pS af umifuv
kd nf; awGcY &hJ aMumif;od&\/ ky<f ucsyu
f kd
BuKH wb
l ek ;f Bu;D (q&mawmf)xHrS a':jrpdeu
f awmif;,lvmcJjh cif; jzpfaMumif;udv
k nf;od&\/ (,ck ky<f ucsyf
udk yJc;l a&Tarmfa"mbk&m;jywdu
k w
f iG f awGEY ikd yf gonf/)
BuKH wal jrrD;zkwf yk <f ucsy\
f t&G,t
f pm;rSm 1 aycGJ pwk&ef;yHjk zpf txl (4) vufrcefY &So
d nf/
tv,fwGif uacsonfkyfrsm;? oDqdkwD;rIwfaeolrsm;yg&SdNyD;? if;wdkYudk t0dkif;yHkpuf0ef; ESpfxyftwGif;
AdEK pufrsm;Nc&H v
H suf yHak zmfxm;jcif;jzpfonf/ tEkynmvuf&mtvGeaf umif;rGef aMumif;awG&Y \/ if;awG&Y rdS I
owif;udk 1935-36 ckEpS t
f wGuf xkwaf 0aom tdE,
d a&S;a[mif;okawoetpD&ifcpH mwGif 'likd Zf ,fuxnfU
oGi;f azmfjytpD&ifccH yhJ gonf [(ASI, (1935-36), p. 73, Plate XXX II (d)]/
'ldkifZ,fonf 1936-37 ckESpf b@ma&;ESpftwGif; yk*HwGif jyKjyifxdef;odrf;a&;vkyfief;wpfck?
wl;azmfrv
I yk if ef; (7) ckwu
Ykd kd cefcY &JG &Sad om xdEk pS t
f wGuf &efyakH iG (700) lyx
D rJ S lyaD iG (299) usyu
f kd
usco
H ;kH pGv
J suv
f nf;aumif;? oa&acw&m? arSmZf mwGif jyKjyifxed ;f odr;f a&;ESihf wl;azmfoak woevkyif ef;rsm;
twGuf lyaD iG (328) usyu
f kd usco
H ;kH pGv
J suv
f nf;aumif; aqmif&u
G cf yhJ gonf/ oa&acw&mNrKd aU [mif;twGi;f
tkwu
f ek ;f aygi;f (5) ckEiS hf NrKd jU yif tkwu
f ek ;f aygi;f (7) ck? pkpak ygi;f tkwu
f ek ;f (12) ckwu
Ykd kd wl;azmfoak woe
jyKco
hJ nf/ xdEk pS af qmif;&moD tukeyf ikd ;f wGif vufuse&f yH akH iG lyD (69) usyu
f kd yJc;l ckid ?f a0gNrKd Y BuKH wb
l &k m;
uGi;f qif; okawoevkyif ef;wGif toH;k jyKcahJ Mumif; if;\ (Exploration in Burma, ASI, 1936-37, pp. 75H mwGif azmfjyxm;\/
79) tpD&ifcp
BuKH wo
l nf ppfawmif;jrpf0taemufbufurf;? jrpf0uRe;f ay:viG jf yifwiG &f
dS v,fuiG ;f rsm;tBuKd tMum;
bk&m;uke;f a[mif;rsm; wpfpu
k akd wGEY ikd af om ae&mjzpf\/ taemufbufEiS hf ajrmufbufww
Ykd iG f yJc;l ppfawmif;

- 120 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

MuHKwlbk&m;rSawGYcJU&aom ajrrD;zkwfkyf<ursm; (EGm;wdkufyGJ) (jcaoFUESifUvlrsm;)

wl;ajrmif;ESihf &efuek af rmfvNrKd iu


f m;vrf;&SNd y;D ? ta&SaU wmifbufwiG f &efuek -f armfvNrKd if rD;&xm;vrf;&So
d nf/
xdu
k m;vrf;ESihf rD;&xm;vrf;wkt
Yd Mum; bk&m;uke;f a[mif;rsm;udk opfyiftyk t
f yk t
f Mum;jrifEidk o
f nf/ taemuf
buf BuKH wb
l &k m;ESpq
f u
l ek ;f rS? ta&Sb
Y uf cvGeb
f &k m;uke;f txd c&D;wpfrikd cf eft
Y uGmta0;? v,fuiG ;f xJ
uRJausmif;om;bk&m;? EGm;ausmif;om;bk&m;? jromavsmif;bk&m;? vufckyfyifukef;bk&m;? cvGefbk&m;wdkYudk
wpfwef; wnf;awGEY ikd o
f nf/ rpwmcsm;vf'l ikd Zf ,fonf BuKH wb
l &k m;ESpq
f t
l jyif azmfjyygb&k m;uke;f a[mif;
ae&mrsm;udv
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kH suw
f nfxm;onf/ (ASI,1986-37,Plate XXX I-a)
a'ocHvrl sm;xJrS bk&m;orkid ;f udpk pkH rf;onft
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tMuifvifr,m;tjzpfa&mufcJhonfU ae&mwGif txdrf;trSwf apwDwnfxm;jcif;jzpfaMumif;od&onf
[kqdkygonf/ okdY&mwGif 'ldGifZ,f\tjrifrSm BuHKwlbk&m;rSawGY&aom ajrrD;zkwfkyf<ucsyfrsm;onf ta&SY
b*Fvm;a'orS tdE,
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Munfh od&onf[kqkd\/

- 121 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

ajrrD;zkwv
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jrpdr;f uef[ak c:aom a&uefa[mif;onf 'lKGd iZf ,f\ 1936-ckEpS t


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ta&Sb
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f pfjym;\ txufabmifay:wiG f b,fbuf

- 122 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

EIwfcrf;em;wkdY u"r

ok aw o e

pmta&;tom;yHkpHrsdK;ESifh tvGefeD;pyfpGmwlnDaom awav*lue&m


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(Kadanba)

d yf jJG yKvyk af eyHjk zpf\/ Munfh o


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- 123 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

qifO;D pD;ESpaf ,mufteuf qifausmuke;f rS vlonfajcqefx


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- 124 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

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H ifjycJyh gonf/
XXXII, t) ESihf (Plate XXXIII, b) wkjhd zifh tpD&ifcw
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H wkid ;f qif,ifxm;&So
d nf/ nmzuf
vufonf txuforYdk wif auG;ajrm ufvsuf acgi;f pD;tqifwefqmudk xduikd u
f mxm;\/ kyyf rkH mS pmta&;
tom;udk rawG&Y [kqydk gonf (Duroiselle, 1937, p. 82)/
f sKd ;tpktyHx
k rJ S azmf,&l &Scd ahJ omajrrD;zkwf jcaoFh yk w
f k
yHt
k rSwf (8) (Plate XXXIII, b) onf tkwu
tusKd ;tyJw
h pfyikd ;f yHjk zpf\/ if;onf aqmifah Mumifx
h idk v
f suaf eyHjk zpfaemufajcwpfprkH mS aysmufq;kH oGm;NyjD zpf\/
a&SaU jcwpfp\
kH atmufyikd ;f wkrYd mS vnf; aysmufq;kH oGm;Ny;D ? atmufar;k;d ESihf ESmacgi;f wkv
Yd nf;usKd ;yJah eygonf/
vnfqHarG;udkrlodomxif&Sm;pGmawGYEdkifygonf/

- 125 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

MuHKwlrS ajrrD;zkwfyef;yHkpH
if;yHkpHESifUwlaom ajrrD;zkwfyef;wef;udk 0if;uvnf; awGY&ygonf/

taumif;yuwde;D yg;awG&Y onfh kyyf t


kH csKd u
U seyf gao;onf/ yHt
k rSwf (9) (Plate XXXII, d) onf
uckejf rL;wl;aysm&f iT af e[ef okyaf zmfjyuGuw
f pfcjk zpf\/ tv,facgiaf e&mwGif vla,mufsm;wpfa,mufEiS hf
rdef;rwpfa,muf (vuFsmbuf) wkdYuckefaeMuonf/ vuf,m bufjcrf;&Sd a,mufsm;wpfa,muf
avrIww
f &l ,
d mypn;f wpfrsKd ; wD;rIwaf eyHrk mS rsm;pGmysupf ;D oGm;ygNy/D yGMJ unhv
f mol trsKd ;orD;ESpOf ;D wk\
Yd yHu
k kd
if;wkt
Yd xufu abmifxyd ef m;wGif jrifawGEY ikd yf gonf/ ky<f ucsy\
f abmifay:wiG f yef;&Hq&m\ trSwf
tom;udk a&;xkd;xm;aMumif;awGY&onf[kqkdygonf/
k iG v
f uf,mbuf axmifu
h
yHt
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wpfpdyfusdK;yJhaeonfudk jyefvnfqufpyfNyD;jrif&onf/ tu,fom kyf<ucsyfudk taumif;yuwd
&cJrh nfqv
kd Qif tvGet
f zk;d wefayvdrrhf nf/ tb,haf Mumifq
h adk omf 4if;abmiftwGi;f okyaf zmfxm;onfh
jrif;pD;wku
d yf yJG rkH mS yHk (6) (Plate XXXIII, a) wGiaf wG&Y aom jrif;pD;wku
d yf yJG x
kH ufy
kd yDyjD yifjyif&NdS y;D ? &Si;f vif;
jywfom;rIvnf;&Sjd cif;aMumifjh zpf\/ yHk (6) (Plate XXXII, a) \ rdwL wpfcsyv
f nf;r[kwaf y/ tjcm;aom
jrif;pD;wku
d yf w
JG pfae&mudk okyaf zmfxm;onfh oabmrsKd ;&Syd gonf/ if;ky<f ucsyt
f xufabmif *Pef;ta&
twGuf tu&mtrSwt
f om;udk awG&Y onf[q
k \
dk /
BuHKwlbk&m;awmifbufr[m&HwHwkdif;onf tvsm;ay 240 &Sd\/ okdYaomfif;\y"meusaom
tpdyt
f ydik ;f wko
Yd nf uyfpx
D m;onfh ky<f ucsyrf sm;ESit
hf wl NyKd usomG ;cJyh gNy/D okjYd zpftkwyf kH tNyKd tysut
f Mum;rS
ky<f ucsyrf sm;udak zmf,cl &hJ jcif;jzpfonf/ 4if;wHwidk ;f taemufawmifaxmifrh S ay 190 ceft
Y uGmwGif tvsm;ay
33 ay cefpY &D MdS uaom awmifEiS ahf jrmuf wef;vsuaf eonfh tkww
f w
H idk ;f rsO;f NyKd iEf pS cf o
k nf awmifbufr[m&Hukd
xdyw
f u
dk t
f aetxm;jzifh wnf&o
dS nf/ if;wHwidk ;f wk\
Yd ta&Sb
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D su<f uif;
Yd eufrS
useaf eaom ky<f ucsyEf pS cf syf wku
Yd akd wG&Y jcif;jzpfonf[q
k \
dk / (Plate XXXIII, a) (yH-k 6)/ ,if;wkt
uGmusvek ;D yg; tajctae&So
d nfh (jrif;pD;wku
d yf )JG ky<f uyHw
k pfcsyu
f kd rEav;a&S;a[mif;okawoeH;k okYd erlem
tjzpf ,laqmifomG ;cJo
h nf[k qkyd gonf/ (Duroiselle 11937-p. 83)

- 126 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

MuHKwlajrrD;zkwf tEkynm vuf&mwpfydkif;

'lKdG iZf ,fonf owfrw


S &f nf&,
G x
f m;aom uGi;f qif;&ufvnf;ukeq
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d iG &f adS om owfrw
S af y;
xm;onfh &HayHak iGrmS vnf; ukeo
f mG ;NyjD zpfaomaMumifh BuKH ww
l iG u
f iG ;f qif;&SmazGjcif;? wl;l azmfjcif;vkyif ef;rsm;udk
rQomaqmif&u
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xyfru
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U csed u
f av;rSmyif ywf0ef;usiu
f v
kd n
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udkvnf;jyKcJhonf/ BuHKwl&GmwGifpyg;pkdufv,fuGif;rsm; tBudKtMum;ae&mwkdh wl;azmfokawoevkyfief;
aqmif&Guf&ef oifhawmfaumif;rGefaom tkwfukef;a[mif;rsm;pGmudk rdrdawGYcJh&aMumif; tpD&ifcHwifjyxm;
onfuv
kd nf; awG&Y ygonf/ ,if;wkt
Yd euf ]vufcyk yf ifuek ;f } [kac:aomtkwu
f ek ;f a[mif;rSm BuKH wb
l &k m;\
ta&Sb
Y ufwpfzmvHck efY tuGm&Syd gonf/ xku
d ek ;f ay:rS txufwiG af zmfjyNy;D aom ajrrD;zkwf yk <f ucsyw
f EYdk iS hf
qifwt
l rsKd ;tpm;jzpfaom ky<f ucsyt
f usKd ; wpfyikd ;f udak wG&Y onf[q
k \
dk / atmufyikd ;f wpfjcrf;rygawmhaom
4if;ky<f utxufwpfyikd ;f rSm qifav;aumifw\
Ydk OD;acgi;f ydik ;f ESihf ud,
k yf ikd ;f yHrk sm;udak zmfjyxm;ygonf/ yHk (11)
(Plate XXXIII, e) qifp;D csi;f wku
d yf yJG rkH sKd ;r[kwo
f jzifh if;qifwrYdk mS qifuwefqmyvmrsm;udrk awG&Y ay/
BuKH wal usmif;q&mawmfxw
H iG f odr;f qnf;xm;aom tkwcf u
G b
f &k m;ESpq
f u
l v
kd nf; awGcY &hJ onf[k
qkyd gonf/ wpfqrl mS tjrifh 4 vufr? Asuf 2 vut&G,&f
dS usew
f pfqrl mS tjrifh 3 1^2 vufrESihf
Asuf 2 vut&G,f&Sdygonf/ t&G,fi,ftkwfcGufudk yHkxkwfay;aom&THUyHkpHcGuf (Clay mould) wpfckudk
vnf;awGcY &hJ onf/ tkwcf u
G f yk yf mG ;wk\
Yd toGit
f jyifrmS yviaf y: wGiaf jcxyfvsux
f idk af wmfrl Ak'y akH wmfjzpf
ajrBu;D udk oufaownf [efbrl zd rkj'm[efrsKd ;jzpfygonf/ Ak'* g,mr[maAm"dausmif;awmfwiG f oDwif;
oHk;onfhyHkpHjzpfonf/ t&HapwDi,fESpfqlpDudk wpfqlay:wpfqlxyfqifhvsuf yvi\
f ab;wpfzufwpfcsuf
pDwiG &f x
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G w
f u
Ydk kd BuKH wb
l &k m;tm; topfrrG ;f rHcphJ Ofu tkwu
f sKd ;rsm;udk
&Si;f vif;pOfawGcU &hJ jcif;jzpfaMumif; od&onf[q
k \
dk / tkwcf u
G af y:wiG pf mta&;tom;wpfpw
kH pf&m rawG&Y ojzifh

- 127 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

MuHKwlpOfUuGif; tusdK;wpfydkif;yHk pOUfuGif;axmifUae&m&Sd uEkwfyef;ESifh wHqdyfyHkwdkhudk 0if;upOfUuGif;rsm;


vnf;awG&Y onfjzpf ,Ofaus;rIcsi;f wlonfU ok0Pbrl d ,Ofaus;rIrsm;omjzpfonf/

acwfuckd efrY eS ;f Edik jf cif;r&Sad y/ yHpk rH sKd ;ESihf qifwt


l w
k cf u
G rf sm;udk yk*NH rKd aY [mif;wGiv
f nf; tajrmuftrsm;awGY
&aMumif; 'lKGd iZf ,futpD&ifccH yhJ gonf (Durosiselle, 1937- p. 83)/
'lKGd iZf ,fonf BuKH wrl rS Eav;okYd jyefa&mufNy;D aemuf 'DZifbm 11&ufrS 14 &uftxd yckuL ckid ?f
ykcef;Bu;D okcYd &D;xGucf ahJ Mumif; 4if;\tpD&ifcpH m azmfjyxm;onfukd awG&Y ojzifBh uKH wo
l Ydk c&D;xGucf chJ sed rf mS
xkEd pS f 1936-ckEpS Ef 0dk ifbmv twGi;f jzpfEidk yf gonf/ atmufjrefrmEkid if w
H iG f qefpyg;&dwo
f rd ;f csed af jcmufaoGY
&moDjzpfygonf/ BuHKwla'orSm rkd;&moDqkdvQifv,fuGif;jyifESifh acsmif;ajrmif;rsm; a&jynfhvQHaeonfjzpf
toGm;tvmcufcNJ y;D wl;azmfoak woevkyif ef;uJo
h Ydk tvkyrf sKd ;udv
k nf;vkyu
f ikd Ef idk &f efc,
J Of;ayrnf/ BuKH wl
bk&m;uke;f rSmrl a&vGwaf om*0HajrcHuek ;f Bu;D wpfcjk zpfygonf/ if;\ ta&SaY wmifbufwiG &f adS om vufcyk yf if
uke;f ? EGm;ausmif;om;bk&m;uke;f ? cvGeb
f &k m;uke;f ponfwv
Ydk nf; a&vGwu
f ek ;f Bu;D rsm;tjzpf v,fuiG ;f jyifxuf
xD;xD;rm;rm;awGjU rifEidk \
f / xku
d ek ;f rsm;udk wl;azmfoak woejyK&ef 'lKGd iZf ,fu,
kd w
f ikd t
f m;cJxm;[ef&\
dS / okaYd omf
vnf; if;wl;azmfcahJ om yk*EH iS o
hf a&acw&mNrKd aY [mif; wl;azmfoak woeuke;f rsm;uJo
h Ydk atmufjrefrmEkid if ?H
BuKH wal 'owGif wpfuek ;f wpfavrQ wl;azmfavhvmEkid cf jhJ cif;r&Scd hJ jcif;rSm? ok0Pbrl ?d oxHak 'ookawoe
vkyif ef;twGuf ,cifuyif uHq;dk cJjh cif;ayvm;[k awG;awmp&mjzpfcahJ yonf/ 'lKGd iZf ,fa&mufvmonfU
1936-ckEpS rf pS 'kw,
d urmppfBu;D Ny;D onfh 1945-ckEpS t
f xd BuKH wal 'oudk okawoDwYdk ta&muftayguf
r&SdcJhMuawmhay/

- 128 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

vGwvf yfNyD;acwf ok"r0wD


OD;vlaz0if;
OD;vlaz0if;onf 1939-ckEpS rf wfv (3) &ufaehwiG u
f rn;f ausmufpm0efjzpfvmcJo
h nf/ rsm;rMumrD
1941-ckESpfwGif urnf;ausmufpmHk;udkrEav;rS yk*HokdYa&TYajymif;onf/ ppfBuD;umvtwGif; 1946-ckESpf
txdyk*HrSmyif Hk;pdkuf a&S;a[mif;ypnf;rsm;udk xdef;odrf;apmifha&Smuf&onf/ rEav;okdYa&mufoGm;aom
BuKH wb
l &k m;rS ajrrD;zkwf yk <f ucsyEf pS cf syrf mS vnf; rEav;rSy*k o
H Ydk a&TaY jymif;onfx
h yJ gomG ;cJNh y;D ? 1946-ckEpS Zf eG v
f
wGif rEav;okYd ;kH udk a&S;a[mif;ypn;f rsm;jyefvnf ajymif;a&To
Y nft
h cg yk*rH mS yifuse&f pfcahJ yonf/ ,cky*k H
jywkdufwGif&SdaMumif;od&\/
vGwfvyfNyD;acwfa&mufonfhtcg 24? ZE0g&D 1948 ckESpfrSp a&S;a[mif;okawoeXme
(urn;f ausmufpmXme) Bu;D MuyfrjI zifh yJc;l NrKd aY &Tarmfa"m (ivsi'f Pfoif)h bk&m;Bu;D tm;tBu;D pm; jyifqifrrI sm;
aqmif&u
G cf ahJ Mumif;od&aomfvnf;? a0gNrKd eY ,fBuKH w&l mG rS bk&m;rsm;udq
k ufvuf okawoevky&f ef Bu&H ,
G cf hJ
aom'lKGd iZf ,f\ 1936-ckEpS u
f okawoe vkyif ef;tpDtpOfukd ol\wynfw
h pfO;D jzpfol OD;vlaz0if;u qufvuf
taumiftxnf azmfaqmif&GufEkdifcJhjcif;r&Sday/
]urn;f ausmufpmXme} trnfukd ]a&S;a[mif;okawoeXme} tjzpf 1? Ed0k ifbm? 1954-ckEpS f
wGiaf jymif;vJvmcJNh y;D aemuf (4) ESpcf eft
Y MumwGif jrefrmEkid if w
H uov
dk rf sm;rS bG&YJ vli,fwpfpu
k kd okawoe
0efaxmuf&mxl;rsm;cefx
Y m;onf/ Edik if jH cm;okv
Yd nf; wl;azmfa&;ESihf xde;f odr;f a&; oifwef;rsm; wufa&muf
aponf/ if;wkdYjyefvnfa&muf&Sdvmonfhtcg
- 11-ZGe?f 1959 ckEpS rf S 1? pufwifbm? 1959 ckEpS t
f xd AdEk;d NrKd aY [mif;? (OD;atmifaomf)
wl;azmfrI?
- 11? 'DZifbm 1959 ckESpfrS 4? rwf? 1960 ckESpftxdAdEdk;NrdKYa[mif; (OD;atmifaomf)
wl;azmfrI?
- 27 Mo*kw?f 1960 ckEpS rf S 29 pufwifbm? 1960 ckEpS t
f xd AdEd;k NrKd aY [mif; (OD;jrifaU tmif?
OD;Adak u) wl;azmfr?I
- 15? ZE0g&D? 1961-ckESpfrS 20? rwf? 1961 ckESpftxd AdEdk;NrdKUa[mif; (OD;atmifaomf)
wl;azmfr?I
- 22? ZE0g&D? 1962-ckESpfrS 19? rwf? 1962 ckESpftxd AdEdk;NrdKUa[mif; (OD;pdfefatmifOD;)
wl;azmfrI?
- 24? atmufwb
dk m? 1962-ckEpS rf S 3? {Ny?D 1963 ckEpS t
f xd AdEd;k NrKd aU [mif; (OD;jrifaU tmif)
wl;azmfrI?
- 1963-ckEpS rf S 1967 ckEpS t
f xd[efvif;NrKd aU [mif; (OD;jrifah tmif) wl;azmfr?I
- 1968-ckEpS rf S 1969 ckEpS t
f xdwaumif;NrKd aU [mif; (OD;oef;aqG) wl;azmfr?I
- 1971-ckEpS af zaz:0g&rD S 1972 ckEpS f ZE0g&t
D xd awmiforef (OD;pdeaf rmifO;D ) wl;azmfrI
1973-ckEpS f ZE0g&w
D iG f vufyaH csay: (OD;jrifah tmif) wl;azmfrw
I u
Ydk kd qufwu
dk af qmif&u
G cf ahJ Mumif;
awG&Y ygonf/ xkt
d csed t
f xdv
f nf; yJc;l wdik ;f a0gNrKd eY ,f? BuKH w&l mG bk&m;uke;f rsm;udk wl;azmfoak woe aqmif
&GufcJUjcif;r&SdcJUay/

- 129 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

atmufjrefrmEkid if o
H xHak 'owGif wl;azmfrv
I yk if ef;udk 1975 ckEpS Zf E0g&v
D (24) &ufrpS oxHk
cdkifbD;vif;NrdKYe,f t,ufonfr&GmwGifOD;atmifjrifUu pwifaqmif&GufcJhonf/ xkdYaemuf 1976-ckESpf
azaz:0g&v
D 5 &ufaeYr?S 1978 ckEpS af zaz:0g&v
D -(7) &ufaeYtxd? 0if;u&GmwGif qufvufaqmif&u
G cf yhJ gonf/
xkt
d csed u
f wl;azmfoak woevkyif ef;tpDtpOfwiG v
f nf; BuKH wb
l &k m;uke;f rsm;rygcyJh gay/ 'lKdG iZf ,f (1936)
vufxufrpS ,aeYtcsed u
f mvtxd BuKH w,
l Ofaus;rIonf ppfawmif;jrpf0rS ;f EH;I ajrEkviG jf yifwiG f epfjrKyf
aeqJjzpfygonf/
rnfojhdk zpfapumrl 'lKGd iZf ,fazmfxw
k af y;cJah om BuKH w,
l Ofaus;rIypn;f rsm;onf orkid ;f 0iftaxmuf
txm;rsm;jzpfcJhygonf/ &efukefwuokdvfta&SUwkdif;orkdif;avhvmol ygarmu*sD? tdyfcsf? vkpfonfif;\
Phase of Pre-Pagan Burma pmtkyt
f wGJ (1)wGif BuKH wal jrrD;zkwf ky<f ucsyrf sm;taMumif; "gwyf rkH sm;ESihf
wuG jyefvnfazmfjyonf/ (Luce, 1985, Plate 77, a, b, 78, a, b, c, 79, a, b, c, d, 80, a, b, c, d; 81, a, b,
Yd jyif 'lKdG iZf ,f\ 1936-37 ckEpS f tpD&ifcpH mwGif rawG&Y aom BuKH wl yk <f ucsyw
f pfcsyu
f v
kd nf;
c, d and e) xkt
azmfjyxm;\ (Luce, 1988, Plate 78, b)/
(OD;atmifjrifU a&S;a[mif;tkwcf u
G f yk yf mG ; qif;wkawmfrsm;? twG(J 1) vnf;Iyg)
if;ky<f ucsyo
f nf (10 1^2' _ 8 1^2' _ 5') t&G,f &SNd y;D BuKH w&l mG vufcyk yf ifuek ;f bk&m;rS
awG&Y aMumif; 'lKGd iZf ,f (ASB, 1938, p. 11) udu
k ;kd um;vsuaf zmfjyonf/ if;azmfjycsut
f & 'lKGd iZf ,fonf
rdrpd w
d w
f iG &f nfreS ;f xm;onft
h wkid ;f aemufwpfEpS t
f Mum (1937-38) uGi;f qif;&moDtwGi;f BuKH wo
l Ydk wpfacguf
jyefa&mufcJhaMumif;od&\/
vkp\
f pmtkyyf g BuKH wl (vufcyk yf ifuek ;f ) ky<f ucsyo
f nf xl;jcm;rI&ydS gonf/ ky<f ucsy\
f av;axmifh
yHkabmif\twGif;u A[kdpuf0kdif;xJ t0dkif;yHkpuf0ef;oHk;xyft&pfuGif;rsm;ygonf/ if;wkdYtwGif;&Sd
kyyf rkH mS jcaoFOh ;D acgi;f yHjk zpf\/ yg;pyfuckd yfus,u
f s,[
f xm;Ny;D xkyd g;pyftwGi;f rS a&rsm;xGuv
f suf pD;usaeyHk
jzpfonf/ kyyf o
kH nf [dr0Emawmifwef;ay:wiG &f o
dS nfqakd om emrnfausmt
f aem0wa&tkid Bf u;D rSvrf;aMumif;
av;oG,jf zifh tjyifopYdk ;D xGuv
f maom prf;acsmif; (jrpf) Bu;D av;ckwo
Ydk nf jcaoFch w
H iG ;f ? EGm;cHwiG ;f ? qif;cHwiG ;f ESihf
jrif;cHwiG ;f wkrYd t
S pjyKonfqadk om '@m&Dvmow0gaumifrsm;teuf jcaoFch w
H iG ;f rS pD;xGuv
f myHu
k kd ud,
k pf m;jyK
ygonf/ (Luce, 1985, p. 166) /
BuKH wl yk <f ucsyrf sm;\&ufpu
JG kd cefrY eS ;f Muonft
h cg c&pfEpS f 7-&mpk? 8-&mpkEpS cf efu
Y vuf&mjzpfrnf[k
cefrY eS ;f Muygonf/ BuKH wo
l nfatmufjrefrmEdik if H ppfawmif;jrpfEiS hf oHviG jf rpfwt
Ydk Mum;&Sd oxHak 'oNrKd aY [mif;
rsm;\ ,Ofaus;rIyifjzpfEidk af Mumif;cefrY eS ;f &\/ if;\wnfae&mtaetxm;rSm usKd uo
mNrKd aU [mif;rS(10)rkid cf ef?Y
0if;ut&ufonfrNrKd aU [mif;rS (18)rdik cf efEY iS hf oxHNk rKd aY [mif;rS (40)rkid cf eft
h uGm&Syd gonf/ rkwr yifv,fauGY
urf;d;k wef;xdyaf y:rmS yif&
dS b*Fvm;yifv,fa&vrf;aMumif; qufo,
G af &;ESiv
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m
NrdKYa[mif;\ ajrmufbufusaom e,fedrdwftwGif;wnf&Sdaeonf/ atmufjrefrmEkdifiHysLNrdKYawmfa[mif;BuD;
jzpfaom oa&acw&mESihf pmvQirf idk f (170)rQumG vSr;f aeonfjzpf BuKH wal jrrD;zkwf yk <f u"avhonf atmuf
jrefrmEdkifiHoxHka'o\ udk,fydkif"avh[l rSwf,lEkdifayonf/
ok0Pbrl ?d oxH,
k Ofaus;rIxeG ;f um;yHu
k kd oHo,Iaxmifjh zifh jI rifo;kH oyfMuonft
U cg? BuKH w"l avhukd
oa&acw&m ysLMoZmvTr;f rk;d rI&adS Mumif; ,lqMuayonf/ oxHNk rKd aY [mif;vnf;r&S?d oxHak 'orSm tjcm;aom

- 130 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

NrKd aU [mif;rsm;vnf;r&Sad Mumif; qefu


Y sib
f uftjrifjzifjh iif;qkMd uonft
h cg oxHrk &Sv
d Qif atmufjrefrmEdik if w
H iG f
oa&acwysL,Ofaus;rIMoZmrS wpfyg;tjcm;r&SEd idk [
f k xifjrif,q
l cJMU u&ayonf/ uJo
h x
Ydk ifjrif,q
l csuu
f kd
tajccHxm; atmufjrefrmEdik if aH 'owpfcv
k ;kH rSm ysLNrKd aY wmfa[mif;(oa&acw&m)\ tpGet
f zsm;? e,fjcm;
a'orS cHNrKd rY sm;jzpfEidk yf ?kH if;wk\
Yd "avh? ,Ofaus;rIwo
Ydk nf ysL"avh? ysL,Ofaus;rIomvQif jzpfEidk yf pkH onfjzifh
wDxGifMuHqcJhMuonf udkvnf;awGY&onf/
BuHKwlrS ajrrD;zkwfkyf<ucsyfrsm;\ oabmt"dyg,frSm oxHkodMum;bk&m;ac: jrodef;wefbk&m;rS
ajrrD;zkwfkyf<ucsyfrsm;ESifh twlwlyifjzpfaMumif;? if;tEkynmypnf;rsm;rSm &ufpGJa&;xkd;xm;jcif;vnf;r&Sd?
pmta&;tom;vnf;rygojzifh? &ufpGJudkrod&aMumif;? odMum;bk&m; kyf<uyHkrsm;rSm yk*Hua&mufvmcJhjcif;
jzpfEdkifouJhokdY yJcl;cdkif? BuHKwlrSkyf<uyHkrsm;rSmvnf; oa&acw&mrS a&mufvmjcif;omjzpfEkdifaMumif;
axmufjyygonf (Aung Thwin, 2003, p. 216) /
BuKH wal jrrD;zkwf yk <f uyHrk sm;onf oa&acw&mrS (ysLuacsonf) aMu;kyw
f ik g;kyw
f EYdk iS hf qifwl ;kd rSm;
toGit
f jyifo
dS nf [kvnf; qkx
d m;ayonf/ (Donald M.Stadner, the Art of Burma in Art of South
f oxHak 'orGew
f Ehdk iS hf tdref ;D csi;f
East Asia, New York, Harry N. Abram, Inc (1998 p. 48) if;ynm&Siu
rGeEf ikd if jH zpfcahJ om xdik ;f Ekid if 'H g&G m0wDNrKd aY [mif;zufrS ajrrD;zkwf yk <f uyHrk sm;ESihf xif&mS ;uGjJ ym;jcm;em;rI&adS eojzifh
if;taeESihf 'Gg&0wDreG w
f \
Ydk rlvZpfjrpf,Ofaus;rIrjzpfEidk [
f k ,lqaMumif;wifjycJ\
h /
wpfqufwnf;rSmyifoxHNk rKd aY [mif;rS OD;jrawGcY &hJ aom 'DyuF&maMu;rwf&yfqif;wkawmfEiS hf ywfouf
qif;wkawmfuykd garmuvpk u
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l if;wkBu;D rsm;\ a&SaY jy;yHpk jH zpfonf[,
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aMumif;wifjycJhonf/ ,if;tqkdESifh ywfoufrkdufu,fatmifoGifu vkpfonf yk*HxufoxHkuydk
a&S;usaMumif; oufaojyvk
d vk&d m qGaJ jymjcif;jzpfonf[k a0zefonf (Aung Thwin, 2005, 217)/
oxHkESifh ywfouf rdkufu,fatmifoGif\ IjrifoHk;oyfcsufrSm txufazmfjycJhonfh twkdif;
a&S;rusEkdifaMumif;? oxHkonfwu,fr&Sdaom pdwful;,OfNrdKYwpfNrdKYomvQifjzpfaMumif; oufaoxlazmfjy
aeygonf/ if;u
oxHNk rKd aY [mif;onf ta&SaY wmiftm&S a&S;a[mif;acwfNrKd aY wmfBu;D rsm;jzpfMuaom &ckid rf "S n0wDEiS hf
a0omvD? jrefrmEkdifiHtv,fydkif;rS oa&acw&m? rkdif;arm? AdEdk;? 0wD;ESifh rsm;vSpGmaom
tjcm;ysLNrKd aY [mif;rsm;? xkid ;f Ekid if rH S a&S;a[mif;aomuwJ (qlcw
dk idk ;f ) ESihf uarm'D;,m;Ekid if rH S tefaum
aAm&DNrdKYrsm;uJhokdY a&S;NrdKYa[mif;wpfckr[kwfay/ txufygNrdKYa[mif;tm;vHk;vkdvkdrSm trsm;tm;jzifh
NrKd aY xmifrh sm;vH;k 0ef;jcif; okrYd [kwf t0kid ;f yHo
k @mef&jdS cif;tjyif? usK;H ESiNhf rKd Y ;kd wkYd ESpx
f yf? oH;k xyfceft
Y &pf&pf
0ef;&Hxm;Muygonf/ oxHo
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dk o
hJ rYdk [kw?f av;axmifyh o
kH @mefNrKd &Y
Sd yk*aH cwfaemufyikd ;f umv
usrS ay:xeG ;f vmcJo
h nfNh rKd aY [mif;ESihf qifwal eygonf[q
k ykd gonf/ {Aung Thwin, 2005, p. 81;
(Note. no. 12 for Chapter-4, in page 348)} /
tu,f oxHkNrdKYa[mif;onf (yk*Hxuf) a&S;usaomNrdKYwpfNrdKY jzpfcJhvQifvnf; rGefNrdKUawmfwpfck
r[kwyf ?J ysLNrKd o
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(OD;atmifjrifEh iS hf tJvpfpAufr;dk ) wku
Yd oxHak 'orS ysLacwfvufa&;pif; tkwcf syrf sm;awG&Y rdS w
I u
Ydk kd tpD&ifcpH m
ay:xu
G v
f mcJjh cif;aMumifjh zpf\/ (Aung Myint and Moore, Finger-marked desins on ancient bricks in
h Ydk ysLacwfvufa&;pif;
Myanmar Journal of The Siam Society 1.1 (Spring 2003): 24-39) uJo

- 131 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

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m? prme*d&k Ef iS hf
xm;0,f (om*&) NrKd aY [mif;wko
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Y rnfonfyifvQif ysLwk\
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oxHak 'o,Ofaus;rIomjzpf\/ oa&acw&mwGif ky<f ucsyrf sm;ESihf qifwyl pkH yH pn;f rsKd ; ,ckxrd awG&Y ao;
ay/ xkdYtjyif (xkdif;) 'gG&0wD,Ofaus;rIESihfvnf;rwlay/ 'Gg&m0wDNrdKYa[mif;rsm; wl;azmfokawoewGif
erlemypn;f rsKd ; rawG&Y bl;ao;ay/ tjcm;aomysLNrKd aY [mif;rsm; wl;azmfoak woewGiv
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oufaojyaeouJhokdY&Sdygonf/
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'Gg&m0wDrGefNrdKYa[mif;rsm; wl;azmfrIwkdYwGif rawGY&aomfvnf;? oxHka'o? auvmoawmifajc? 0if;u
&GmwGifawGYEdkif\/ ,ckrGefjynfe,f,Ofaus;rIjywkdufwGif jyoxm;aom jcaoFhkyf<uyHk (0if;u&GmrS&onfU)
ajrrD;zkwfkyf<ucsyfonf BuHKwlajrrD;zkwfkyf<ursm;ESifh yHko@mef? t&G,ftpm;? tEkynmvuf&m[efESifh
taMumif;&mrsm;ygwn
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BuKH wu
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jcif;? if;abmifwiG ;f jcaoFEh pS af umifykH xkvyk x
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abmifww
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okdhjzpfBuHKwlESifh 0if;uajrrD;zkwfkyf<ucsyf jyKvkyfyHkavhcsif;wlnDMuaMumif;odEkdifygonf/
0if;u? Zkwo
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vnf; awGEY idk yf gao;onf/ "avhonf oxHak 'o\ rlyikd "f avh (culture) wpfrsKd ;jzpfonfrmS xif&mS ;
aeNyjD zpfygonf/ bk&m;wHwidk ;f ? NrKd w
Y w
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onf[kqkdcsifygao;onf/ BuHKwl? 0if;u? Zkwfokwf? usKduom paomoxHka'oNrdKYa[mif; ukef;rsm;udk
wl;azmfoak woejyKjcif; enf;yg;aeao;aomfvnf; orkid ;f taxmuftxm;acgi;f yg;jcif;? &Sm;yg;jcif;r&Sad Mumif;
om"utcsdKYyifjzpfygonf/
0if;u&GmOD;armifweftrd jf c0H if;twGi;f a&S;a[mif;taqmufttHyk surf S ay:xu
G v
f maom ajrrD;
zkwyf ef;tkyyf g tkwcf syw
f pfyikd ;f onf a&S;a[mif;taqmuftOD;\txufyidk ;f rS xkww
f ef;wGif wefqmqifrnfU
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atmufjrefrmEkid if w
H iG f ok0Pbrl Nd rKd aY [mif;udk pl;prf;&SmazGjcif; tpysKd ;cJah om 19 &mpkEpS f tukeyf ikd ;f
(1881-ckEpS )f rS (1891-ckEpS )f txdwpfu@udyk xru@tjzpf xif&mS ;pGmawGcY &hJ Ny;D jzpfygonf/ tpk;d &

- 132 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

a&S;a[mif;okawoetxl;t&m&SdBuD; a'gufwmtD;azmfcrf;rm;ESifh jrefrmEkdifiHurnf;ausmufpm0ef rpwm


awmfpdefckdwkdY\ pGrf;aqmifcsufrsm;[kqkd&ygrnf/ xkdYaemuf ESpfq,f&mpkESpfqef;ydkif; (1933-34-ckESpf) rS
(1936-37-ckEpS )f twGi;f uurn;f ausmufpm 0efO;D jrESihf rpwm'lKGd iZf ,fwpYdk rG ;f aqmifru
I kd 'kw,
d u@wpf&yf
tjzpfawGjY rif&ygonf/ xkaYd emuf ok0Pbrl ,
d Ofaus;rIukd pl;prf;jcif;tcef;u@ wpfpcef;&yfomG ;cJjh yefygonf/

0if;u&Gm OD;armifwefjc0H if;twGi;f rS


ay:xGufvmaom
ajrrD;zkwf uajconfyk f

- 133 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

OD;zd;k vwf\ ok0Pbrl cd &D;pOf


ok0Pbrl u
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fh pS af y;vku
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a&S;a[mif;okawoenTefMum;a&;0efwm0efukd pwifxrf;aqmifonfESifhwNydKifeuf jrefrmEdkifiHtwGif;&Sd
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atmufjrefrmEkid if H oxHak 'otxda&mufygonf/ oxHak 'orS rdrad wG&Y aoma&S;a[mif;ae&mrsm; taMumif;udk
1957-58 ckEpS t
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OD;zk;d vwfonf 1881-ckEpS u
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- 134 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

*0Hav;rsufESmbk&m;yHkawmf usdKufxD;aqmif;bk&m;0ef;? Zkwfokwf? bD;vif;NrdKYe,f? rGefjynfe,f

- 135 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

Zkwfokwf usdKufxD;aqmif;bk&m;rS *0Hyef;wifcHk

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D iG f ppfawG? ajrmufO;D a'o? xkEd pS rf wfvwGif
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jzpfMuaomygarmuvpk ?f OD;b&Si(f Akv
d rf LS ;b&Si)f ESihf orkid ;f aumfr&Sif ausmufpmul;tzGo
YJ m;rsm;vnf; OD;zk;d vwf\
a&S;a[mif;okawoe uGi;f qif;tzGEYJ iS t
hf wl yg0ifco
hJ nfrmS xkcd &D;\xl;jcm;rIwpf&yf[q
k &dk rnf/
OD;zk;d vwf? ygarmuv(k pf) ESihf OD;b&Siw
f o
Ydk nf (21? {Ny?D 1958) &ufaeYwiG &f efuek rf S armfvNrKd io
f Ydk
avaMumif;c&D;jzifU xGucf gcG MhJ u\/ uset
f zGo
YJ m;rsm;u rD;&xm;jzifh BuKd wifNy;D oGm;a&mufcMhJ uNy;D ? armfvNrKd irf S
u&ifjynfe,f? bm;tHNrdKYokdYoabFmjzifh twlwuGc&D;xGufcJhMuygonf/ (22? {NyD? 3958) &ufaeYwGif
bm;tHraS um*Ge;f *l? &aohys*H w
l u
Ydk kd uGi;f qif;onf/ xkad emuf (23? {Ny?D 1958) wGirf w
k r NrKd aU [mif;okaYd &muf\/
rkwr jrode;f wefapwD&ifjyifrS rGeb
f mom acgi;f avmif;pmudk a&;ul;Muonf/ NrKd Y ;dk a[mif; usKH ;a[mif;ae&m
rsm;ESifh tjcm;taqufttHkrsm;udkrl ppfaq;&eftcsdef&cJh[efrwlay/ oxHkokdY (24? {NyD? 1958) wGif
a&muf&NdS y;D uvsmPDord ?f odMum;bk&m;? a&Tpm&HapwD&ifjyifrS ausmufpmwkid rf sm;udk ppfaq;MunfU MI uonf/
xkdaeYrSmyif oxHkazmifawmfOD;apwDESihf &[Emukef;okdYvnf; a&mufcJhygonf/ (26? {NyD? 1958) wGif
usKd ux
f o
dk aYdk &muf\/ xkrd w
S pfqifh r&rf;uke;f &Gm? t,ufonfr&Gm? 0if;u&Gmwko
Yd aYdk &mufonf/ xkrd w
S pfqifh
auvmoawmifay:oYdk wufNy;D rGeaf usmufpmrsm;ESihf a&S;a[mif;ypn;f rsm;udk Munfh pI pfaq;onf/ naeydik ;f
wGif auvmoawmifay:rq
S if;Ny;D 0if;u&Gma*gVrwdu
NrKd aY [mif;&mESihf NrKd U ;kd rsm;t&ufonfr&GmteD;&Sd wku
d f
ukvm;NrdKYa[mif;rsm;ESifh ,if;NrdKYa[mif;twGif;&Sd eef;awmfOD;apwDESifh jrodef;wefapwDwkdh\ wnfae&mudk
rSwfom;cJh usdKufxkdokdhjyefonf/

- 136 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

usKd ux
f rdk S aemufaeY (27? 4? 58) &ufaeYwiG rf ;D &xm;jzifh awmifpeG ;f okx
Yd u
G
f awmifpeG ;f rS armf
awmfum;jzifh Zkwfokwf&GmokdYoGm;onf/ usdKufxD;apmif;apwDESifh ywfvnf&Sda&S;rGef,Ofaus;rIypnf;rsm;udk
Munfh aI vhvmNy;D aemuf qifwyfjrif;wyfoaYdk &mufonf/ naeydik ;f wGif rkoifoo
Ydk mG ; NrKd Y ;kd Bu;D rsm;? eef;awmf
uke;f ESihf a&S;a[mif;taqmufttHt
k ysut
f pD;rsm;udk Munfh o
UI nf/ naeydik ;f wGif (bD;vif;) ausmufa&wGi;f
a&mfbmNcH (Akv
d w
f )J wGif ntdyMf uonf/
aemufw
f pf&uf (28? {Ny?D 1958) &ufaeYwiG f tvl;av;&Gm usKd uw
f aJ pwDEiS hf usepf pfom;rif;a&;
xk;d cJah om rGeaf usmufpmudu
k ;l ,lavhvmonf/ naeydik ;f wGif awmifpeG ;f rS wpfqifu
h sKd ux
f o
dk hdk jyefcMhJ uonf/
(29? {Ny?D 1958) &ufaeYwiG f usKd ux
f rdk pS pfawmif;okYd c&D;qufcNUJ y;D ppfawmif;NrKd aY [mif;udk avhvmonf/
xkdaehnaerSmyif ppfawmif;rSyJcl;okdh ul;NyD;yJcl;okdYa&mufonf/
aemufxyfwpf&uf (30? {Ny?D 1958) wGiyf cJ ;l NrKd aU &S;a[mif; taqmufttHrk sm;udk ppfaq;Munfh NI y;D
naeydik ;f wGif armfawmfum;jzifh &efuek o
f jYdk yefonf/ c&D;pOfwpfavsmufv;kH rSm &ufaygi;f (10) wdwMd umMum
uGif;qif;cJhaMumif;awGY&ayonf/
OD;zk;d vwf\ok0Pbrl cd &D;pOftwGi;f ta&;ygaomoxHNk rKd aY [mif;ESihf auvmoawmifajc wku
d u
f v
k m;NrKd Y
a[mif;okawoec&D;rSm (24? {Ny?D 1958) rS (28? {Ny?D 1958) txd (5) &ufrQom tcsed &f cJah Mumif;awG&Y \/
xkpd Oftcgu a'otwGi;f vHNk cKH a&;tcuftcJ&o
dS nfjzpf tapmift
h a&Smufrsm;ESihf uGi;f qif;cJ&h onf[v
k nf;
qkdygonf/ cufcufcJcJoGm;a&muf&aom c&D;wpfckjzpfaMumif; xkdc&D;pOfwGifvkdufygcJhol orkdif;aumfr&Sif
trIxrf;OD;bkv
d iId Ef iS hf OD;atmifjrwfausmw
f Ydk ajymjycsut
f & od&ygonf/ nTeMf um;a&;0efu,
kd w
f idk u
f vnf;
c&D;xGufpOfulnDcJhMuaom oufqkdif&m cdkift&m&SdBuD;rsm;ESifh ppfzuft&m&Sdrsm;tm; aus;Zl;wifaMumif;
tpD&ifcpH m xnfo
U iG ;f azmfjyonf/ if;uGi;f qif;tzGo
YJ nf &efuek o
f jhdk yefa&mufcNhJ y;D aemuf (19? ar? 58)
&ufaeYrS (22? ar? 58) &ufaeYtxd wHaG w;? aumhrLS ;ESihf uGr;f Ncu
H ek ;f NrKd rY sm;okcYd &D;xGuu
f m a&S;rGev
f uf&mapwD
a&S;a[mif;
a[mif;? ausmufpma[mif;rsm;ESihf *0H"avhqidk &f m taxmuftxm;rsm;udk Munfh aI vhvmcJMh u\/ (a&S
okawoe nTefMum;a&;0ef\ 1957-58-ckESpftwGuf ESpfcsKyftpD&ifcHpmm? pm 5-9)
jrefrmEkid if aH &S;a[mif;okawoenTeMf um;a&;0efEiS hf jrefrmEkid if o
H rkid ;f aumfr&Sit
f zG0YJ ifrsm; vku
d yf gcahJ om
1958-ckEpS u
f ? ok0Pbrl o
d ak woec&D;onf tcsed w
f adk wmif;vGe;f onf[k qk&d aomfvnf;&&Sad om tusKd ;&
v'frmS renf;ay/ oxHak 'oudk a&S;a[mif;,Ofaus;rIwnf&mXme wpfct
k jzpf tckid t
f rmowfrw
S af y;Ekid f
cJyh gonf/ ok0Pbrl d qdo
k nfrmS vnf; oxHak 'oyifjzpfaMumif; OD;zk;d vwfu] ok0Pbrl w
d idk ;f qko
d nfrmS oxHt
k ygt0ifjzpf\ }
[k 1957-58 a&S;a[mif;ESpfcsKyftpD&ifcHpmwGif tckdiftrmqkdcJhygonf/ orkdif;aumfr&SiftzJGY0if
ygarmuvk (pf) ESi?hf OD;b&Siw
f u
Ydk vnf; tvm;wlyif oxHak 'oudk ok0Pbrl ed ,fajrjzpfaMumif; todtrSwf
jyKazmfjycJMh uygonf/ jrefrmEkid if t
H wGi;f a&S;a[mif;,Ofaus;rIrsm;ESihf ,Ofaus;rIwnf&m Xmersm;udk owfrw
S f
azmfjyonft
h cg OD;zk;d vwfu (1) rGe,
f Ofaus;rI
(2) ysL,Ofaus;rI
(3) jrefrm,Ofaus;rI

- 137 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

Zkwo
f w
k &f mG odru
f ek ;f rS 80Hausmufqpf kyyf mG ;awmfrsm;

[l y"metm;jzifh oH;k rsKd ;cGjJ cm;oifah Mumif; 1959-ckEpS ?f {Nyv


D 3 &ufaehnae? yk*NH rKd aY [mif;wGif
usi;f yaom yk*&H ufowywf zGiyhf t
JG cef;tem; xkwaf zmfa[majymonf/ &ckid ,
f Ofaus;rIukd jrefrm,Ofaus;rI
wGif xnfo
U iG ;f pOf;pm;oifah Mumif; tqkjd yKonfuv
kd nf;awG&Y onf/ ( zkd;vwf? 1961? pm 15-25 )
rGe,
f Ofaus;rIuv
kd nf; 'Gg&m0wD (,k;d ',m;)rGef (ta&SY rGe)f ESihf oxHk (ok"r0wD) rGef (taemufreG )f
[lESpaf e&m? ESprf sKd ;uJjG ym;aMumif;tqkjd yKygonf/ ( OD;zkd;vwf? 1958? pm 30) ,if;'Gg&m0wDreG Ef ikd if EH iS hf
ywfoufOD;zkd;vwfua&S;tcgu xkad 'oudrk eG w
f XYdk meD 'Gg&m0wD[k ac:Mu\/ jyifopfynm&SBd u;D *s?D ap'0(pf) tvkt
d m;jzif?h
c&pfawmfEpS f (7) &mpkEpS af vmufu xif&mS ;&Sad om wkyyf nm&Scd &D;onf [l,ifqiifEiS hf tdqiifwu
Ydk ?
xkad 'oudk ]wk-d vk-d yk-d wk}d [kac:onf/ ]wk-d vk-d yk-d wk}d qko
d nfrmS ]'Gg&m0wD} [kac:q&dk if;jzpfonf
[kqkd\/ uREkfyfwkdYtzkdYrSm ,kd;',m;e,fw0kdufonf a&S;tcgu rGefvlrsdK;wkdYaexkdif&m t&yf
a'ojzpfaMumif;? if;rGev
f rl sKd ;onf Ak'b
mom0ifvrl sKd ;jzpf tdE,
d awmifyikd ;f rS ysEYH v
hHS maom ygVb
d mom/
ooFBudK#fbmom pmaytu&mwkdYukdavhvm oifMum;vsufaexkdifMuaom vlrsdK;rsm;jzpfonf[k
,lq&onf/ acwfumvtydik ;f tjcm;rSm at'D 6 &mpkEiS hf 10 &mpkEpS t
f wGi;f jzpf\/ jrefrmEkid if H
ok0Pblrdtygt0ifjzpfaom oxHkjynfrGefwkdY\ ,Ofaus;rIrSm xkd'Gg&m0wDjynf\ ,Ofaus;rIESifh
wqufwnf;jzpf\/ 'g&G m0wD onfvnf; ok0Pbrl w
d idk ;f tygt0ifjzpf\/ oxHjk ynfrS wpfqifah t'D
11 &mpkavmufwiG f yk*jH ynfoYdk xk,
d Ofaus;rIonf ysEYH v
hHS m\/ xku
d o
hJ hdk ysEYH v
YHS maMumif;udk yk*jH ynf&dS
a&S;a[mif; ausmufpmwkrhd pS omoemawmfqidk &f m a&S;a[mif;pmayzk&m;? ykx;dk ? apwDwu
Ydk axmuf
cHvsuf&Sd\/
[lazmfjyygonf/ (zkzkd;vwf? 1958? pm 38-39)

- 138 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

Zkwo
f w
k &f mG usKd ux
f ;D aqmif;bk&m;rS *0HqrG ;f wifcBkH u;D udk MumyGiyUf x
kH q
k pfxm;\

oxHu
k t
kd aemf&xm wku
d cf u
dk af tmifEidk af Mumif;tqkEd iS hf ywfoufvnf;jrefrmh tpOftvm &mZ0if
tqkrd ed rYf sm;udk awmfveS yf pfy,fjcif;rjyKy?J r[m&mZ0ifawmfBu;D ? y|rwGJ pmrsuEf mS 273 tm; ud;k um;vsuf
]wkdwkdESifhcsKH;vkdufaomf taemf&xmrif;onf oxHkjynfwjynfvHk;vkdvkdudk odrf;Hk;ac:aqmifvmNyD;?
yk*NH rKd aY wmfif;? teD;ywf0ef;usif if;toD;oD;ae&mcsxm; vkyu
f ikd pf m;aomufaexkid af p\/ &[ef;
oCFmawmfwkdY tbYkdrSmvnf;ausmif;ocFrf;rsm;aqmufvkyf if;wkdY pmayoifMum;ykdYcsaeap\/
xkt
d cgrpS vnf; yk*jH ynfzk&m;? *l? ausmif;? wefaqmif; wkaYd qmufvyk v
f LS 'ge;f aexkid pf jyKMu\/
xk*d ?l ausmif;? wefaqmif;wkYd wefqm qifvsu,
f adS om yef;csaD q;a&;um;? Zmwfeyd gwpf Ofu
h iG ;f wkw
Yd iG f
tnTef;urnf;vdyfpm tu&mwkdYrSm rGefbmomrGeftu&mjzifhjzpf\/ jrefrmurnf;vdyfpmwkdYukd
usepf pfom;rif; vGeNf y;D avmufrS awG&Y &dS \/ (zkzkd;vwf? 1958? pm 39)
[lazmfjyygonf/
OD;zkd;vwfonf a&S;a[mif;jrefrmtu&morkdif;udkvnf; avhvmcJhonf/ jrefrmpmay tu&m\
t&if;Zpfjrpfudk aqG;aEG;&m yk*HjrapwDausmufpmudk ta&;ygta&mufqHk; ausmufpmrsm;jzpfonf[kqkd
ygonf/
jrapwDausmufpmudk pHerlemxm; xkad usmufwidk f ygaom bmomtm;jzifh ausmufpm av;rsKd ;rSm
tu&mtvkt
d m;jzifh ESprf sKd ;ESppf m;omcJjG cm;Ekid \
f / if;ESprf sKd ;rSm ygV?d rGe?f jrefrmu wrsKd ;? ysLuwrsKd ;
aygi;f ESprf sKd ;jzpf\/ .
ygVd? rGef? jrefrmtu&mqdkonfrSm? wOD;ESifhwOD;ysLtu&muJhokdY cGJjcm;ac:qkdjcif;rjyKEkdifay/
tu&mtvkdtm;jzifh ygVdvnf;rGef? rGefvnf;jrefrm? jrefrmvnf;ygVdjzpfaejcif;udkawGU&\/
wpfenf;tm;jzifhqkdaomf ygVd? rGef? jrefrmwkdYudktoD;oD;tavsmuf? tu&mwrsdK;wnf;ESifh
a&;rSwx
f m;vsu,
f \
dS / (zkzkd;vwf 1958? pm 35)

- 139 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

Zkwo
f w
k &f mG *0H,Ofaus;rI jywdu
k rf S *0Hausmufx;D
[l zGiq
hf x
dk m;csut
f & jrefrmpmaytu&m\ ZpfjrpfonfreG t
f u&momjzpfonf[q
k cdk yhJ gonf/
jrefrmtu&monf rGet
f u&mrS qif;oufvmaMumif;udjk yvk
d 1957-58-ckEpS t
f wGuf ESpcf sKyt
f pD&ifcH
pmwGif ]jrefrmtu&mZ,m;yHpk (H 3)} udak emufqufwt
JG jzpfa&;qGaJ zmfjyxm;onf/ ,if;Z,m;uGurf S ]t}
tu&mwpfv;kH wnf;udk EdiI ;f ,SOMf unfjh cif;tm;jzifh jrefrmtu&m\Zpfjrpfuakd wGY Ekid af Mumif;&Si;f jyxm;ygonf/
tu&mZ,m;uGufwkdYteuf ,kd',m;jynf avmhAl&DausmufpmZ,m;uGuf (Z,m;uGuf trSwf 20)
wGiaf zmfjyxm;aom ]t} tu&mwkEYd iS hf yk*NH rKd t
U aemf&xmrif;\ vufa&;pmZ,m;uGuf (Z,m;uGut
f rSwf
24) wGiaf &;qGx
J m;aom ]t} tu&mwku
Yd kd ,SOMf unfv
h u
dk af omf uGjJ ym;jcm;em;rIr&Sad Mumif;? oufaojy
xm;ygonf/ if;u
jrefrmwko
Yd nf ysLwkEYd iS hf a&m>yrf;aejcif;jzpfygvsuEf iS hf ysLwk\
Yd tu&ma&;om; oH;k pGjJ cif;rjyK aMumif;udk
xkd ]t} uyifoufaocHvsu&f \
dS / oufaocHyrkH mS yk*NH rKd Y jrapwD ysLausmufpmwGiyf gaom ]t}
tu&m\yko
H @mefrmS a&S;rlrysuyf aJ jcwH&n
S Ef iS hf awGjh rif&\/ xkad jcwH&n
S f txufyikd ;f &Sd tu&mtrSwf
tom;wkdYrSmvnf;xl;jcm;\/ ,if; ]t} ESifh avmAl&DrGef ]t} uoD;jcm;uGJjym;\/ jrapwD
ausmufpmwGiyf gaom rGepf m ]t} ESihf jrefrm ]t} wku
Yd kd vH;k csn;f pGx
J w
k Mf unfv
h Qif rnfonft
h u&mu
rGet
f u&mjzpfonf/ rnfonft
h u&mu jrefrmtu&m jzpfonf[
l cGjJ cm;ajymqkEd idk rf nf r[kwaf y/
xkdtu&momvQif r[kwfyJ if;Z,m;uGufoHk;uGufatmufokdY avQmufMunfUvkdufaomf rGefESifh
jrefrmwku
Yd wjcm;? ysLuwjcm;jzpfaMumif; awGY jrifEidk yf gvrd rhf nf/ (zk;d vwf? 1958? pm 46)
[lxyfrH&Sif;jyxm;onf udkawGY&ygonf/

- 140 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

jrefrmpmESihf ywfoufOD;zk;d vwfu ]yk*,


H Ofaus;rIwiG f rSwo
f m;bG,&f mtcsurf sm;} acgi;f pOfjzifh
okdYa[majymcJhygonf/
oa&acw&macwf? yk*HvufrGefacwfwkdh ysLwkdYESifh a&maESmaexkdifvsuf,Sdaom jrefrmwkdYwGif
jrefrmpm[loD;jcm;&SdyHkray:acs/ xkdacwfjrefrmwkdYonf rdrdwkdYaqmif&GufzG,f&Sdaomta&; udpwkdY
wGif ysLbmomESihf ysLpmudo
k mvQif oH;k pGv
J mcJo
h nf[k xif&ef,adS vonf/ xkpd Oftcg ysLpmESihf
ysLtu&mrsm;jzifh jrefrmbmomudka&;om;jcif;iSg wwfaumif;vdrfhrnfr[kwfacs/.
xkaYd Mumifh jrefrmvlrsKd ;wko
Yd nf taemf&xmrif;apmvufxuf oxHjk ynfukd wku
d cf u
dk f atmifjrifNy;D
aemuf rGepf mayESirhf eG t
f u&mwkjYd zifh jrefrmbmomudk pwifwx
D iG af &;om;jcif;jyKaom tcgusro
S m
vQif jrefrmwkhd ud,
k yf ikd pf mrsm;&Sv
d mNy;D vQif xkt
d vsiu
f aomf ysLbmomESihf ysLpmudo
k mvQif a&;om;
oHk;pJGvsuf &Sdonf[k,lq&\/
oxHkudkwkdufckdufatmifjrif rGefpmESifhtu&mrsm;udk &,SdNyD;rSomvQif xkdtu&mrsm;jzifh jrefrm
bmomudk jrefrmwkpYd wifa&;om;&ef tm;xkwaf Mumif;udk yk*aH cwfwiG f a&S;OD;pGmawG&Y aom jrefrm
ausmufpm ta&;tom;rsm;u oufaocHvsuf,Sdavonf/ xkdausmufpmwkdYwGif jrefrmwkdY
onfjrefrmpum;rsm;udk ajymqko
d nft
h wkid ;f a&;om;&m pum;0gusrsm;udv
k nf; tawmfccJ ,
J Of;,Of;
pD a&;om;Mu&onfuakd wG&Y ayonf (zkzkd;vwf? 1961? pm 29)/
OD;zkd;vwfu jrefrmwEkdifiHvHk; taemf&xmacwfESifh usefppfom;acwfwkdYxuf a&S;usaom
jrefrmtu&mta&;tom;wkdYudk rawGY&aMumif;? a&S;OD;pGmawGY&aom jrefrmtu&m ta&;tom;rSmvnf;
rGet
f u&mta&;tom; pmvH;k aygi;f rsm;ESihf rsm;pGmwlnv
D su&f adS Mumif;? xkaYd Mumifh oxHjk ynfukd taemf&xmrif;
wku
d cf u
dk rf atmifjrifrD jrefrmwkhd ud,
k yf ikd pf m[l r&Sb
d ?J ysLbmomjzifh ysLpmudo
k m om;a&;oH;k pJv
GJ su&f adS Mumif;
a[majymwifjycJhygonf/

Zkwo
f w
k &f mG *0H,Ofaus;rI jywdu
k rf S *0Hausmufqpfvuf&mrsm;

- 141 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

ausmufqpf qDr;D tdrf

av;rsufESmbk&m;

txufygOD;zkd;vwf\ tmabmfaumufEkwfcsufrsm;udk MunfhvQifok0PblrdESifh ywfoufaom


if;\oabmxm;tjrifudk awGY jrifEkdifayonf/
OD;zk;d vwfonf 1958-ckEpS {f Nyv
D twGi;f u rdrad &muf&cdS ahJ om oxHak 'oESihf ywfouf atmufyg
orkdif;Iaxmifhtjrifrsm;udk xkwfazmfcJhaMumif;awGY&onf/
1/ ok0Pbrl [
d o
l nf atmufjrefrmEkid if ?H oxHak 'oyifjzpfonf/ ,if;oxHo
k nf orkid ;f acwfpOf
(Chronology) t&yk*(H 11-&mpkEp
S )f xufy
dk a&S;usonf/
2/ yk*t
H aemf&xmrif;vufxuf (at'D 1097) wGipf pfcsw
D ufwu
dk cf u
dk o
f rd ;f oGi;f cJah om oxHq
k dk
onfrmS vnf; atmufjrefrmEkid if u
H oxHyk ifjzpfonf/ ,d;k ',m; (xkid ;f ) Ekid if t
H wGi;f &Sd euGeyf xkrNf rKd Y
r[kwf/
3/ oxkrH yS #d uwfusr;f pmrsm;? usr;f *efwwf&[ef;awmfrsm; yk*o
H aYdk &muf&NdS y;D ? Ak'o
momem yk
d
pnfyifxeG ;f um;onf/ xkt
d csuu
f akd xmufoxHo
k Ydk yd#uwfawmfrsm;a&muf&dS vmcJyh u
kH v
kd nf;
t&Sifr[mAk'aCmorax&f aqmif,lvmcJhjcif;omjzpfEkdifaMumif; qkdvkdayonf/
4/ rdru
d ,
kd w
f idk u
f iG ;f qif; auvmoawmifajcrS a*gVrwdu
e*&? wku
d u
f v
k m;NrKd u
Y kd &SmazGawGY
&Scd ahJ Mumif; azmfjycJo
h jzifh t&Siaf omPESihf Ow&rax&fwo
Ydk moem jyK<ua&mufawmfral om
ok0Pbrl ?d ok"r0wDNrKd aU [mif;onf if;auvmoawmif ajca'oyifjzpfEidk f aMumif;cefrh eS ;f
,lqonf/

- 142 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

uJo
h yYdk if OD;zk;d vwf\ 1958 ckEpS Ef iS hf 1960 jynfv
h eG Ef pS rf sm;twGi;f a&S;a[mif;okawoec&D;
xGufjcif;? jrefrmEkdifiHorkdif;ESifh ,Ofaus;rIqkdif&mrsm;udk a[majymwifjyjcif;rsm;udk MunfhvQifjrefrmEkdifiH
a&S;a[mif;okawoeXme? nTefMum;a&;0efwpfOD;taejzifh atmufjrefrmEkdifiH oxHka'oonf a&S;a[mif;
ok0Pblrd,Ofaus;rI e,fajrwpfckjzpfaMumif; todtrSwfjyKxm;cJhonfudk awGY&rnfjzpfygonf/
okdY&mwGif a&S;a[mif;taqmufttHk AdokumtEkynmvuf&m taxmuftxm;rsm;taeESifhrl
oxHak 'owGirf ,fr,f&& rdrrd awG&Y aMumif; tqkjd yKxm;\/ if;\ 1958 ckEpS f uGi;f qif;c&D;pOftwGi;f
1/ Zkwo
f w
k &f mG usKd ux
f ;D aqmif;apwD?
2/ Zkwo
f w
k &f mG qifwyfjrif;wyf?
3/ rkoif&GmNrdKUkd;a[mif;ESifh *0HausmufkyfyGm;awmfrsm;?
4/ bD;vif;e,f? tvl;uav;&Gm usKd uyf wJapwD?
5/ oxHkuvsmPDodrfywfvnfrSvdyfoJausmufwkdif?ausmufjym;rsm;rS ZmwfawmfBuD;q,fbJGY
tkyrf sm;?
6/ odMum;bk&m;rS a&S;a[mif;rGefpOfhcsyfrsm;?
7/ rkwr NrKd U jrode;f wefapwDEiS hf acwfv,freG t
f u&mjzifah &;xk;d xm;aom acgi;f avmif;pm
8/ u&ifjynfe,fbm;tHNrdKUteD;aumh*Gef;*l?
9/ yJc;l NrKd t
U a&SaU &Teo
YH mESihf taemufa&Teo
YH mapwD&dS ausmufcsyAf 'k yk yf mG ;awmfrsm;? em*0Hord Ef iS hf
vGefpGma&S;usaom Ak'yHkawmfausmufcsyf
10/ wGaH w; (a&S;vNrKd Y ) rS ]armif;wD;} [kac:aomapwDEiS hf xkad pwDrt
S aemf&xmrif; tkwcf u
G rf sm;
udo
k mrSww
f rf;wifc&hJ \/ (zk;d vwf? 1961? pm 17-19) ,if;taxmuftxm;rsm;t&

ESpfusdwf&Spfql 80Hausmufqpfvuf&m

- 143 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

rGew
f \
Ydk (oxH)k ,Ofaus;rIrmS trsm;tm;jzift
h Ed ,
d jynf\ ta&Su
U rf;ajca'ojzpfaom umv*F?
awv*Fe? tEm&paomEkid if w
H rYdk S &&S
d Adou
k mtwwf? yefyt
k wwf? yef&ef twwf? yefyt
J wwf?
euwfaA'iftwwf? aq;twwf? uAsmvuFmtwwf? yefwsmtwwfpnfwkdY tqifhtwef;
jrifhcJhonf[k ,HkMunf&ef&Sdayonf/
[ktuJjzwfonf/ if;a&S;rGef,Ofaus;rItaqmufttHkESifh tEkynmvuf&mt<uif;tusefwkdYudk atmuf
jrefrmjynfwpfckvHk; tESHYtjym;&Sdonf[krdrd,lqaMumif;? okdY&mwGifrsm;pGmwkdYrSmajray:wGif r&SdawmhbJ?
ajratmufwGifom ckdatmif;aeNyD;vQifawmBuD;rsm; zHk;vTrf;vsufaeonf[kxif&ef &SdaMumif;? okdhjzpf
wl;azmf&efvnf; vG,u
f v
l rd rhf nfr[kwaf Mumif; qufvufwifjyxm;onfukd awG&Y ygonf/ (zk;d vwf? 1961?
pm-19)/
oxHrk mS Adou
k mqkid &f m taqmufttHrk sm;rdrrd awG&Y jcif;udt
k aMumif;jyK yk*aH cwf Adou
k mtEkynm
(Monumental Civlization) ,Ofaus;rIonf oxH,
k Ofaus;rIMoZm oufa&mufr&I adS Mumif;qku
d kd OD;zk;d vwfu
jiif;y,fcyhJ gonf/ tqkEd iS fh ywfoufvnf;
tcsdKYuoxHkjynfudk taemf&xmrif;wkdufckdufratmifjrifrD yk*H,Ofaus;rIvHk0r&Sd oavmuf
ajymqkd,lqvsuf&SdMuonf/ okdY,lqjcif;rSm tjrifrus,faom,lqjcif;om jzpfacsonf/
oxHjk ynfukd taemf&xmrif;apmwku
d cf u
kd af tmifjrifNy;D aemuf oxHjk ynfrS yef;&ef? yef;wdr?f yef;cs?D
yef;yk? Adou
k mpaom yeftwwfynmonfwu
Ydk kd ac:aqmif vmaomtcgusro
S mvQif yk*jH ynf
xkt
d Ekynm yeftwwfrsm; xGe;f um;vmonf[k r,lq&m r. eG o
f yYkH ef;rsm;yk*jH ynf okYd ra&mufru
D
yk*jH ynfwiG Af o
d u
k mrsm;/ yef&efrsm;? yefyrJ sm;? yefxserf sm;,Sad eNy;D om;jzpfonf [k,q
l oifah vonf/
xkdaMumifhyk*HacwfwGif wnfaqmufcJhaomtaqmuftOD;rsm;teuf rnfonfhtaqmuf tOD;rSm
rGefvuf&mjzpf? rnfonfhtaqmuftOD;rSm jrefrmvuf&mjzpfonf[laom ,lqcsufrsm;rSm
t"dyg,fr&Sdacs/
[kxifjrif,q
l xm;ayonf (zk;d vwf? 1961? pm 31-2)/
uJo
h x
Ydk ifjrif,q
l csut
f ay:y
kd ckid rf matmif 1962-ckEpS w
f iG x
f w
k af 0cJah om OD;zk;d vwf\ ]a&S;a[mif;
jrefrm&mZ0ifEiS hf ,Ofaus;rIoak woe} pmwrf;wGiaf tmufygtwkid ;f qufvufwifjyxm;yHu
k kd awG&Y \/
yk*&H ufowywfa[majymyGrJ sm;wGif uREyfk w
f x
Ydk w
k q
f cdk ahJ om tcsuw
f pf&yfuw
kd ifjyygrnf/ xkt
d csurf mS
okawoDwpfpkwdkYu yk*H,Sda&S;a[mif;taqmuftOD;rsm;teuf tcsdKYwkdYudk rGefvuf&m[l if;?
tcsKd w
Y u
Ydk jkd refrmvuf&m[l if;cGjJ cm;ac:jy,lqvsu&f MdS uonfrmS t"dyg ,rf ,S[
d al om tcsuyf if
jzpfacsonf/
yk*jH ynf,t
dS aqmuftOD;rsm;ESihf yefcs?D yefy?k t*Fawyef;? pOfch sy?f tkwcf u
G pf onfwu
Ydk dk rGev
f uf&m
jzpfonf/ jrefrmvuf&mjzpfonf[kajymqkd,lqjcif;\ taMumif;&if;rSm tcsdKYtaqmuftOD;wkdh\
eH&pH onfww
Ydk iG af omfif;? rGr;f rHoif;ESx
H m;onfU yefcs?D yefy?k pOfch sy?f tkwcf u
G pf onfww
Ydk iG af omfif;?
rGeb
f momjzifph mrsm;udk a&;om;vsu,
f o
dS nfuakd wG&Y ? tcsKd Y wkw
Yd iG af omfjrefrmbmomjzifh pmrsm;udk
a&;om;xm;onfudk awGY&jcif;jzpfavonf/

- 144 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

yk*jH ynf usepf pfom;rif;vufxufwiG f aqmufvyk af omtaqmuftOD;rsm;udk rGev


f uf&mrsm; jzpf
onf[k ,lqajymqk&d m ,if;taqmufttHrk sm;wGif rGepf mayta&;tom;rsm; awG&Y onfrw
S yg;
tjcm;ckid v
f akH omtaMumif; ,kwrd sm;vnf; rnfonfrQr,Sad cs/
,if;taqmuftOD;rsm;\ yHyk ef;o@meftEkynmvuf&mwk\
Yd t*FgvuPm&yfrsm;udk axmufjcif;
jzif,
h if;wkrYd mS rGew
f \
hdk (oxH)k vuf&mrsm;omjzpfoifrh nf[k qk&d avmufatmif ,if;wkEYd iS hf toGif
o@meft*FgvuPm&yfrsm; wlnDonfU ,if;wkdY\rl&if;yHk (Proto Type) [kac:qkdxdkufaom
,if;wkhd xufa&S;usonfh taqmuftOD;tEkynm vuf&mponfwu
Ydk kd rGew
f aYdk exkid cf ahJ omjynfe,f
wkw
hd iG f bmwpfcrk QawG&Y jcif;vnf;r,Sad cs/ rGew
f \
Ydk a&S;taqmuftOD;rsm;ESihf tEkynmvuf&mrsm;rSm
vGepf mG ,d,
k iG ;f ysupf ;D vG,af om *0Hausmufjzifo
h mvQif Ny;D ojzifyh *k aH cwftaqmuftOD;ESiv
hf uf&m
rsm;\ pHjytaejzifh ,lq&efrnfonft
h &mrQ <uif;usecf jhJ cif;r,Sad wmhacs[k qko
d ifah vmufatmifyif
,Sdacsonf/
tenf;i,frQom awG,
Y &dS aom (oxHk ? odMum;bk&m;teD;? uvsmPDord ef rd w
d w
f Ydk vdyo
f nf;
ausmufyefyv
k uf&mwkEYd iS hf pyfvsO;f vnf; xkvyk o
f nfah cwfrsm;udk cefrY eS ;f &ef vGepf mG cJ,
h Of;vsu,
f dS
acsonf ( OD;zk;d vwf? a&S;a[mif;jrefrm&mZ0ifESifh ,Ofaus;rIokawoe
woe? &efuek ?f ynmeEykH
ESyd w
f u
dk ?f 1962? pm/ 43-44)/
txufyg OD;zkd;vwf\ t,ltqonf ok0PblrdoxHkokawoevkyfief;tay:wGif tenf;ESifh
H nf
trsm;*,ufu
kd cf wfr&I cdS yhJ gonf/ yk*aH cwfa&S;a[mif;Adou
k mtaqmufttHw
k \
Ydk rl&if; (Proto Type) yHpk o
oxHrk [kw?f oa&acw&mysLAdou
k mom t&if;wnf vsu&f adS Mumif; aemiftcgwifjyvmMuaom? aygvf
px&uf*sifESifh rkdufu,fatmifoGifwkdY\ t,ltqjzpfay:vmatmif tpysdK;vrf;cif;ay;xm;vkdufouJhokdY
&Sdygonf/
yk*aH pwDyx
k ;dk rsm;teuf taemf&xmrif;aumif;rIawmfjzpfaom avmueEmapwDEiS hf a&TqaH wmfapwD
wkdYudka&S;tusqHk;jzpfonf[k qkdMu\/ avmueEmapwD? jrif;uygapwDwkdYonf oa&acw&maygaygBuD;
(abmabmBuD;) bk&m;uJhokdYvHk;ywfo@mefcsif;qifwl oa&acw&m rl&if;[kqkd&rnfjzpfaomfvnf;?
a&TqHawmfapwDrSmrl atmufajcwGifyp,mqifhrsm;cHjcif;? xkdyp,mrsm;wGif ewfavSum;rsm;wyfqifjcif;?
xdyyf ikd ;f wGif azgi;f &pftqifq
h ifrh rG ;f rHjcif;wkrYd mS oa&acw&mapwD yHpk rH sKd ;r[kwaf y/ taemf&xmvufxuf
pwifwnfxm;cJNh y;D ? usepf pfom; vufxufwiG f tNy;D owfwnfxm;cJah om a&Tpnf;cHak pwDrmS vnf; yp,m
oH;k qifEh iS hf ewfvrf;avSum;rsm; wyfqifxm;onfU yk*aH cwfO;D apwDwpfqyl ifjzpfygonf/ if;Adou
k myHpk jH zifh
apwDudk oxHkodMum;bk&m;wGifvnf;awGY jrifEkdifayonf/ ZkwfokwfusdKufxD;apmif;apwDrSmvnf;awGY jrif
Ekdifao;ojzifh atmufjrefrmEkdifiHoxHk a'orl&if;yHkpHrsdK;jzpfonf[kqkdEkdifygonf/
yk*aH cwfO;D vkP
d *f b
l &k m;rsm;yHpk rH sKd ;udv
k nf; oxHak &Tpm&H bk&m;y&0kPt
f wGi;f &Sd yd#uwfwu
dk af pwDukd
erlemyHpk t
H jzpf awGY jrifEidk af yonf/ ,if;a&S;a[mif; taqmufttHw
k rYdk mS oxHak 'owGif yk*t
H aemf&xmrif;
vufxufrwkdifrDu taqmufttHkrsm;jzpfEkdifNyD; &Sm;&Sm;yg;yg;<uif;usef&pfaom Adokumvuf&mrsm;tjzpf
owfrw
S &f rnfjzpfygonf/ pifppfy*k rH mS yif taemf&xmrif; vufxufrwkid rf u
D wnfxm;cJah om taqmufttHk
rsm;[l nTefjyp&mtvGefenf;yg;vS\/ yk*HuJhokdYrkd;enf;yg;aom a'orSmyif taemf&xmxufydkapmaom
taqmufttHrk sm; t<uif;tuserf awGEY idk af Mumif;udk axmufxm;vQirf ;dk rsm;aom oxHak 'orSmyify
kd ysupf ;D
aysmufuG,faernf[k ,lqp&mtaMumif;&Sdygonf/

- 145 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

OD;zkd;vwfonf 4if;c&D;xGufcJhpOfu ta&;ygaom ,Ofaus;rIXmewpfckjzpfonfh BuHKwlvnf;r


a&mufcahJ y/ if;txufu ausmufpm0ef'l KdG iZf ,frw
S w
f rf;wifcahJ om BuKH wb
l &k m;rSpOfu
h iG ;f rsm;udk oxH,
k Of
aus;rIwGifxnfhoGif; pOf;pm;cJUjcif;r&Sday/
oxHo
k Md um;bk&m;pOfu
h iG ;f (ajrrD;zkwf yk <f u) yHrk sm;ESiq
hf ufpyfaeaom oxHu
k vsmPDord f edrw
d f
wkid rf S vdyo
f aJ usmufA'k 0 ifyk <f ursm;udk OD;zk;d vwfu&ufpt
JG wdtus rajymEkid o
f jzifh oxHak cwfvuf&m[k
ajym&ef 0efav;aecJyh &kH ygonf/ uvsmPDord [
f al om trnfrmS vnf; yJc;l "rapwDrif;\ uvsmPDord Ef iS hf
trnfcsif;a&maxG;aeonfjzpf c&pf 15-&mpkESpf&ufpGJESifh ,SOfNyD;aeygonf/ ausmufpm0efOD;jruvnf;
uvsmPDausmufqpfyk w
f Ydk &ufpu
JG kd 11-12 &mpkEpS f vuf&mrsm;[kcefrY eS ;f ay;xm;cJzh ;l \/ trSerf mS xkad usmuf
qpfyk <f uyHrk sm;\ vuf&mudMk unf
U ygarmuvpk o
f nf yk*rH wkid rf u
D oxHak cwfvuf&mrsm;jzpfaMumif;cefrh eS ;f
wifjyxm;ayonf/ (Luee, Phases of Pre-Pagan Burma, Volume II, Plates, 92m bm c, d, 93, a, b, c,
h iG ;f rsm;onfvnf; oxHrk ysurf u
D tEkynmvuf&mrsm;jzpf
d, 94, a, b, c, d, 95, a, b, c, d) odMum;bk&m;pOfu
onft
U jyif oxHw
k iG f *0HavhEiS hf yl;wGv
J suaf jrrD;zkwt
f EkynmxGe;f um;aMumif; oufaojyaeygonf/ aemuf
xyfajrrD;zkwf tEkynmxGe;f um;aMumif; oufaowpfcrk mS BuKH wpl Ofu
h iG ;f rsm;yifjzpfMu\/ bk&m;wHwidk ;f wGif
uyfp;D Ny;D wefqmqif,ifxm;jcif;jzpf Ak'b
moma&; Adou
k mtwwfynmESihf ajrrD;zkwf yk <f utEkynmwku
Yd kd
,SOw
f v
JG suaf wGjY rifjcif;yifjzpfygonf/ BuKH wo
l nf c&pfEpS f 7-8&mpkEpS f rsm;xufaemufrusEidk af y/ tcsuu
f kd
OD;zk;d vwfu xnfo
h iG ;f pOf;pm;cJyh u
kH rkd awG&Y ay/
OD;zk;d vwf\ 1958-ckEpS af rmfvNrKd i?f bm;tH? rkwr ? oxH?k bD;vif;? usKd ux
f cdk &D;pOfrsm;udk a0zef
oHk;oyf&vQif a&S;a[mif;okawoepl;prf;avhvma&;c&D; (Archaeological Exploration) wpfckxuf?
Xmeqkid &f mtBu;D tuJwpfO;D u e,fvn
S chf &D;xGupf pfaq;Munfh aI omc&D; (Inspection Tour) wpfct
k oGiu
f kd
om aqmifonf[q
k &dk ygrnf/ xkpd OfuoxHck dik t
f wGi;f e,fajrat;csr;f rI r&Sad o;onft
h wGuf c&D;pOfumv
rsm;vnf; wkad wmif;Ny;D tvsipf vk&d v
dS yS gonf/ oxHck dik w
f iG f (23? {NyrD S 29 {Nyt
D xd) &ufowywfrQ
omMumcJhonf/ ausmufpmul;vkyfief;udk OD;pm;ay;vkyfcJhNyD;? NrdKYa[mif;rsm;azmfxkwfa&;udk omrefrQom
aqmif&u
G cf &hJ \/ c&D;xGuf tzGw
YJ iG f wl;azmfru
I Rr;f usio
f l (Excavator) vnf;yg0ifcjhJ cif;r&Sad o;ay/ (xkpd Ofu
ausmufpm0ef OD;vlaz0if;\ pDrHudef;t& aoG;opfavmif;vli,f a&S;a[mif;okawoDrsm;avhusifhay;a&;
tpDtpOft& yxrqH;k Ekifd if jH cm;okYd apvTw
f ynmoif,al eol OD;atmifaomfonf tdE,
d Ekid if w
H iG f ynmoif,l
aeqJjzpf\/) xkaYd Mumifh ,Ofaus;rIe,fajrwpfcu
k kd a&S;a[mif;okawoeenf;jzifh pepfwus pl;prf;avUvmrI
(Surveying) ESihf vufawGw
Y ;l azmfrI (Excavation) rsm;udak tmufjrefrf mEkid if H oxHak 'owGif rjyKEidk cf ahJ o;aMumif;
awGY&rnfjzpfygonf/
1958-ckEpS w
f iG f tdE,
d okYd ynmawmfoifap vTwcf NhJ y;D 1959 ckEpS af tmufwb
dk mv jyefvnf
a&muf&SdvmcJhaom OD;jrifhatmifonf aemiftcgoxHka'orS ok0PblrdNrdKUa[mif;wl;azmfrI (1974-78)
udkaAGaqmfOD; aqmif&GufcJh&oljzpfvmcJh\/
OD;jrifah tmif\ 0if;uwl;azmfrI (1976-78) wGit
f w
k w
f u
dk t
f aqmufttHak [mif; (6)ck (Wk 1-6)
udkwl;azmfawGY&SdcJhygonf/ ,if;wl;azmfrIt& oxHka'orSm *0Htkwfjzifhomru ajrrD;zkwftkwfjzifh wnf
aqmufaom a&S;a[mif;taqmufttHrk sm; (Monumental Civilization) &Scd ahJ Mumif; od&&dS ayonf/ xkpd Oftcgu
OD ; jrif h a tmif w l ; azmf c J h a om tk w f u k e f ; rsm;rS x G u f a y:vmonf h tk w f w k d u f t aqmuf t OD ; rsm;ud k

- 146 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

yEuyf pkH rH Qomazmfxw


k Ef idk af wmhaMumif; awG&U \/ taqmuftOD;\ txuf0gtpdyt
f ydik ;f rsm;udk rawG&Y awmhay/
okjYd zpf ,if;taqmufttHw
k \
Ydk yGe;f wD;,k,
d iG ;f rItajctaet& oufwrf;tm;jzift
h vGef a&S;usyu
kH ckd efrY eS ;f
k ;D aphEiS hf a&zse;f tk;d
Ekid af yonf/ 0if;u-trSwf (1) uke;f Wk-1 wl;azmfrrI S awG&U aomajrykw;D ausmufyw
vnfwkdifrsm;t& 0if;utaqmuftOD;onf ysLacwfNydKifjzpfEkdifaMumif; EdIif;,SOfacwfcGJ enf; (Relative
d ;f cefrY eS ;f wifjycJyh gonf/
Dating) jzifh atmufygtwki
,ckacwfo0k Pbrl Nd rKd aU wmfwnf&&dS m[k rSww
f rf;jyKxm;aom 0if;u&Gmwl;azmfrrI S Zvkyyf g&dS tk;d EIwo
f ;D
ESpcf Ek iS hf a&zse;f tk;d vnfwefav;ck udx
k yfrH wl;azmf&&Scd jhJ yefonf/
,if;a&jzef;tkd;rSm 'udPukef;jrifh (tdEd,) wae&m&Sd ]&ef;r[vfNrdKUa[mif;} ESifh jrefrmjynf
AdEdk;NrdKYa[mif;wkdY awGY&aoma&jzef;tkd;ykHpHrsm;ESifh wlnDaMumif;od&\/
odcYk &pf&mpkEpS t
f apmydik ;f qkid &f m tdE,
d orkid ;f 0ifa'orsm;ESihf tqufo,
G &f cdS yhJ u
kH kd cefrY eS ;f Ekid jf cif;
tm;jzifh rGefjynfe,fok0Pblrdwnfae&m[kowfrSwfxm;Muaom 0if;u&Gmwl;azmfrI taqmuf
ttHBk u;D udk ckEpS yf ikd ;f jcm;vmEdik af yonf/ xkaYd Mumifch &pfEpS t
f apmydik ;f tdE,
d tk;d tifrsm;ESihf ykpH cH si;f
wlnrD t
I & 0if;utaqmufto
kH nf a&S;tusq;kH c&pf&mpk tapmydik ;f rsm;ESio
hf ufqidk
f Adou
k myHpk H
taejzifh aemuftusq;kH yk*aH cwfEiS o
hf ufqidk o
f nf [kr,kwrf vGef qkEd idk af yawmhonf/
(OD;jrifah tmif ]ok0Pbrl w
d ;l azmfru
I adk cwfcjJG cif;} rGefjynfe,faeYtxdrf;trSwfpmapmif? 1977? rwfv?
pm 39-42)/
OD;zkd;vwfvufxuf 1960-jynfhvGefESpfrsm;txd oxHke,fwGif yk*Hxufydkapmaom tkwfwkduf
taqmuftOD;rsm;r&SEd idk af Mumif;,lqxm;cJo
h nfukd a&S;a[mif;okawoerSL; OD;jrifah tmifu 1970 jynfv
h eG f
ESprf sm;twGi;f wl;azmfoak woejyKazmfxw
k af y;cJo
h nfh om"uudk awG&Y jcif;yifjzpfygonf/ OD;zk;d vwfu
a&S;rGe,
f Ofaus;rItaqmuftOD;ESihf tEkynmvuf&mt<uif;tusew
f u
Ydk kd atmufjrefrmjynfwckv;kH
tESt
YH jym;,So
d nf[k ,lq&ef,o
dS nf/ ok&Yd mwGirf sm;pGmwkrYd mS ajray:wiG f r,Sad wmhy?J ajratmufwiG o
f m
ckad tmif;aeNy;D vQif awmBu;D rsm;jzifzh ;kH vTr;f vsuaf eonf [kxif&ef,o
dS nf/ xkaYd Mumifh wl;azmf&ef
vnf;vG,u
f v
l rd rhf nfr[kwyf g/ (zd;k vwf? 1961? 19)
[lxifjrif,q
l xm;cJo
h nf/ xku
d o
hJ Ydk wl;azmf&efrvG,u
f [
l q
k adk om udpu
kd if; aemuf (10) ESpt
f MumwGif
vufawGYwl;azmfokawoejyKEkdifcJhaMumif;awGY&ayonf/
OD;zkd;vwf\ 1958 ckESpf ok0Pblrdpl;prf;&SmazGa&;c&D;pOftwGif; oxHka'o&Sd a&S;a[mif;
taqmuftOD;rsm;ESihf ,Ofaus;rIypn;f rsm;udk "mwfyakH ygi;f (211) yHk u
kd u
f ;l vsurf w
S w
f rf; wifco
hJ nfrmS
aemifvmaemifom;rsm;twGuf tm;xm;p&m taxmuftxm;rsm;jzpfcyhJ gonf/ if;wkrYd mS
1/ u&ifjynfe,f
zm;uyf&Gm
2/ oxHk
3/ usdKufxkdESifh

"mwfyt
kH rSwf
"mwfyt
kH rSwf
"mwfyHktrSwf

7714 rS
7749
7750 rS
7789 xd
7790 rS

- 147 -

35 yHk
9 yHk

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

4/ Zkwfokwf
5/ rkwrNrdKY
6/ yJc;l NrKd Y
7/ wHGaw;NrdKY

bD;vif;
"mwfyt
kH rSwf
"mwfyHktrSwf
"mwfyt
kH rSwf
"mwfyHktrSwf

ok aw o e

7796 xd
7797 rS
4852
7853 rS
7854 xd
7855 rS
7880 xd
7881 rS
7936 xd
pkpkaygif;

6 yHk
55 yHk
2 yHk
25 yHk
55 yHk
217

(1957-58 ESpcf sKy?f pm-82-87)


Old Burma Early Pagan pmtkyE
f iS hf
aemiftcg "gwyf rkH sm;onf ygarmuvpk \
f
Burma pmtkyfrsm;jyKpkoifhonfhtcg taxmuftxm;rsm;jzpfvmcJhygonf/

Phase of Pre-Pagan

jrefrmEkid if H a&S;a[mif;a'otEHt
hS jym;okYd 1957-58 ckEpS t
f wGi;f c&D;xGucf o
hJ nfh tusK;d &v'fwpfcrk mS
EkdifiHawmftpkd;&u xdef;odrf;apmihfa&Smufxm;aom rlvpm&if;a[mif;yg taqmuftOD 85 ckteuf
taqmuftOD; 35 ckux
kd yfrjH znfpU u
G Ef ikd cf jhJ cif;jzpfonf[k OD;zk;d vwfu qkyd gonf/ xko
d jhdk znfph u
G jf cif;aMumifh
Z,m;0ifxed ;f odr;f apmifah &Smufxm;aom a&S;a[mif;taqmuftOD;pkpak ygi;f (120) txdw;dk wufvmcJo
h nf[k
wifjycJo
h nf/ okaYd omfokYd xyfrjH znfph u
G cf ahJ om Z,m;0ifa&S;a[mif; taqmuftOD (35) ckwpYdk m&if;wGif
atmufjrefrmEdik if rH S taqmuftODwpfcrk Qryg0ifcahJ y/ jrif;NccH dik ?f jynfcdik ?f ppfawGcdik Ef iS hf rauG;cdik w
f rYdk S
a&S;a[mif;taqmuftODwo
Ydk m yg0ifonf (1957-58-ESpcf sKypf m-58)/
xkt
Yd jyify*k NH rKd &Y dS a&S;a[mif;okawoe qkid &f mjywku
d Ef iS hf ppfawGcdik ?f NrKd aY [mif;jywku
d w
f Ydk xm;&Sd
ouJhokdY atmufjrefrmEkdifiHoxHka'owGif a&S;a[mif;okawoeqkdif&mjywkdufwpfckudk owfowfrSwfrSwf
xlaxmifxm;&SEd idk cf jhJ cif;r&Sad o; onfuv
kd nf; awG&Y ayonf (1957-58 ESpcf sKy?f pm 26-31)/ okjhd zpfaomf
jim;vnf; aemiftcg oxHNk rKd aY &Tpm&Hb&k m;0if;twGi;f &Sd ausmufpmwkid rf sm;ESihf a&S;a[mif;kyyf mG ;qif;wktcsKd u
Y kd
xde;f odr;f &eftaqmufttHw
k pfcw
k nfjcif;? qifwyfjrif;wyf *0Hausmufqpfyk w
f ef;&S&d m ay (180) t&Snf
NrKd Y ;kd a[mif;wpfyikd ;f udk tay:uuGeu
f &pf trd;k jzifx
h ed ;f odr;f ay;jcif;wkrYd mS OD;zk;d vwfc&D;pOf\ aemufqufwJG
tcsdK;&v'frsm;[kyifqkd&ygrnf/ aemiftcga&S;a[mif; ,Ofaus;rIjywkdufudk rGefjynfe,f? armfvNrdKifNrdKYwGif
wnfaxmifziG v
hf pS af y;cJyh gonf/ oxHNk rKd w
Y iG f uJo
h jhdk ywku
d f wpfcw
k nfrxm;cJb
h ?J oxHt
k pm;armfvNrKd if
wnfxm;cJjh cif;rSm oxHNk rKd aY [mif;\ orkid ;f ta&;ygru
I kd usqif;oGm;apNy;D ? oxHv
k nf;arS;rSed f aysmufu,
G v
f v
k k
tajctaeokdY qkdufa&mufaeaMumif; owdjyKrdMu[efrwlay/

- 148 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

a':oif;Munf? Akvd rf LS ;b&Si?f a'gufwmoef;xGe;f


zdk;vwf? ygarmua'gufwma':oif;Munfu ppfynm*sme,fwGif} ok0Pblrd oxHkNrdKYa[mif;
avhvmcsufrsm; aqmif;yg;udka&;om;onfUtcg taemf&xmrif;ESifh rEl[mrif;wkdY ppfyGJcif;usif;wkdufckduf
cJph Ofu oxHNk rKd aY [mif;\ umuG,af &;tpDtrHrsm; jyKvyk x
f m;yHrk sm;udk yx0D0iftaetxm;rsm; jyKvyk x
f m;
yHrk sm;udk yx0Dtaetxm;Iaxmifrh MS unf
U aqG;aEG;wifjycJo
h nf/ ( ppfynm*sme,f? twGJ 3? trSwf 2?
1958? ZGe?f pm 146-153)
orkid ;f aumfr&Sit
f zG0YJ if Adv
k rf LS ;b&Siu
f if;\ taemf&xmrwkdifrDu jrefrmEkdifiH? okawoeusr;f udk
a&;om;onfhtcg ok0Pblrda'o\ wnfae&mudk ,ckppfawmif;ESifh oHvGifjrpfESpfoG,fpyfMum; rkwr
yifv,fauGaY y:&dS urf;ajrmifa'orSm ok0Pbrl Ed idk if w
H nfc&hJ m a'ojzpf\/ NrKd aY wmfrmS xkad 'o&Sd auvmo
awmifajcwGif&Sdonf/ orkdif;acwfOD;u NrdKYudk &wemodkufBuD;tjzpfodcJhMu\/ wkwf? a&mr? acgr?
tdE,
d ukeo
f nfrsm;u NrKd u
Y kd ]a&Tajr} [kt"dyg ,&f aom rdrw
d b
Ykd mompum;jzifh trnfay; rSww
f rf;
wifcMUJ u\/ ok0Pbrl Ed idk if \
H tus,rf mS taemufbuf{&m0wDjrpf? ta&Sb
Y ufaomif&if;jrpftxd jzpfaom
{&m0wD? ppfawmif;? oHviG jf rpfw\
Ydk jrpf0uRe;f ay:a'o[k,q
l Ekid o
f nf[k azmfjycJo
h nf/
(Adv
k rf LS ;b&Si?f taemf&xmt&ifujrefrmEkdifiH? &efuek ?f yk*pH mtkyw
f u
dk ?f 1971? pm-68)/
ygarmua'guw
f moef;xGe;f uvnf; ae&mwGif Adv
k rf LS ;b&SiEf iS hf oabmcsi;f xyfwjl zpf\/
. . . ig;&mig;q,fZmwfawmfrsm;rS tpygVpd may xif&mS ;yg&adS om ok0Pbrl [
d o
l nf rnfonft
h &yfenf;[k
awG;awmBuq
H zG,&f ydS gonf/ awmfvrD\ ajryHk ]c&Da&S} um; ok0Pbrl yd ifjzpf\/ ode;f cd(k oD[Vdk ?f o&D v
d uFm)
a&;&mZ0ifrsm;jzpfaom av;&mpk 'Dyg0ifEiS hf ajcmuf&mpkr[m0ifwYdk vnf; ok0Pbrl u
d kd Ak'o
moem \tajccH
t&yf[knTef;jyefonf/ ,if;ok0Pblrdum; oxHkr[kwf[kqkdcsifonf/ oxHk\taemuf ajrmufbufrkdif
(30)ceft
Y uGm auvmoausmufawmifpeG ;f &Syd gonf/ xkad wmifpeG ;f \ awmifay:awmifatmufw0ku
d o
f mvQif
ok0Pbrl d NrKd aY [mif;&mjzpfygonf/ vwDw
w
G f ajrmuf 17 tHom? 11 vdwm ESihf avmif*sw
D w
G f ta&SY 97
tH[m 6 vdww
iG &f \
dS / (oef;xGe;f ? acwfa[mif;&mZ0if? pm-81)/
txufyg ynm&Sio
f ;kH OD;wkw
Yd iG f ygarmua'guw
f ma':oif;Munfu ,ckoxHNk rKd &Y dS NrKd aY [mif;taMumif;udk
a&;om;wifjy c&pfESpf 1057-ckESpfu yk*Htaemf&xmrif;ESifh acwfNydKifok0Pblrdudkqkdjcif;jzpfygonf/
a'guw
f moef;xGe;f url c&pftBuKd (bDp)D oH;k &mpkEpS t
f wGi;f tdE,
d Ekid if t
H aomurif;ESihf acwfNyKd iw
f nf&cdS ahJ om
ok0Pblrdudkqkdjcif;jzpfygonf/ AdkvfrSL;b&SifESifh a'gufwmoef;xGef;wkdYae&mtnTef;csif;wlMu\/ odkY&mwGif
q&mBu;D a'guw
f moef;xGe;f onf rdr\
d ok0Pbrl w
d nfae&mt,ltqudk aemufEpS af ygi;f (40) ceft
Y MumwGif
jyefvnfjyifqifcJhygonf/

- 149 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

8sDtyd cf sfvpk f
ok0PblrdESifhpyfvsOf; a[majyma&;om;rIrsm;wGif orkdif;aumfr&SiftzGJY0if ygarmu*sD? tdyfcsf?
vkpf\wifjycsufrSm ydkxda&mufrI&Sdygonf/ vkpfonfol\ yk*Htapmydkif;umvjrefrmEkdifiH (Old Burma
h EkH ydS o
f nft
h cg atmufjrefrmEkdifiH rkwrauGYyifv,furf;dk;wef;
Early Pagan) pmtkyBf u;D udk twGJ (3) wGjJ zify
a'oudk a&S;a[mif;&mrna'o[kvnf;aumif; ok0Pblrd[l vnf;aumif;ajryHkay:wGif a&;qGJwifjy
cJhonf/ (Luee, G-H, Old Burma Early Pagan, Vol II, Catalogue, New York, Artibus Asie, 1969k idk if jH cm; wGiyf EkH ydS f xkwaf 0cJjh cif;aMumifh urmtESt
hH jym;rS okawoDrsm;u ok0Pbrl t
d aMumif;
70) usr;f udE
udyk rkd pdk w
d yf g0ifpm;vmMuojzifh jrefrmho0k Pbrl u
d kd urmodjzpfatmif aqmif&u
G af y;cJjh cif;yifjzpfonf/ a&S;
a[mif;okawoeenf;jzifh ajratmufudk wl;azmfavhvmjcif;r&Sdao;apumrl ajray:awGYtaxmuftxm;
rsm;jzifhyif ygarmuBuD;vkpfonf atmufjrefrmEkdifiHudk ok0Pblrde,fajrjzpfcJhaMumif; urmodaMujim
cJhjcif;jzpfayonf/

- 150 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

oxHrk aS wG&Y aom


tr&0wDvuf&m[ef
(c&pf 3-5)&mpkEpS f
kyyf mG ;awmf
OmPfawmf 11 vufr

- 151 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

]ok0Pbrl d jyefvnfawGY&dSjcif;}
vGwv
f yfNy;D acwf jrefrmEdik if aH &S;a[mif;okawoe vkyif ef;t00udk wkid ;f &if;om;ynm&Sirf sm; OD;pD;Ny;D
Ekid if jH cm;okyYd nmawmfoifapvTwcf ahJ om vli,fynmwwfrsm;jzifh wl;azmfa&;? xde;f odr;f a&;? ponfv
h yk if ef;rsm;udk
aqmif&u
G yf gonf/ tpydik ;f wGiaf 'guw
f meD[m&rf*seaf &;udk tBuaH y;ynm&Sit
f jzpfwzJG ufcefx
Y m; aqmif&u
G f
onf/ 1960 jynfv
h eG Ef pS rf sm;rSp wkid ;f &if;om;vli,fynm&Sirf sm; ta&;ygvmonf/ xkpd Ofu a&S;a[mif;
okawoevkyif ef;rsm;udk tpDtpOfig;&yfEiS hf vkyif ef;pOfrsm; csrw
S af qmif&u
G cf \
hJ / ,if;tpDtpOf (Field of
Studies) rsm;rSm (u) orkid ;f rwifraD cwf (Prehistory)
(c) orkid ;f BuKd acwf (Protohistory)
(*) ysL,Ofaus;rI (Pyu Culture)
(C) acwfO;D rGe,
f Ofaus;rI (Early Mon Culture)
(i) acwfO;D &ckid ,
f Ofaus;rI (Early Rakhaing Culture)
wkdhjzpfaMumif;od&ygonf/ if;tjyif
(p) tEkynmorkid ;f (History of Art)
(q) *Dwokcrk orkid ;f (History of Music)
(Z) Adou
k mtEkynmorkid ;f (History of Architecture)
wku
Yd v
kd nf;wpfqufwnf; avhvmazmfxw
k o
f mG ;&ef &nf&,
G cf sux
f m;&Sad Mumif;od&ygonf
pp. 10-11)/

(Than Tun, 1981,

jrefrmEkid if aH &S;a[mif;okawoe nTeMf um;a&;0ef OD;zk;d vwf\&mxl;udk qufcNH y;D 1964-ckEpS ?f Mo*kwv
f
27-&ufaeYwiG f nTeMf um;a&;0efjzpfvmol OD;atmifaomfonf txufyg&nf&,
G cf suEf iS hf vkyif ef;pOfrsm;udk
taumiftxnfazmf&onf/
a&S;a[mif;okawoeynm&yfESifh ywfoufOD;atmifaomf>rufMum;cJhaom 1959-ckESpf {NyDv
yk*H&ufowywfa[majymcsufwGif-

- 152 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

0if;u&GmrS OD;wmydak wG&Y adS om aiG'*Fg;jym;?


acgif;bufwGif ckoif;yHktjynfUyg&SdNyD; yef;bufwGif oD&dp yHkjzpfonf/

t*Fvdyftac:tm;jzifh (ARCHAEOLOGY) [ktrnfwGifaombmom&yfonft"dyg,ftm;jzifh


a&S;a[mif; qkdif&mynm[kxif&Sm;\/ . . .a&S;ya0oPDrStp vlwkdYonfaexkdifrItwGufif;?
tpma&pm&SmazG pm;aomufrI twGufif;? aeYpOfESifhtrQtm;xkwf BudK;yrf;cJhMu&avonf/
vl t jzpf w nf w H h r I r S t pjyK wpwpwk d ; wuf ouf o macsmif c sd r I E S i f h pnf ; pd r f c H r I
txdBuKd ;yrf;vmcJMh u&m vufeufu&d ,
d m trsKd ;rsKd ;udk zefw;D toH;k jyKchJ Mu\/ xkad emuf wacwfxuf
wacwf p d w f u l ; nPf qef ; opf o nf E S i f h t rQ vk d t if q E x l ; awG r sm;jym;vmonf E S i f h t rQ
toH;k taqmifu&d ,
d mypn;f trsKd ;rsKd ;udk tqef;wMu,f wDxiG f jyKvyk o
f ;kH pGcJ MhJ u\/ xkaYd Mumifh
,if;ypnf;rsm;onf vlwkdY\,Ofaus;rIjy'g;csdefjzpfonf[k qkd&acsrnf/ a&S;a[mif;,Ofaus;rI
om"ujzpf a om t&m0w K tpk p k w k d Y u d k avh v m ,Of a us;rI o rk d i f ; jyKpk j cif ; onf y if
a&S;a[mif;okawoeac:onfh vkyfief;rsm;wGif tusKH;0ifavawmhonf/
[kxw
k af zmfajymMum;yHu
k kd awG&U ojzifh OD;atmifaomfonf ky0f xKypn;f jyKvyk yf "kH avh (Material Culture)
udk tajccHavhvmjcif;tay:,MkH unftm;xm;onfU ynm&Sijf zpfaMumif; od&EdS idk af yonf/ a&S;a[mif;okawoe
vkyif ef;rsm;aqmif&u
G &f mwGif tajccHtm;jzifh ordik ;f rwifraD cwf (Pre-history) ESihf ordik ;f wifacwf (Historic
Period) [l ESpfydkif;cGJjcm;xm;&SdyHkukdvnf; if;a[majymcsufwGif &Sif;vif;wifjyxm;onfudk awGY&\/
(OD;atmifaomf? ]a&S;a[mif;okawoeESihf yk*}H ? yk*H&ufowywfa[majymcsufrsm;
sm;? &efuek ?f a&S;a[mif;
okawoeXme? 1961? pm 53-58)
jrefrmEkid if w
H iG f ordik ;f rwifraD cwf a&S;;a[mif;okawoe (Prehistoric Archaeology) vkyif ef;rsm;rSm
'kwd,urmppfBudKacwfumvtxd tm;enf;cJh\/ blrdaA'ynm&Sifwpfpkuom OD;aqmifvsufuGif;qif;
okawoejyKcMhJ uzl;\/ ba&mif; (J.Coggin Brown)? aumhwm; (G de P. Cotter)? arm&pf (T.O Morris)?
aemhwvif; (F.Noetling)? oDtadk bm (W.Theobold) paomblrdaAynm&Sifrsm;u ynm&yf*sme,ftcsdKUwGif
tpD&ifcw
H ifjyuJo
h rQavmufuo
kd mod&MdS u \/ 1937-38 ckEpS t
f wGi;f u tar&duefbrl ad Aynm&Sif 'Dwm;&m;
(Dr. Hellmutde Terra) ESihf a&S;a[mif;okawoeynm&Sif rkA
d ;D &yf (c) (Hallam L. Morius Jr. ) wko
Yd nf
jrefrmEdik if o
H Ydk a&mufvmcJMh uNy;D {&m0wDjrpf0rS ;f u ausmufacwf"avhukd uGi;f qif;avhvmcJMh u\/ if;tzGu
YJ

- 153 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

{&m0wDjrpfurf;qifrh sm;rS ausmufMurf;acwfEiS hf ausmufacsmacwfvufeuf ud&,


d mrsm;pkaqmif; &&Scd MhJ uNy;D vQif
if;jrefrmEkid if t
H v,fyikd ;f ausmufacwf"avhukd tnmom;"avh (Anyathian Culture) [ktrnfay;oGm;
cJyh gonf/ vGwv
f yfNy;D acwfoYdk a&mufonft
h cg ausmufacwfopfavh okawoetwGuf awmiforefw;l azmfrI
(1971-72)? vufyaH csay:w;l azmfrI (1973) wku
Yd v
kd nf; aumif;? ausmufacwfa[mif;"avh? jy'g;vif;*lw;l azmfrI
(1969)udv
k nf;aumif;? jrefrm wkid ;f &if;om; a&S;a[mif;okawoDwu
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ok0Pbrl ad cwf\
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vufa&;pif;tkycf syrf sm;

- 154 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

(11)&ufrS pufwifbmv (1) &ufaeYtxdAo


d Ek;d NrKd aU [mif;udk pwifw;l azmfco
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1960 rS 29 pufwifbm 1960)? pwkxt
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f moef;xGe;f onf AdEd;k udyk sLNrKd aY wmfjzpfrnf[k owfrw
S jf cif; tay:oabmrwlcahJ y/
1978) / ygarmua'guw
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- 155 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

t,ufonfrNrKd aY [mif; (1975-ckEpS )f ESihf 0if;uNrKd aY [mif;(1976-ckEpS rf S 1978-ckEpS )f tajctaeESihf


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- 156 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

auvmoawmifajcrSmyif wkdufukvm;trnfjzifhtjcm;NrdKUa[mif;wpfck&Sdao;onf/ if;udk


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Yd nf

- 157 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

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tqH;k ajcmufaomif;aomvlwo
Ydk nf w&m;&uke\
f / a,mufsm;oH;k axmifig;&m? rde;f rwpfaxmifig;&m
&[ef;jyKMuukef\/ rS<uif;ukefaomrif;rSp jynfolcrfodrf;wkdYonfvnf; o&P*kPfoHk;yg;
yov
D ig;yg;wkhd aumif;pGmwnfMuuke\
f / odjhk rwfpmG bk&m;y&deAd m ef pHveG af wmfro
l nfrS omoem
ou&mZf (236) (309-bDp)D ESpv
f eG af jrmufaomf ok0Pbrl [
d q
k t
dk yfaom&mrnwkid ;f rax&f
ESpyf g;vma&muf omoemwnfavuke\
f [krw
S t
f yf\/ xkt
d cgrpS &mrnwkid ;f zGm;jrifwidk ;f aom
rif;om;oli,fwu
Ykd kd ]aomPkw& }[k trnfrn
S MUf uuke\
f /
cyford ;f ukeaf om arG;zGm;poli,fwt
Ydk m; &uKd ub
f v
D ;l ab;rSuif;a0;apjcif;iSg vlwo
Ykd nf xef;&Guaf y:
rax&fwkdYwefckd;jzifh zefqif;tyfaom jcaoFhudk,f? &udKufOD;acgif;tkyfudka&;om;Mu? olwkdY\
OD;acgi;f ay: xm;Muuke\
f / NrKd \
Y ta&SaY jrmufaxmifh awmifxyd f rax&fwYdk zefqif;tyfaom
tkyo
f @mef ausmufyk x
f
k xm;uke\
f / xkad usmufyk o
f nf ,ckumvwkid af tmif&\
dS /
txufyg&mZ0ifpum;ESihf ausmufpmtaxmuftxm;wkt
Yd & auvmoawmifajc&if;rS wku
d u
f v
k m;
(ok0Pblrd) NrdKYa[mif;ae&monf aocsoavmuf&SdayNyD/
rGejf ynfe,f? oxHck dik ?f bD;vif;NrKd eY ,f? auvmoawmifajcrS t,ufonfrESihf 0if;uwku
Yd kd pwif
wl;azmfoak woejyKonft
U cg 1975 ckEpS w
f iG f t,ufor&GmNrKd aY [mif;uke;f (3)uke;f (AZT, 1,2,3) ESihf
0if;u&GmwGif (6) uke;f (WK, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) (1976-78) udw
k ;l azmfNy;D aemufvyk if ef;rsm; csucf si;f &yfqikd ;f
oGm;cJ&h \/ uHq;dk vSaom ok0Pbrl o
d ak woe[kq&dk ayawmhrnf/ AdEd;k ? [efvif;ESihf oa&acw&mwkw
Yd iG f
,Ofaus;rIorkid ;f ay:atmif uke;f aygif (20)rQ (NrKd 0Y ifaygu?f eef;awmf&m? ocsK i;f uke;f ? apwDuek ;f ) wl;cGi&hf cJh
aomfvnf;? t,ufor0if;uwkhd xku
d o
hJ jhdk zpfrvmcJah y/ rGe,
f Ofaus;rIukd azmfxw
k o
f uJo
h Ykd &ckid ,
f Ofaus;rI
udv
k nf; OD;pm;ay;azmfxw
k o
f ifah Mumifh EI;d aqmfwu
kd w
f eG ;f rIrsm; ,kw& ufay:ayguv
f mcJo
h jzifh oufqidk &f myk*Kd vrf sm;
u? ok0Pbrl Nd rKd aY [mif;wl;azmfa&;tzGu
YJ ykd if? &ckid ?f a0omvDNrKd aY [mif;okYd csucf si;f oGm;a&muf wl;azmf&ef
apvTwjf yefygonf/ odjYk zifh t,ufor-0if;uwl;azmfru
I kd wm0efc&H aom okawoerSL;OD;jrifah tmifonf
vkyif ef;vufpudk odr;f vku
d &f \/ avSajy;&if;wufusKd ;&ouJo
h Ykd vk&d mc&D; yef;wkid af &mufvek ;D umrS &yfwefo
Y mG ;cJNh y;D ?
,cktcsdeftxd c&D;qufcGifhvnf;rBuHK&awmhay/
OD;jrifah tmifonf t,ufor 0if;u wl;azmfro
I ak woeawG&Y cdS surf sm;udk - 1976-ckEpS ?f rwfvxkwf
rGefjynfe,faeYpmapmifwGif ]rGefjynfe,fa&S;a[mif;tarGtESpf} aqmif;yg;udkvnf;aumif;? - 1976-ckESpf?
pufwifbmvxkwf vrf;pOfowif;twGJ 12? trSwf 18 wGif ]ok0Pbrl Nd rKd aY [mif; orkid ;f taxmuftxm;}
aqmif;yg;? - 1977-ckEpS ?f Ek0d ifbmvxkw?f aiGwm&Dr*Zif;wGif ]ok0Pbrl *d 0H,Ofaus;rI} aqmif;yg;ESihf -

- 158 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

1978-ckEpS f rwfv (19) &ufaeYxw


k f rGejf ynfe,faeY ESpv
f nfpmapmifwiG f ] ok0Pbrl Ed iS hf weoFm&Dwidk ;f rS
ausmufvufeufrsm;} aqmif;yg;? - 1976-ckEpS ?f pufwifbm? 15&ufaeYxw
k v
f rf;pOfowif;? twGJ 12?
trSwf 18 wGif ] ok0Pbrl w
d ;l azmfru
I kd acwfcjJG cm;jcif;} aqmif;yg;? - 1977-ckEpS ?f Ek0d ifbmvxkwf
aiGwm&D trSwf 209? wGif ] ok0PblrdrStkwfcGuf} aqmif;yg; (if;aqmif;yg;rsm;udk 2007 ckESpf?
Zefe0g&v
D wGif yHES ydS x
f w
k af 0aom ysL? rGe?f a,majr orkid ;f tarGpmtkyw
f iG f yI g) rsm;udak &;om;azmfjycJo
h nf/
vltrsm;pdwf0ifpm;pGm apmifhMunfhaecJhaom okawoe&v'ftajzrsm;yifjzpfMu\/ ,if;&v'ftajzrsm;udk
ok0Pbrl u
d &kd mS awGY Ny[
D k a<u;aMumf&avmufatmifNy;D jynfph pkH mG kyv
f ;kH azmfEidk cf NUJ yv
D m;[k ar;p&m&Syd gonf/
tu,fawmh rjynfhpkHao;yg[ktajz&ygonf/ okawoerSL;OD;jrifhatmifuvnf;
AdEk;d [efvif;ESihf oa&acw&mNrKd aU [mif;rsm;udk wl;azmfcMhJ u&mwGif wpfBurd ?f ESpBf urd rf Qjzifh tvd&k adS om
orkid ;f ajzrsm; ay:xu
G v
f monfr[kwaf cs/ xkaYd Mumifh a&S;a[mif; okawoeynm&Sirf sm; rderYf mS avh&o
dS nfU
twkdif; ]wl;azmfjcif;? qufvufwl;azmfjcif;} jzifhom&nfrSef;xm;onfh ok0PblrdNrdKYa[mif;BuD;aomf
vnf;aumif;? a&S;usaom ,Ofaus;rIwpf&yf&yfaomfvnf;aumif;? rGefjynfe,fwGif ay:xGufvmvdrfh
rnf[k,HkMunf&ayownf;/ (wuokdvfynmya'opmapmif? twGJ 12? tydkif; 1) [k tpD&ifcH
wifjyxm;cJhayonf/
h ? NrKd Y ;kd xdyf
t,ufor trSwf (1) (AYT.1) onfajrNrKd Y ;kd wpfcjk zpfonf/ ajrjyifrS 27 ayjrif
13 ayus,fonf/ xdyfwGif*0HausmufESpfvTmuyfqifhpDxm;vsufawGY&onf/ xkd*0Hay:wGif ajrrD;zkwftkyf
wpfcsyu
f kd xyfqifph x
D m;ao;ovm;qko
d nfurkd l rod&ay/ if;ajrom;NrKd Y ;kd udk usKH ;ESiw
hf v
JG suu
f si;f &Snpf epfjzifh
wl;onfhtcg xGufay:vmaomajrvTmav;ckteufrS 'kwd,ajrvTm (Layer-2) rS&&Sdaomtkd;jcrf;uGJpudk
(wl;azmfa&;umvtwGi;f OD;Ekid yf ef;vSEiS t
hf wl avhvma&;a&muf&v
dS maom MopaMw;vsynm &Siaf 'guw
f myif
rDvm*wfref;rSwpfqif)h Ekid if jH cm;"gwcf cJG ef;odaYk y;yk
Yd tylviId ;f a&mifpOfjzm"gwcf eJG nf; (Thermo Luminesmence)
jzifhppfaq;onfhtcg xGufay:vmaomtajzrSm (at'D? 1499-1662) c&pfESpf 16 &mpkudknTefjyonf/
xko
d yd "H gwcf cJG ef;&v'ftajzaMumifh wku
d u
f v
k m; (t,ufonfr) NrKd aY [mif;onf ok0Pbrl ad cwf taxmuf
txm;ae&mwpfcrk [kwaf Mumif; ,lq&eftaMumif;jzpfay:cahJ yonf/ NrKd w
Y iG ;f ajrjyifw;l uGurf sm; (AYT.2,3)
wkrYd v
S nf; pdw0f ifpm;zG,af &S;a[mif;ypn;f wpfpw
kH pf&mrawGcY &hJ ay/ xkaYd Mumifh aemufwpfEpS w
f ;l azmfr&I moDwiG f
t,ufonfrudk qufvufw;l azmfjcif;rjyKawmhy?J if;\ awmifbuf (2) rkid cf eft
Y uGm&S0d if;uodaYk jymif;a&TY
wl;azmfcJh&onf/
0if;u&GmwGif 1976-ckESpfwl;azmfrI&moDtwGif; av;axmifhyHkpH&Sdaom tkwftaqmufttHkBuD;udk
wl;&onf/ tem;wpfzufonf 69ayt&Sn&f /dS twGi;f vlaerItydik ;f udk tcef; 14 cef; zGpYJ nf;aqmufvyk o
f nf/
tv,fcef;rBu;D wpfcu
k kd ab;av;bufav;wefrS tcef;t&G,t
f pm; 13 cef;uywf&x
H m;onf/ ,if;tcef;
rsm;udk tv,fcef;rBu;D ESihf qufo,
G Ef ikd &f ef wHcg;aygurf sm; azmufvyk af y;xm;onf/ taqmufttH\
k ta&SY
taemuf tydwftkwfdk;onf taemufbufodkY 15 'D*&DcefYapmif;vsufaqmvkyfxm;aMumif;awGY&onf/
ta&Sb
U uftw
k f ;kd udak b;wku
d Mf unfv
h Qif (tajzmifrh [kw)f tenf;i,fc;kH ae\/ tcsuu
f kd Adou
k mtqif
wefqm oabmrsKd ;jyKvyk x
f m;jcif;jzpfonf[k qkEd idk \
f / jrefrmEkid if rH S wl;azmfawG&NdS y;D tkww
f u
dk t
f aqmufttHk
wkEYd iS hf EdiI ;f ,SOo
f nft
h cg yk*pH ;dk rif;Bu;D tkwaf usmif;ESihf if;0if;utrSwf (1) taqmufttHw
k Ydk yEuyf pkH cH si;f
cyfqifqifw\
l / tdE,
d Ekid if eH *Zleuk@ESihf rd*'g0ek t
f &yfrsm;&Sad &S;a[mif;0d[m& (bke;f Bu;D ausmif;) yHpk w
H rYdk mS
tv,fcef;rBu;D udk t&G,w
f t
l cef;rsm;u av;bufav;wefrS ywf&x
H m;onfU yHpk rH sKd ;jzpf\/ yHpk rH sm;onf

- 159 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

0if;u&GmtaqmufttHkyHkpHtm; xif[yfvsuf&Sdonf/ okdYaomf0if;u taqmufttHkBuD;udkwl;azmf&m


bmoma&;qkdif&m0wKypnf;? (qif;wk? kyfwk? oydwfawmf) wpfpHkwpf&mrQrawGU&ay/ xkdYaMumifh
bmoma&;qkid &f mtaqmufttHk (0d[m&) [kajym&ef taMumif;rvHak vmuf[,
k q
l onf (jrifah tmif? 2007?
126-130)/
0if;utaqmufttHkBuD; (WK.1) udkwl;azmf&mwGif ajrrD;zkwfykwD;aphESifh ausmufykwD;aphrsm;?
a&zse;f tk;d vnfwrH sm;? tajcwGipf vkwyf gaom ajru&m;EIwo
f ;D rsm;? wpfqpfcsKd ;csujf yKwf tk;d uGrJ sm;&&So
d nf/
,if;yHkpHrsm;udk AdEkd;NrdKUwl;azmfrIwGifvnf;awGUcJh&\/ xkdYaMumifhNcHKiHk (yHkpHwl wkdufqkdifppfaq;enf;jzifh)
pOf;pm;&vQif 0if;u&Gmtkww
f u
dk Bf u;D onf ysL(acwf),Ofaus;rIEiS hf (acwfNyKd i)f tquftqH&adS Mumif; ,lqEkid f
ayonf (jrifah tmif? 2007? 131)/
dS nf/ okaYd omf
0if;utrSwf (2) (WK-2) uke;f onftrSwf (1) \awmifbufteD;uyfwnf&o
uke;f apmif;jzpfyd
k tedryhf ikd ;f wGiu
f sygonf/ tvsm;awmifEiS ahf jrmuf 52ay? 10 vuEiS hf teHa&SEY iS ahf emuf
36ay? 5vut&G,t
f pm;&Sad om av;axmifyh t
kH aqmufttHk wpfcx
k u
G af y:vm\/ t&G,t
f pm;rnDaom
tcef;aygi;f (8) cef;yg0ifzpYJG nf;xm;onf/ ,Ofaus;rIajrvTm (5) vTmudak wG&U Ny;D ? ,if;wkrYd S ajrxnft
h ;dk tifrsm;?
pOfo
h w
k af jrxnfrsm;? ajrqDr;D cGuEf iS hf r[l&m ausmufyw
k ;D aphrsm;udk wl;azmf&&Scd o
hJ nf/ trSwf (2) uke;f rS
awmifbufridk 0f ufceft
Y uGm 0if;u&Gm ausmufv;kH Bu;D ydik ;f trSwf (6) uke;f (WK.6) udw
k ;l azmfco
hJ nf/
xku
d ek ;f rSav;axmifyh akH pwD yp,may:wiG f t0kid ;f yHak pwDwpfql qifx
h yfwnfxm;onf/ xku
d ek ;f xdyaf e&m
okduform;rsm;wl;qGxm;onfU usif;wpfckudkawGY&NyD;? xkdusif;udk wl;azmfokawoejyKonfUtcg ajrrD;zkwf
tkwcf u
G if ,frsm; 127 qluakd wG&Y onf/ ,if;wkt
Yd euf (6) qlww
Ykd iG f a&SzY ufyviaf jc pmta&;tom;
(4) aMumif;pDyg&o
dS nf/ zwf
I &oavmuftw
k cf u
G w
f pfq\
l rGepf mrSm
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

. . .
o0&G
. . . 0g&af usmuf
. . . |&a0gtf

[lt"dyg ,t
f m;jzifh tpHt
k vifrod&aomfvnf;c&pf 6 &mpkEpS rf eG b
f momvufa&;jzpfaMumif; cefrY eS ;f onf/
0if;u&GmtrSwf (3) ukef;ESifhtrSwf (4) ukef;wkdYonftkwfwkdufBuD;rsm;tjzpf wifusefvsuf
r&Sdawmhaomfvnf; tkwfdk;t<uif;useft&qufpyfyHkazmf&aom yEufyHkpHwkdYrSm av;axmifhyHk&Sd Mu \/
if;wku
Yd t
kd rSwf (1) uke;f Esit
hf rSwf (2) uke;f wkt
Yd Mum;wGif awG&Y &dS \/ 0if;utrSwf (5) uke;f (WK-5)
onf ukrm&apwD\taemufbuf teD;uyfwnf&adS eygonf/ if;onftvsm; 62 ay 5 vuEiS hf teH
54 ayt&G,ftpm;&Sdav;axmifhyHkrsdK;jzpfonf/ tcef; aygif; 12 cef;yg&Sd\/ 4if;taqmufttHkrms;\
yEuq
f yJG rkH sm;udk (cifarmifBu;D ? 1999 ESihf Tin Maung Htwe, 2007 wkw
Yd iG f yI g/)
0if;uwl;azmfrIed*Hk;csKyfcsdefNyD;aemufESpf 1979-ckESpfEkd0ifbm (3) &ufwGif rEav;wuodkvf
orkid ;f XmerS r[m0dZm wef;ausmif;om; ausmif;olrsm;udk ygarmua'guw
f moef;xGe;f OD;aqmifNy;D uGi;f qif;
avhvmcJhMu&m tzGJY0ifausmif;om;cifarmifBuD;u okdYrSwfcsufcsxm;ayonf/

- 160 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

ynm&Sit
f csKd ,
Y q
l xm;wJh ok0Pbrl Nd rKd Y jyrif;Ekid if [
H m c&pfEpS rf wkid rf u
D yif xGe;f um;<u,f0cJah om
EkdifiHjzpfaMumif;,lqxm;cJhMuygw,f/ 'gayr,fh vuf&SdavhvmwJhtcgrSm 'Da'oNrdKY jyrif;EdkifiHvkdY
,lqEkid af vmufatmifyif NrKd Y jyEkid if w
H pfc&k UJ Adou
k mt*Fg&yfrsm; ajymyavmufatmifr&Syd g/ (OyrmNrKd U ;kd ? usKH ;? eef;awmf&m? omoemhtaqmufttHrk sm;eJY tjcm;toH;k taqmifypn;f rsm;)? yifv,f
qdyu
f rf;NrKd Y jzpfc&hJ if? ukeo
f ,
G u
f ;l oef;jyKcw
hJ hJ Ekid if rH sm;&UJ taxmuftxm; (Oyrm-tEkynmvuf&m
ypn;f rsm;? '*Fg;rsm;udak wG&Y rSm jzpfayr,f,
h ckrawG&Y yg/ . . /. (cifarmifBu;D ? 1999? pm1-3)
q&mBuD;a'gufwmoef;xGef;uvnf; 1980-81 ckESpftwGufrEav;wuodkvf? orkdif;Xme?
0dZm*kPfxl;wef;ausmif;om;trsm;twGuf ydkYcsaom ]jrefrmajrxJorkdif;} The Archaeology of Burma,
pmpOfwGif ok0Pblrdwl;azmfrI&v'frsm;udk atmufygtwdkif;a0zefoHk;oyfxm;ayonf/
Suvannabhumi.... is an Indian name supposed to be either the whole of South Eas Asia or
a place somewhere in it, But a modern Burma would identify it as a place around The Gulf
of Madama and claimed that Buddhism reached this place soon after the third Buddhist
Council held in India under the auspices of Emperor Asoka in 246 B.C. He depends in this
case on a popular legend in Burma which was perhaps started by the Singhalese.
The Kalyn inscriptions of Pagui (1480), however, clearly states that Suvannabhmi is a
country whose capital is located at the northern end of a small range called Kelsa (1, 181'
above sea-level) on the South east of the Rankuri-Moaulamruin railway line between stations
Maramikum and Toricwani, It was called Golamattikanagare or Tuikkal, though it is known
o
as Ayeksama (Latitudes 17,4'.15"IIX 97 7' E). So it seems that largely under the influence
of this inscription that villages Ayaksama and Wenika (Latitude 1713N and Longitued
79-4E) were chosen as sites for excavation in 1975, 1976, 1977 and 1978.
These two villages are situated so closely that they are really one big village divided into
two sectors morth and south. As eastern portion of the town wall built of laterite about
twenty seven feet high and thirteen feet thick was unearthed first. Than a birck buildings of
sixty nine feet square with fourteen rooms came to light next. The place was formerly a
kind of sea port as the name Winka (in Mwan Weika meaning a Lagoon of fish) suggests
and the building was probably a custom house. Pottery and plan of the building together
suggest it to be of the 6 century A.D.
A Thermoluminescence dating puts it between 476B.P and 313 B.P. (AD 1499-AD. 1662)

if;jrefrmjyefrSmok0Pblrd[lonf ta&SUawmiftm&SwpfckvHk; okdYr[kwf if;twGif;&Sdwpfae&m&mudk ac:aom


tdE,
d wkid ;f &if;trnfyifjzpf\/ if;ud,
k aehjrefrmwpfa,muftm; (ar;vQi)f rkwr auG0Y ef;usiu
f
ae&mwpfcu
k n
kd eT jf y&if; bDpD 246 ckEpS t
f wGi;f tdE,
d tifyg,m&Sit
f aomurif;Bu;D taxmuftyHjU zifh
wwd,o*Fg,emwifyGJusif;ytNyD;wGif Ak'omomoempwifa&mufvmonfh ae&m[kqkdayrnf/
oD[Vdk Ef idk if o
H m;rsm;pwifajymqdck NhJ y;D ArmjynfwiG v
f o
l rd sm;cJah om '@m&Duu
kd ;kd um;ajymqkjd cif;jzpfonf/
yJc;l uvsmPD odraf usmuf pm(1480)wGif ,ckarmfvNrKd i-f &efuek rf ;D &xm;vrf;rS r&rf;uke;f ESiahf wmifpeG ;f
blwmwkt
Yd Mum; auvmo (1,181)[kac:onfah wmifuek ;f \ ajrmufbufpeG ;f ok0Pbrl Ed idk if H
NrdKYawmfwnf&SdaMumif; tckdiftrmazmfjyxm;onf/

- 161 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

,if;NrKd aY wmfukd a*gVrwdu


d e*& (wdu
k u
f vm;) [kvnf;ac:Mu\/ t,ufor(ajrmuf 17? 4'?
15" x ta&SU 97? 7') [lvnf;odMuygonf/
ausmufpmazmfjycsuu
f kd tm;ud;k vsut
f ,uforESihf 0if;u (ajrmuf 17? 13' x ta&SU 974') wku
Yd kd 1975 ? 1976? 1977 ESihf 1978 ckEpS rf sm;wGiaf e&ma&G;cs,f wl;azmfco
hJ nf/
&GmESp&f mG wko
Yd nf wpf&mG wnf;udk awmifEiS ahf jrmufEpS yf ikd ;f cGx
J m;ovkd eD;uyfpmG &SMd u\/ (t,ufor
&GmwGi)f tjrifh 27 ayESit
hf &G,f 13ay&Sad om ta&Sb
Y uf *0HNrKd Y ;kd udk OD;pGmwl;azmfc\
hJ / xkad emuf
(0if;u&GmwGi)f pwk&ef;yHk 69 ayt&G,&f adS om tkww
f u
dk t
f aqmufttHu
k akd zmfxw
k af y;cJ\
h / if;
(0if;u)ae&monf yifv,fqyd u
f rf;jzpfcahJ Mumif;0if;u? rGeb
f mom (ig;tkid )f [lonfh trnfu
axmufco
H nf/ okjhd zpf taqmufttHo
k nf taumufXmepcef; wpfcjk zpfEidk yf gonf/ ajrxnf
ypn;f rsm;ESihf tkww
f u
dk yf Euyf pkH w
H u
hdk c&pfEpS f 6-&mpkuakd zmfneT ;f vsu&f \
dS / omrkv
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JG rl
vGecf ahJ omtESpf 476rS 313tMum; (at'D-1499 ESihf at'D 1662 ckEpS )f &ufpu
JG akd zmfjyygonf/
(Than Tun, Professor; The Archaeology of Burma, (Lectures delivered to B.A. Hons History
students during the academic year 1980-1); Dept of History, Mandaly University, Type
Script, p. 48).

0if;u? t,ufonfrwl;azmfrrI mS xifoavmufc&D;rayguEf idk yf &J cdS \


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t,ufonfrNrKd aY [mif; (1975-ckEpS )f ESihf 0if;uNrKd aY [mif; (1976 ckEpS rf S 1978 ckEpS )f wku
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Yd uf

- 162 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

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(jrifah tmif? 2007? pm 108-9)/ uGi;f qif;avhvm&ma'o\ tus,t
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cJyh gonf (jrifah tmif? 2007? pm 110)/
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ukvm;udk ajrwkid ;f Xmexkwaf jryHt
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auvmoawmif taemufajrmufaxmifu
h kd trSjD yK awmif? ajrmuf ESihf taemufbufww
Ydk iG f v,fuiG ;f
jyifrsm;jzpfaMumif; ae&ma[mif;rsm;wnf&SdaMumif;udkom aumif;uifdkufajrwkdif; "gwfyHktrSwf 518-157
wGiaf vhvmawG&Y &dS onf[k qkyd gonf/ (jrifah tmif? 2007? pm 111)
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vuf&t
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f pfae&mwGif a&S;a[mif;apwD (usmufwvif;)

- 163 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

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hJ nf (jrifah tmif? 2007? pm 112-4)/
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2007? pm 101-105)? (jrifah tmif ]ok0Pbrl t
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f nfpmapmif? 19-3-

- 164 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

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2007? 124)/
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- 165 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

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NrdKU\taemufawmifbuf awmifukef;ay:rS usdKufwvif (jrodef;wef) apwDa[mif;wpfqlwnf&Sdjcif;?
ta&SaY jrmufNrKd aU xmifah e&m awmifuek ;f ay:wiG f eef;awmfO;D apwD[ak c:aom apwDwpfqal wG&Y jcif;om xl;jcm;
S ahf wmifbufNrKd Y ;kd ydik ;f wGif rvG,f
aomajrjyif vuPmrsm;tjzpf awG&Y ygonf/ ta&Sb
U ufa0ykv
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f zG,f 0ifayguw
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h Qif ya'o&mZfacwf t&H
apmifhNrdKYi,fwpfcktoGifudkom jrifawGYEkdifonf[kqkd&rnf/
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S o
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d u
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Y kd rkwr acwf (13-&mpkEpS )f ? [Hom0wDacwf (15-17 &mpkEpS )f ESihf uke;f abmifacwf (18-19
&mpkEpS )f rsm;txdawmufavsmuf wnfwefaY ecJah Mumif; awG&Y jcif;yif jzpfygonf/ a&S;a[mif; (ok0Pbrl )d
acwf,Ofaus;rIe,fajrwGif aESmif;acwf (ya'o&mZf) NrdKYa[mif;ae&mudk xyfqifhwnfaxmifxm;&Sdjcif;
oabm[k qkd&rnfjzpfygonf/
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rawGY&ouJhokdY? [efvif;ESifh oa&acw&mrSmvnf; NrdKYa[mif;BuD;twGif; aESmif;acwfya'o&mZfvlaerI
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awGY&ayonf/ a&S;a[mif;okawoeynmt& urmhajray:wGif vlYya,m*aMumifh ajymif;vJjzpfay:vmrI
rSeo
f rQukd pl;prf;avhvm&rnf yifjzpfonf/ ysLacwfumvtwGi;f tBuKH ;0ifvsu&f adS om ok0Pbrl ,
d Ofaus;rIukd
azmfxw
k &f eftwGu?f ,if;acwfveG u
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h pd u
v
kd nf;
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(usKd uw
f vif) (jrode;f wef) apwDrmS ok0Pbrl ad cwfu rlvwnfxm;onfh apwDwpfqjl zpfEidk af Mumif;
xkad pwDuek ;f rS awG&Y aomvufa&;pif; (ysLacwf) tkwcf syrf sm; awG&Y rdS u
I oufaojyvsu&f \
dS / xkad pwDukd
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YJ bufpjkH yKjyifa&;aqmif&u
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wHwidk ;f udk jyKjyif&efajrwl;pOf tkwcf u
G b
f &k m;tcsKd Y ay:xu
G v
f mcJah Mumif;od&\/ ordik ;f okawoeuGi;f qif;
tzGq
YJ u
dk af &mufvmcsed Ef iS hf BuKH BuKd uo
f jzifh ppfaq;Munfh o
I nft
h cg ,if;tkwcf u
G rf sm;teuf yk*t
H aemf&xmrif;\
aumif;rI ]{aomb*0g r[moD&t
d ed'k a '0euawm 0drw
k w
o
H [awae0gw}d pmwrf;urn;f a&;xk;d xm;
aom tkwfcGuftydkif;usdK;ESpfckudk awGYcJh&ygonf/ ,if;taemf&xmrif;tkwfcGufudk atmufjrefrmEdkifiHwGif
wHaG w;NrKd Y (a&S;'vNrKd aY [mif;) prf;&GmteD;? armif'b
D &k m;wGio
f m awG&Y zl;aMumif;od&\/ ,ck oxHak 'orSm
awG&Y jcif;yifjzpfonf/ taemf&xmrif;onf oxHak 'oudv
k nf; a&mufcyhJ gonf[
l rSwo
f m;p&moufao

- 166 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

taxmuftxm;yifjzpf\/ xkad pwDrS ]vufa&;pif;} tkwcf syu


f kd awG&Y jcif;ESihf taemf&xmtkwcf u
G u
f v
kd nf;
xyfraH wG&Y jcif;aMumifh yk*aH cwfO;D ESihf yk*rH wkid rf D ysLacwfu bmoma&;taqmufttHw
k pfcjk zpfaMumif;udk
nTefjyvsuf&Sdayonf/
xkt
Yd jyif if;usKd uw
f vif (usKd uw
f vef;) apwDrS usepf pfom;rif;a&;xk;d xm;aom a&S;rGeaf usmufpm
wpfcsyf (,ck &efuek w
f uov
kd pf mMunfw
h u
dk w
f iG f pdu
k x
f x
l m;vsu&f )dS udv
k nf; awG&Y ao;\/ if;ta&SaY wmif
buf (5)rkid cf eft
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f aJ pwDwiG v
f nf; tvm;wl usepf pfom;rif;\ ausmufpmwpfcsypf u
dk x
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urn;f pmyifjzpfygonf/) xkad usmufpmwko
Yd nf taMumif;t&mrsm;xyfwx
l yfrQ wlnaD eMuNy;D ? usepf pfom;
rif;u usKdufwJ? usKdufwvifpaom oxHka'oapwDrsm;udk topfjyKjyifay;aMumif; a&S;rGefbmomjzifh
a&;xk;d xm;onfU ausmufpmrsm;jzpfMu\/ wku
d u
f v
k m;awmifuek ;f ay:rS usKd uw
f vifausmufpm atmufq;kH
ydkif;
NydKysufaeaom usdKufwvifapwDudk avmuvltaygif;wkdYMumjrifhpGm udk;uG,fEkdifMuap&ef
a&S;uxufomvGejf rifjh rwfBu;D us,cf idk cf efaY tmif trnfausmMf um;aom tvky0f efwu
Ydk kd topfjyKjyif
wnfaqmufvSL'gef;ap\/
(rGecf sKy?f pm 25-54) [la&;xk;d xm;onf/
,if;ausmufpmtaxmuftxm;rsm;t& yk*HacwfOD;wGif wkdufukvm;a'orSm oxHkjynfom;
a&S;rGev
f Ol ;D a& toku
d t
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kH kd odEikd \
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d u
f v
k m;NrKd aU [mif;udk a&S;a[mif;
okawoeenf;jzifh wl;azmfp;l prf;avhvmrnfqydk gu if;acwfvw
l \
Ydk taxmuftxm;,Ofaus;rIypn;f rsKd ;
udkvnf; a&SmifvTJ&Ekdifrnfr[kwfay/
yk*EH ikd if aH wmfacwf (11-&mpk-13 &mpkEpS )f twGi;f uatmufjrefrmEdik if w
H iG f yk*u
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vsu&f cdS rhJ nf[k cefrY eS ;f &\/
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k iG ;f ysupf ;D awmhrnfU 13-&mpkEpS t
f ukeyf ikd ;f okaYd &mufonft
h cg rkwr e,f(oxHck dik )f
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l vkyBf u
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k x
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hJ / 0g&D o
l nf yJc;l ([Hom0wD)pm;w&zsm;udyk g vkyBf uNH y;D atmufjrefrmjynfe,fy,frsm;
udkodrf;,lcJh\/ xkdrif;qufonf yJcl;ESifhrkwrtMum; ppfawmif;jrpf ta&SYbufurf;wGif e,fjcm;apmifh
t&HNrdKYrsm;udkvnf; xlaxmifcJhygonf/ 0g&D*lrif;qufrS apm&rf;y&uGwfbGJYcHcGefavmrif; (0g&Dlru'l;\nD
r*'g) vufxufwiG f ppfawmif;NrKd EY iS hf 'ke0f ef;NrKd w
Y u
Ydk w
kd nf nD&aH rmvrGet
f m;pm;aponf[k &mZ"d&mZfta&;
awmfyu
kH sr;f wGiaf wG&Y \/ xkEd pS rf mS yif? Zif;r,f&rS ;f wko
Yd nf 'ke0f ef;NrKd u
Y kd vma&mufwu
dk cf u
dk
f 'ke0f ef;ysuNf y;D
nD &HarmvrGeu
f sq;kH \ (Edik yf ef;vS? 1998? pm 37)/
rkwr wGiAf nm;OD;rif;eef;wufonfEh pS f (1348-ckEpS )f vGeaf jrmuf oH;k ESpaf &mufonfh tcgapmtJ'w
d Ef iS hf
aAgMu,fwkdYESpfa,muf'kef0ef;wGif ykefpm;Mujyef\/ AnmOD;\ ppfonfrsm;Ekef0ef;okdY oGm;a&mufEdSrfeif;vQif
apmtJ'w
d Ef iS hf aAgMu,fwt
Ydk a&;ESrd
hf Zif;r,fo0Ydk ifajy;onf/ xkEd pS rf mS yif if;wkEYd pS Of ;D uke;f acsmrIu,
kd
kH
Zif;r,frif;onf rkwr udv
k yk Bf uaH p\/ rkwr usroGm;aomfvnf; t&HNrKd rY sm;jzpfMuaom?

- 167 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

opfawmif;(ppfawmif;)? wku
d u
f v
k m;? 'ke0f ef;? ,if;Nird ?f v*Ge;f Asn;f paom NrKd iY ,frsm; ysuaf cs\/
rkwr armfvNrKd io
f m;wkYd tvGex
f w
d v
f efaY Mumuf&YHG Muuke\
f (Ekid yf ef;vS? 1998? pm 49)
[l awG&Y ojzifh wku
d u
f v
k m;onfrw
k r NrKd \
Y t&HNrKd iY ,fwpfct
k jzpf wnf&adS eyHu
k o
kd &d ygonf/
&mZ"d&mZfrif; (1393-1420) vufxufwGif rkwrNrdKUe,frsm;qlylx<uvsuf&SdpOf [Hom0wDrS
ppfcsDwufESdrfESif;&\/ &mZ"d&mZfonf ykefuefolw&nf;NrdKUpm;? rN*dKif;\OD;acgif;udk &atmifaqmif,lcJhaom
ol&aJ umif;roHvu
kH kd csucf si;f qkray;acs/ rkwr NrKd rY S [Hom0wDoYdk ppfatmifNy;D jyefvmaomtcg 'ke0f ef;NrKd u
Y kd
ordejf AmZtm;NrKd pU m;ay;\/ armfvNrKd iNf rKd ?Y oHarmifNrKd ?Y v*Ge;f Asn;f NrKd ?U w&nf;NrKd rY sm;udv
k nf; pdwcf s,MkH unf&
aomrSL;rwfrsm;tm; toD;oD;pm;ap\/ ol&aJ umif;roHvrHk mS rl cs;D ajrm ufjcif;rcH&ao;ay/
wku
d u
f v
k m;okaYd &mufawmfrv
l Qif acgiif g;quf&adS om tdrBf u;D wpfaqmifukd taqmwvsiaf qmufap\/
tdrfujyifESifh wHpufNrdwfrsm;udk us,f0ef;pGmjyKvkyfap\/ olY&Sif(&mZ"d&mZf)\ ,m,Dtdrfeef;jyK
vkyNf y;D pD;aomtcg wifw
h ,fpmG cif;usi;f rGr;f rHap\/ . . rif;\tdrEf iS w
hf v
l aS yonf/
&mZ"d&mZfonf ordejf AmZtm;ac: ]ol&aJ umif;? roHvt
kH m; trwfBu;D tdro
f Ydk zdwaf c:Ny;D aomuf
pm;ygap/ ao&nfu,
kd pfatmifwu
dk /f vlreS ;f olreS ;f rodatmif rl;,pfaomtcgrS oefvsi;f jzifh xrf;ap
aqmufvyk Nf y;D aom acgiif g;quftrd Bf u;D xufoyYdk yYkd g/ ovGeaf y:tdyyf gap/ ]v*Ge;f tde}f [laom
bGo
YJ &zla&Tjym;udk oleY zl; pnf;xm;yg igu
h ,
kd v
f yk af wmfarESi;f auo&mtm; olt
Y yg;wGicf pm;ap/
wku
d q
f ifig;pD;udv
k nf; olt
Y m;igay;onf/ wku
d u
f v
k m;NrKd u
Y o
kd t
Yl m;igpm;aprnf/ olonf rl;,pf
vlreS ;f rodcif qDr;D a&mifrsm;udk xGe;f vif;atmifxeG ;f ndx
m;ygap/ apmif;jiif;twD;trIwt
f utckef
toDtqkw
d jhdk zif{h nfch yH g/ taMumif;udk olt
Y m;t,pfajy Ed;k rSoyd gap} [krmS Mum;Ny;D aomf ol&h iS f
(&mZ"d&mpf)onf wku
d u
f v
k m;rS yJc;l okjhd yefawmfr\
l / (Ekid yf ef;vS? 1998? pm 199-200)/
]xkad eYrpS wku
d u
f v
k m;NrKd w
U iG f v*Ge;f tdrb
f cYJG H roHvo
kH nf ewfpnf;pdrf wrQcpH m;a&avawmh\} [l
&mZ"d&mZfta&;awmfyu
kH sr;f azmfjyxm;ygonf/ (Ekid yf ef;vS? 1998?pm 212)
c&pf 16 &mpkEpS q
f ef;tcsed w
f iG f [Hom0wDreG rf if;qufjywfc\
hJ / awmifirl S wyifa&Tx;D ESihf bk&ifah emif
([Hom0wDqifjzL&Si)f wkyYd cJ ;l ([Hom0wD) udak ejynfawmfjyKvsupf ;kd pHMu\/ wyifa&Tx;D rif; (1531-1550)
vufxufwGifwkdufukvm;NrdKYonf [Hom0wD (jreffrm) rif;\ vufatmufcHNrdKYpm;wpfOD; tkwfcsKyfonfh
t&HapmifNh rKd t
Y jzpf qufvufwnfwaH ecJyh gonf/ xkt
d aMumif;udk uGi;f oif;wku
d 0f efr[mpnfol OD;xGe;f ndK\
r[m&mZ0ifopf? awmifial cwf 'kw,
d wGJ (OD;ausm0f if; wnf;jzwf? &efuek ?f jrwfrcd iftzG?YJ 1988) wGif
wyifa&TxD;rif;vufxuf xm;0,fNrdKYokdYcsDwufaponfhtcg
a&;pm;? armfvNrKd ipf m;? wku
d u
f v
k m;pm;/ ppfawmif;pm;? tckwpf m;? vuGe;f Asn;f pm;? Buyd Nf rKd pY m;wku
Yd kd
wku
d q
f ifEpS &f mjrif;ESpaf omif; (ESpaf xmif)? Ad&k pS af omif;ESihf xm;0,focYdk sw
D uf&onf/ ( OD;ausm0f if;?
1988? pm 59)
[lawG&Y ygonf/ bk&ifah emifausmx
f ifaemf&xmrif; (1550-1581) vufxufwiG f wku
d u
f v
k m;NrKd pY m;rSm
aZmfu&wfjzpfygonf/ ou&mZf 915 (at'D 1553) ckEpS w
f iG f bk&ifah emifausmx
f ifaemf&xmonf t0(tif;0)
NrdKYokdYcsDwufvkyfBuHpOf

- 168 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

ajrmif;jrpm;? cukpm;vuf0aJ ,mf"m? yef;ud(k yJc;l )pm;Anm;tdE,


? jrif;upm;oa&pnfo?l cJaygipf m;
oHus,?f rauG;pm;oa&yknm? tokwpf m;ty&J? v,fuikd ;f pm;&mZol&? wku
d u
f v
k m;pm;aZmfu&wf?
jrifueG ;f pm; aZ,xDvidk ?f owk;d r&mZmwyfrif;jyK wqJw
h wyfzpYJG nf;um ppfwpfaMumif;cs&D onf
(ausm0f if;? 1988? pm 87)/
xkrd if;vufxufrmS yif ordeaf wmykeu
f efru
I kd vku
d v
f EH rdS Ef iS ;f &ao;\/ ordeaf xmonf yJc;l u "EkjzLokYd
ul; ykord o
f aYdk jy;\/ xkrd w
S pfqifh tiftm;pkpnf;um 'vudw
k u
dk o
f nf/ 'vud&k Ny;D tckid t
f rmjyKaepOf
bk&ifah emif\wyfuvma&mufwu
dk cf u
dk o
f jzifh ta&;edru
hf m rkwr okaYd jy;onf/ xkrd w
S pfqifh wku
d u
f v
k m;NrKd Y
udo
k mG ; vlopl k ;kH jyefonf/ bk&ifah emifu eEoBuE iS hf wyfav;wyfapvTw
f wku
d af p&m ordeaf xmonf
ppfawmif;NrdKYwkdifBudKvm jyefwdkufonf[kqkd\ (ausmf0if;? 1988? pm 81)/ taMumif;udkaxmuf
wku
d u
f v
k m;onf t&HapmifNh rKd rY Qomru olyek w
f &Ydk zH ef&cH g tiftm;pkNy;D ykeu
f ef&mNrKd w
Y pfNrKd U vnf;jzpfaMumif;
awGY&\/
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hJ nfU vlwpYdk k ;kH &Sr;fwpfa,mufukd Anm;uRe;f awmrSn
Uf aomif;use;f Muonf/ xkAd nm;use;f wku
Yd
vlEpS af omif;? oH;k aomif;cefY yJc;l okcYd sv
D mNy;D 0ef;&Hvyk Bf uo
H nf/ bk&ifah emifrif;w&m;Bu;D rSm Zif;r,fwiG af &muf
ae t0 (tif;0) eef;usb&k if pvif;pnfoal usmx
f ifu xGuw
f u
dk &f onf/ xko
d yl ek w
f w
Ydk yfysu
f xGuaf jy;
onfhtcg wkdufukvm;NrdKYwGif vlpkjyef\/ xkdtaMumif;udk bk&ifhaemifrif;w&m;uMum;odvQif reD;NrdKUpm;
tJavmifukd qifajcmufq,f? vl&pS &f mESiphf pkH rf;aponf/ wku
d u
f v
k m;NrKd u
Y olyek w
f q
Ydk ;D wku
d v
f Qif tJavmifusq;kH
qifEiS v
hf l tm;vH;k udk olyek w
f &Ydk onf/ oHvsiNf rKd pY m; ppfw&k ifuolukd qifo;kH &m? Adv
k if g;aomif; (ESpaf omif;)
ESichf saD pjyef\/ olyek t
f Bu;D Anm;use;f awmu ppfawmif;rul;&atmifq;D wku
d o
f nf/ xkw
d u
dk yf w
JG iG f olyek t
f Bu;D
Anm;usef;awmao t&Sifvlig;a&mausmf&onf[k azmfjyxm;onf udkvnf;awGY&ygonf/ (ausmf0if;?
1988? pm 130)/
ukef;abmifacwfokdYa&mufonfhtcg if;wkdufukvm;ya'o&mZfNrdKY e,fy,ftus,ft0ef;rSm ,ck
acwfbD;vif;NrdKYe,f wpfcktus,ft0ef;rQavmufyif&Sdonf/ ukef;abmifacwfA'Hkrif;vufxuf ppfwrf;
aumuf,o
l nfh wdu
k u
f v
k m;NrKd pY pfwrf;wGif if;e,fy,ftus,t
f 0ef;udk
ta&Su
U kd 4 wkid f (8 rkid )f uGm vuGecf vkid jf rpf (bD;vif;jrpf) txdw0kH efNrKd Y ajrpyf? ta&SaY wmifukd
4 wkid f (8-rkid )f a&mufuHpk macsmif;txd wH0k ef ('ke0f ef;) NrKd aY jrpyf? awmiftvm; 5 wkid u
f mG (10
rkid )f wH0k efNrKd U ajrpyf? taemufawmiftvm; 3 wkid f (6-rkid )f c&D; yifv,ftxd? taemuftvm;
wwkid f (2-rkid )f uGmyifv,ftxd? taemufajrmuftvm; 5 wkid f (10) rkid u
f mG c'gwaf csmif;
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- 169 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

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hJ nf (jrifah tmif? 1976? 2007? pm 127)/

- 170 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

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f ifjyxm;
aMumif; txufwpfae&m azmfjycJNh y;D jzpfygonf/

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OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

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(jrifah tmif? 1993? pm 87)
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3&mpkEpS )f rsm;txdtoD;oD;a&S;usEidk af om (vufa&;pif;) tkwcf syf "avhyifjzpfygonf/

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OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

jrefrmEdik if H vufa&;pif; tkwcf sy"f avhtaMumif; wGiw


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qufvufwifjy&ygOD;rnf/

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OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

ok0Pblrdacwfudk &nfnTef;jyoEkdifaomtapmydkif; taxmuftxm; vufa&;pif;tkwfcsyfudk


acwfyikd ;f jcm;owfrw
S jf cif; (Chronology) toH;k rjyKEidk yf ?J ajrxnftydik ;f tp (tk;d jcrf;uG)J taxmuftxm;udk
"gwcf pJG pfaq;&aom "gwcf cJG ef;tajz (Thermoluminiseence date) ESiahf <uxnfypn;f (porcelain ware)
awG&Y rdS w
I aYdk Mumifh ok0Pbrl ad cwfNrKd aY [mif;[k xifaMu;ay;xm;cJah om wku
d u
f v
k m;onf (at'D 1499)
ESifh (at'D 1662) ckESpftwGif;tBuHK;0ifrnfU NrdKYa[mif;wpfckjzpfcJh&ayonf/ c&pftBudK 3-&mpkESpf
tm;&nfreS ;f csux
f m;cJ&h mrS c&pfEpS f 15 &mpkEpS Ef iS hf 17 &mpkEpS t
f xd? tESpf (1800) cefaY emufusrnfh
,Ofaus;rI oufaoudo
k m jyoEkid cf ahJ Mumif;awG&Y jcif;yifjzpfygonf/ uJo
h jhdk zpfc&hJ aom wl;azmfoak woe
vkyif ef;taMumif; t&mrsm;udk
a'guw
f moef;xGe;f (75) ESpaf jrmufarG;aeh txdr;f trSwpf mwef;rsm; twGJ (1) wGiaf zmfjyaom
OD;jrifah tmif\ ]t&ufonfrESi0hf if;u (ok0Pbrl )d wl;azmfrpI mwef; (Myint Aung, The Excavation
of Ayethama and Win ka (Suvannabhmi) STUDIES IN MYANMAR HISTORY, Essays Given
To Than Tun on His 75th Birthday, Yangon, Thein Htaik Yadana Press, 1999, pp. 17-64)

ud&k nfneT ;f ud;k um; atmufygtwkid ;f aumufEw


k w
f ifjyoGm;ygrnf/
if;wl;azmfrIrSwfwrf;t&qkdvQif
1/
2/
3/
4/
5/
6/
7/
8/
9/

1975? t,ufonfr
1975? t,ufonfr
1975? t,ufonfr
1976? 0if;u
1977-78 0if;u
1977-78 0if;u
1977-78 0if;u
1977-78 0if;u
1977-78 0if;u

(1)
(2)
(3)
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)

NrKd Y ;kd uke;f wl;azmfrI


(AYT 2) tprf;wGi;f wl;azmfrI
(AYT 3) tprf;wGi;f wl;azmfrI
(WK-1) tkww
f u
dk t
f aqmufttHk (vlraI &;)
(WK-2) tkww
f u
dk t
f aqmufttHk (vlraI &;)
(WK-3) bmoma&;taqmufttHk
(WK-4) bmoma&;taqmufttHk
(WK-5) bmoma&;taqmufttHk
(WK-6) apwDa[mif;
(AYT 1)

wkdYudkazmfxkwfEkdifcJhaMumif;od&\/
0if;u? t,ufonfrwl;azmfru
I kd AdEd;k ? [efvif;ESihf oa&acw&mNrKd aY [mif;rsm; udw
k ;l azmfcphJ Ofu
a&S;NrKd aY [mif;yHk ay:atmifw;l cJo
h nft
h pOftvmESihf wku
d q
f idk pf pfaq;vQif
(u) NrKd Y ;kd ESit
hf &Htwm;? t,ufonfrtrSwf (1)? AYT.1
(c) vlaerItaqmufttH?k 0if;u (1)? (2)? WK.1,2
(*) bmoma&;taqmufttH?k 0if;u (3)? (4)? (5)? (6)? WK.3, 4, 5, 6
wkdYudkwl;azmfawGY&SdcJhaMumif;od&ojzifh wl;azmfNyD;pD;rIukef;ta&twGufenf;yg;aeao;onftjyif? taMumif;
t&mpHkvifjcif;vnf;r&Sdao;aMumif; awGY&Sd&\/
I ek ;f onf oD;jcm;NrKd u
Y u
G w
f pfc\
k NrKd Y ;kd wpfyikd ;f jzpfonf/
t,ufonfrtrSwf (1) (AYT.1) wl;azmfru
if;udck efrY eS ;f &ufpaJG zmfonht
f cg at'D? 1499 rS 1662-ckEpS cf eft
Y wGi;f xGe;f um;onf[k Thermoluminescence
dS ayonf/ xkaYd Mumifh ok0Pbrl d acwftwGi;f tusK;H 0ifjcif;r&Sad y/ odjhk zpf wku
d u
f v
k m;NrKd aY [mif;
Dating t&od&&

- 174 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

(t,ufonfr) udo
k 0k Pbrl d NrKd aY [mif;ae&mwpfct
k jzpf todtrSwjf yKEikd &f ef tcuftcJ&v
dS maMumif;udv
k nf;
awGY&ygonf/
t,ufonfrtrSwf (1)uke;f ? AYT (1) udw
k ;l azmfonft
h cg aumif;uif"gwyf akH y:wiG f NrKd u
Y u
G u
f t
kd xif
t&Sm;awG&Y Ny;D ? ajrjyifrmS vnf;NrKd Y ;kd ESpx
f yfEiS hf usK;H wpfxyfuakd wG&Y aom ajrmufbufNrKd Y ;kd udk wl;cJjh cif;jzpfonf/
wl;azmfreI nf;pepft& usi;f &Snpf eH pf (Long Trench Methode) udo
k ;kH onf/ tvsm; (153) ay? teH (15)
ay yeufu
kd v
f suf uefv
Y efjh zwfw;l uGuw
f iG Nf rKd Y ;kd ESpx
f yfEiS hf usK;H udik rkH ad tmifw;l azmfco
hJ nf/ ajrvTm (3)
xyfawG&Y \/ yxrajrvTm (Layer 1) onftndKa&mif&adS om opfaqG;ajrvTmjzpf txl 2 ay2 vufr
cef&Y o
dS nf/ txufrS NyKd usxm;[efwal om tkwcf u
J sKd ;rsm; &Hzef&cH gawG&Y ojzifh ,cifutkww
f w
H idk ;f xyfqifh
wnfcrhJ nf[k cefrY eS ;f &\/
'kw,
d ajrvTm (Layer 2) udEk pS yf ikd ;f cGEJ idk \
f / txufyikd ;f ajrvTm (2 A) onfoq
J efvsuf cyfz,
G zf ,
G f
ta&mifazsmhawmhonf/ ajrmufbufuusKH;ESifh pyfvsuf&Sdojzifha&tpkd"gwf&Sdonf/ if; ajrvTmatmufrS
(2 B) ajrvTmonftxl 4 ay 6 vufr&SNd y;D tndKa&mifajrrmjzpfonf/ tkwc
f rJ sm;? txl;ojzifh awmifbufyikd ;f
wGif tpktyHkydk rsm;jym;pGmawGY&\/ xkdYaMumifhtxufrS tkwfwHwkdif;NydKuscJhaMumif;ydk odomonf/
h cg tkwu
f sKd ;rsm;ydrk sm;aMumif;
if;tcsuu
f akd xmufco
H nfh oabmudw
k wd,ajrvTm (Layer 3) a&mufonft
xyfraH wG&Y o
dS nf/ xkt
d csurf sm;udk pkaygi;f vku
d v
f Qif NrKd U ;kd wHwidk ;f onf ajrom;wpfxyf? tkwf ;kd wpfxyf
wnfaqmufxm;aom cHuwkwfwpfck jzpfaMumif;odomayonf (Myint Aung, 1999, pp. 23-24)/
NrKd Y ;kd uke;f wl;uGuaf jrvTmtrSwf (2) rS tpdr;f a&mifa<uxnfypkH u
H JG wpfcu
k w
kd ;l azmfawG&Y o
dS nf
(Myint Aung, 1999, p.37)/ if;trSwf (2) ajrvTmrSyif wl;azmfawG&
Y NdS y;D aumuf,pl ak qmif;xm;aom
ajrxnftydik ;f tp (tk;d jcrf;uG)J ESppf udk 1976-ckEpS w
f iG f Mopaw;vsEikd if H trsKd ;om;wuov
dk f lyaAXme
"gwcf cJG ef;okYd erlemtrSwf (1017) ESihf (1018) tjzpfay;yd
Yk oufwrf;wGucf supf pfaq;cJo
h nf/ if;"gwcf cJG ef;wGif
(thermoluminescence dating) enf;pepfjzifh ppfaq;Ny;D aemuf tk;d jcrf;uGe
J rlemtrSwf 1017 (T/S 1017)
onfveG cf ahJ omtESpf (476) ESpo
f ufwrf;&SNd y;D ? erlemtrSwf 1018 (T/S 1018) onfveG cf ahJ om tESpf
(313) ESp&f NdS y;D jzpfaMumif; cefrY eS ;f od&&dS onf[q
k \
dk / okjhd zpft&ufonfrNrKd U ;kd wl;azmfrI uke;f oufwrf;onf
yxrerlemypn;f t& at'D 1499-ckEpS u
f n
kd eT jf y? 'kw,
d erlemypn;f t& at'D 1862-ckEpS f udn
k eT jf yygonf/
"gwcf cJG ef;&v'ftajzaMumifh t,ufonfrtrSwf (1) NrKd Y ;kd uke;f onf acwfv,f ya'o&mZfw\
Ydk
cHuwkww
f pfcrk Qom jzpfEidk af Mumif; wpfenf;tm;jzifh ok0Pbrl ad cwf (bDp3D &mpkEpS )f taxmuftxm;r[kwf
aMumif; tajzxGuaf eygonf/ ,if;tajzudyk ifaxmufcH tm;jznfah y;aeonfh aemufxyfw;l azmfawG&Y rdS rI sm;vnf;
&Sad o;\/ t,ufonfr trSwf (1) uke;f ? NrKd Y ;kd wl;uGu\
f awmifbufukd tenf;i,fceft
Y uGm NrKd w
Y iG ;f ydik ;f wGif
tprf;wl;uGuf (Trial Diggings) ESpu
f u
G u
f kd t,ufonfr (2) ESihf (3) (AYT. 2 and 3) tjzpfowfrw
S f
vsuw
f ;l azmf onft
h cg tpdr;f a&mif (pOfo
h w
k )f yk*v
H ;kH wpfc\
k EIwcf rf;em;tpdwt
f ydik ;f udk t,ufonfrtrSwf
(2) uGi;f \ yxrajrvTmrS awG&Y onf (Myint Aung, 1999, p. 37)/
awG&Y cdS suo
f nf t,ufonfrtrSwf (1) (AYT .1) trSwf (2) ajrvTmrS wl;azmfawG&Y &dS onfh
tpdr;f a&mify*k jH ym;uJo
h yYdk if a<uxnf (Porcelain) ypn;f trsKd ;tpm;yifjzpf onf/ a<uxnf ajrxnfypn;f
(Ceramic) taxmuftxm;t& wkdufukvm; (t,ufonfr) NrdKYa[mif;\ oufwrf;rSm c&pf(15)&mpkEpS x
f ufrnforYdk Qy
kd rapmEkid af Mumif;od&ayonf/ xkaYd Mumifh aemuftusq;kH oufwrf;udv
k nf; (TLf cJG ef;tajzunTejf yonfh c&pf (17) &mpkEpS f jzpfrnf[
l vufc&H ayawmhrnf/
Date) "gwc

- 175 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

ok0PblrdNrdKUa[mif;jzpfrnf[k xifjrif,lqxm;aom wkdufukvm;\oufwrf;udk twkdif;yif


vufc&H rnfjzpfaMumif; ordik ;f ygarmuq&mBu;D a'guw
f moef;xGe;f u (1981) ckEpS w
f iG f atmufygtwkid ;f
azmfjycJhyHkudkvnf;awGY&ygonf/ q&mBuD;u ]ok0Pblrd} [l awmfpdefckd (1892 ckESpf)ESifh wify,f
(1894 ckESpf) wkdY cefYrSef;azmfjyaomae&monf tdEd,wkdif;&if;om;trnfyifjzpf ta&SUawmiftm&S
a'owpfckvHk;udk &nfnTef;onf[kqkdEkdifaomfvnf; acwfopfjrefrmwkdYurl rkwryifv,fauGYywf0ef;usif
a'oudk nTejf yMurnfjzpfaMumif;? a'orSm tdE,
d Ekid if w
H iG f c&pftBuKd 246-ckEpS f (246 B.C)u taomu
rif;vufxufwwd, o*Fg,emwifyt
JG Ny;D wGif Ak'o
moempwifa&muf&cdS o
hJ nfU ae&m[k,q
l aMumif; jrefrmwkYd
tm;ud;k tm;xm;jyKxm;aom jrefrmjynfrx
S if&mS ;onfh taxmuftxm;rsm;udk oD[Vdk &f mZ0if pwifazmfjy
aMumif;? xkaYd emuf 1840 jynfEh pS u
f a&;xk;d cJah om yJc;l uvsmPDord af usmufpmwGif ok0Pbrl o
d nf (tjrifah y
1118aycef&Y adS om) auvmoawmifajca'ao\ taemufajrmufbuftpGe;f ? ,ck&efuek af rmfvNrKd if &xm;
vrf; r&rf;uke;f blwmESihf awmifpeG ;f blwmwkt
Yd Mum;? t&ufonfr&Gm (ajrmufvww
D 'G f 17 'D*&D 4 rdepf
15 pueEYf iS f ta&SaY vmif*sw
D 'G f 97 'D*&D 7 rdepf) jzpfrnf[k jyxm;aMumif;? xkad e&mudak *gVrwdu
e*&
okrYd [kwf wku
d u
f v
k m;[kac:aMumif;? okjhd zpf ausmufpm taxmuftxm;tm;ud;k jzifh t,ufonfraus;&GmESihf
0if;u aus;&Gm (ajrmufvww
D 'G f 17 'D*&D 13 rdepfEiS hf ta&SaY vmif*sw
D 'G f 97 'D*&D 4 rdepf) wku
Yd kd 1975?
1976? 1977 ESihf 1978 ckEpS rf sm;wGif owfrw
S af &G;cs,w
f ;l azmfcahJ Mumif;? aus;&GmESp&f mG wko
Yd nf teD;uyf
wnf&adS eMuNy;D ? &Gmwpf&mG wnf;udak wmifyikd ;f ESihf ajrmufyikd ;f [lESpyf ikd ;f cGx
J m;ouJo
h Ydk &Sad Mumif;&Si;f vif;azmfjy
vsu?f wl;azmfawG&Y &dS aom taxmuftxm;ESiyhf wfouf
-

NrKd aY [mif;\NrKd Y ;kd ta&Sb


U ufwpfyikd ;f udk *0Hausmuftw
k pf v
D suf tjrifh 26 ay? tus,f 13 ay
&So
d nfNh rKd w
Y w
H idk ;f tjzpf yxrazmfxw
k af wG&Y o
dS nf/ xkad emuftvsm;ESihf teH 69 aypDpwk&ef;yH&k NdS y;D ?
tcef;aygi;f (14) cef;yg0ifaom tkww
f u
dk af qmufttHu
k kd wl;azmfawG&Y cSd o
hJ nf/ a'oonf
(rGeb
f momjzif)h 0if;u - (ig;usi;f ) [ktrnfwiG v
f suf yifv,fqyd u
f rf;wpfcjk zpfrnf[q
k Edk idk \
f /
wl;azmfawG&Y &dS aom taqmufttHrk mS vnf (yifv,fqyd u
f rf;) taumuftcGef ;kH wpfcjk zpfz,
G &f \
dS /
awG&Y &dS aom ajrxnfypn;f rsm;ESihf taqmufttHyk Euyf pkH w
H t
Ydk & c&pf 6-&mpkEpS u
f n
kd eT jf yonf/
I ajzt& NrKd aY [mif;onf vGecf ahJ om
omrkv
d rl eD q
D ifh (Thermotuminescence) "gwcf pJG rf;oyfrt
tESpf (476) ESprf S (313) ESpf (at'D -1499 rS at'D - 1662 ckEpS )f u NrKd w
Y pfNrKd Y jzpfrnf
[ko;kH oyfwifjyonf (oef;xGef;? 1981? 48-9)/

wifjycsuw
f iG f NrKd aY [mif;\oufwef;udk 15 &mpk-17 &mpk jzpfrnf[k cefrY eS ;f onfrmS 0if;uudv
k m;
t,ufonfrvm;qko
d nfrmS &Si;f &Si;f vif;vif;azmfjycJjh cif;r&Sad y/ 0if;uESihf t,ufonfrwko
Yd nf &Gmwpf&mG
wnf;vkd qufpyfaeonfqadk omfvnf; NrKd aY [mif;uke;f wpfcpk w
D pfo;D wpfjcm;wnfaeMujcif;jzpf\/ ajrjyifyuwd
taetxm;t& 0if;u NrKd aY [mif;\NrKd u
Y u
G u
f yd
k Bu;D Ekid yf gonf/ tkwu
f ek ;f ? tkwx
f yfaygrsm;<u,f0rIrmS vnf;
0if;uonft,ufonfrxuf yd
k omonf/ tjcm;qifjcifp&m taMumif;wpfcrk mS vnf; oxH&k mZ0ifwiG f
auvmoawmif\ ta&SYawmifbuf ok"r0wD ok0PblrdNrdKY&Sdonf? xkdNrdKYonfwkdufukvm;e,fwGif;
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xkNd rKd Y Bu;D t&G,t
f pm;udk ] NrKd t
Y eHum; ta&St
Y aemufwm (500)? (1750 udu
k )f ? tvsm;um; awmifajrmuf
wm (750) (2625 udkuf) &Sd\/} [kazmfjyxm;ojzifh {&d,mrSm {uaygif; (950) cefYt&G,f&Sdrnf/
t,ufonfr&Gm wdu
k u
f v
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f &G,t
f pm;rSmtq (9) qrQ ydBk u;D aMumif;cefrY eS ;f Edik yf gonf/
(,ck NrdKYa[mif;\ taemufbufajrjyefYydkif;rSm urf;NydKysufpD;vsuf? NrdKYkd;ESifh usKH;a[mif;ae&mwkdYudk

- 176 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

rawGEY ikd af wmhNy/D awmifajc&if;? awmifapmif;ESihf 0if;u? ausmufv;kH Bu;D ESihf awmifBu;D &Gmtydik ;f wkYd wGio
f m
a&S;NrKd aY [mif;t<uif; tusew
f u
Ydk akd wGEY idk yf gonf/) NrKd w
Y nfou&mZfuv
kd nf; omoemESpf (208-209) ckEpS [
f
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D ESpf 300 rS 400 (4 &mpkEpS b
f pD )D ud&k nfneT ;f azmfjyvsu&f \
dS
(oxHk&mZ0if? pm 82)/ okdhjzpfodyHenf;us wl;azmfokawoe&v'f tajzonf yuwdajrjyifay:rS
taxmuftxm;ESiafh omfvnf;aumif; a&S;a[mif;tpOftvm tqdk trderYf sm;ESiahf omfvnf;aumif; uGm[csuf
rsm;&Sdaeonfudk awGY&rnfjzpfygonf/

0if;uwl;azmfrI
0if;uwl;azmfrt
I aMumif;udk qufygO;D rnf/ wuov
dk yf nmya'om pmapmif twGJ 12? tydik ;f 1?
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OD;jrifhatmifu0if;u&GmwGif ,ckEpS f (1976-ckEpS )f azmfxw
k af wG&Y adS om tkwt
f aqmufttHBk u;D onf ok0Pbrl d
NrKd aY wmfa[mif;twGi;f aqmufvyk Nf y;D ajycJo
h nfh taqmufttHw
k pfcck [
k w
k rf [kwf twdtusajym
Ekid pf &m taxmuftxm;enf;yg;ao;onf/ okw
Yd ap,if;udo
k kyf azmfwifjy&efvt
dk yf\ [lwifjy
xm;onfukd awGEY ikd yf gonf ( jrifah tmif? 2007? 127 )/
,ckwl;azmfvkdufaom taqmufttHkonf av;axmifhyHkpHjzpfonf/ tem;wpfzufonf 69
ayt&Sn&f \
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k cef; 14 cef;zGpYJ nf;aqmufvyk o
f nf/ tv,fcef;rBu;D wpfcu
k kd
av;bufav;wefrS tcef;t&G,t
f pm; 13 cef;u ywf&x
H m;onfh oabmjzpfonf/ ,if;tcef;rsm;udk
tv,fcef;rBu;D ESihf qufo,
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aqmif;aqmufvkyfxm;aMumif;awGY&onf/
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(Absolute Dating ) azmfjyEki
d af om "gwcf cGJ ef;tajzrsKd ;r&&Scd ahJ y/ taqmufttkyH pkH H (yeuf) Ekid ;f ,SO;f jcif;?
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128-129)/
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,ck0if;u&Gmwl;azmfawG&Y &dS aom taqmufttHt
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f
0if;u taqmufttHkyHkpHESifhjcm;em;aeaMumif;? okdhjzpf tao;pdwfdIEdIif;wkdufqkdifEkdifatmif tdEd,jynf
em*Zleuk@ESihf rd*'g0ek t
f &yfrsm;&Sd a&S;a[mif;0d[m& (bke;f Bu;D ausmif;) rsm;\yEuyf pkH EH iS hf wku
d q
f idk pf pfaq;&
aMumif;? 4if;0d[m&wk\
Yd y"meusaom yEuyf pkH rH mS t&G,w
f t
l cef;rsm;u tv,fav;axmifh uGuv
f yf

- 177 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

okrYd [kwf cef;rBu;D udk av;bufav;wefrS 0ef;&Hxm;onfyh pkH jH zpfaMumif; awG&Y onf[k qk\
d (jrifah tmif?
2007? pm 128-130)/
okdhjzpftaqmufttHk yEufyHkpHcsif;wkdufqkdifppfaq;csuft&? 0if;u trSwf (1) tkwfwkduf
aqmufttHo
k nf? yk*pH ;dk rif;Bu;D tkwaf usmif;ESihf qifwal omfvnf; rluw
JG pfrsKd ;pDjzpfae\/ tdE,
d Ekid if 0H [
d m&rsm;ESihf
EdiI ;f ,SOMf unfah omtcgrsm;pGm qifwal eyHu
k akd wG&Y \/ okaYd omf tcef;zGyYJ t
kH &G,t
f pm;rwlnjD cif;udk awG&Y jyef\/
xkaYd Mumifb
h ek ;f Bu;D ausmif; (0d[m&) [l rqkEd idk yf jJ zpfvuf&\
dS / xkt
Yd jyifw;l azmfawG&Y &dS aom a&S;a[mif;ypn;f rsm;
teuf bmoma&;qkdif&m0xKypnf;wpfpHkwpf&mrQ rawGY&SdaomaMumifh ,if;udkbmoma&;taqmufttHk
(bke;f Bu;D ausmif;) tjzpf,q
l &ef tcuftcJ&\
dS / tdE,
d Edik if b
H moma&;qkid &f m taqmufttHrk sm;ESihf yEuyf pkH cH si;f
wlnrD w
I pfcw
k nf;tay: rlwnf 0if;utaqmufttHu
k kd bmoma&;ESihf oufqidk f onf[ak jymqk&d eftaMumif;
rvHak vmufacs/ okjhd zpf 0if;urStaqmufttHo
k nf bmoma&;xuf vlraI &;ESihf ydrk o
dk ufqidk rf nf[ck efrh eS ;f
aMumif; azmfjyxm;ygonf (jrifah tmif? 2007? pm 130)/
S o
f nft
h cg t,ufonfr
0if;utrSwf (1) taqmufttHk (WK-1) \acwfuykd ikd ;f jcm;owfrw
h Ydk Absolute Date wdusoufwrf;udk ajymEkid af om (T.L Date) omrkv
d rl eD q
D ifh
trSwf (1) (AYT-1) uJo
&ufprJG sKd ;r&cJah y (erlemypn;f ay;ydEYk idk jf cif;r&Sad y)/ tkwcf syt
f &G,t
f pm;udk wku
d q
f idk pf pfaq;onft
h cgwiG v
f nf;
vufa&;pif;trSwt
f om;rsKd ;awG&Y rdS t
I ay: tmHpk u
dk jf cif;r&Scd ahJ y/ 0if;u&GmwpfavsmufrmS tqkyd gvufa&;pif;
tkwcf syu
f kd a&SmifrvGwaf tmifawG&Y rnf jzpfaomfvnf; xkpd Ofuvufa&;pif;tkwu
f kd a&S;NrKd aY [mif;taxmuf
txm;tjzpf toH;k rjyKcahJ o;onfrmS EIid ;f ,SOo
f ufwrf; (Relative Dating) wGucf su&f m vkt
d yfcsuw
f pf&yfvdk
jzpfcyhJ gonf/ ok&Yd mwGif tkwcf syt
f &G,t
f pm;udrk El iId ;f ,SOo
f ufwrf;twGuf toH;k jyKcyhJ gonf/ if;taqmufttHk
(WK-1) rS tkwc
f syo
f nf tvsm; 1 ay 4 vufr? teH 7 1^2 vufrESihf txl 2 1^2 vufr t&G,f
tpm;rsKd ;jzpf yH*k NH rKd aY [mif;&Sd taqmufttHt
k w
k cf syt
f rsKd ;tpm;yifjzpfaMumif;? okjYd zpf Adou
k moabmt&
vnf; yk*aH cwfxuf aemufrusaomvuf&mjzpfonf[k ,lqaomf&Ekid rf nf xifygonf[k aumufcsucf sxm;
onfukd awG&Y ygonf/ (jrifah tmif? 2007? pm 131)/
tu,fomxkdpOfu q&mOD;jrifhatmifonf 0if;utaqmufttHkrsm;wGif vufa&;pif;tkwfcsyf
awG&Y rdS u
I kd xnfo
U iG ;f toH;k jyKEidk cf yhJ gvQif ,if;taqmufttHw
k u
Ydk kd yk*aH cwf[q
k jdk cif;xuf? AdEd;k ? [efvif;?
oa&acw&mwku
Yd o
hJ Ydk ysLacwfNrKd aY [mif;wpfcjk zpfrnf[k qkad umif;qkEd idk af yvdrrhf nf/ tb,fah Mumifq
h adk omf
0if;u (1) taqmufttHrk S wl;azmfawG&Y &dS aom ajrxnfypn;f rsm;rSm ysL,Ofaus;rIacwfukd nTejf yaeaMumif;
awG&Y jcif;aMumifyh ifjzpfonf/ ,if;tcsuu
f kd OD;jrifah tmifu
0if;utaqmufttHBk u;D udk wl;azmfvu
dk &f mwGif rD;zkwaf jrESihf ausmufyw
k ;D tcsKd ?Y a&zse;f tk;d vnfwrH sm;?
tajcwGipf vkwyf gaom uk&m;EIwo
f ;D rsm;? wpfqpfcsKd ;csujf yKwt
f ;dk uGrJ sm; &&Scd o
hJ nf/ ,if;yHpk rH sm;udk
AdEd;k NrKd w
U ;l azmfrw
I iG v
f nf;awGcY &hJ \/ xkaYd MumifNh cKH pOf;pm;&ygaomf ,ck0if;u&Gmtkww
f u
dk Bf u;D onf
ysL,Ofaus;rIESifh tquftoG,f&SdaMumif;,lEkdifayonf/
[lwifjyxm;aMumif;awG&U ygonf (jrifah tmif? 2007? pm 131)/
,if;wifjycsut
f ay:xyfr
H ]ok0Pbrl w
d ;l azmfru
I akd cwfcjJG cif;} acgi;f pOfjzifh (15 9. 7. 6) &ufaeY
xkwv
f rf;pOfowif; twG-J 12? trSw-f 18 wGit
f ao;pdyaf zmfjyonft
h cg a&S;a[mif;tk;d tifypkH rH sm;ESihf ,if;wkYd
ysHYESHYyHkudk avhvmjcif;onforkdif;rwifrDESifh orkdif;0ifa&S;a[mif;a'orsm;tm; acwfcGJjcm;ay;jcif;wpfrsdK;yif

- 178 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

jzpfaMumif;? enf;udt
k oH;k jyK jrefrmEdik if &H dS a&S;a[mif;a'orsm;udak vhvmaomtcg ,if;wk\
Yd jynfwiG ;f jynfy
qufqaH &;tjzmjzmudo
k &d v
dS mEkid rf nf jzpfaMumif;? AdEd;k NrKd aY [mif;wl;azmfrrI sm;rSxyd 0f vH;k EIwcf rf;teD;jyefY
um;aom tpGe;f xkwx
f m;onfU a&zse;f tk;d vnfwrH sm;? tk;d EIwo
f ;D rsm;ESihf bD;vSrd &hf mtjc,ftvS,yf g&o
dS nfU
tk;d uGrJ sm;awG&Y cdS zhJ ;l aMumif;? ,if;wkt
hd euft;dk EIwo
f ;D wk\
Yd tajcwGipf vkwo
f @mefjyKvyk x
f m;aMumif;? AdEd;k
ysLNrKd u
Y kd umAGef 14? "gwcf eJG nf;jzifh c&pf 1 &mpkES 4 &mpkEpS o
f yYdk ikd ;f jcm;owfrw
S f acwfcx
JG m;Muonfjzpf
acwfyikd ;f jcm;rIonf ckEpS af ojcmNy;D jzpfaom tdE,
d a&S;a[mif;tk;d tifypkH w
H EYdk iS v
hf nf; wku
d q
f idk n
f n
D w
G v
f suf
&Sad Mumif;? ,cko0k Pbrl Nd rKd aY wmfwnfae&m[k rSww
f rf;jyKxm;aom 0if;u &Gmwl;azmfrrI S pvkwyf g&adS om
tk;d EIwo
f ;D ESpcf Ek iS hf a&zse;f tk;d vnfwaH v;ck xyfrx
H ;l azmf&&Sjd yefaMumif;? tk;d EIwo
f ;D ESpcf t
k eufwpfcu
k kd ajreDom;
tEkpm;jzifjh yKvyk x
f m;tjcm;wpfcu
k kd tndKa&mifajrom;jzifh yHak zmfxm;&m? ,if;wkt
Yd euf wpfco
k nfA
d Ed;k
tkd;EIwfoD;ESifhqifwlaMumif;? a&zsef;tkd;vnfwHav;ckteuf oHk;ckudk ajrom;taumif;pm;jzifhjyKvkyfxm;
ajreDwpfxyfow
k v
f rd ;f um rD;zkwx
f m;onfukd awG&Y Ny;D ? usew
f pfcrk mS ajrndKom;jzpfaMumif;? EIwcf rf;teD;
jyefu
Y m;aomtpGe;f rsm; yg&v
dS sut
f yGe;f tyJrh sm;vnf;&Sad Mumif;? tk;d ud,
k x
f nfrsm;rygaomfvnf; ,if;a&zse;f tk;d
yHpk rH sm;udk wku
d q
f idk pf pfa;q&ef rdrw
d iG t
f &efoif&h x
dS m;onfjzpf ,if;wk\
Yd tultnDjzifh 0if;u a&zse;f tk;d rsm;
rnfonfh yHo
k @mef&rdS nfukd qufpyfazmfxw
k Ef ikd f rkH u EIid ;f ,SOaf cwfcrJG u
I ykd g jyKvyk Ef idk af Mumif;azmfjyxm;ygonf
(jrifah tmif 2007? pm 132-134)/

a&zsef;td;k
t,ufonfr? 0if;uwl;azmfrrI S EIwcf rf;tpGe;f jyefu
Y m;aom a&zse;f tk;d vnfwrH sm;udk tdE,
d jynf
ajrmufyikd ;f 'kyga'owGif awG&Y onf/ ,if;wku
Yd ckd &pf&mpktapmydik ;f ESprf sm;okYd owfrw
S af cwfcjJG cm;xm;onf/
[xde yl& ac:tEd ,
d ajrmufyikd ;f NrKd aY [mif;wpfcw
k iG v
f nf; a&zse;f tk;d vnfwu
H kd awG&Y ao;\/ ,if;wko
Yd nf
c&pfrwkid rf D 2-&mpktapmydik ;f &mpkuek o
f nf txdtcsed u
f mvESihf oufqikd o
f nf? tdE,
d awmifyikd ;f wGiv
f nf;
'udP
uke;f jrif?h jA[y&l ND rKd aY [mif; wl;azmfrw
I iG f omw0g[eacwfEiS hf oufqidk af om ajrvTmrsm;rS a&zse;f tk;d
yHpk rH sm;udak wG&Y Ny;D 4if;acwfonfc&pfEpS f 106 ckEpS cf efrY S 130 txdjzpfonf[q
k \
dk (jrifah tmif? 2007? pm
134-5)/ ,if;a&zse;f tk;d rsm;rSm 'uP
d uke;f jyifjrifw
h pfae&m&Sd &ef;rwvfNrKd aY [mif;ESihf jrefrmjynf AdEd;k
NrdKYa[mif;wkdY awGY&aom a&zsef;tkd;rsm;ESifhwlnDaMumif; od&onf[kqdkygonf/ (jrifhatmif? 2007? pm
134-136)/
ordik ;f a&;tjrift&Munfv
h Qif a&zse;f tk;d rsm;onf tdE,
d trsm;tjym;awG&Y onfreS af pumrl tjcm;
EkdifiHrsm;okdYvnf; ra&mufbJaejcif;r[kwfEkdif? c&pfESpftapmydkif;umvrsm;u ydkufuGefozG,fjzefhMuuf
jzpfxeG ;f cJah om tdE,
d wku
d if ,fEiS fh ta&SaY wmiftm&SEidk if rH sm;\ ukepf nfu;l oef;oGm;vmrI t&yf&yfuMkd unfv
U Qif
a&zsef;tkd;yHkpHysHYESHhvmyHkoabmokyfay:Ekdifrnf/ ,ckAdEdk;NrdKYa[mif;ESihf 0if;u&Gm (NrdKUa[mif;) wkdYrS
a&zse;f tk;d vnfwrH sm;u c&pfEpS t
f apmydik ;f &mpkEpS rf sm;twGi;f tdE,
d ESihf jrefrmEdik if w
H Ydk tquftqH&MdS uyHu
k kd
azmfxw
k Ef idk o
f nf/ xko
d cYdk &pf&mpktapmydik ;f qkid &f m tdE,
d orkid ;f 0ifa'orsm;ESihf tqufo,
G &f cdS yhJ u
kH kd cefrY eS ;f Ekid jf cif;
tm;jzifh rGejf ynfe,f ok0Pbrl w
d nf&m[k owfrw
S x
f m;Muaom 0if;u&Gmwl;azmfrI taqmufttHBk u;D ukv
d nf;
ckESpfydkif;jcm;vmEkdifayonf/ xkdYaMumifhc&pfESpftapmydkif; tdEd,tkd;tifrsm;ESifh ykHpHwlnDrIt& 0if;u
taqmufttHo
k nf a&S;tusq;kH c&pf&mpktapmydik ;f rsm;ESihf oufqidk o
f nf[rk ,kwrf vGef qkEd idk af yawmhonf[
l
rSwcf sucf say;xm;cJyh gonf (jrifah tmif? 2007? pm 136-138)/

- 179 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

ajrvT m aA (Stratification) tm;jzifh 0if;utrSwf (1)uke;f wGiaf jrvTm (4) ckawG&Y onf[q
k \
dk /
yxrajrvTm (tay:,)H onftxl 3 ay 6 vufr&SNd y;D 4if;udk (u) ESihf (c) ydik ;f cGjJ cm;xm;\/ tydik ;f (u)
(Layer 1A) onf txl 1 ayceft
Y ndKa&mifopfaqG;ajrvTmjzpf\/ tydik ;f (c) (Layer 1B) onf txl 2
ay 6 vufr&Sad om ajreD? ajryGrsKd ;jzpfonf/ 4if;atmufrS 'kw,
d ajrvTm (Layer 2) onf oJqefaomajr
trsKd ;tpm;jzpf 4if;udzk aYdk jrtjzpftcef;wGi;f a&m tcef;jyifrmS yg jznfo
U yd x
f m;aMumif;awG&Y onf/ 4if;atmufrS
wwd,ajrvTm (Layer 3) onf vnf;zkaYd jryifjzpfonf/ 4if;onftxl 3 ay 4 vufrrQ&
dS tkwMf urf;cif;&ef
ckid cf efaY omtrmcH ajrom;xkjzpfonf/ 4if;atmufrS pwkxa jrvTm (Layer 4) onf t0ga&mifoef;aom
ajrndKatmufcaH jrom;jzpfonf/ ausmufw;kH Bu;D rsm; &Hzef&cH ga&maESmvsuaf wG&Y onf/ 4if;ajrvTmudk teuf
2 ay 9 vufrt
S xdw;l azmfcahJ Mumif;od&ygonf (Myint Aung, 1999, pp. 27-28)/
,ckazmfjyNy;D orQ 0if;u? t,ufonfr(1975-78) wl;azmfrrI w
S w
f rf;rsm;udjk yefvnf oH;k oyfMunfv
h Qif
ok0Pbrl d taxmuftxm;[kqadk om NrKd Y ;kd uke;f wpfck (AYT-1) onf c&pf (15-17) &mpkEpS ?f vGecf ahJ om
tESpf (476 rS 313) cefaY vmufuNrKd Y ;kd [lomod&onf/ okjhd zpf rwl;rDu cefrY eS ;f csuEf iS hf txifEiS hf
tjrifygpifatmifvaJG eygonf/ ,if;NrKd Y ;kd udk ok0Pbrl ad cwf taxmuftxm;wpf&yfjzpfrnf[k rqkEd idk af wmhay/
okjYd zpf0if;uwGif wpfzef&mS azGw;l azmfc&hJ jyef\/ 0if;utkww
f u
dk t
f aqmufttHk (WK-1) onf yk*aH cwf
xufaemufusEidk af Mumif; if;\ yEuyf pkH t
H &nTejf yonf/ okjhd zpftaxmuftxm;rSm t,ufonfrxufy
kd
tm;ud;k tm;xm; jyKp&mydak umif;ae\/ a&S;ypn;f EIid ;f ,SOef nf;t& ykw;D aphEiS hf ajru&m;EIwo
f ;D ? a&zse;f tk;d
vnfwrH sm;u AdEd;k ysL,Ofaus;rIEiS hf qufpyfrnf[q
k Edk idk o
f jzifh ok0Pbrl ad cwfabmiftwGi;f wpfpyd f
wpfyikd ;f yg0ifaeao;onf[q
k &dk rnf/ okaYd omfwu
d soufwrf; (Absolute Date) udrk &onft
U wGuf xko
d aYdk jymqkd
&efrmS vnf; tm;odyrf &Sv
d aS y/ xkaYd Mumif0h if;uudk qufvufw;l azmfMunf&h efvt
kd yfonf/ aemifEpS rf sm; (197778 ckEpS )f wGi0f if;u trSwf 2? 3? 4? 5? 6 (WK 2-6) udq
k ufvuf xl;azmfcahJ Mumif;od&ygonf/
wGif0if;u&Gm\ ajrjyiftaetxm;udk pmzwfolwkdYxifomjrifom&Sdap&ef tenf;i,f&Sif;vif;
wifjy&efvt
dk yfrnfxifygonf/ tb,fah Mumifq
h adk omf jrifawGaY eus NrKd aY [mif;awGvdk ajrnDajrjyefrY [kwjf cif;?
opfyifopfawmxlxyfjcif;? yifv,furf;pyfjzpfjcif;paom taMumif;rsm;aMumifhjzpfygonf/
0if;u&Gmonftjrifah y 1081 aycef&Y adS om auvmoawmifajc&if;wGif wnfaeojzifh ajrjyefaY e&m
r[kwfay/ awmifajctaemufbufv,fuGif;jyifrSm rkd;tcga&vTrf;vGifjyifjzpfvsuf&Sd\/ awmifajc&if;udk
ywfvsuo
f mG ;aom vSn;f vrf; (a&S;a[mif;vrf;) wpfavsmuf vlaetdraf jcrsm;jzifh &Gmwnfxm;jcif;jzpfonf/
tdraf jctrsm;pkrmS a&S;NrKd aY [mif;wnf&&dS mawmifapmif;? awmife&H u
H w
kd ;l NzKd ajrndN y;d wnfaxmifaexkid Mf uvsu&f \
dS /
rk;d aumif;aoma'ojzpf awmifuek ;f ay:wiG f opfawm? opfyifrsm; xlxyfpmG zH;k tkyv
f suaf eonf/ jrefrmEdik if H
tv,fydkif; rkd;enf;aom a'orS AdEkd;? [efvif;? oa&acw&mNrdKUa[mif;twGif;a'ouJhokdY NcHKykyfESifh
opfyifBuJBuJom aygufaom a'orsdK;r[kwfay/ ajrjyefY[lvnf; r&Sdoavmufenf;ygonf/ tae
txm;wGif uGif;qif;okawoejyKolwpfOD;onf ausmufwHk;? ausmufcJrsm;? vsKdajrmifrsm;? prf;acsmif;wkd
uav;rsm;udk taotcsm? *kwpku
d af vhvmMunfv
h Qif obm0udv
k w
l jhdk yKjyifxm;onfh oabmvuPm
jzpfaom tkwu
f sKd ;? tkwyf rhJ sm;? *0Hausmufw;kH rsm;udk jrifEidk yf gonf/ if;vsKad jrmif;? prf;acsmif;rsm;tMum;uke;f url
rkdYrkdYrsm;udkvnf; [kdwpfpk? onfwpfpkawGYEdkifygonf/ &Gmvrf;ESifh vSnf;vrf;aMumif;wpfavQmufwGifvnf;
NrKd Y ;kd uke;f o@mefajrjyifvuPmudk *kwpdu
k Mf unfv
h Qif jrif&\/ txl;ojzif0h if;u&GmrS auvmoawmif
ay:apwDokdYwufoGm;aom bk&m;wufvrf;onf a&S;NrdKUdk;BuD;wpfcktoGifo@mefuJhokdY ausmufwkH;pDukef;

- 180 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

wef;Bu;D wpfcjk zpfaMumif;awGEY ikd yf gonf/ awmifajc&if;ajredryhf ikd ;f wGif xku


d ek ;f wef;\tajc? tkwf ;kd tkwx
f yfrsm;udk
qufpyfvsuaf wGEY ikd o
f nf/ xkaYd Mumifh 0if;u&Gmonf t&ufonfrxufy
kd pdw0f ifpm;zG,af umif;aeygonf/
ok0Pbrl Nd rKd aY [mif;uke;f ae&m wpfcjk zpfz,
G &f adS Mumif; cefrY eS ;f &\/
d ek ;f onf
txl;ojzifh 0if;utrSwf (1) (WK-1) wnf&&dS mae&monf pdw0f ifpm;zG,yf akd umif;\/ xku
0if;u&Gmtv,fyikd ;f &S\
d / 0if;u&Gmudak jrmufbufu jrode;f wefawmif (usKd uw
f vef apwDawmif? tjrifh
250 aycef)Y ESihf awmifbufjroydwaf wmif (tjrifah y 500 cef)Y wku
Yd ESpb
f uf nyv
f su0f ef;&Hxm;ygonf/
jrode;f wefawmif (t,ufonfr&Gmawmifyikd ;f ESihf 0if;u&Gm ajrmufyikd ;f tpyf) rS taemufbufow
Ydk ;dk xGuaf eaom
atmifyifv,fac: ausmufwef;wpfc&k \
dS / jroydwaf wmifrv
S nf; taemufbuf (v,fuiG ;f qD)okYd wk;d xGuf
aeaom a&T'Djyefac:ausmufwef;wpfck&Sd\/ xkdae&mudk ausmufvHk;BuD;tpk[kac:ygonf/ if;a&T'DjyefESifh
atmifyifv,fausmufwef;wkdYonf 0if;u&Gmtm;ESpfbufnyfvsuf NrdKYkd;t&Htxm;o@mef0ef;&H aeyHkudk
awG&Y rnf/ if;ausmufwef;ESpcf t
k Mum; tuGmta0;rSm c&D;2-rkid cf ef&Y ydS grnf/ xkcd &D;twGi;f u awmifajc&if;
ukef;apmif;rSm 0if;u&Gmudkwnfxm;jcif;jzpf 0if;uonf (ok0Pblrd) NrdKYa[mif;twGif;usa&mufvsuf
&Sad Mumif;cefrY eS ;f &\/ trSwf (1) uke;f (WK-1) wnf&m &Gmv,fuek ;f onf NrKd aY [mif;\tv,fA[ku
d sus
ae&m&Syd gonf/ NrKd w
Y nfvQief ef;awmfuek ;f udk A[ku
d susae&m wnfavh&o
dS jzifh if;0if;u (1)? (WK-1)
onfeef;awmf&muke;f teD; ae&mwpfcjk zpfrnf[q
k cdk siyf gonf/ 1884-ckEpS u
f a'guw
f mtD;azmfcsr;f rm; oGm;
a&mufco
hJ nfh c&D;pOfuawG&Y onfqadk om a&S;NrKd aY [mif;ae&mqko
d nfrmS ,ckazmfjyonf0h if;u&Gm tydik ;f yifjzpf
ygonf/
0if;u&Gmvrf; (,cifvn
S ;f vrf;) onfawmifajc&if;uke;f apmif;twkid ;f auvmoawmifukd ywfomG ;
aomvrf;jzpfonf/ &moDra&G;oGm;vmEdkif&ef a&vTrf;onfhv,fuGif;rsm;udk a&Smifvsufazgufvkyfxm;aom
a&S;a[mifvrf;jzpf ajrmufbufwGifwkdufukvm;NrdKYa[mif;qDokdY OD;wnfvsufazmufxm;\/ xkdvrf;onf
awmifbufwiG f uif;&GmrSwpfqifah wmifpeG ;f ESihf aumhuwG'&f mG rsm; ESiq
hf uf Zkwo
f w
k t
f xda&mufEidk o
f nf/
,cka&T0ga&miftydik ;f (3) AsL[mvrf;rwpfct
k jzpf ausmufcif;? uw&mvrf;jzpfaeygonf/ 4if;uw&mvrf;
razmufrd 2000 jynfEh pS rf sm;uvrf;Murf; azmfpOftcg ajrwl;pufjzifah jrnd& onf/ xkt
d cgajrwl;pufx;dk rd
tkwu
f ek ;f a[mif;rsm;? NrKd Y ;kd tpdyt
f ydik ;f rsm;xGuaf y:vmjcif;&Scd yhJ gonf/ txl;ojzifh 0if;utrSwf (1) (WKf mS a&S;ypn;f taxmuftxm;rsm; ay:xu
G v
f maMumif; awGjY rifo&d &dS ygonf/
1) ywf0ef;usir
*0Hausmufjzifh bk&m;xD;awmf tpdyt
f ydik ;f rsm;? *0Hausmufjym;ay:wiG f azmif;<ukyx
f x
k m;aomvlyk ?f
jcaoFhOD;acgif;kyfrsm;ay:xGufvmcJhygonf/ pmr&D (wkd;aumif) om;aumifkyfwpfckudkvnf;awGY&onf/
ajrrD;zkwaf 'gi;f ky?f yef;wef;yHk tuGuaf zmfyk <f ucsyaf &ajcufc?k ajrrD;zkwf iSuf yk if ,frsm; ponfwu
Ydk v
kd nf;
awG&Y ygonf/ if;ypn;f rsm;rSm pepfwusw;l azmfawG&Y &dS jcif;r[kw?f ajrwl;pufw;l azmfcjhJ cif;jzpf oufqidk &f m
&Gmom;rsm;u aumufucl jhJ cif;jzpf oufqidk &f m&Gmom;rsm;u odr;f qnf;xm;onfh ypn;f rsm;omjzpfMu\/
if;ypn;f rsm;awG&Y onfh ae&mwkrYd mS ,cktpD&ifcaH eaom 0if;utrSwf 1? 2? 3? 4? 5? 6 wk\
Yd teD;ywf0ef;usif
ae&myifjzpfMuygonf/ ,if;tcsuu
f 0if;u&GmwGif pepfwusw;l azmfoak woexyfrjH yKvyk Mf u&ef vkt
d yf
aMumif;udknTefjyaeygonf/
0if;uwl;azmfrI (1976-78) taMumif;udq
k ufvufwifjyygO;D rnf/ a&S;OD;pGm0if;utrSwf (1) ESihf
(2) (WK-1,2) wkdYwnf&m ajrjyiftaetxm;udk azmfjyrnf/ if;ae&monf0if;u&Gm tv,fydkif;rS

- 181 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

awmifuek ;f i,fwpfcak y:wiG &f \


dS / xkad wmifuek ;f onf tjrifah y 70 cef&Y o
dS nf/ uke;f tus,u
f u
kd f 500
(ay 1500) cefaY jrjyifrmS 0if;u&Gmvrf;Mum; (vSn;f vrf;) ud0k idk ;f ywfazmufvyk x
f m;\/ uke;f apmif;? uke;f ay:EiS hf
vrf;ab;ESpzf ufww
Ydk iG f aus;&Gmvlaetdrrf sm;wnfxm;onf/ t"duusaom vSn;f vrf;aMumif;rSm taemufbuf
v,fuiG ;f qDoYdk qif;oGm;aomvrf;jzpfonf/ pifppfxv
dk n
S ;f vrf;onf a&S;NrKd Y ;kd wpfyikd ;f ay:ukd tvsm;vku
d ef if;Ny;D
azmufvyk x
f m;jcif;jzpfaMumif;awGcY &hJ ygonf/ &GmolBu;D OD;atmifped f (1975-78) tdrf (a&S;a[mif;okawoewl;
azmfrt
I zG,
YJ m,Dpcef;cs&mae&m) wnf&&dS mvrf;yifjzpf\/ if;ab;NrKd Y ;kd atmufajcwGif tkwf ;kd wef;epfjrKyv
f su?f
if;tkwf ;kd ay:u vlomG ;vrf;ESihf vSn;f vrf;udak zmfvyk x
f m;jcif;jzpf &Gmom;rsm;u tkwv
f rf;[kac:Muonf/
tcsdKYuvnf;avSqdyf (oabFmqdyf)vrf;[k ac:Muygao;onf/ ,ckwifjyrnfhtrSwf 1? 2 (WK-1-2)
wl;azmfru
I ek ;f onf if;tkwv
f rf; (&Gmvrf;)\ awmifbufwiG u
f yfvsuaf eaom awmifuek ;f yifjzpfygonf/
awmifuek ;f ay:wiG f {&mrausmufw;kH Bu;D rsm; axmifvsuw
f pfrsKd ;? vSv
J suw
f pfzw
kH pfwef;pDvsu&f ydS kH
udv
k nf;awGEY idk o
f nf/ ausmufw;kH Bu;D rsm;tMum;tkwu
f ek ;f ? tkwx
f yfrsm;udv
k nf; awGEY idk yf gonf/ (vufa&;pif;
trSwt
f om;ygtw
k rf sm;jzpfMu\)/ xku
d ek ;f onf ajrmufbufEiS hf ta&Sb
Y ufwiG f rwfapmufawmifbufEiS hf
taemufbufqo
D Ydk cyfajyajyedrahf vsmvsu&f o
dS nf/ xkad emufuek ;f tpyfvn
S ;f vrf; (&Gmywfvrf;)qDoYdk a&mufNy;D
v,fuiG ;f pyfwiG f tqH;k owfonf/ uke;f xdyt
f jrifq
h ;kH ae&mrSm 0if;utrSwf (1) (WK-1) udak wG&Y onf/
xku
d ek ;f udw
k ;l azmfonft
h cg ay:xu
G v
f maom 69 aypwk&ef;yHk tkww
f u
dk t
f aqmufttHrk S tcef; (14)
cef;wkdYonf t&G,ftpm;rwlnDuJGjym;[krqkdEkdifay/ wl;azmfawGU&Sd&aom ypnf;rsm;rSmvnf;bmoma&;ESifh
roufqidk af Mumif;od&onf/ (ajroydw?f qDr;D cGupf onfrsm;ryg)/ vlraI &;toH;k taqmifypn;f rsm;om jzpfonf/
0if;u(wku
d u
f v
k m;)rSm yifv,furf;pyf&S
d a&S;tcguyif qdyu
f rf;wpfcjk zpfEidk o
f nf/ xkt
d csuu
f kd axmufcH
aom qdyu
f rf; (oabFmqdy)f tkwpf v
D rf;udk vnf;teD;uyfvsuaf wG&U onf/ awmifuek ;f ay:wiG f wnf&
dS
yifv,fudktay:qD;jrif&aom taetxm;rsdK;vnf;&Sdonf/ xkdYaMumifh qdyfurf;taumuftcGefHk;a[mif;
wpfckjzpfrnf[k cefYrSef;&jcif;jzpfygonf/
0if;utrSwf (1) taqmufttH\
k oabmobm0udk ykrd o
dk &d EdS idk &f ef if;teD; ta&SaY wmifbuf
84 ayceft
Y uGm&Sd tkwu
f ek ;f i,fwpfcu
k kd qufvufw;l azmfco
hJ nf/ xku
d ek ;f rSm 0if;utrSwf (2)? (WK-2)
yifjzpfonf/ tjcm;vlraI &;taqmufttHw
k pfcjk zpfrnf[k cefrY eS ;f &onf[q
k \
dk (Myint Aung, 1999, 28)/
0if;utrSwf (2) onfawmifEiS hf ajrmuftvsm; 52 ay 10 vufrESihf teHta&SEY iS hf taemuf
36 ay&Sad om tkww
f u
dk t
f aqmufttHjk zpfonf/ t&G,t
f pm;rwlnaD om tcef; (8) cef;jzifzh pYJG nf;xm;onf/
ta&SyY ikd ;f wpfjcrf;tcef;trSwf 6? 7? 8 wk&Yd MdS u\/ taemufyikd ;f wpfjcrf; tcef;trSwf 1? 2? 3? 4? 5
wkyYd g0ifonf/ xkEd pS jf crf;udyk ikd ;f jcm;aom eH&o
H nftv,fA[krd usyJ ta&Sb
Y ufoyYdk
kd uyfaeonf/ taemufjcrf;
ajrmufbufu tcef; 1? 2 wku
Yd ekd &H w
H l wpfwef;ydik ;f xm;ao;onf (yEuyf pkH u
H kd yI g)/ uJo
h t
Ydk &G,t
f pm;rwl
onfh tcef;rsm;ESifh tpdwftydkif;rwluGJjym;yHkwkdYt& vlrIa&;taqmufttHkom jzpfEkdifaMumif;awGY&onf
[kqydk gonf/ toH;k jyKaomtkwcf syt
f &G,t
f pm;rSm tvsm; 1 ay 3 vufr? teH 7 vufrESihf twl 2
1^2 vufrt&G,&f o
dS nf/ (xkt
d w
k cf syrf sm;wGif vufa&;pif;trSwt
f om;ygtw
k cf syf tcsKd u
Y &kd mS azGawG&Y ydS gonf)/
ajrvTmaAppfaq;csuft& ajrvTm (5) vTmawGU&onf/ yxr (tay:,H) ajrvTmtndKa&mif
opfaqG;ajronf 10 vufrxl\/ cyfz,
G zf ,
G af jrrsKd ;jzpfonf/ ukek ;f tajcta&SEY iS hf taemufoq
Ydk ifajcavsm
apmif;aeojzifh a&wku
d pf m;rI&o
dS nf/ atmufxyfu 'kw,
d ajrvTmonf tkwu
f sKd ;rsm;a&mvsuaf jrrmjzpfonf/

- 182 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

ESpfaycefYxlygonf/ if;onfwwd,tBudrf wnfaqmufonfhajrvTmjzpfonf/ atmufwpfxyfwwd,


ajrvTmonf 2 ay 8 vufrtxl&
dS zkaYd jr? wwd,ajrrmjzpfonf/ pwkxa jrvTmonf txl 4 ay 8
vufr&So
d nf/ xkad jrvTmMurf;cif;onf taqmufttH\
k 'kw,
d tBurd w
f nfaqmufaom ,Ofaus;rIajrvTm
jzpfrnf[k ,lq&\/ atmufq;kH yrajrvTmonf oJEiS ahf jra&mvsuzf x
Ydk m;aom yxrtBurd w
f nfaqmufrI
Murf;cif; jzpfz,
G &f adS Mumif;od&ygonf/ if;atmufq;kH tvTmrSm tkwcf syt
f &G,t
f pm;yd
k Bu;D rm;aMumif;udv
k nf;
awGY&onf/ xkdYaMumifh 0if;utrSwf (2) tkwfwkduftaqmufttHkudk ,Ofaus;rIacwfoHk;acwfxyfqifh
wnfaqmufcrhJ nf[k cefrY eS ;f onf/ xkt
d csuu
f kd axmufcaH omtk;d jcrf;uGt
J axmuftxm;udv
k nf; awG&Y onf[k
qkyd gonf (Myint Aung, 1999, 29-30)/
azmfjyNy;D orQ0if;utrSwf 2-taqmufttH\
k taetxm;udo
k ;kH oyfvQif trSwf (5) ajrvTmwGif
awGY&aom yxracwfay:wGif xyfrHajrtkwfjrpfcsNyD; trSwf (4) ajrvTm 'kwd,acwfudkwnfonf/
if;taqmufttHkysufpD;oGm;NyD;aemufusrS trSwf (3) ajrvTmay:wGif wwd,acwftaqmufttHkudk
xyfqifw
h nfjyefonf/ if;wkt
Yd m;vH;k trSwf (2) ajrvTmay:wiG f aemufq;kH tBurd Nf yKd us ysupf ;D oGm;cJjh cif;jzpf
aMumif;awGY&onf/ xkdYaMumifh0if;u (2) (WK-2) onfacwfBuD;oHk;acwfqufwkdufwnfxm;cJhjcif;jzpf
hf Ofaus;rIajrvTm qifx
h yfyckH si;f rwlnyD u
kH akd wG&Y onf/ 0if;u (1) (WK-1)
0if;u (1) (WK-1) ESi,
onf acwfwpfacwfwnf;udkom udk,fpm;jyKxm;onf[kqkdvkdygonf/
0if;u (1) ESihf 0if;u (2) udq
k ufpyfru
I o
kd &d Ny;D aemuf 0if;u (2) udak cwf ydik ;f jcm;owfrw
S &f ay
OD;rnf/ if;0if;u (2) tkwu
f ek ;f wl;azmfrI yxrtay:,aH jrvTm (tndKa&mif opfaqG;ajr) rS tpdr;f a&mif
h nfypn;f awG&U rdS I taxmuftxm;t&
(pOfo
h w
k )f yk*v
H ;kH udak wG&Y onf (Myint Aung, 1999, 37)/ pOfx
0if;u (2) tay:,HajrvTmonf wwd,,Ofaus;rIacwftwGif; tBuHK;0ifvsuf&Sd\/ wpfenf;qkd&aomf
t&ufonfr (1) (AYT.1) ESihf acwfNyKd ijf zpfonf/ xkt
d csuu
f kd tjzLa&mifpOfo
h w
k af jrxnf\vnfyif;wGif
tpdr;f a&mifpOfrh sO;f aMumif;wpfxyfukd xyfqifjh c,fv,
S x
f m;aom tk;d jcrf;uGrJ sm;awG&Y rdS u
I axmufcaH eygonf
(Myint Aung, 1999, 40)/
t,ufonfr? 0if;uwl;azmfrw
I iG af wG&Y aom wwd,,Ofaus;rIEiS hf tBuKH ;0ifonfh ajrxnfypn;f rsm;
k \
dk /
udk okycf MJG unfo
h nft
h cg yHpk H (Type) 38 rsKd ;cefaY wG&Y onf[q
- yHpk H (1) rS (8) onft0us,t
f ;dk Bu;D rsm; (wide-mouthed storage jars) jzpfMuonf/
- yHpk H (9) rS (19) onf t&G,v
f wft;dk rsm;jzpfMu\/
- yHpk H (20) rS (26) onft;dk i,frsm;jzpfMu EIwcf rf;ESihf ab;om;wGif (criss-cross, groves and
f sm;ygonf/
ridges) tjc,ftvS,r
- yHpk H (27) rS (28) onfb;l oD;yHk (globular) ESihf ud,
k x
f nfv;kH 0kid ;f Ny;D EIwcf rf;ygonfU tk;d rsm;
jzpfMuonf/
- yHpk H (32) ESihf (34) wko
Yd nftndKa&mifEiS hf tjzLa&mifpOfo
h w
k t
f ;dk rsm;jzpfMu twGi;f om;rSm
teDa&mifjzpfonf/
Yd euf
- yHpk H (35) rS (38) onf (wky)f a<uxnf (porcelain) ypn;f rsm;jzpfygonf/ ,if;wkt
yHpk H (35) onf atmufwiG t
f ajcygNy;D ? ud,
k x
f nf (azgi;f um;aomyHpk )H jzpf vnfyif;wpfajzmifh

- 183 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

wnf;&Sdaom cGufwpfrsdK;jzpfonf/ ajrom;rSma<uxnfjzpfygonf/ if;udkt,ufonfrtrSwf


(3) wl;uGuf AYT (3) \ 'kw,
d ajrvTmrSw;l azmfawG&Y o
dS nf/
- yHpk H (36) onf tpdr;f a&mifa<uxnfy*k jH ym;\ tpdyt
f ydik ;f jzpfonf/ yk*EH w
I cf rf;rSm tjyifoYdk
vefonf/ udk,fxnfrSm azmif;um;aomyHk (Convex body) ESifh tajcrSm wpfajzmifhwnf;
(straight base) yHp
k jH zpfonf/ if;udk t,ufonfrtrSwf (1) wl;uGuf (AYT-1)\ 'kw,
d ajrvTmrS
wl;azmf&&Sdonf/
- yHkpH (37) onftpdrf;a&mifa<uyk*HvHk;jzpfonf/ if;udkt&ufonfr trSwf (2)
yxr (tay:,)H ajrvTmrS wl;azmf&&So
d nf/

(AYT-2)

- yHpk H (38) onfvnf; tpdr;f a&mifa<uyk*v


H ;kH yHpk yH ifjzpfaMumif;atmufajcrSm jyifnt
D jym;twkid ;f
jzpfaMumif;od&onf (Myint Aung, 1999, pp. 36-37)/
wwd,,Ofaus;rIacwf twGi;f tBuKH ;0ifaom ajrxnfypn;f trsm;pkjzpfMuonf/ ,if;wk\
Yd
oufwrf;udck &pfEpS f 15-16 &mpkEpS rf sm;xufy
kd rapmEdik af Mumif; cefrY eS ;f od&&dS ayonf/
wpfqufwnf;rSmyif 0if;uajrxnfypn;f yHpk rH sm;udk qufvufazmfjyygO;D rnf/ 0if;u ajrxnfrsm;rSm
k \
dk /
teDa&mif (a red ware industry) oufoufjzpfonf[q
yHpk H (1) rS (11) EIwcf rf;us,t
f ;dk Bu;D (wide-mouthed storage jars) rsm;jzpfMuonf/
yHpk H (12) rS (22) onft&G,v
f wft;dk rsm;? yHpk H (23) rSm t&G,if ,ft;dk rsm;jzpfMuonf/
tk;d jcrf;uGrJ sm;wGif teDa&mifaq;okwNf y;D rD;zkwx
f m;aMumif;? ,if;wk\
Yd twGi;f a&mtjyifrmS yg aq;eD
a&mifrsm; awGY jrif&jcif;aMumifo
h &d ygonf/ tk;d cGut
f m;vH;k udt
k ;dk xde;f pufjzifjh yKvyk o
f nf/ tk;d cGuyf pkH w
H u
Ydk kd
'kw,
d ,Ofaus;rIacwf? yxru@ydik ;f tjzpf ydik ;f jcm;owfrw
S o
f nf/ ,Ofaus;rIacwftwGi;f owfrw
S x
f m;
aom 0if;utrSwf (1) uke;f rS ajrxnfypn;f rsm;rSm-ajru&m;EIwo
f ;D ESpcf Ek iS hf a&zse;f tk;d vnfwH 4-ck (two
d jrxnfypn;f rsm; yHpk EH iS hf
spouts with a pouch like bulge and four sprinkler necks) wkjYd zpfMuygonf/ xka
AdEd;k NrKd aY [mif;rS wl;azmfawG&Y &dS aom ajru&m;EIwo
f ;D rsm;? a&zse;f tk;d vnfwrH sm;ESiyhf pHk w
H jl cif;? tdE,
d Edik if rH S
&ufpo
JG x
d m;Ny;D jzpfaom tvm;wlypn;f rsKd ;ESihf qifwjl cif;paomtaMumif;wkaYd Mumifh 0if;utrSwf (1) uke;f udk
'kw,
d ,Ofaus;rIacwf\ yxru@twGi;f tBuKH ;0ifonf[k cefrY eS ;f xm;jcif; jzpfaMumif;od&ygonf (Myint
Aung, 1999, pp. 39-39, plate VII)/
h Qif t,ufonfr?
uJo
h Ydk ajrxnfypn;f wku
d q
f idk pf pfaq;jcif;enf; (Ceremic Typology) t&Munfv
0if;u,Ofaus;rIonf AdEd;k ysLacwfrS rkwr ([Hom0wD) acwf (c&pfEpS f 4-&mpkEpS rf S 15 &mpkEpS )f
txd&n
S v
f sm;aom ,Ofaus;rIorkid ;f udk azmfjyaeaMumif;awG&Y ygrnf/ ,Ofaus;rIorkid ;f aMumif;wGif yk*aH cwf
(c&pf 11-&mpkEpS )f ausmufpm? urn;f pmtaxmuftxm; (taemf&xmtkwcf u
G pf mESihf usepf pfom;ausmufpm)
rsm;utv,fydkif;acwfwpfacwfudk azmfnTefjyovsuf&Sdayonf/ azmfjycsuf\ qkdvkd&if;t"dyg,frSm
t,ufonfr? 0if;uudk yk*EH idk if aH wmfacwf (c&pf 11-13 &mpkEpS )f a&mufrS yk*u
H vma&mufNy;D xlaxmifay;cJjh cif;
r[kwfaMumif; ay:vGifxif&Sm;onf/ yk*HrwkdifrDysLacwfuyif vlaerItzGJYtpnf;xlaxmifaexkdifvsuf&SdNyD
jzpfaMumif; od&ayonf/ 4if;vlt
Y zGt
YJ pnf;onfvrl sKd ;pktaeESihf ysLvlrsKd ;vm;? rGev
f rl sKd ;vm;? tjcm;rnfonfU

- 184 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

tdE,
d wkid ;f &if;om; (a&S;OD;udv
k edk )D rsm;vma&mufxal xmif cJjh cif;vm;qko
d nfukd qufvufpl;prf;avhvmMu
&OD;rnfjzpfonf/
t,ufonfr? 0if;uwGif yk*rH wkid rf aD cwf (ysLacwf)? yk*aH cwfEiS hf yk*v
H eG af cwf (rkwr ? [Hom0wD)
[l acwfpOfo;kH ckwpfqufwnf;wnf&cdS yhJ u
kH kd ,Ofaus;rIajrvTmxyfqifyh EkH iS w
hf uG azmfjyay;onft
h axmuf
I ek ;f yifjzpf\/ txufwiG f azmfjycJo
h nft
h wkid ;f 0if;u (2)
txm;rSm 0if;utrSwf (2) (WK-2) wl;azmfru
(WK-2) onf t&G,t
f pm;rwlaomtcef;aygi;f (8) cef;jzifh zGpYJ nf;wnfaqmufxm;onfh pwk*yH akH v;axmifh
tkww
f u
dk f taqmufttkw
H pfcjk zpfygonf/ 0if;u trSwf (1) ESihf teD;uyfwnfaeaom ,Ofaus;rIacwfBu;D
(3) acwfqifx
h yfaerIuakd zmfjyonfh taxmuftxm;jzpfonf/ taMumif;udk q&mOD;jrifah tmif\ tpD&ifcH
pmwGif
0if;u (2) rS tk;d tifcu
G af ,mufrsm;udk 0if;u (1) tk;d tifrsm;ESihf EIid ;f ,SOo
f nft
h cg yHpk H (Type)
a&m yHo
k @mef (Shape) rsm;ygqifwo
l nfh tcsurf sm;awG&Y onf/ teDa&mif ajrxnfvyk if ef;onf
,Ofaus;rIacwfwiG f qufvufwnfwahH ecJph Ofu a<uxnfy*k v
H ;kH (tuG)J rsm;udv
k nf; wpfquf
wnf; awGaY e&ayonf[
l azmfjyxm;ygonf (Myint Aung, 1999. p. 39)/ if;trSwf (2)
uke;f rS tk;d tifcu
G af ,mufrsm;ykpH H (Type) rsm;rSm
yHpk H
yHpk H
yHpk H
yHpk H
yHpk H
yHpk H
yHpk H
yHpk H
yHpk H
yHpk H

(1) tifwBkH u;D (basins)


(2-6) a&wnft;dk ? tk;d wkwf (storage jars)
(7) csujf yKwt
f ;dk (cooking vessel)
(13-14) t&G,v
f wft;dk (medium sized pots)
(15-23) apmufwrd yf *k H (shallow dish)
(16) tifwv
Hk wf (medium sized basin)
(24-25) tk;d i,frsm; (small-sized pots)
(27-29) cGurf sm; (bowls)
(30) tk;d EIwcf rf; (lid)
(31) tk;d EIwcf rf; (spout) ? wkjYd zpfMuygonf/

0if;utk;d rsm;ay:wiG f tjc,ftvS,f (patterns of decoration) ygonfqadk omfvnf; jrefrmEkid if H


txufyikd ;f ESihf tv,fyikd ;f uysL (AdEd;k ? [efvif;) wku
Yd o
hJ rYdk sKd ;uGaJ ygi;f rsm;pGmESihf tvSty tqifwefqmrsKd ;
odyrf awG&Y [kqydk gonf/ azmfjyNy;D orQ tk;d yHpk H (Pottery Type) wGit
f d;k tk;d (burial urn) yHpk rH sKd ;udak wG&Y adS Mumif;
azmfjyrxm;ay/ tk;d twGi;f rS usL,Ofaus;rI ("avh) taxmuftxm;wpfcjk zpfaom td;k jym? td;k prsm;ESihf
oHxnfypn;f rsm; awG&Y aMumif;udv
k nf;rod&ay/ tcsuu
f t,ufonfr0if;uwl;azmfrrI mS jrefrmEkid if H
txufyikd ;f ESihf tv,fyikd ;f u ysL"avhwpfrsKd ;jzpfaom td;k tk;d jrKyEf o
HS N*Kd vrf
I avhysEYH ahSH &muf&v
dS myHk taMumif;udk
axmufcHazmfjy jcif;rjyKay/
AdEd;k NrKd aU [mif; (1958-1963) wl;azmfrw
I iG f ocsK i;f uke;f rsm; (trSwf 3? 4? 10) udw
k ;l azmfawG&Y cdS hJ
aMumif;azmfjycJyh gonf/ if;tjyiftd;k tk;d jrKyEf rHS
I avhuakd zmfjyaom uke;f trSwf (6? 9? 11? 12? 14? 18)
ESihf (24) wk\
hd twGi;f ydik ;f ESihf tjyifyikd ;f wkrYd v
S nf; td;k tk;d jrKyEf rHS rI sm;awG&Y onf[k qkyd gonf/ (atmifaomf?
1993? pm 46) ,ckt,ufonfr? 0if;uNrdKYa[mif; (1975-1978) wl;azmfrIwGif ocsKif;ukef;rsm;udk

- 185 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

wl;azmfawG&Y cdS jhJ cif;r&Sad o;onft


h jyif wl;azmfNy;D orQ taqmufttHak [mif;rsm; (WK. 1-6) \ twGi;f ydik ;f ESihf
tjyifyikd ;f wkrYd S td;k tk;d rsm;wl;azmfawG&Y cdS jhJ cif;r&Sad y/
0if;u&GmwGiw
f ;l azmfonfh trSwf (1) ESihf (2) (WK- 1, 2) wko
Yd nfbmoma&;ESirhf qkid ?f vlraI &;
taqmufttHkwkdYomjzpfaMumif;od&ayNyD/ 0if;u (1) ESifh (2) wkdYonfawmifukef;wpfckwnf;ay:wGif
teD;uyfwnf&adS eaomfvnf; ,Ofaus;rIqifx
h yfyckH si;f rwlMuay/ 0if;u (2) wGi,
f Ofaus;rIacwfo;kH acwfxyf
qifah eyHu
k akd wG&Y \/ 0if;u (1) rSm wpfacwfwnf;omxGe;f um;cJah Mumif;awG&Y onf/ xkaYd Mumifh if;vlraI &;
taqmufttHEk pS cf w
k q
Ydk ufpyfru
I kd od&EdS idk &f eftrSwf (3)? ESihf (4) wku
Yd q
kd ufvufw;l azmf&onf/ okaYd omf
,if;wkdYrSm tkwfwkduftaqmufttHkrsm;tjzpf yDyDjyifjyifay:xGufrvmcJhojzifh tquftpyfudkvnf;
ay:vGifatmifrazmfEkdifcJhay/
0if;u (3) (WK-3) wl;azmfrw
I iG f tkwpf Buw
pfcEk iS hf *0Hausmuf tkwpf w
D w
H idk ;f wpfck ay:xu
G v
f m\/
*0Hww
H idk ;f wGif *0Hausmuftw
k af v;vTmay:xu
G af e\/ tkwpf Bur mS tvsm;vku
d f tkwo
f ;kH vTm? axmifvu
dk f
tkwaf v;vTmxyfpv
D suf t<uif;tuseu
f akd wG&Y onf/ if;wkEYd pS cf o
k nf wpfo;D wpfjcm;jzpf qufpyfrrI &Sad y/
ukef;\yEufyHkpHudkvnf;azmfr&cJhay/
0if;u (4) onfta&Sb
U ufcyfvrS ;f vSr;f ae&m&S\
d / uke;f vTmrSmvnf; tkww
f u
dk t
f aqmufttHk
H u
G rf sm;du
k Nf y;D wl;azmfcahJ omfvnf; tkwf ;kd tkwu
f ek ;f rsm; ay:xu
G rf vmbJ
udrk azmfEidk cf ahJ y/ 15' x 15 ywfvnfpu
obm0ausmufwef; wpfct
k oGiu
f o
kd mawG&Y onf/ uHaumif;axmufrpGmjzifh tk;d jcrf;uGpJ tcsKd ?Y tkwcf u
G b
f &k m;
(tusKd ;)ydik ;f ESihf ykw;D aphtenf;i,fpak qmif;&&Scd o
hJ nf (Myint Aung, 1999, 31)/
0if;u&Gmv,fyikd ;f &Sd tvsm;? teHay 250 cefpY &D adS omuke;f apmif;ajrjyifwiG f wl;azmfrI uke;f aygi;f av;uke;f
(WK, 1, 2, 3, 4) wku
Yd w
kd ;l azmfcphJ Ofbmoma&; taqmufttHk trsKd ;tpm;udrk awGcY &hJ ay/ yJc;l uvsmPDord f
ausmufpmtqkt
d & Ak'o
moemtapmqH;k a&muf&cdS &hJ m auvmoawmifajcrSm bmoma&;ESihf oufqidk af om
apwDrsm;? bke;f Bu;D ausmif;a[mif;rsm;&S&d ayOD;rnf/ ,if;wku
Yd pkd ;l prf;&SmazG&ef qufvuftm;xkw&f ayOD;rnf/
okjYd zpf qufvufoak woejyKonft
h cg wrvGeb
f 0tay:,MkH unfjcif;udk azmfjyaom bmoma&;taqmuf
ttHrk sm;udv
k nf;awG&Y \/ if;wku
Yd 0kd if;u&Gmajrmufyikd ;f (WK-5) wGiw
f pfae&mESihf 0if;u&Gmawmifyikd ;f (WKf pfae&mwl;azmfawG&Y cdS \
hJ /
6) wGiw
0if;u&Gmajrmufyikd ;f rS bmoma&;taqmufttHo
k nf ukrm&apwD[ak c:aom *0Htw
k af usmuftw
k pf D
apwDi,fteD;&Syd gonf/ if;\ajrmufbufwiG f &Sr;f bk&m;[kac:aom a&S;a[mif;apwDwpfqu
l akd wG&Y ao;onf/
S w
f ;l azmfc\
hJ / tvsm; 62 ay 5vufrESihf the 54
4if;uke;f ud0k if;utrSwf (5) (WK-5) tjzpfowfrw
ayt&G,f&Sd tkwfwkduftaqmufttHkwpfckay:xGufvmonf/ taqmufttHk\ ta&SYajrmfbufjcrf;rS
NyKd usysupf ;D yEuyf pkH w
H iG f jynfjh ynfph pkH akH y:viG jf cif;r&Sad wmhay/ okaYd omf taemufyikd ;f wpfjcrf;wGif tcef;aygi;f
(7) cef;udv
k nf;aumif;? ta&SY jcrf;wGif tcef; (5) cef;udv
k nf;aumif;azmfxw
k Ef idk cf yhJ gonf/ tkww
f u
dk ef &H rH sm;udk
yQr;f rQtw
k t
f &G,t
f pm; 1 ay 4 vufr _ 8 vufr _ 3 vufr wkjYd zifw
h nfcyhJ gonf/ (cifarmifBu;D
1999? pm 7? yHk 4? 0if;utrSwf (5) yEuyf zkH wfyI g/)
wl;azmfawG&Y &dS aom tk;d cGuyf pkH rH sm;rSm
yHpk H (1-10) a&wnft;dk okrYd [kwf tk;d wkwf (&dum okad vSmift;dk Bu;D rsm;)
yHpk H (11-26) t&G,v
f wft;dk rsm;

- 186 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

yHpk H (27-29) t&G,if ,ft;dk rsm;


jzpfMuonf/ if;tkd;cGufrsm;rSm teDa&mifajrxnfrsm;omjzpfMuonf (pOfhxnf? a<uxnfrsm; rygay)/
,Ofaus;rIajrvTmrSmvnf; acwfBu;D wpfacwfwnf;udo
k m azmfjyyk*rH wkid rf D ysLacwfEiS hf acwfNyKd ijf zpfEidk yf gonf
(Myint Aung, 1999, p. 29)/

0if;uwl;azmfrI trSw(f 6)uke;f


0if;u&Gmawmifyidk ;f OD;zk;d wk\
d Nc0H if;rS bmoma&;taqmufttHo
k nf apwDwpfqjl zpf\/ xku
d ek ;f udk
0if;utrSwf (6) WK-6 tjzpfowfrw
S
f wl;azmfcyhJ gonf/ 15 ay _ 15 ayt&G,f pHuu
G f (Grids) 6
uGuf (cifarmifBuD;? 1999? pm 9? yHk-6? 0if;utrSwf (6) ukef;yEufyHkIyg) dkufwl;onfhtcg
atmufajcwGiaf v;axmifyh kH (apwDbed yf) tkwf ;kd ESihf if;\txufwiG f t0kid ;f yHk (apwDtxufyikd ;f ) tkwf ;kd
wpfcw
k aYdk y:xu
G v
f mcJo
h nf/ atmufajcrS av;axmifyh t
kH w
k f ;dk udk ajrtkwjf zifw
h nfxm;onf[k qk&d aomfvnf;
*0Htw
k rf sm;vnf;yg0ifonf/ txufraS pwDukd vnf;twGi;f u apwDi,fwpfqt
l ay:wiG f iH
k apwDBu;D udk
xyfqifh wnfxm;aMumif;awG&Y onf (Myint Aung, 1999, 34)/
if;0if;u-6 (WK-6) wkdY\xdyfydkif;wGif odkufwl;orm;vufcsuf? xGif;azmfwl;azmfxm;onfU
usi;f twGi;f xyfapwDrmS a&m? tjyifxyfapwDrmS ygysupf ;D aeygonf/ if;txufyikd ;f ajrvTmudk wl;azmfpOf
ajryHkbk&m; (tkwfcGuf) (127) qludkawGY&onf (Myint Aung, 1999, 34)/ wl;azmfrIukef;wGif
tcsed u
f efo
Y wfcsu&f cdS o
hJ jzifh ajrvTmaAudak vhvmEkid jf cif;r&Sad y/ if;uke;f wGif aemiftcguiG ;f qif;avhvmpOf
vufa&;pif;tkwcf syrf sm;ud&k mS azGawG&Y cdS yhJ gonf/ (if;uGi;f qif; avhvmrIt& 0if;u 2? 5? ESihf 6 tkwu
f ek ;f rsm;
wGif vufa&;pif;tkwfudkawGYcJhygonf)/ if;tkwfcsyfawGY&Sd&majrvTmonf ysLacwfxufaemufrus[k
qkEd idk af Mumif; txufwiG t
f pD&ifcpH mwifjyNy;D jzpfygonf/
k ek ;f rSw;l azmfawG&Y &dS aom tkwcf u
G f
apwDuek ;f 0if;utrSwf (6) (WK-6)udk acwfyikd ;f jcm;Ekid &f ef? xdu
bk&m;rsm;udkom taxmuftxm;jyK&ayonf/ pifppf0if;u-t&ufonfr yPmruGif;qif;c&D; (1974)
rSmyifajray:awGYtaxmuftxmtjzpftkwfcGuftcsdKYudk pkaqmif;&&SdcJhygonf/ xkdpOfutkwfcGufbk&m; (4)
qlawGcY o
hJ nf/ tBu;D pm;t&G,rf mS (17 2. ) pifwrD w
D mtjrif&h o
dS nf/ ti,fpm;rSm (10 4. ) pifwrD w
D m
t&G,jf zpfonf/ xkaYd Mumif,
h ckw;l azmfrrI aS wG&Y aom tkwcf u
G b
f &k m;ta&twGuEf iS hf aygi;f vQit
f m;vH;k (131)
qlawGU&onf[kqkdonf/
tBu;D pm;t&G,t
f w
k cf u
G f (17 2. r _ 13 pr _ 2.8 pr) \ rsuEf mS jyifwiG f kyyf akH v;wef;yg&o
dS nf/
yxrwef; - 'smerkj'm[efxidk af wmfro
l ;kH ql? 'kw,
d wef;- 'smerkj'm[efxidk af wmfrEl pS q
f l
wwd,wef;wGif- 'gerkj'm[eftv,fxkdifawmfrlESifh ab;ESpfbufwGif wpfqlpD? pwkxwef;&yfawmfrEl pS q
f yl viaf b;&Hvsuaf wG&Y onf/ if;udt
k w
k cf u
G yf pkH H (1) tjzpf owfrw
S o
f nf/
ti,fpm;t&G,t
f w
k cf u
G f (14 4. pr _ 6 7. pr _ 1 8. pr) \rsuEf mS jyifwiG f kyyf EkH pS w
f ef;om
ygonf/ if;yxrwef; - 'smerkj'm[efxkdifawmfrloHk;ql? 'kwd,wef; - tv,f xkdifawmfrlwGif
atmufcyH viEf iS hf txufwiG ef *g;OD;acgi;f yHyk g&NdS y;D ? ab;wGi&f yfawmfrEl pS q
f &l v
H suaf wG&Y onf (Myint Aung,
1999, pp. 40-41, Plate VIII)/

- 187 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

0if;u tkwcf u
G yf pkH rH sKd ;ESihf qifwt
l w
k cf u
G rf sKd ;udk OD;jr\tkwcf u
G b
f &k m; qif;wkawmfrsm; pmtkyt
f wGJ
(1) 1961? yHktrSwf (117) wGif awGY&ao;onf/ if;taxmuftxm;rSm tkwfcGufudkoGef;vkyfaom
I *f rl S awG&Y jcif;jzpfonf[q
k \
dk / yHpk jH zift
h w
k cf u
G b
f &k m;
yHpk cH u
G f (Mould) wpfcjk zpfygonf/ aumh*eG ;f vdP
trsKd ;tpm;udk txufjrefrmEkid if aH 'orsm; awG&Y cdS jhJ cif;r&Sad o;aMumif;udv
k nf;od& ojzifh ok0Pbrl ad 'o\
rl & if ; taxmuf t xm;jzpf r nf [ k qk d y gonf (Myint Aung, 1999, p. 42)/ tcsuf onf
aemiftcgorkid ;f ynm&Siaf 'guw
f mrku
d u
f ,fatmifoiG u
f (ok0Pbrl )d oxHk [kac:Muaom atmufjrefrmEdik if w
H iG f
yk*H (usefppfom;rif;vufxuf) acwfumvtwGif;u vma&mufxlaxmifay;cJhaom ,Ofaus;rIrSvGJ
tjcm;tapmydik ;f acwftaxmuftxm;rsKd ;r&SEd idk af Mumif; t,ltq (Aung Thwin, 2005) udak cszsuEf idk rf nfU
oufaowpfcktjzpfrSwf,lEdkifayonf/
G rf sm;teuf (4) qlww
Ydk iG pf mta&;tom;ukad wG&Y \/
0if;utrSwf 6 (WK-6) wl;uGurf S &aomtkwcf u
,if;wkrYd S tkwcf u
G Ef pS q
f u
l kd (u) ESihf (c) [kowfrw
S
f erlemjyvsupf mta&; tom;udzk wfaI vhvmcJo
h nf/
refrmjyef
jjref

(u) tkwfcGufpm
aMumif; (1) . . .

. . .

(2) . . .

. . .

(3) . . . 0.g&af usmuf

bk&m;ESpfql

(4) X. &a0gtf

(c) tkwfcGufpm

jrefrmjyef

aMumif; (1) . . .
(2) . . .
(3) . . . 0g.&fausmuf

bk&m;ESpfql

(4) . . . X&a0gtf

[ljzpfonf/ tkwcf u
G w
f pfrsuEf mS wGif pmaMumif;av;aMumif;pDyg&adS omfvnf; tm;vH;k eD;yg; arS;rdeS jf yKe;f wD;
ayNyjD zpf\/ pmaMumif;tqH;k em;&Sd pmvH;k tu&mtcsKd u
U o
kd m zwfEI idk Nf y;D a&S;rGef tu&mjzpfaMumif; od&ygonf/
ouwa0g[m&rsm;vnf;ygonf/ rGeaf 0g[m&vnf;ygonf/ okjhd zpf0if;urS pmta&;tom;ygaom a&S;a[mif;
taxmuftxm;udk wl;azmfawG&Y jdS cif;yif jzpfonf[q
k &dk rnf/
aMumif;a& (2) rS ]o&G} [laompum;onf ouwa0g[m&jzpf ]kyyf }kH [kt"dyg ,&f aMumif;?
useaf oma0g[m&rsm;teufrS ESpcf w
k rYdk mS rGeaf 0g[m&rsm;jzpf ]ausmuf} = ]bk&m;} ? ]a0gt}f = ]um;}
[kt"dyg ,&f aMumif;od&\/ ]0g&}f = ]ESpcf }k [kt"dyg ,&f onf/ ]0g&af usmuf}onf bk&m;ESpq
f [
l k t"dyg ,f
&onf/ urn;f pmvufa&;taxmuftxm;udk y&yxkr(f xkid ;f Edik if )H rGeaf usmufpmvufa&;ESihf wku
d q
f idk f
MunfNh y;D ? qifwo
l jzifch &pf 6-&mpkEpS f taxmuftxm;jzpfrnf[k q&mEkid yf ef;vSu cefrY eS ;f cJyh gonf/ (Myint
k yf ef;vS? ]orkid ;f wefz;dk Bu;D aom tkwcf u
G rf sm;} orkid ;f *sme,f? twGJ 3? trSwf 1?
Aung, 1999, p. 53,) ? (Edi
&efuek ?f uefompdr;f ykEH ydS w
f u
dk ?f 1985? pm? 106)/ ,if;uJo
h Ydk a&S;rGeb
f mom? rGet
f u&mESihf a&S;usaomvufa&;

- 188 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

yg&rdS t
I axmuftxm;t& 0if;utrSwf (6) (WK-6) tkwcf u
G b
f &k m;wku
Yd kd yk*rH wdik rf ?D (ysLacwf) taxmuf
txm;[k wl;azmfoyl nm&Siu
f wifjycJyh gonf (Myint Aung, 1999, p. 54) /
0if;u? t,ufonfr wl;azmfrEI iS yhf wfouf qufpyfoufwrf; (relative chronology) azmfjycsuf
Z,m;wGif 0if;u (1) ESihf 0if;u (5) taxmuftxm;rsm;udk c&pf 4-5 &mpkEpS f oufwrf;tm;vnf;aumif;?
0if;u (6)ESihf 0if;u (2)rS atmufq;kH ,Ofaus;rI ajrvTmESpv
f mT wkrYd t
S axmuftxm;udk c&pfEpS f 6-&mpkEpS f
oufwrf;tm;vnf;aumif; owfrw
S af y;xm;onfukd txufwiG af zmfjycJNh y;D jzpfygonf/ ajrvTmaAt& awG&Y
onf/ 0if;u (2) \ trSwf (3) ajrvTmjzpfonf pyful;rwful;umv ,Ofaus;rIajrvTmjzpfonf/
odyHenf;us"gwfcGJcef;jzifh ppfaq;&aom tkd;jcrf;uGJoufwrf;t& NrdKYdk;ukef; (AYT. 1) wkdYonf at'D
1499 rS at'D 1662 oufwrf;udak zmfjyaom (wwd,) ,Ofaus;rIacwftaxmuftxm;jzpfonf[k
toD;oD; qkdygonf/ uJhokdY&ufpGJudk owfrSwfay;Edkifaom a&S;a[mif;taxmuftxm;rsm;wGif
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- 189 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

ewfom;rSm vufav;zufyg&Sd 0if;urS tkwfcGufwGifvufESpfzufomawGY&onf/ ,dk;',m;tkwfcGuf


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ok0Pblrdacwfudk azmfnTef;jyoEkdifaom taxmuftxm;rsm;vHkavmufpGm wifjyEkdifcJhjcif;r&Sdao;ay/

- 190 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

xkt
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awmifajctxd ysEYH jhkH cif;r&Syd g/

- 191 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

[lazmfjyxm;onfuakd wG&Y onf (cifarmifBu;D ? 1996? pm? 1)/ tzGo


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- 192 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

taqmufttHrk sm;eJU tjcm;toH;k taqmifypn;f rsm;) yifv,fqyd u


f rf;NrKd jY zpfc&hJ if ukeo
f ,
G u
f ;l oef;
jyKcw
hJ EhJ idk if rH sm;&JY taxmuftxm; (Oyrm-tEkynm vuf&mypn;f rsm;? '*Fg;rsm;) udak wG&Y &dS rSm jzpf
ayr,fh ,ckrawGY&yg/ rkd;rsm;wJh a'ojzpfvkdY a&S;ypnf;rsm; ysufpD;vG,fw,fvkdYqkdEkdifayr,fhvJ?
r&SdvkdYomrawGY&awmvkdYajymwmu ydkNyD;rSefEkdifygw,f/ 'ghaMumifh 'Da'o[mok0PblrdNrdKUa[mif;
rif;Ekid if &H YJ NrKd aY [mif;NrKd aY wmfvYdk ,lqbkt
Yd vGecf ,
J Of;ygw,f (cifarmifBu;D ? 1996? pm 2)/
[lol\ avhvmawG&Y cdS surf sm;udk tuJjzwfwifjyonf/
ok0PblrdNrdKYawmfa[mif;ae&m[k owfrSwfNyD; okawoejyKpkcJhaom ]0if;u? t,ufonfr}
wl;azmfrI umvwpfavQmufv;kH udk jyefvnfa0zefo;kH oyfMunfv
h Qif yPmruGi;f qif;cJph Ofu ]0if;u&GmwGif
tkwfukef;edrfhrsm;tESHYESifh tkwfNrdKYdk;wpfxyfawGY&Sd&ayonf/ okdYaomf,if;wkdYonf yk*Hacwfxufa&S;us[ef
vuPmr&SMd uacs} (jrifah tmif 1976/ 2007 pm 114)/ [k,q
l Ny;D wl;azmfr&I moDwpfavsmufv;kH xkNd rKd Y ;kd uke;f udk
prf;oyfwl; azmfcJhjcif;r&Sday/ xkdYaMumifh cifarmifBuD;u 0if;uwGifNrdKYdk;a[mif;? usHK;a[mif;r&SdaMumif;
axmufjyxm;onf udkawGY&\/
xkt
Yd jyif eef;awmf&muke;f a[mif;ae&mudk vnf;&SmazG owfrw
S af y;Ekid jf cif;r&Scd ahJ y/ NrKd aY [mif;&m\
pepfyu
kH v
kd nf;azmfxw
k af y;Ekid jf cif; r&Sad Mumif;udv
k nf; awG&Y onf/ okjhd zpf AdEd;k ? [efvif;ESihf oa&acw&m
NrdKYrsm;uJhokdY a&S;NrdKYa[mif;wpfckjzpfaMumif; oufaoxljyoEkdifjcif;yifr&SdcJhay/
pifppf0if;u&Gm? wku
d u
f v
k m;ok0Pbrl Nd rKd aY [mif;onf if;udw
k nfaxmifNy;D ESpaf ygi;f (240)ceft
Y Mum
wGif yifv,f (ppfawmif;jrpf) wku
d pf m;NzKd zsujf cif;'PfaMumifh ysupf ;D oGm;cJNh yjD zpfaMumif; oxH&k mZ0ifwiG f
azmfjyxm;cJNh yjD zpfonf/ xdpk Ofu NrKd aY [mif;ae&mwpfcv
k ;kH NyKd uyf sujf cif;r[kwf awmifapmif;ESiaUf jrjyefae&m
(,ck0if;u&Gm wpfavQmufv;kH ) rSm vufa&;pif;tkwEf iS Uf tkwu
f ek ;f tkwx
f yfrsm; MunfpU &museyf gao;onf/
odahk omf NrKd aY wmfBu;D \ ajrjyefyh ikd ;f wpfcv
k ;kH eD;yg;rSm xdt
k csed u
f yif ysupf ;D oGm;cJaU yrnf/ xkaYd Mumifyh if ok0Pbrl d
ok"r0wDNrdKYawmfudk vuf&SdoxHkNrdKYa[mif; ae&mokdY wpfzefajymif;a&TYpkdufxlcJjcif;jzpfonf/ xkdpOfu
vlaerIuek ;f rsm;ESihf eef;awmfuek ;f tygt0if NrKd aY [mif;\taemuf ajredryhf ikd ;f rSm urf;NyKd ysupf ;D oGm;Ny[
D k ,lq&ef
taMumif;&Sdayao;onf/
okaYd omfajrjrifyh idk ;f jzpfaom awmifajcajrjyefEY iS hf awmifapmif;ae&mwkw
Yd iG f NrKd U ;kd a[mif;rsm;&Sad yao;
onf/ usK;H a[mif;ae&m tcsKd v
Y nf; wpfyikd ;f wpfpuse&f EdS idk af yao;onf/ if;wku
Yd kd wl;azmfa&;umvtwGi;f
azmfxkwfay;Ekdifjcif;r&Sdao;onfudk awGY&rnfjzpfygonf/
aemufxyfw;l azmfoak woejyKorl sm; owdcsy&f eftcsuu
f v
kd nf; wifjyvkyd gao;onf/ "rapwDrif;\
uvsmPDord af usmufpmtnTe;f twkid ;f t,ufonfr&Gm wku
d u
f v
k m;NrKd aY [mif;ae&mrSm NrKd eY H ;kd av;zufEiS hf
a&S;NrKd aY [mif;ae&mwpfae&mtjzpf owfrw
S Ef idk yf gonf/ okaYd omfvnf; if;ok0Pbrl ad cwftaxmuftxm;rSm
aESmif;acwf (tv,facwf) wkdufukvm;NrdKYudk xyfqifhwnfxm;cJhjcif;aMumifh aESmif;acwf,Ofaus;rIrsm;
jzpfMuaom anmif&rf;? uke;f abmifacwf taxmuftxm;rsm;a&maESmaeNyjD zpfygonf/ xkaYd Mumifh wl;azmf
okawoejyKol OD;jrifah tmifu (wku
d u
f v
k m;) NrKd aY [mif;onf ya'o&mZfacwfv,fumvtxd vlaerI
wpfqufwnf; &Scd ahJ Mumif;? rGeo
f &l aJ umif; ]roHv}kH ud&k mZm"d&mZfu ]v*Ge;f tdr}f bGu
YJ akd y; NrKd pY m;tjzpf
cs;D jri ahf jrm ufxm;cJah om ]wku
d u
f v
k m;} [k,q
l Ekid af Mumif;? xkpd Ofu wku
d u
f v
k m;udk cHwyfNrKd w
Y pfct
k jzpf
atmufjrefrmEkid if w
H iG f wnfaxmifcahJ o;aMumif;,lq&aMumif;qkx
d m;ygonf/ (Myint Aung, 1999, p. 57)/

- 193 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

xko
d q
Ydk &dk jim;aomfvnf; jrefrmtpOftvm rSww
f rf;rsm;wGit
f ckid t
f rmazmfjyxm;aom atmufjrefrm
Ekid if rH S ok0Pbrl Nd rKd aY [mif;onf raocsmra&&monfh oabmudak qmifomG ;onf/ wnfae&m twdtus
razmfjyEkid af o;aom a&S;a[mif;ae&mwpfcjk zpfomG ;cJah yNy/D ]0if;u?t,ufonfra'oESihf ok0Pbrl d t,l
tq} tay:a0zefo;kH oyfol cifarmifBu;D \ aqmif;yg;wGirf l a'orSm ok0Pbrl [
d q
k &dk atmif taxmuf
txm;r&Sad o;aMumif; jiif;qkx
d m;onfomru ok0Pbrl u
d kd jrefrmEkid if eH ,ferd w
d t
f jyiftyokYd a&mufatmif
wGe;f ykcYd yhJ u
kH kd awG&Y ayonf/ if;u
H m tif'edk ;D &Sm;Ekid if o
H m jzpfEidk w
f ,f
&D*sief ,fvaD r (Reginal Lemay) u ok0Pbrl Nd rKd aY [mif;Ekid if [
vkdYqkdygw,f/ t&Sifpuygv (awmifaygufq&mawmf) uawmhtif'kdeD;&Sm;EkdifiH okrmMwmuRef;
(pkrm;Mwm;)omvQif rlvok0Pblrdjzpfw,fvkdYqkdygw,f/
[kwifjycJo
h nf (cifarmifBu;D ? 1996? pm 2)/
okjhd zifh 0if;u? t,ufonfr wl;azmfoak woe wpfpcef;&yfem;csed rf mS ok0Pbrl o
d nf jrefrmEkid if rH S
aysmufq;kH oGm;cJNh y;D ? tif'edk ;D &Sm;Ekid if pH rk m;Mwm;uRe;f okYd a&TaY jymif;ae&mcsxm;jcif;cH&yHk udk jI rifo;kH oyf&ayonf/

uGrf;qdyfausmufpm

- 194 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

usKd uo
m tkwcf u
G b
f &k m;

uGi;f qif;okawoe awGY &Scd sufrsm;


usKduomNrdKaY [mif;
usKduom (17? 21' x 96? 55') onf ppfawmif;jrpfta&SYurf;wGif&Sd\/ opfawm"gwfyHk
tif*sifeD,mOD;atmifjrifhu xdkNrdKYa[mif;udk aumif;uif"gwfyHkrS avhvmawGY&SdcJhNyD; udk,fwdkifuGif;qif;cJh
azmfxkwfay;cJhonf/ yJcl;&mZ0ifvlpGrf;aumif; tom;rif;om;apwDudkpGJ usKduftom; (tom;bk&m;)
trnfwiG cf &hJ mrS usKu
d o
mtrnfwiG o
f nf[k tqd&k ydS gonf/ xdo
k t
Ydk rnfwiG f aeaomfvnf; NrKd aY [mif;onf
tom;rif;om;acwf (at'D 9 &mpk ESp)f xufyify
kd a&S;us[ef wlayonf/
NrKd aY [mif;\ yHo
k Pmefonf tem;rnDaomtvsm;&Sno
f nft
h 0dik ;f yHk (ajc&myH)k &S\
d / ta&SEY iS t
hf aemuf
tvsm;wpfrikd cf cJG efEh iS hf awmifEiS ahf jrmufteHwpfrikd cf ef&h
dS tem;ywfvnfav;rdik cf cGJ ef&h o
dS nf/ tus,t
f 0ef;rSm
667 {ucef&U ydS gonf/ odjhk zpf a&S;NrKd aU wmfwpfck t&G,t
f pm;rQBu;D ayonf/ tjyif0ef;udk NrKd Y ;kd ESpx
f yf&v
H suf
vnf;aumif;? twGi;f xyfNrKd Y ;kd (7) xyfcefv
U nf;aumif;? t&pftxyfxyfrsm;rsm;wnfxm;yHu
k kd xl;jcm;pGmawG?&\/
,if;uJo
h Nhkd rKd Y ;dk ESihf usK;H xyfrsm;rsm;wnf xm;yHu
k kd aumhxif;? Zkwo
f w
k ?f uwdu
k Ef iS hf oxHNk rKd aY [mif;wdw
Yk iG af wG&Y
ao;\/ usKu
d o
mESihf qifw,
l Ofaf us;rIrsK;d 4if;teD;0ef;usirf mS yif ysEYH w
YHS nf&adS ejcif;yifjzpfygonf/ usKu
d o
mudk
1981 ckEpS rf pS ajrjyifuiG ;f qif;avhvmjcif;pwifcNhJ y;D 1986 ckEpS w
f iG f a&S;a[mif;okawoewl;azmfrrI sm;
pwifcJhaMumif;od&\/

- 195 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

usdKuomNrdKYa[mif; aumif;uif"mwfyHk (OD;atmifjrifU)

usdKuomNrdKYa[mif; qGJyHk (OD;atmifjrifU)

- 196 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

bk&m;wpfaxmifuek ;f rS a&S;a[mif; *0Hausmufqpfyk rf sm;

- 197 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

bk&m;wpfaxmifuek ;f rS a&S;a[mif; *0Hausmufqpfypn;f rsm;

bk&m;wpfaxmifukef;rS a&S;a[mif; *0Hausmuf*l

- 198 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

usdKuomrS vufa&;piftkwfcsyfrsm;

usdKuomrS ajrrD;zkwfjrif;pD;vlkyf

usKd uo
mrS ausmufom;jrif;pD;vlyk f

usKd uo
mrS *0Hajcqif;xdik af wmfral eonfU kyyf kH

- 199 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

usdKuom '*Fg;rsm; (ckoif; ESifh od&dapyHkrsm;)

usdKuomrS aMu;qif;wkig;qlyHk

- 200 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

usdKuom rkqdk;r*lac: 80HausmufxGif;vdkPf*l

usKd uo
mrS ausmufacsm vufewfEiS hf ajrykw;D aph

- 201 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

udsKuo
m rkq;kd r*ltwGi;f q&mBu;D OD;armifarmifwif(r[m0dZm )ESihf a'guw
f muHeT hf
( &efukefwuodkvfordkif;Xme) wdkh tzGJY0ifa&mufavhvmpOf

- 202 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

usKd uo
mNrKd aY [mif; bk&m;wpfaxmifuek ;f rS *0Hypn;f rsm;

usKu
d o
mNrKd Y ;dk rsm;rSm *0Htw
k rf sm;ESihf ajrrD;zkwt
f w
k cf syrf sm;a&mvsuf wnfaqmufxm;aMumif;od&\/
ajrtkwfcsyfrSmt&G,ftpm;BuD;rm;onfh (18' x 9' x 7') trsKd;tpm;jzpfonf/ tkwfcsyfrsufESmjyifrS
vufa&;pif;trSwt
f om;udak wG&Y ygonf/ atmufjrefrmEdik if w
H iG f vufa&;pif;tkw"f avhukd a&S;OD;pGm &SmazG
awG&Y cdS ahJ om NrKd aY [mif;vnf;jzpfygonf/ ,if;tkwrf sK;d udk rdik ;f arm? AdEd;k ? oa&acw&m? awmifwiG ;f Bu;D ?
oJuek ;f ? [efvif;? 0wD;ysLNrKd aY [mif;rsm;wGif awGx
Y m;Ny;D jzpf usKu
d o
mudk ysLNrKd rY sm;ESihf acwfNyKd iNf rKd w
Y pfNrKd Y jzpfrnf[k
cefUrSef;EdkifcJhygonf/

usKd uo
mNrKd aY [mif;? bk&m;wpfaxmifuek ;f rS *0Hausmufqpfvuf&mypn;f rsm;

- 203 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

usdKuomNrdKYa[mif; wl;azmfrI trSwf(7)ukef; (2000 jynfUESpf)rS &&Sdaom


ajrrD;zkwv
f l yk w
f k

usKduomNrdKUa[mif;uGif;qif;tzGJYonf NrdKYa[mif;ordkif;twGuf ,Ofaus;rIypnf;taxmuftxm;


rsm;udv
k nf; rSww
f rf;wifEikd cf yhJ gonf/ ysLacwfaiG'*Fg;jym;rsm;? ausmufacsm acwfvufeufEiS hf ykw;D aphrsm;?
taphtqefBuw
d af om ausmufusw
d q
f t
kH ydik ;f tusK;d wpfck ajrrD;zkwjf rif;pD;vl kyt
f ydik ;f tusK;d ESpcf w
k Ykd awG&Y aom
aMumifh usKu
d o
monf jrefrmEdik if yH sLacwfEiS hf xkid ;f Edik if 'H gG &0wDacwfwEYkd iS hf acwfNyKd iNf rKd aY [mif;Bu;D jzpfEikd yf u
kH kd
odcGifh&cJh\/ NrdKUa[mif;twGif;rS apwDysufukef;rsm; pGmudkawGY&NyD; a&S;a[mif;tkwfcGufbk&m;qif;wkrsm;ESifh
aMu;qif;wkig;qlwu
Ykd kd rSww
f rf;wifco
hJ nf/ NrKd aY [mif;\ta&Sb
Y ufNrKd U ;dk rS rkq;kd r*lEiS hf aAmhuAef;*lrsm;udv
k nf;
a&muf&NdS y;D *0Hausmuf xkwv
f yk o
f nfh ausmufusi;f udv
k nf; avhvmcJ\
h / 4if;c&D;pOftNy;D 1986 ckEpS w
f iG f
usKduomudk a&S;a[mif;okawoeOD;pD;XmerS pwifwl;azmfavhvmcJhygonf/

- 204 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

usKd uo
mNrKd aY [mif; wl;azmfrI trSw(f 7)uke;f (2000 jynfEU pS )f

usdKuomNrdKYa[mif; wl;azmfrI trSwf(7)ukef; (2000 jynfUESpf)rS &&Sdaom ajrrD;zkwfqifkyfwk

- 205 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

usKd uo
mNrKd aY [mif; ajrxnfypn;f rsm;

usKduom(17? 22' x 96? 55') onf ajrmufbufodkY ppfawmif;NrdKYa[mif;? awmifbufwGif


aumhxif;NrKd aU [mif; (17? 19' x 96? 59')? taemufajrmufbufwiG f BuKw
H (l a0gNrKd )Y a&S;a[mif;ae&mwk&Yd H
vsuw
f nfaeyHt
k & ppfawmif;jrpf0uRe;f ay:wpfcv
k ;kH ,Ofaus;rIysEYH ahHS eyHu
k kd awGEY ikd af yonf/ *0Hausmufqpf
jcaoFh yk ?f qifyk ?f *VKiH u
S f yk ?f *0HapwD? *0HEpS u
f syd &f pS q
f yl akH wmf ausmufqpfyk ?f MumyGio
hf
Pmefyef;wifc?kH
qGrf;wifcHkrsm;awGY&ygonf/ usKduomrS *0Hajratmuf OrifvdkPfazmufvkyfxm;yHkpepfudkvnf; avhvm
awGY&SdcJh&ygonf/

usKd uo
mNrKd aY [mif;rS ajrykw;D rsm;

- 206 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

auvmoawmifajca'o a&S;NrdKYa[mif;rsm;
yx0Dtaetxm;ESiUf blrd yk o
f iG f
wnfae&m
&efuek rf S armfvNrKd if rD;&xm;jzifo
U mG ;aom vrf;c&D;wGif usKd ux
f Nkd rKd u
Y kd vGeaf omf auvmoawmifukd
vrf;\nmbuf awGEY ikd yf gonf/ r&rf;uke;f ESiUf awmifpeG ;f blwmodhk tMum;&S\
d / tvsm;(5)rdik ?f teH(3)rdik cf ef?h
awmifwef;\tv,fyikd ;f rSm tjrifU (1181 aycef&h adS om) awmifxw
G af y:wiG f auvmoapwDukd zl;awG&Y \
xdak pwD&ifjyifrS &mrm"dywd ("rapwD) rif;\ ausmufpmwGif bk&m;ocif\ qHawmf"mwfEiS Uf oGm;awmf"mwfrsm;
ude;f atmif;&m apwDa[mif;udk xdrk if;vufxuf jyKjyifwnfxm;cJaU Mumif; a&;xd;k xm;onf/ awmiftaemufbuf
jrode;f wefawmifay:u usKd uo
f vef;apwDEiS Uf awmif ta&Sb
Y uf aqmifcaJ wmifay:rS usKd uw
f aJ pwDwrhkd mS
yk*H usepf pfom;rif;u ,cifapwDa[mif; tysut
f pD;rsm;udk rdrv
d ufxuf (at'D 1098 ) topf
rGe;f rHjyKjyifc&UJ yHrk sm;udk a&S;rGeb
f momjzifU ausmufpmwdik rf sm; a&;xd;k pdu
k x
f cl aUJ Mumif; od&ygonf/

- 207 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

jrode;f wef(usKd uo
f vef;)awmifajcwGif wdu
k u
f v
k m;NrKd aY [mif; wpfae&m&S\
d / ,ck t,ufor&Gm
wGifjzpf\/ rkwrESifU [Hom0wDacwf rif;rsm;vufxufrS ukef;abmifacwfaESmif;ydkif;a&mufonftxd
wdu
k u
f v
k m;trnfjzifU xif&mS ;cJaU om ya'o&mZfe,fpm;rif; ydik pf m;&onfU NrKd aY [mif;wpfcjk zpf\/ uke;f abmif
acwf wdu
k u
f v
k m;e,f\ ajrmufbufwiG f ppfawmif;NrKd ?Y ta&Sb
Y ufwiG f ,if;tkNH rKd ?Y awmifbufwiG f 'H0k ef;
NrdKYe,frsm;&Sd taemufbufrSm yifv,f(ppfawmif;jrpf)jzpfonf/ ,if;wdkufukvm;NrdKYa[mif; wnfae&m
auvmoawmifajcrSmyif ,ck r&rf;uke;f ? ydik 'f ef? t,ufor? 0if;u? ausmufv;kH Bu;D ? awmifBu;D ? uif;
&Gm? awmifpeG ;f ? Bu;D yif? awmifuav;? qufomG ;? qiftif;? usKu
d w
f aJ us;&Gmrsm; &SMd u\/ 4if;auvmoawmif
ajcESiUf awmifay:b&k m;? apwDrsm;wnfxm;&m awmifxw
G rf sm;? vQKd ajrmif? awmifapmif;? awmif;kd rsm;onf
a&S;ok0Pbrl ad cwf wdu
k u
f v
k m;NrKd aY [mif;\ wnfae&myifjzpf\/

blrd yk o
f iG f
auvmoawmifonf rkwr awmifwef;? ausmuftrsKd ;tpm;(Martaban Series)wGif yg0ifNy;D ouf
&ifaU usmufawmifwpfcjk zpfonf/ xdak wmifrS vrf;cif;&efo;kH aom xH;k ausmuf? vdyo
f aJ usmufEiS Uf ESr;f zwf
ausmufrsm; xkwf,lvQuf&Sd\/ ausmufxkwfpcef;rsm;? awmifpGef;(usdKufa';,sHKawmif)ESifU BuD;yif(awmif
uav;awmif)&GmteD;wdw
hk iG &f MdS u\/ a&S;NrKd aY [mif;acwfu ausmufwef;pD NrKd Y ;kd rsm;vnf; auvmoawmif
ay:? awmifatmufwpf0dkufwGif &Sdaeygonf/ udkvdkeDacwfrSp 4if;ausmufrsm; xkwfvkyfpOftcgu
auvmoawmif ta&Sb
Y ufEiS Uf ajrmufbuf rD;&xm;vrf;teD;&Sd a&S;a[mif;ausmufNrKd Y ;kd rsm;rS ausmufw;kH
rsm;udk tvG,w
f ul ,liiftoH;k jyKcMUJ uygonf/ odjhk zpf awmifta&Sb
Y uf NrKd aY [mif;taxmuftxm;rsm;
ysupf ;D oGm;cJo
U nf/ awmiftaemufbuf vrf;ESiaUf 0;onfaU e&mrS ausmufw;kH NrKd Y ;kd rsm; tcsKd u
Y seyf gao;onf/
awmifajc&if; ajrjyefyh ikd ;f rSm *0Hajrom; uke;f jyifrsm;ukd v,fuiG ;f rsm;tMum;wGif awG&Y onf/ ,ck
aumhuwGw?f Zkwo
f w
k ?f rkoifpaom aus;&Gmrsm;wnf&&Sd m *0Huek ;f rsm;jzpfMuygonf/ *0Hausmufuv
kd nf;
vrf;cif;&ef? taqmufttHkwnf&ef oHk;Edkifonfjzpf xdke,fajrrSmyif *0Hausmufxkwfvkyfief;&Sdao;\/
a&S;ok0Pblrdacwf *0HausmuftaqmufttHka[mif;rsm;onfvnf; vufwavmwl;azmfxkwfvkyfaom
*0Hausmufrsm;ESiaUf &m tcsKd aY ysmufq;kH oGm;cJNU yD jzpfygonf/ Zkwo
f u
k &f mG rS qifwyf? jrif;wyf NrKd w
Y w
H ikd ;f onf
*0Hausmuftw
k pf x
D m;aom NrKd Y ;kd t<uif;tusew
f pfyikd ;f jzpfygonf/ auvmoawmif wnf&&dS m rkwr yifv,f
auGY urf;d;k wef;ay:&dS usKd uu
f omESiUf oxHNk rKd aY [mif;rsm;? ppfawmif;? aumhxif;? 'H0k ef;? uwdu
k Bf u;D paom
NrKd aY [mif;i,fuav;rsm;onf *0Huek ;f ay:wnfxm;aom a&S;vlaeNrKd aY [mif;rsm; jzpfMu NrKd Y ;kd rsm;udk *0H
ausmuftw
k cf syBf u;D rsm; toH;k jyKum wnfavh&ydS gonf/ NrKd v
Y jkH cKH a&;twGuf tapmifcU sxm;&ef *0Hvikd *f rl sm;
wl;jcif;? ajratmufqufo,
G af &;vdP
k v
f rf;rsm;ESiUf a&wGi;f oP
mef vl0ifvx
l u
G f wGi;f aygurf sm;wl;xm;jcif;
paom *0HNrdKYwnftaxmuftxm;rsm;udkvnf; awGYEdkifonf/ bmoma&;,HkMunfrIt& wnfxm;aom
*0HapwDa[mif;rsm;? kyyf mG ;qif;wkrsm;udv
k nf; awGEY ikd yf gonf/ od*hk 0Hausmuf toH;k csr"I avUEiS Uf vdyo
f J
ausmufw;kH rsm;jzifU NrKd Y ;kd pDjcif;"avU taxmuftxm;rsm;udw
k zJG ufNy;D ajrrD;zkwt
f w
k rf sm; xkwv
f yk t
f oH;k jyKonf
udv
k nf;awG&Y onf/ ,if;*0HNrKd aY [mif;uke;f rsm;rS &SmazGawG&Y &dS aom ajrrD;zkwt
f w
k cf syw
f o
hkd nf t&G,t
f pm;Bu;D
rm;jcif;? pyg;cGaH &maESmyg0ifaejcif;ESiUf tkwcf syrf suEf mS jyif vufa&;pifaMumif;trSwt
f om;rsm; a&cspx
f m;
jcif;wdahk MumifU ysLacwf(yk*rH wdik rf aD cwf)xuf aemufrusaom a&S;NrKd aY [mif;taxmuftxm;rsm; jzpfMuyg
onf/ ,ckwifjyoGm;rnfU auvmoawmifay: NrKd Y ;kd rsm;wGif 4if;vufa&;piftw
k cf syrf sm;? 80Htw
k cf syrf sm;ESiUf

- 208 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

auvmoawmifta&SY oJjzLacsmif;a&pG,f pwifp;D qif;yHk


vdyfoJausmufwHk;rsm a&maESmvQufawGY&jcif;jzpfygonf/ a&S;NrdKYa[mif;acwf vlwdkhonf rdrdwdkhaexdkif&m
ywf0ef;usirf S tvG,w
f ul&Edik af om obm0t&if;tjrpf ausmufw;kH ? 80Hw;kH ? &Tw
YH ;kH rsm;udk toH;k jyKvQuf
NrdKYwnfyHkudk jrifawGY&ygonf/

ajrjyiftaetxm;ESiUf a&S;a[mif;a&tm;oH;k pepf (Ancient Water Management )


auvmoawmif;wGif a&S;NrdKYa[mif;wnf&SdyHkudk azmfjyaom ajrjyifvuPm&yf tcsdKY&Sdygonf/
ajrrsuEf mS oGijf yifukd avhvmtuJcufNy;D NrKd \
Y vHjk cKH a&;? avaMumif;qufo,
G af &; paom 4if;wd\
hk vdt
k yf
csurf sm;udk a&S;acwfvw
l hkd pDrzH efw;D cJMU uyHk taxmuftxm;rsm;yifjzpfygonf/
ajryH?k aumif;uif"mwfyEkH iS Uf N*Kd [w
f "k mwfyrkH sm;ay:wiG f auvmoawmif\ wnfae&mtaetxm;
udMk unfv
U Qif oJjzLacsmif;onf ta&Sb
Y uf d;k rawmifrS auvmoawmifajc&if;odhk eD;uyfpmG pD;qif;vQuf
&SNd y;D taemufbufppfawmif;jrpf0xJohkd pD;0if;aeyHk taetxm;udjk rif&\/ oJjzLacsmif;\txufyikd ;f rSm ajr
jrifUydkif;jzpfonf auvmoawmifajcodkha&mufaomtcg ta&SYbufajredrfUydkif;wGif oJjzLacsmif;a&pG,fonf
awmifajc&if;qDohkd OD;wdu
k x
f ;dk qif;um awmifajcrSab;ESpzf ufohkd jzmxGuNf y;D pD;qif;oGm;yHu
k akd wGEY ikd o
f nf/
4if;a&pG,fvrf;aMumif; ESpfckonf awmifbufydkif;wGif auvmoapwD&Sd&mawmifxGwfESifU usdKufa';,sHK
apwDwnf&&dS m awmifxw
G w
f t
hkd Mum; vQKd ajrmifcsKd i0Uf rS ;f jzifU awmiftaemufbufohkd pD;qif;Edik af tmif pDpOf
xm;onf/ xdek nf;wlpmG ajrmufbufyikd ;f vnf; auvmoapwDawmifxw
G Ef iS Uf awmifuav;awmif? ewf

- 209 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

auvmoawmifta&SY oJjzLacsmif;a&pG,f xd;k qif;aeyHk


rsm;awmifwt
hkd Mum; vQKd ajrmifcsKd i0Uf rS ;f jzifU awmiftaemufbufohkd pD;qif;Edik af tmif pDrzH efw;D xm;onfU oabm
vuPmrsm;udv
k nf; awG&Y ygonf/
auvmoawmif taemufbufrmS a&S;NrKd aY [mif; vlaeuke;f rsm; wnf&adS eygonf/ awmifta&SY
a&pG,v
f rf;aMumif;ESiq
Uf ufNy;D awmiftaemufbufu a&usKH ;rsm; t<uif;tusew
f o
hkd nf xdv
k al euke;f rsm;
tm;0ef;&Hvsuf wnfaeyHu
k v
kd nf; awG&Y onf/ xif&mS ;aom 4if;usKH ;a[mif;ae&mrsm;udk uif;&GmESiUf awmif
Bu;D &GmtMum;&Sd 'EH;k acsmif;vnf;aumif;? 0if;uESiUf t,ufor&Gmwdt
hk Mum;&Sd yef;yifBu;D acsmif;vnf;aumif;
uGi;f qif;ppfaq; awG&Y ygonf/ 4if;a&usKH ;rsm;\ wnfaeyHrk mS oJjzLacsmif;a&udk awmifMum;vrf;? vQKd ajrmif
vrf;jzifU awmifta&SyY ikd ;f rS taemufqo
D hkd cufcufccJ J pDrzH efw;D &,lxm;yHu
k kd azmfjyvsu&f ydS gonf/ xdo
k hkd
a&tm;toH;k cspepfwiG f txufupD;a&udk wmwrHjzifU qnf,Nl y;D vdt
k yfaomae&mudk a&vTv
J rf;aMumif;
jzifU wpfqifNU y;D wpfqifU vTaJ jymif;,l&aom oabm&Syd gonf/
jrefrmEdik if H ysLacwfNrKd aY [mif;Bu;D rsm;rSm a&vTpJ epfrsKd ;udk toH;k jyKcaUJ Mumif; AdEd;k ESiUf &efy,f
acsmif; tpOftvmjzifU od&ygonf/ oa&acw&mNrdKYa[mif;wGif jrifAm[kawmifwef; acsmif;ajrmif;rsm;rS
usKH ;ajrmif;rsm;odhk a&oGi;f yHu
k kd awGEY ikd o
f nf/ auvmoawmifajca'owGif usKd uo
mNrKd aY [mif? Zkwo
f w
k Nf rKd Y
a[mif;ESihf oxHNk rKd aY [mif;wdrhk mS vnf; tvm;wla&vTq
J nfpepftaxmuftxm;tcsKd Y awG&Y ygao;onf/ ,ck
wifjyaom auvmoawmif oJjzLacsmif; a&vTq
J nfpepfrmS auvmoawmifwiG f wdu
k u
f v
k m;NrKd aY [mif;
acwf a&S;NrKd Y ;kd taxmuftxm;rsm; awG&Y yHEk iS Uf qufpyfay;aom ajrjyifvuPm wpf&yfyifjzpfygonf/

- 210 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

auvmo taemufajrmuf t,ufor&Gm? wdu


k u
f v
k m;NrKd u
Y u
G yf kH

auvmoawmifay:wGif NrdKY ;kd rsm;wnfaeyHk


auvmoawmifay:wiG f NrKd Y ;kd rsm;udk awmifay:b&k m;? apwDrsm;odYk wufaomvrf;rsm;tjzpf jrifawGY
&onf/ awmifajc&if; taemufbufjcrf;&Sd uif;&Gm? awmifBuD;? ausmufvHk;BuD;ESifU 0if;u&GmwdkYrS
auvmoawmifxyd af pwDoYkd wuf&efvrf;rsm;&So
d nf/ uif;&Gm? 'EH;k acsmif;vrf;ESihf 0if;u? yef;yifBu;D acsmif;
vrf;wdu
hk kd toH;k rsm;ygonf/ awmifBu;D &Gmtkwaf ygurf S wpfvrf;&Sad o;onf/ xdv
k rf;onf tkwaf ygurf S jr
oydwfbk&m;odkha&mufNyD;? xdkrSwpfqifU auvmoawmifdk;odkY xdkrSwpfqifU jroydwfbk&m;odkYwufaom
vrf;wpfo,
G &f adS o;onf/ ausmufv;kH Bu;D rSyif jrovGeaf pwDow
hkd ufNy;D xdrk jS roydwaf pwDohkd wufa&muf
Edkifaom vrf;wdkwpfoG,f&Sdygao;\/
aumvmobk&m;wufvrf;rsm;onf awmifMum;twdkif; azmufvkyfxm;aom awmifdk;avsmuf
vrf;rsm;jzpfMu\/ omreftm;jzifMU unfv
U Qif tvdt
k avsmuf&NdS y;D om; obm0awmif;kd wef;ay:rS vlomG ;vrf;
aMumif;rsm;[k xif&\/ odaYk omf vrf;wpfavQmufwhkd ausmufw;kH rsm;udk pepfwus pDvsucf if;xm;jcif;?
vrf;aMumif;wpfavsmuf *0Hausmuftw
k Ef iS Uf ajrrD;zkwt
f w
k cf syrf sm;udk a&mvsuaf wG&Y jcif; vrf;ab;0J,m
ESpfzufwdkhrSm acsmufurf;yg;,Hjzpfvsuf&Sdjcif;? vrf;tus,fwpfajy;nD wlnDaejcif;wdkhaMumifU vlwdkhzefwD;
xm;aom vrf;rsm;jzpfaMumif; odom\/

- 211 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

- 212 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

jroydwfawmifay:wGif awGY&aom ok0PblrdNrdKYdk; tydkif;rsm;

- 213 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

awmifBu;D &GmESiUf 0if;u&GmMum; awmifay:NrKd Y ;kd uGi;f qif;wkid ;f wmonft


U zGYJ
(0JrS,modkh) awmifBuD;&Gm vli,f(3)OD;ESifU OD;pdk;jrifU? OD;aevif;? a':aX;aX;vif;

0if;u&Gmvrf; azmufvkyfpOfu toHk;jyKcJUaom vufa&;pif;trSwftom;yg ajrtkwfrsm;

- 214 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

0if;u&Gm yef;yifBu;D acsmif;rS usKH ;a[mif;ae&mudk q&mOD;jrifaU tmifppfaq;MunfU aI eyHk

awmifBuD;&GmESifU uif;&GmtMum;&Sd 'EHk;acsmif;ac: ok0Pblrdacwf usHK;a[mif;ae&m

- 215 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

jroydwfawmifapmif; awmifBuD;&GmrS0if;u&Gmodkha&mufaom awmifay:ausmufwef;NrdKYdk;wnfae&mjyyHk

jroydwaf wmifay:NrdKY ;kd rsm;


0if;u&Gmvrf;rS ajrjyefNh rKd Y ;kd ydik ;f onf acwfopfoyd aH usmif;rSpwif jroydwaf wmifay:ohkd a&muf
onf/ ausmufw;kH pD NrKd Y ;kd wpfyikd ;f jzpf\ if; ausmufw;kH pDNrKd Y ;kd onf jroydwaf wmifay: jrbke;f &Sed af pwDrS
taemufawmifbuf ajrjyefYodkhqif;oGm;um awmifBuD;tkwfaygufodkh qdkufa&mufygonf/ if;awmifay:
NrdKYdk;rsm;t&Snf 2 rdkifcefh&Sdygonf/ ajrjyefhwGif 0if;uESifUawmifBuD;&Gm tuGmta0;rSwpfrdkifcefh&Sdygonf/
if;t0ef;t0dik ;f twGi;f &Sd 0if;u? awmifBu;D ESiUf ausmufv;kH Bu;D &GmawmifajcESiUf ajrjyefyh ikd ;f rS tkwu
f ek ;f ? tkwx
f yfrsm;
txl;rsm;jym;pGm awG&Y ygonf/
1976-78 ckEpS u
f a&S;a[mif;okawoe wl;azmfru
I ek ;f trSwf 1? 2 ESiUf 6 wdo
hk nf if;NrKd Y ;kd
t0ef;t0dik ;f twGi;f &S\
d / 0if;u trSw(f 1)uke;f onf tvsm;ESit
Uf eH(69)ay? (20 7. )pD&adS om tcef;(14)cef;
yg av;axmifUyHktkwfwdkuf taqmufttHkwpfckjzpfygonf/ trSwf(2)ukef;onf tkwfwdkufwpfckjzpfNyD;
tvsm;(52)ay? teH (36 5. ) vufr? (15 8. 5 _ 10 9. )rDwm t&G,&f
dS trSw(f 1)uke;f \ awmifbuf
(24 5. )rDwmtuGm wnf&\
dS / 0if;u trSw(f 6)uke;f onf ausmufv;kH Bu;D &Gmtydik ;f ? OD;zd;k wdjk c0H if;rS *0Htw
k f
ausmufpaD v;axmifU yEuaf y:wiG f tkwpf t
D 0dik ;f yHk apwDBu;D jzpfygonf/ 0if;u&GmajrjyifwiG f tkwu
f ek ;f rsm;
wlazmfavhvmp&mrsm;pGm&Sad o;\/ ajrjyifrS teuf 8 ayceft
h xd epfjrKyaf eaom tkwu
f ek ;f wpfcu
k v
kd nf;
awGY&ygonf/

- 216 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

bk&m;wufvrf;onf ausmufpND rKd Y ;kd ay:uvnf;aumif;? wpfcgwpf&H NrKd Y ;kd ESiUf ,SOv
f suf eHab;rS
vnf;aumif;? wufqif;oGm;vsuf&Sd\/ awmifxGwfrsm;ay:a&mufvQif axmifxdyfab;EIwfcrf;wpfzufrS
ywfoGm;onf/ jroydwfawmifay:wGif jrbkef;&SdefapwD wnfxm;aomukef; xdkNrdKYdk;wHwdkif;udk awGYEdkif
ygonf/ xdrk aS uvmoodYk wufaomvrf;wGif ausmuformefapwDteD;vnf; awGEY ikd af o;\/
ausmuformefrS auvmoawmiftul;wGif rMumao;rDu puf,E&m; tultnDjzifU azmufvyk f
xm;aom bk&m;wuf armfawmfum;vrf;u NrKd Y ;kd wHwikd ;f udk uefv
Y efjY zwfvsuf &Sad omaMumifU NrKd Y ;kd ajrawmif
udk awGEY ikd yf gonf/ NrKd w
Y w
H ikd ;f udk tBurd Bf urd jf zwfNy;D azmufvyk &f onf/ if;a&S;a[mif;bk&m; wufvrf;wGif
armfawmfum;vrf;udk jzwfoef;azmufvyk x
f m;aom ae&mwdrhk mS auvmoawmifay:wiG f a&S;NrKd Y ;kd wHwikd ;f rsm;
wnf&SdaMumif; oufaojyp&m erlemrsm;jzpfygonf/

awmifajc&if;ESiUf ajrjyefNh rdKY ;kd rsm; wnf&ydS kH


aumvmoawmifay:apwDESifU jroydwfawmifay:apwDrsm;odkY wufaomvrf;rStaemufbuf
awmifajc&if;odYk a&mufonft
U cg NrKd w
Y w
H ikd ;f rsm; tqufjywfvsuf wdrjf rKyaf ysuu
f ,
G af eygonf/ xdo
k jhkd zpf
&jcif;taMumif;rSm 1908 ckESpfrSp 1958 ckESpftxd umvtwGif; ppfawmif;jrpf0a&pD;aMumif;onf
auvmoawmifEiS t
Uf eD;uyf pD;qif;aeaomaMumifjU zpf\/ ,ckt&ufor&Gm? 0if;u? awmifBu;D ESiUf uif;&Gmwdhk
\ taemufbufv,fuiG ;f rsm;ae&mwGif xdpk Ofu awmifurf;yg;,HNyKd usysupf ;D oGm;cJo
U jzifU ajrjyefNh rKd Y ;kd ydik ;f
rsm;udk ,ckrjrifawGEY ikd af wmhay/ 1892ckEpS u
f ausmufpm0ef; rpwmawmfped cf akd &mufcpUJ Ofu 0if;uESiu
Uf if;
&GmrS NrKd Y ;kd a[mif;? usKH ;a[mif;ae&mwku
Yd kd rSww
f rf;wifEikd cf aUJ omfvnf; 1958 ckEpS w
f iG f a&S;a[mif;okawoe
TeMhf um;a&;0ef OD;zk;d vwfwt
hkd zGaYJ &mufonft
U cg rawG&Y awmhay/

NrdKY ;kd ae&mrsm;udk awG&Y yHk


1999 ckESpfESifU 2000 jynfUESpfrsm;wGif aumvmoawmifajcrS bD;vif;-usdKufxdkqufoG,fa&;
vrf;opfukd azmufvyk yf gonf/ ,cifu &GmpOfwpfavsmufvn
S ;f vrf;udk ajrwl;pufrsm;jzifh csx
YJ iG
f vrf;
azmufvyk yf gonft
U cg awmifajcajrjyefh NrKd Y ;kd ydik ;f tcsKd Y awmifBu;D ? ausmufv;kH Bu;D ESiUf 0if;u&Gmwdw
Yk iG f xGuaf y:vm
onf/ awmifBu;D &Gm tkwaf yguw
f iG f awmifurf;yg;,HrS ajrom;ESiUf tkwcf pJ ND rKd Y ;kd jzwfyikd ;f yHw
k pfcak wG&Y \
ausmufv;kH Bu;D &Gm aMumifwpf&mbk&m;wufvrf;rS a&T'jD yefb&k m;txd NrKd Y ;kd wpfyikd ;f ESiUf 0if;u&Gm acwfopf
odyaH usmif;a&Sw
Y iG f NrKd Y ;kd wpfyikd ;f wdu
Yk kd awG&Y jyefonf/ xdjYk yif 0if;u&Gmvrf;rS taemufbufv,fuiG ;f qDoYkd
ay 800 cefhqufoGm;aom ajrom;ESifUtkwf? ausmufpDNrdKYdk;wpfydkif;udkvnf; awGY&ygonf/ ,if;wdkhudk
NrKd Y ;kd rsm;[kq&kd jcif;rSm &Gmvrf;uuefv
Y efjh zwfazmufvyk x
f m;onfU vrf;ab;0J,mESpzf ufww
hkd iG f ausmufEiS Uf
tkwfcJpDajrawmifukef;rdkhrdkho@mef awGY&jcif;? &Gmvrf;rSawmifay:odkYvnf;aumif;? v,fuGif;tpyfodkYvnf;
aumif;? ajrawmifuek ;f d;k wef;quf wnfaejcif;? uke;f wef;ay:rS tkwf ;kd wef;awG&Y jcif;wdahk MumifU jzpfyg
onf/ if;tkwcf syrf sm;rSmvnf; ysLacwfo;kH vufa&;pif;tkwcf syrf sm;jzpf a&S;usaom oufwef;udak zmfeT ;f
jyovsuf&Sdygonf/

- 217 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

auvoawmif taemufbuf 0if;u&Gm wdu


k u
f v
k m;NrKd Y ;kd wnfaeyHjk y ajrrHk

- 218 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

0if;u&Gm OD;armifwefukef;rS(ajrwl;puf)wl;azmf&&Sdaom a&S;a[mif;vuf&mypnf;rsm;

tkwu
f ek ;f a[mif;tcsdKEY iS Uf a&S;a[mif;ypn;f rsm;
vrf;azmufpOf ajrwl;pufu a&S;tkwu
f ek ;f a[mif;tcsKd u
Y kd ra&SmifomyJ wl;rdonftjzpfrsKd ;vnf;
&Sad o;onf/ 0if;u&Gm OD;armifwef;\ tdraf &SrY S tkwu
f ek ;f wpfuek ;f wGif ajrrD;zkwyf ef;tvSwef;yHpk rH sm;yg&adS om
tkwcf syBf u;D rsm;? jcaohF yk ?f vlyk ?f iSuf yk yf ?kH yef;yHrk sm;ESiUf *0HausmufjzifU pmr&Dom;aumif;yHk ky<f ucsuEf pS yf ikd ;f
xGuaf y:vmonf/ ajrrD;zkwf yef;tvSwef;onf tvsm; 13]? teH 6}? txl 8}cefh (7)ckcefah wG&Y ojzifU
tkwt
f aqmufttHw
k pfc\
k t0ift0 wHcg;abmifxw
k w
f ef;ay:pjD c,fxm;aom ausmufqpfxw
k w
f ef;rsm;udk
'Gg&0wDESifU crmAdokum? tEkynmvuf&mrsm; awGYEdkifygonf/ OD;armifwefukef;rS ajrrD;zkwfuajconf
kyo
f nf OD;acgi;f vH;k rsuEf mS 0dik ;f Ny;D EGaYJ ESmif;aom ud,
k [
f ef&o
dS nf/ vufwpfzufajrmuf [efygyguae
yHjk zpf\/ ,if;uajconfyk Ef iS Uf qifwo
l nft
U kyu
f kd yJc;l wdik ;f ? a0gNrKd eY ,f? BuKH wb
l &k m;wGif awG&Y ao;\/
MuKH wb
l &k m;uke;f wGif ajrrD;zkwpf Ofu
h iG ;f rsm;udk 1937 ckEpS u
f csmvfp'f ;l &GKd i;f Z,f wl;azmfawG&Y NdS y;D c&pfEpS f 78 &mpkEpS f vuf&mrsm; jzpfrnf[k cefrh eS ;f ygonf/

ajrrD;zkwf uacsonf

ajrrD;zkwf ua'gi;f

- 219 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

*0Hausmufqpfpmr&Dom;aumifkyf

ajrrD;zkwfxkwfwef;yef;qGJ

MuKH wpl Ofu


U iG ;f rsm;wGif qifp;D csi;f wdu
k yf ?JG jrif;pD;csi;f wdu
k yf ?JG EGm;wdu
k yf ?JG vufa0Syh EJG iS Uf wD;rIwu
f vkejf rLxl;
[ef okyaf zmfuu
G rf sm;yg&\
dS / jcaoFh yk <f uyHrk sm;udv
k nf;awG&Y \/ rmefzaD eaom jcaohw
F pfaumif\ vnfyif;udk
oHBudK;jzifUywfcsnfxm;\/ vlESpfa,mufu oHBudK;pwpfzufudk udkifum;xdef;xm;yHkjzpf ow0gaumif\
a&Sw
Y iG f vlwpfa,mufu aMumufvefNh y;D xGuaf jy;aeyHu
k kd okyaf zmfxm;onf/ vlwpfO;D u tjcm;wvlwpfO;D
udk jcaoF0h w0gjzifU ajcmufveS ahf rmif;ESi&f ef jcaoFw
h pfyikd ;f ? vlwpfyikd ;f (rEk[
D ) tkyu
f kd zefqif;&onf[al om
tpOftvmudk vufawGu
Y sus jrifawG&Y yHjk zpfygonf/
Muw
H pl Ofu
U iG ;f ESiUf qifwl av;axmifyh w
kH iG f AdEK tpufrsm; 0ef;&Hxm;Ny;D tv,frS yk <f uyHrk sm; azmf
xm;aom ajrrD;zkwf yk <f u tusKd ;tyJEU pS cf u
k v
kd nf; 0if;u&GmOD;armifwefuek ;f rSyif awG&Y ao;\/ xdk yk <f uydik ;f
wpfcrk mS jcaoFOh ;D acgi;f ydik ;f yHyk g&\
dS / usew
f pfcrk mS vlwpfa,mufu a&S;vufEpS zf ufuakd xmuf cg;uke;f ae
[ef? usew
f pfa,mufu xdv
k al y:ohkd ckeaf usmrf nf[
U ef&o
dS nf/
*0Hausmufjym;ESpcf syu
f kd quf pmr&Dom;aumif ky<f uyHx
k q
k pfxm;onfuv
kd nf;awG&Y \/ yxr
csyfwGif om;aumifonf vufESpfzufudk a&SYodkh? ajcESpfzufu aemufodkhqefhum ckefysHaeonfUyHkjzpf\/
tNr;d ydik ;f udk aemufwpfcsyf xkqpfxm;onf/
0if;u&Gmtv,fyikd ;f wGif vrf;azmufpOfu xGuaf y:vmaom a&S;a[mif;ypn;f rsm;wGif ajrrD;zkwf
ua'gi;f ky<f u? OD;acgi;f a&mifvQpH uf0ef;ygaom vltxufyikd ;f yHk yk <f u? *0Hausmufqpf jcaoFrh suEf mS yHk yk x
f Ek iS Uf
*0HapwD txufyikd ;f ypn;f rsm; awG&Y ao;\/ *0HjcaoFrh sm;rSm Zkwo
f w
k u
f sKd ux
f ;D aqmif;bk&m;ESiUf teD;ywf0ef;usif
ae&mtESt
YH jym; awG&Y avU&adS om tkyrf sm;ESiUf qifwo
l nf/ jroydwaf wmifay:&dS usm;wpf&m? aMumifwpf
&m apwDrsm;ywfvnfwiG f uyfpDxm;aom tkyrf sm;rSmvnf; if;jcaoFrU suEf mS *0Hausmufqpfyk rf sm;yif
jzpf\/ Zkwo
f w
k &f mG qifwyf? jrif;wyf *0Hww
H ikd ;f wGif jcaoFEh iS Uf qifyk <f uwpfwef; uyfpx
D m;yHu
k kd awG&Y
ygonf/ 0if;u *0HjcaoFrU suEf mS ausmufw;kH rsm;onf wpfw;kH ay:wpfw;kH xyfqif
U wHwikd ;f eH&H uyfp&D ef
tavmawmfjyKvyk x
f m;jcif;jzpfonf/ ausmufw;kH rsm;udk taqmufttHEk iS Uf NrKd w
Y w
H ikd ;f rsm;wGif uyfpx
D m;
&ef &nf&G,f jyKvkyfxm;onfUoabm&Sdygonf/
*0Hausmufqpf jcaoFrU sm;onf ausmufom;jyifMurf;wrf; jcaoFo
U w0g yHyk ef;toGif odyrf ay:
vGiaf y/ 0if;urSawG&Y Ny;D ,ckreG jf ynfe,f ,Ofaus;rIjywdu
k w
f iG f jyoxm;aom ajrrD;zkwf jcaoFU yk <f uyHk
onf vnfqaH rG;zGm;zGm;ESiUf ud,
k [
f eftaetxm;yDjyifonf/ av;axmifyU kH ukAwH;k \ rsuEf mS jyifwiG f t0dik ;f
yHk AdEK pufrsm;&Hvsuf tv,fu jcaoFEU pS af umuf&o
dS nf/ ab;csi;f ,SOv
f surf suEf mS rsm;udk zDvmzufohkd

- 220 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

Zkwo
f w
k &f mG jruRe;f om *0HapwD avSum;&if;rSawG&Y aom *0HausmufjcaoFyk rf sm;
( wHwikd ;f pDtyk cf syt
f &G,rf Q&o
dS nf )
vSn
Uf 0yfpif;aeyHjk zpfonf/ if;jcaoFEU pS af umuf\ vuf&m[efonf tdE,
d Edik if H arm&d,acwf taomu
rif;vufxuf(250 bDpcD ef)h xkvyk cf aUJ om ausmufqpftEkynmvufrsm;rS jcaoFU yk rf sm;udk trSw&f apyg
onf/ (rsuEf mS zH;k yHu
k kd yI g )
jcaoFUkyfrsufESmESifU OD;acgif;yHko@mef yHkyef;ay:atmif vdyfoJausmufwHk;BuD;udk xkqpfxm;aom
kyw
f u
k v
kd nf; 0if;u&Gm vrf;ab;wpfae&m awG&Y ygonf/ vlEpS &f yfpmcefjh rifah om ausmufw;kH Bu;D jzpf
eHab;rSMunfUvQif omrefausmufwpfwHk;[kxif&\ kyfwk\rsufESmrl&m a&SYwnfUwnfUrSMunfUvQif ow0g
wpfaumif\ rsuv
f ;kH ? ESmacgi;f ? yg;pyf? ar;apUae&mrsm; olaY e&mESio
Uf l yHyk rf;ay:viG af eygonf/ xdak usmuf
wHk;tm; OD;pGmawGY&SdcJUolazmfcifrm;u ok0PblrdNrdKYa[mif;tpOftvmwGif ta&;ygaomrEkD[kyfwk
jzpfavrnfvm;[k xifaMu;ay;cJyU gonf/ if;kyw
f u
k kd ,cifu azmfcrf;rm;awGcY aUJ om ukrm&apwD awmifbuf
teD; apwDurkd suEf mS rlvsuf taetxm;jzifU awG&Y ygonf/

0if;u&Gm
ukrm&apwD
awmifbufuyfvQuf
awGY&aom
vdyfoJ
ausmufqpf
jcaoFUrsufESmyHk

- 221 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

aumhu'Gwf&Gm a':cifav;jzLjcH *0HapwDi,ftm; avUvmpOf

bmoma&; tcsuftcsm
0if;u&GmrS ukrm&apwDonf a&S;apwDa[mif;udk *0Htkwfrsm;jzifU xyfqifUiHk wnfxm;onf/
&Spaf jrm ifyU Eucf akH y:wiG f ewfvrf;ESiUf azmif;&pfwu
hkd akd wG&Y \/ txufyikd ;f rSm 80Hped af wmif wpfwef;pDxm;
vsuf &Scd ;kd [efewfyk ?f vufEpS b
f ufwhkd txufoahkd jrm ufvsuf xdik [
f ef(*VHKyk )f wd&Shk o
dS nf/ usKd uo
mNrKd Y
a[mif;teD;? bk&m;wpfaxmifukef; *0HapwD &ifjyifrSvnf; if;*VHKkyfrsdK; ausmufqpfkyfwkESifUtwl
OD;acgi;f oH;k vH;k ESiUf qifyk ?f ajcqif;xdik af wmfrl Ak' yk w
f ?k ESpu
f sKd u&f pS o
f b
l &k mrsm;? *0HausmufqpfMumyGiyUf kH
rsm;udk awGY&ao;\/ *0HjzifU ESpfusdKuf&Spfqlbk&m;rsm; ausmufcsyfudk Zkwfokwf&Gm xD;aqmif;bk&m;wGif
awGEY ikd af o;\/ ukrm&apwD\ taemufbufwiG f a&S;a[mif;okawoewl;azmfrI uke;f trSw(f 4)ESiUf trSwf
(5)wdkh teD;uyfwnf&Sdaeygonf/ ,if;wdkYonf tkwfwdkufbk&m; ausmif;a[mif;rsm;jzpfaMumif; od&Sd&\/
ukrm&apwD\ ta&SaY wmifbufwiG f a&Tpm&H[k trnfwiG v
f su&f adS om apwDa[mif;wpfq&l \
dS / ukrm&ap
wD\ajrmufbufwGifvnf; &Srf;bk&m;[k trnfwGifaom apwDa[mif;wpfql&Sdao;onf/ &Srf;bk&m;\
ajrmufbufawmifay:wiG f usKd uw
f vef;(jrode;f wef) apwD&ydS gonf/ odjhk zpf ukrm&apwDteD;0ef;usirf mS
apwDa[mif;? ausmif;a[mif;rsm; wpfpw
k pfa0;awG&Y aom bmoma&; tcsut
f csmae&m (Religious Centre)
wpfcjk zpfaMumif; awG&Y ygonf/ apwDa[mif;? ausmif;ysurf sm;\ oufwrf;udk ,if;tkwu
f ek ;f rsm;rS &SmazG
awG&Y &dS aom vufa&G;piftw
k cf syrf sm; taxmuftxm;t& yH*k aH cwfrwdik rf D ysLacwftwGi;f tusKH ;0ifvsuf
&Sad Mumif; cefrh eS ;f &ygonf/

- 222 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

0if;u&Gm &Srf;bk&m;ac: a&S;a[mif;apwDu rGef;rHNyD;aemuf jrifawGY&yHk

- 223 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

0if;u&Gm ukrm&apwDteD; 0ef;usirf mS yif a&S;odraf [mif;wpfck awG&Y onf/ ukrm&apwDrS t


aemufajrmufbuf udu
k (f 200)ceft
h uGm? v,fuiG ;f tpyf&S\
d / &Sr;f bk&m;rS taemufawmifbuf udu
k (f 100)
cefhtuGma0;\/ odrfESifUuyfvsufapwDa[mif;tkwfukef;(3)ckwdkhrS vufa&;pif;tkwfcsyfrsm;udk aumuf&yg
onf/ xdkodrfedrdwfwdkifrsm;onf xl;jcm;rI&Sdygonf/ trsm;tm;jzifU odrfedrdwfwdkifrsm;udk wpfwdkifpD
ywfvnfpu
kd x
f al vh&o
dS nf/ oxHNk rKd aY [mif; uvsmPDord f edrw
d w
f ikd w
f rhkd mS ausmufwpfwikd pf ,
D m pdu
k x
f m;
Ny;D rsuEf mS jyif Zmwfawmfyk <f ursm; xGi;f xkum okyaf zmfxm;onf/ ,ck0if;uodr\
f edrw
d w
f ikd rf sm;onf
vdyo
f aJ usmufw;kH udk vH;k acsmwdik yf x
kH iG ;f pdu
k x
f o
l nf/ tv,fwiG f wdik Bf u;D wpfwikd Ef iS Uf eHab;wGif wdik w
f (kd 5)
wdik &f v
H suf pdu
k x
f m;aMumif;awG&Y \/ odru
f ek ;f \ rsuEf mS av;bufpvH;k rS edrw
d w
f ikd t
f m;vH;k rSm xdek nf;twdik ;f
pdu
k x
f o
l nf/ ta&Sb
Y uf edrw
d w
f ikd rf sm; teD; 80Hausmufqpfvuf&mjzifU MumyGio
Uf @mef yefwifcw
kH pfc&k dS
ygonf/ edrw
d w
f ikd rf sm;twGi;f ajrjyifrmS ,ckacwf tkww
f u
kd f odrt
f aqmufttHu
k kd wnfaqmufxm;\/
odrt
f eD; ausmif;? Z&yfrsm;vnf;&So
d nf/ xdo
k rd \
f edrw
d w
f ikd rf sm; awG&Y yHEk iS Uf odru
f ek ;f rS aumuf&aom
vufa&;piftw
k cf syf taxmuftxm;wdt
hk & odraf [mif;wpfcjk zpfaMumif; odomygonf/ 0if;u&Gm ukrm&apwD
teD;ywf0ef;usifrSm a&S;a[mif;bkef;BuD;ausmif;taqmufttHkESpfckudk wl;azmfawGY&Sd&NyD;jzpfonf/ (Myint
k usmif;rsm;teD;rS apwDa[mif;uke;f rsm;udk awG&Y onft
U jyif odru
f v
kd nf; awG&Y ygonf/
Aung 1999) xda
xdaYk MumifU Ak'b
mom &[ef;awmfrsm; oDwif;oH;k &m ausmif;? odr?f Z&yfEiS Uf apwDrsm;udk wpfpw
k pfa0;wnf;
awGEY ikd af om ae&myifjzpf\/ wdu
k u
f v
k m; NrKd aY [mif;wGif tkycf sKyo
f t
l Bu;D tuJ? rif;\eef;awmf&m[l wl;azmfawGY
&S&d jcif;r&Sad o;aomfvnf; bmoma&;tcsut
f csm (Religious Centre)wpfae&mudk Tejf yEdik Nf yD jzpfygonf/

ukeo
f ,
G af &mif;0,frI taxmuftxm; '*Fg;ESiUf ykw;D rsm;
wuov
kd rf sm; ordik ;f okawoeOD;pD;Xe uGi;f qif;tzGo
YJ nf 0if;u&GmrS a&mif;pHyk w
k ;D aphtcsKd Y pkaqmif;
&&Scd yUJ gonf/ &Gmom;rsm;aumuf&orQ ykw;D apUrsm;udk 0,f,pl ak qmif;a&mif;csjcif;jyKMuonfuv
kd nf; pHpk rf;
od&&dS ygonf/ 1976-78 a&S;a[mif;okawoewl;azmfrI uke;f trSw(f 1)udk wl;azmfpOfuvnf; ajrykw;D aphEiS Uf
a&mifpakH usmufyw
k ;D aphrsm; awGcY &UJ aMumif; od&\/
ykw;D aphrsm;onf a&S;a[mif;acwf ukeo
f ,
G af &;wGif aiGaMu;zvS,f toH;k jyK&aom ypn;f jzpf\/
txl;ojzifU aumf(zef) a&mifpykH w
k ;D aphrsm;rSm taemufwikd ;f (ajrxJyifv,fa'o)jzpf ypn;f rsm;jzpf tdE,
d
ta&Sb
Y uf urf;d;k wef;&Sd t&duar'l; qdyu
f rf;NrKd rY w
S pfqifU ta&SaY wmiftm&Sohkd jzefjh rL;a&mif;csc[
UJ efw\
l /
ta&SaY wmiftm&S NrKd Y jyEdik if rH sm;rSvnf; ausmufyw
k ;D rsm;udk jyKvyk o
f nf/ usKd uo
mNrKd aY [mif;rS ausmufyw
k ;D
vH;k acsm wpfaphEiS t
Uf wl vkyv
f ufp? tacsmraoG;? taygurf azmuf&ao;aom ykw;D wpfaphukd awG&Y zl;
ygonf/ atmufjrefrmEdik if H oxHq
k ifjzLuRe;f ? prg,ef *d&k (f vuGe;f Asn;f )ESiUf bmtHa'orsm;rS ykw;D aph t
axmuftxm;rsm; &Syd gonf/
a&S;a[mif;acwfuek ;f oG,af &; taxmuftxm; aiG'*Fg;jym;rsm;udk ,cktcg ppfawmif;? usKd uo
m?
ydik 'f ef(t&ufor)? 0if;u? oxH?k bm;tHEiS Uf rk'akH 'owdrhk S awGcY &UJ onf/ usKd uo
mNrKd aY [mif;rSm ckoif;ESiUf
od&0d p aiG'*Fg;jym;a&(1000)ausmf wl;azmf&&Scd zUJ ;l \/ if;usKd uo
m '*Fg;onf jrefrmEdik if H ysLacwfEiS Uf xdik ;f ?
'Gg&0wD;acwf '*Fg;trsKd ;tpm;yifjzpf\/

- 224 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

aumvmoawmifajc t,ufor&GmteD; ydkif'efuav;&Gm? ausmifq&mOD;ausmfjrifU aumuf,l


pkaqmif;xm;aom '*Fg;i,fonf od&0d pEiS Uf ae0ef;yHw
k pfbufpyD g\/ 0if;u&Gm OD;wmyd\
k '*Fg;onf usyjf ym;
t&G,t
f pm;&S
d od&0d pEiS Uf ckoif;yHw
k hkd wpfbufpyD g&\
dS if;'*Fg;jym;wd\
hk oufwrf;udk c&pfEpS f 400-500
cefu
h jzpfrnf[k cefrh eS ;f xm;\/

wdu
k u
f v
k m;NrdKaY [mif;\ vuf&t
dS ajctae
(u)

t,ufor&Gmwku
d u
f v
k m;NrdKaY [mif;

jrode;f wefawmif? a0ykvawmifEiS Uf t,ufor&Gmwdt


hk Mum; NrKd aY [mif;wpfc&k ydS gonf/ awmifEpS cf k
udk t&Htwm;jyKum awmifapmif;ywfvnf NrKd w
Y w
H ikd ;f umonf? ajrmufbufajrjyefw
h iG f NrKd Y ;kH ESihf usKH ;o@mef
txift&Sm;&S
d 1975 ckEpS u
f prf;oyfw;l azmfcNUJ y;D jzpf\/ xdNk rKd u
Y kd "rapwD(&mrm"dywd)ausmufpmtTe;f
ESiUf udu
k n
f o
D jzifU ok0Pbrl d NrKd u
Y ek ;f [k xifjrif,q
l cJ\
U / odahk omf xdNk rKd aY [mif;uke;f onf yk*aH cwf? yk*H
acwfveG f rkwr ? tif;0ESi[
Uf o
H m0wDacwfwrhkd S uke;f abmifacwftxd wnfwcUH aUJ om ya'o&mZfe,fpm;ydik f
cHNrKd w
Y pfcrk Qom jzpf[efw\
l / vuf&t
dS ajctaerSm NrKd u
Y u
G af e&m xif&mS ;use&f pfaeao;\/
t,ufor&Gm wdu
k u
f v
k m;NrKd aY [mif;uke;f \ teD;0ef;usirf mS yif yk*aH cwfrwdik rf u
D tkwu
f ek ;f ? tkwf
xyfrsm; use&f adS eao;\/ xdu
k ek ;f rsm;rS vufa&;pif;tkwcf syt
f axmuftxm;udMk unf
U odq
hk ;kH jzwf&jcif;
jzpfygonf/ t,ufor&Gm cspw
f ;D uGi;f [k ac:aomae&m trsm;tjym;awG&Y onf/ xdt
hk jyif ydik 'f efuav;
&Gm a&wHceG af wmifay:ausmif;rS ausmufwef;NrKd Y ;kd onf ewfjrm ;awmifay:rS wpfqifU auvmoawmifEiS Uf
jroydwfawmifodkhqufaeygonf/ t,uforESifU0if;utMum; atmifyifv,fausmufwef;onf a0ykv
v
awmifausmufwef;NrdKYdk;\ tqufyifjzpfonf/

- 225 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

wdu
k u
f v
k m; (t,ufor)NrKd u
Y u
G yf kH

- 226 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

(c)

ok aw o e

0if;u&Gm wdu
k u
f v
k m;NrdKaY [mif;

t,ufor&Gm atmifyifv,fausmufwef;ESiUf ausmufv;kH Bu;D &Gm a&T'jD yefausmufwef;? awmifBu;D &Gm


tkwaf yguw
f t
hkd Mum; auvoawmiftaemufbufrmS 0if;u&Gmjzpfonf/ 4if;0if;u&Gmonf a&S;wdu
k u
f v
k m;
NrdKYa[mif;ae&myifjzpfygonf/
oxH&k mZ0ifwiG f auvmoawmifrS taemufajrmufbuf? awmif;apmif;wpf0uf? ajrnDwpf0uf
t&yfonfom a&S;ok0Pbrl Nd rKd aY [mif;ae&m jzpfonf[k Tejf yxm;\/ xdNk rKd o
Y nf tvsm;? awmifEiS ahf jrmuf
wm (750)? (2622)udu
k ^f wpfrikd cf cJG efh ? teH? ta&SEY iS t
Uf aemuf wm (500)? (1750)udu
k ^f wpfrikd cf efh &Sd
onf[q
k \
kd / xdNk rKd u
Y kd omoemepf(208)ckEpS ?f (c&pftBuKd 336)ckEpS w
f iG f wnfxm;cJaU Mumif; oxH&k mZ0if
azmfjyxm;ygonf/ 4if;NrKd o
Y nf yifv,fa& wdu
k pf m;NzKd zsujf cif;udk cH&ojzifU qufvufrwnfwEHU ikd af wmhbJ
NrKd aY wmfukd ,ckoxHNk rKd aY [mif;ae&modhk a&TaY jymif;wnfaxmifc&UJ aMumif; qufvufazmfjyxm;ygonf/ 0if;u
&Gmwpf0u
kd w
f iG f yk*aH cwfxufy
kd a&S;usaom tkwu
f ek ;f ? tkwx
f yfrsm; use&f adS eygao;onf/ vufa&;pif;
tkwfcsyftaxmuftxm;udkMunfU odkhqHk;jzwfowfrSwf&jcif;vnf;jzpfygonf/ 0if;u&Gm acwfopfodyH
bke;f Bu;D ausmif;teD;rSp ta&Sb
Y ufjroydwaf wmifapmif;odhk wufomG ;Ny;D tjrifU ay 500 ceft
h a&muf
jrbke;f &Sed b
f &k m;uke;f rSp taemufbufEiS Uf taemufawmifbuf ajrjyef&h dS ausmufv;kH Bu;D &Gm a&T'jD yefb&k m;
odv
hk nf;aumif;? awmifBu;D &Gm tkwaf ygu[
f ak c:aom awmifp,
G pf eG ;f odv
hk nf;aumif; a&S;a[mif;NrKd Y ;kd ausmuf
wef;rsm; oG,w
f ef;vQu&f o
dS nfukd awG&Y ygonf/

jroydwaf wmifajcawmifBu;D &GmrS tkwaf yguaf c: NrKd Y ;kd ydik ;f udk q&mOD;jrifaU tmifEiS t
hf zGYJ ppfaq;MunfU aI epOf

- 227 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

0if;u&GmaMumifwpf&mbk&m;wGif jcaoFrU suEf mS kyyf gaom *0Htw


k w
f ;kH rsm;udk &Hxm;vQuaf wG&Y yHk

0if;u&Gmusm;wpf&mbk&m;

- 228 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

0if;u&Gm jroydwf awmifay:apwDESifh a&T'DjyefapwD/ if;wdkhtMum;ajrjyifwGif ok0Pblrd NrdKYdk;wpfydkif;&Sdygonf

- 229 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

Zkwo
f w
k 8f 0H,Ofaus;rIjywdu
k rf S (ausmufx;D &Gu)f (qifwyf?jrif;wyf) Zkwo
f w
k u
f sKd ux
f ;D aqmif;av;rsuEf mS bk&m;

Zkwo
f w
k Nf rdKaY [mif;
Zkwo
f w
k &f mG uav; (17? 10' x 97? 10' 36')ESihf Zkwo
f w
k &f mG Bu;D (17? 10' x 97? 10') [l
&G m ES p f & G m &S d M uonf U t euf a&S ; Nrd K U a [mif ; A[d k c suf a e&mud k Zk w f o k w f & G m uav; (usKd u f x D ; aqmif ; )
ukef;ay:wGifawGY&ygonf/ ZkwfokwfNrdKYa[mif;ukef;onf pwk&ef;rkdif (20)cefh us,fjyefhaombD;vif;jrpf
taemufbufajrjyefv
h iG jf yifrS *0Huek ;f rsm;tm;vH;k udk A[dck sujf yKxm;onf/ if;ywfvnfwiG f Zkwo
f w
k &f mG
Bu;D ? aumhu'Gw?f aumhu?JG opfwu
dk Re;f ? rde;f rvSuRe;f ? a&jzLuef? a&TavS? uuwpf (rkq;kd ruRe;f )? rkoif?
0dik ;f ywf? ZG*J vm? anmifyvif? anmifvrf;? vdycf ;kH ? Zkw*f vd aus;&Gmrsm;xlaxmifonfh *0Huek ;f rsm;0ef;&Hxm;
vsu&f \
dS / if;*0Huek ;f rsm;ay:rS a&S;NrKd aU [mif; acwftw
k cf syrf sm; NrKd Y ;kd a[mif;? usK;H a[mif;? taqmufttHk
a[mif;rsm; awGY&onf/ odkhjzpf Zkwfokwfonf usKduomNrdKUa[mif;ESifhacwfNydKif *0HNrdKYawmfwpfckjzpfEdkif
aMumif;od&Sd&ygonf/

- 230 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

Zkwfokwf&Gmuav;NrdKYa[mif; twGif;xyf yxrusHK;wpfae&m

Zkwfokwf&Gmuav;(usdKufxD;aqmif;)NrdKYa[mif;twGif;xyf yxrNrdKYdk;udk ordkif;okawoe uGif;qif;tzGJYavhvmpOf

- 231 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

Zkwo
f w
k f (&Gmuav;)\ yHo
k @mefrmS usKu
d o
mNrKd u
Y o
hJ yYkd if tvsm;&Snf wpfzufusO;f ? wpfzuf
us,Nf y;D cg;odraf eaom t0dik ;f yHk (ajc&myH)k rsK;d jzpf NrKd w
Y nfypkH epfjcif; eD;eD;pyfpyfwal e aMumif;awG&Y \/
twGi;f xyf (7)&pfcefY aumif;uif"gwyf akH y:wiG f xif&mS ;pGmawGY jrifEikd \
f / tjyifNrKd Y ;dk ywfvnf txift&Sm;
r&Sad wmhaomfvnf; NrKd aY [mif;taemufajrmufaxmifrh S qifxyfjrif;xyf *0Hww
H ikd ;f wpfpw
d w
f pfyikd ;f wnfwefh
aeyHu
k akd xmufxm;vQif Zkwo
f w
k u
f dk *0HNrKd aY wmf[ak c:xu
kd af yonf/ A[kNd rKd aY [mif;uke;f \ t&G,o
f nf {u
450 cef&h o
dS nf usKu
d x
f ;D aqmif;*0HapwDrmS A[kcd sut
f wGi;f xyfNrKd Y ;dk wHwidk ;f twGi;f wnf&adS eygonf/
Zkwo
f w
k Ef iS hf ywf0ef;usi*f 0Huek ;f rsm;udk aygi;f pyfavhvmMunfv
h sif tvGeaf &S;usaom tdE,
d ,Of
aus;rIudk ajc&mcHrdayonf/ [dEL-jA[Pm0g'ESifh Ak'bmomta&;t,ltqrsm;t& pBuFm0Vmwnf[ef
oabmw&m;twdik ;f vdu
k ef m NrKd u
Y u
G cf swnfxm;yHu
k kd awGY jrif&rnfjzpfygonf/ jrpf0uRe;f ay: *0Hobm0
ajrjyifudk vdt
k yfcsut
f &vlwu
Ydk jyKjyifNy;D vlaerI&yf0ef;wpfcw
k nfaxmifcjhJ cif;jzpfonf/ tv,fwiG f jrifrh &kd u
f kd
xm;ywfvnfrSawmifpOf (NrdKYkd;) ckESpfxyf? oDwm (usKH;) ckESpfwefum&Hxm;yHk? t&yfav;rsufESmwGif
uRef;BuD;av;uRef;t&Hxm;yHk? uRef;i,frsm;vnf;&HvsufaeyHk? r[mork'&mtoGifa&vTrf;vGifjyifudkvnf;
awG&Y yHw
k rhkd mS Zkwo
f w
k \
f xl;jcm;csurf sm;yifjzpfygonf/ NrKd \
Y A[kcd suf (eef;awmf&m)wGif *0HwiG ;f ayguw
f pfck
&Sdonf/ aomhayguf[kac:Mu\/ 4if;udk ajratmufOrifvdkPfpepfrS xGufaygufwpfae&mjzpfEdkifaMumif;
avhvmod&Sd&\/ tjcm;*0Hukef;rsm;ay:wGif tvm;wl*0HwGif;aygufrsm;awGY&ao;\/ usKduomNrdKYa[mif;rS
aAmhuAef;*lEiS hf rkq;kd r*lwu
Ykd o
hJ Ykd ajratmufOrifvP
kd af cgi;f pepfrsK;d jzpfrnf[k cefrh eS ;f &ygonf/

ZkwfokwfNrdKYa[mif;tv,fA[dk usus&Sdaom usdufxD;aqmif;qHawmf&Sif apwD

- 232 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

ZkwfokwfNrdKYa[mif; aumif;uif"gwfyHk

ZkwfokwfNrdKYa[mif; qGJyHk (OD;atmifjrifU)

- 233 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

ZkwfokwfNrdKYa[mif; aumif;uif"gwfyHk

ZkwfokwftwGif;xyf 'kwd,NrdKYdk;ESifUusHK;

- 234 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

ZkwfokwftwGif;xyf pwkwNrdKYdk;

- 235 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

ZkwfokwftwGif;xyf yxrNrdKYdk;ESifUusHK;

- 236 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

uwdkufBuD;NrdKYa[mif; aumif;uif"mwfyHk

uwku
d Bf uD;NrdKaY [mif;
Zkwo
f w
k Ef iS hf oxHt
k Mum; bD;vif;jrpfta&Sb
Y ufurf;yifv,fpyfwiG f uwdu
k Bf u;D ? uwdu
k u
f av;?
'H0k ef;? qdyu
f Re;f ? r&rf;uke;f ? o&ufawmpaomaus;&Gmrsm;wnfxm;onfU *0Huek ;f rsm;wnf&MdS uygonf/ uwdu
k f
Bu;D (17? 3 x 97? 14') onf NrKd u
Y u
G o
f @mefay:viG x
f if&mS ;Ny;D t&G,t
f pm;rSmvnf; tvwfpm;t&G,f
({u200) cefh&Sdygonf/ obm0*0Hukef;\ ywfvnfrS tjyifNrdKY0ef;yHkrSm ajcz0g;yHkESifhqifwlaeonfh
twGi;f xyfNrKd 0Y ef;d;k oH;k xyfrmS pwk*yH rkH sK;d jzpf\/ if;NrKd Y ;kd ESiu
hf sK;H xyfrsm;udk aumif;uif"gwyf w
kH iG f xif&mS ;pGm
awGY jrifEikd yf gonf/ uwku
d Bf u;D \pwk*yH t
kH wGi;f xyfNrKd Y wnfxm;yHu
k kd oxHNk rKd u
Y u
G w
f nfxm;yHEk iS hf EdiI ;f ,SOf
avhvmoifU\/ uwdkufBuD;onf usKduomESifh ZkwfokwfwdkYuJhodkY tapmydkif;acwfNrdKYa[mif;wpfckjzpfEdkifNyD;
4if;wdEYk iS ahf cwfNyKd if odrYk [kwf ra&S;raESmif;wnfc[
hJ ef&ydS gonf/ oxHu
k kd if;NrKd rY sm;ysuo
f ek ;f oGm;Ny;D rS wnfcUJ
[efwyl gonf/ odaYk omfNrKd aU [mif;tm;vH;k wGif vufa&;pif;tkwt
f axmuftxm;rsm;awG&Y jdS cif;udk axmufxm;vsif
yk*aH cwfrwdik rf u
D xGe;f um;cJah om NrKd rU sm;jzpfaMumif;odom xif&mS ;ayonf/
uwkdufBuD;ESifh ywf0ef;usif*0Hukef;rsm;wGif *0HapwD? *0Hkyfrsm;? qif;wkawmfrsm;? ausmuf
acwfopfvufeufypn;f rsm;? a&wGi;f ? a&uefrsm;? tkwu
f ek ;f rsm;&SmazGawG&Y o
dS nf/ rsuaf rSmufacwf *0Hausmuf
xkwfaom ausmufusif;rsm;udkvnf;awGY&\/

- 237 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

uwdkufBuD;NrdKYa[mif;twGif;xyf yxrNrdKYdk;ESifU usHK;

- 238 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

uwdkufBuD;NrdKYa[mif;rS tkwfukef;tcsdKY

uwdu
k Bf u;D NrKd Y ;kd atmufrS 80HOrifvP
kd t
f wGi;f ydik ;f

- 239 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

uwdkufBuD;NrdKYa[mif;ordkif;udk azmfxkwfay;Edkifaom tkwfukef;a[mif;rsm;

- 240 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

oxHak usmufpmHt
k wGi;f &Sd ausmufqpfrwf&yf ky<f uyHak wmf

- 241 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

oxHNk rdKaY [mif;


(1)

oxHNk rdKY ;kd rsm;

aumif;uif"gwfyHkay:wGif oxHkta&SY NrdKYdk;ESifU ajrmufNrdKYdk;rsm;udk xif&Sm;pGmjrifEdkifonf/ awmifbuf


NrdKYdk;ESifU taemufbufNrdKYdk;rsm;rSmrl vlae&yfuGuftwGif; aysmufqHk;aevsuf&Sd\/ jroydwfawmifajc&if;rS
awmifwef;ESifUtNydKif awmif-ajrmufwef;aeaom ta&SY NrdKYdk;ESpfckonf av,mOfuGif;teD; ajrmufbuf
aZw0efausmif;0ef;rS awmift&yfqDodkh jroydwfbk&m;vrf;udk jzwfausmfNyD;? odrfukef;&yfOD;jzLvrf;twdkif;
bifvdIifMuufvQmpGef;txd a&mufonf/ xdkrStaemufodkh wpfqpfcsdK;auGYum awmifbufNrdKYdk;ESifU NrdKYaxmifU
(ta&SaY wmifaxmif)U udak wG&Y onf/ 4if;NrKd aY xmifaU e&mrSm NrKd 0Y ifaygu(f wHcg;aygu)f wpfck jzpfEikd yf gonf/ 4if;ab;
eH&Hajrom;wGif *0HtkwfpDeH&HESpfzuf t<uif;tusefudk awGYEdkif\/ 4if;awmifbufNrdKYdk;onf oxHkbm;tH
um;vrf; ta&mufwGif tqufjywfoGm;NyD; ewfpifukef;teD;wGif jyefay:vmonf/ xdkae&mwGif NrdKYdk;
wpfxyfudkom cyfyg;yg;awGY&awmh\/ ewfpifukef;rS oxHk-armfvNrdKifum;vrf; tquftpyftxd tjywf
tawmufrsm;pGmjzifU qufoGm;onfU 4if;awmifbufNrdKYdk;rSm um;vrf;\taemufbuf atmufusif;&yfuGuf
ta&mufwGif aysmufuG,fvQuf&Sd\/
atmufusif;&yfuGuftwGif;&Sd taemufNrdKYdk;rsm;udkvnf; ,cktcg&SmrawGY&awmhay/ eef;cJ&yfuGuf
tydkif; oxHkblwmHkvrf;\ ajrmufbuf&Sd azmifawmfOD;bk&m;teD;rSm taemufNrdKYdk;wpfydkif;udk jyefawGY&\/
qufvuf eef;cJ&yf jynfawmfomvrf;wGif taemufNrdKYwpfydkif;awGY&NyD; eef;cJESifU vdyftif;tMum; a&tdkif
(vdyt
f if;)tpyfwiG f aysmufu,
G af e\/ 4if;vdyt
f if;onf oxHNk rKd aY [mif;acwfu avSqyd ?f oabFmqdyaf [mif;

- 242 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

oxHNk rKd Y ;kd ta&SaY wmifNrKd aY xmifw


U iG f NrKd 0Y ifayguaf e&mudk awG&Y yHk
( 0ifayguef &H u
H kd 80Htw
k rf sm;jzifU pDxm;onf )
jzpf taemufNrKd Y ;kd rsm; tqufjywfae[efw\
l (xdt
k if;Bu;D udik NkH y;D NrKd w
Y nfc[
UJ efrwlay)/ od&Yk mwGif vdyt
f if;
(a&tdkif? ,ckvlae&yfuGuf)tvGef ewfuRef;wGif taemufNrdKYdk;rsm; xifxif&Sm;&Sm;awGYEdkif\/ 4if;vdyftif;
&yfuGuftaemufNrdKYdk;rsm;onf ajrmufbufNrdKYdk;rsm;ESifU qufpyfrdNyD; taemufajrmufNrdKYaxmifU udkawGY&onf/
ajrmufbufrSvmaom NrdKYdk; trSwf(4) ESifU trSwf(5)wdkhudk ,cktaemufNrdKYdk;ae&mrSm awGY&jcif;jzpfygonf/
trSw(f 5)NrKd Y ;kd onf ajrmufbufwiG f orD;awmfuek ;f jcm;vQuf trSw(f 4)ESiUf tvSr;f uGmaeaomfvnf;
taemufbufoahkd uG0Y u
kd Nf y;D trSw(f 4)ESieUf ;D uyfvsuo
f mG ;um ewfuRe;f [kac:aom uke;f wnf&m vdyt
f if;tpyf
odkha&mufygonf/ taemufbuf&Sd trSwf(3)ESifU trSwf(5) NrdKYdk;wdkhonf tus,fay(30)rS ay(40)
cefo
h m&Sad omfvnf; 4if;wdEhk pS cf t
k Mum;&Sd trSw(f 4) NrKd Y ;kd rSm ay(150)txd Bu;D rm;us,jf yefah Mumif; awG&Y onf/
NrdKYaxmifUae&mrS trSwf(3)NrdKYdk;onf usHK;tajcrS 15 aycefhtxd tjrifUusefygao;onf/ odkhjzpf
oxHkNrdKYdk;rsm; ysufpD;yGef;wD;rI&Sdonfqdkaomfvnf; tcsdKYae&mwdkhrSm a&S;NrdKYa[mif;txmuftxm; erlemjyp&m
usef&Sdaeao;aMumif; awGY&ygonf/ txl;ojzifU NrdKYa[mif;\taemufajrmufaxmifU ta&SYajrmuf axmifUESifU
ta&SYawmifaxmifUNrdKYdk;ae&mrsm;udk qufvufxdef;odrf;xm;&SdoifUygonf/
oxHkNrdKYa[mif; ajrmufbufwGif NrdKYdk;(6)xyf&Sdonf[k oxHk&mZ0ifuqdkxm;ygonf/ taemf&xm
ppfa&mufvm rlvNrdKYdk;oHk;xyftjyif aemufxyfNrdKYdk;oHk;xyfudk wnfcJU&onf[k qdk\/ ajrmufbuftjyif
pGe;f NrKd u
Y kd v0awmifajcrSp taemufbuf yifv,fpyftxd wnfco
UJ nf[v
k nf; qdx
k m;ygonf/ aumif;uif
"gwfyHkrSwpfqifUjrifawGY&aom ajrmufbufNrdKYdk;rSm (5)xyfom&Sdonf/ xdkhaMumifU trSwf(6)NrdKYdk;wpfck&Sdao;
ovm;[k qef;ppf&ef aerdE&awmifukef;? atmif"rukef;ESifU atmifod'dukef;rsm;odkh oGm;a&mufcJUonf/
4if;wdkh\txuf awmif0dkif;BuD;[kac:aom awmifdk;wef;rSm NrdKYwHwdkif;ozG,f awmifESifUajrmufwef;aeaMumif;
awG&Y onf/ ,ckawmif0ikd ;f Bu;D bke;f Bu;D ausmif;? Z&yf? odrEf iS aUf pwDrsm; wnfxm;aomuke;f onf xdu
k ek ;f wef;\
tpjzpf xdkrS ajrmufbuft&SifqEm"du oDwif;oHk;&m a&Tyg&rDawm&ausmif;txd qufoG,faeyHkudk

- 243 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

awmifbufNrdKYdk; t<uif;tusef
jrif&onf/ v0awmifajc&Sd q&mawmfOD;oDv w&m;tm;xkwfcJU&m ausmuf*lrSpwifaom xdkukef;wef;onf
a&ykypf rf;zsm;&dS prf;acsmif;rsm;udk jzwfyw
d x
f m;aom qnfaygiw
f pfcu
k o
hJ hkd taetxm;&Syd u
kH v
kd nf; awG&Y onf/
awmif0ikd ;f Bu;D ausmif;0if;rS ajrmufbufuek ;f wef;wpfae&mudk ppfaq;onft
U cg ndKrnf;rnf;ta&mif (aeavmif
xm;onft
U a&mif)jzifU ausmufw;kH rsm;udk txyfxyfqif
U pepfwuspx
D m;yHrk mS NrKd w
Y w
H ikd ;f jyKvyk yf EkH iS Uf qifwal e
aMumif;awGY&ygonf/ ukef;wef;ay:wGif &mbmNcHrsm;? tcsdKYae&mwdkh &mbmyifysdKrsm; pdkufxm;onf/ 4if;
udk ta&SYbufawmifajc&if;u wpfpdwfwpfydkif;rQom ppfaq;cGifU&cJUNyD; ajrmufbufodkhqufvufoGm;rnfU
yHkudk rod&ao;yg/ a&Tyg&rDawm&tvGef auvmo(oxHk)awmifajcrS ajreDukef;? ay:awmfrlESifU qifjzLuRef;
txd awmufavQmuf vdkufvHppfaq;&rnfjzpf tcsdefrsm;pGm vdktyfygonf/

awmifbufNrdKYdk; ewfpifukef;t<uif;tusef
a&usHK;pepf tpDtrHrsm;
NrdKYdk;rsm;tMum;? ajrmif;rsm;udk a&oGif;&ef a&&&Sda&;pDrHxm;yHkudk qufvufavhvmonf/ ta&SY
NrdKYdk;rsm;tMum; usHK;ajrmif;twGuf a&Tacsmif;ESifU bifvdIif;prf;a&udk &,lEdkifygonf/ ajrmufNrdKYdk; rsm;twGuf
a&ykypf rf;a&udk &,lEikd Nf y;D awmifbufNrKd Y ;kd rsm;twGuf 0g;yg;acsmif;udk &,lEikd o
f nf/ ajrmufbuf a&ykypf rf;zsm;wGif
prf;a&udk tuefhtuefhydkif; a&wm;wrHrsm; wnfaqmufxm;[efwl\/ atmif"rukef;ESifU atmifod'dukef;
apmif; ajrmufbuf&Sd a&ykyfprf;acsmif;wGif jzwfydwfxm;cJUaom ausmufwHk;qnfabmifwpfck\ t&if;tikwf

- 244 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

udkawGY&ygonf/ oxHkNrdKYonf aqmif;ESifUaEGumvajcmufaoGY&moDrsm;wGif usHK;ajrmif;rsm;a&oGif;&ef ydkvdktyf


onfjzpf a&udx
k ed ;f csKypf rD o
H nfU enf;ynm (Water management) taxmuftxm;udk awG&Y jcif;jzpfygonf/

oxHkajrmufNrdKYdk;ESifU orD;awmfukef;? taemufajrmufNrdKYaxmifUyHk

ajrmufNrdKY ;kd ? orD;awmfuek ;f ESiUf taemufajrmufNrdKaY xmifU


taemufodkh qufvufoG,fwef;oGm;aom ajrmufNrdKYdk;tm;vHk;wdkhonf oxHkav,mOfuGif; jzwf
azmufonfv
U rf;aMumif;ta&mufwiG f wdw&d &d jd ywfawmufomG ;Mu\/ xdrk S taemufbuf av,mOfuiG ;f tpyf
&Sd pufrIv,f,mHk;0if;ESifU &GmOD;rlvwef;ausmif;0if;wGif cyfedrfUedrfUtaetxm;jzifU NrdKYdk;tm;vHk;jyefay:vm\/
aumif;uif"gwyf t
kH ultnDrygbJ 4if;av,mOfuiG ;f ae&mrS NrKd Y ;kd tjywfwu
hkd kd ajc&mcHvu
kd &f mS Edik rf nfr[kwaf y/
ta&twGuf rnfrQ&Sdonfudkvnf; od&rnfr[kwfay/
pufrIv,f,mHk;0if;\ aemufaMumwGif orD;awmfukef;&Sdonf/ 4if;orD;awmfukef;udk oxHkNrdKYajrmuf
bufu txif&Sm;qHk;ajrjyiftrSwftom;wpfcktjzpf aumif;uif"gwfyHkay:wGif awGYEdkif\/ pufrIv,f,m
0if;\ ajrmufbufuyfvsuf orD;awmfuefac: av;axmifhyHk a&uef&Sd\/ 4if;orD;awmfukef;ESifU orD;awmf
uefwdkhonf trSwf(3)? trSwf(4) NrdKYdk;wdkh\ tjyifbufwGif uyfvsuftv,fA[dkususwnf&Sdonf/
ajrmufbuftrSwf(5)NrdKYdk;rSm orD;awmfukef;ESifU ajrmufbufwGif uyfvsuf trSwf(3) trSwf(4)wdkhESifU
tNydKifwnfaeNyD; taemufum;vrf;rBuD;txda&muf\/ ta&SYbufydkif;rSmrl jroydwfawmifaMum v0awmif
ajctxd awmif;kd twdik ;f jrifw
U ufvsu&f o
dS nf/ odjhk zpf oxHNk rKd aY [mif; ajrmufbufwiG f orD;awmfuek ;f ESiw
Uf uG
NrdKYdk;ig;xyfwdkhudk wpfpkwpfaygif;wnf; awGY&onf/
ajrmufbuf trSw(f 3)(4)ESi(Uf 5) NrKd Y ;kd rsm;ESiUf taemufNrKd Y ;kd rsm; qufpyfyu
kH kd taemufajrmufNrKd aY xmifU
ae&mwGif qufvuf&SmazG&onf/ 4if;NrdKYdk;rsm;onf orD;awmfukef;rS taemufbuf&Sd ]&GmOD;ausmif;wdkuf
0if;} wdkhudk jzwfausmfNyD; armfawmfum;vrf;ta&mufwGif taemufodkhauGYvsuf&Sd\/ oxHkNrdKYt0if vdyftif;
ukef;twuf ajrjrifUydkif;onf NrdKYdk;rsm;ay:odkh um;vrf;azmufvkyfxm;cJUjcif;aMumifU jrifUwufaejcif;yif

- 245 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

jzpf\/ vdyftif;ukef;twuf um;vrf;\taemufbufuyfvsuf ae&mwGif trSwf(3) NrdKYdk;ESifU usHK;udkOD;pGm


awGY&NyD; 4if;tjyifbufrSm NrdKYdk;ig;xyf&Sdonf/ &efukefarmfvNrdKifum;vrf; jzwfoef;aeaom ta&SYbufjcrf;
wGif NrdKYdk;ESpfxyf trSwf(1)ESifU(2)&Sd taemufbufjcrf;wGif NrdKYdk;oHk;xyf trSwf(3?4)ESifU(5) &Sdygonf/
ajrmufbufNrdKYdk;trSwf(1)ESifU(2)wdkhwnfaeyHkudk ppfaq;onfUtcg 4if;wdkhudk ta&SYav,mOfuGif;
aZw0efausmif;0if; wHwdkif;tpyfrS taemufum;vrf;txd awGY&Sd&onf/ aZw0efausmif;teD;wGif 4if;NrdKY
d;k ESpaf csmif;wdo
hk nf xdyw
f u
kd t
f aetxm;jzifU awhqufqufNy;D taemufbufohkd tjyKd iq
f if;vm&m um;vrf;
ta&mufwGif vrf;udkrausmfbJ awmifbufodkY auGY0dkufoGm;onf/ 4if;NrdKYdk;ESpfacsmif;wdkhonf um;vrf;
(vdyftif;ukef;xdyf)rS oxHkav,mOfuGif;odkh qufoG,fazmufvkyfxm;aom ausmufcif;vrf;ESifUtNydKif
wnfaeonf/ taemufajrmuf NrdKYaxmifUwGif trSwf(1)NrdKYdk;auGYcsdK;NyD;aemuf ay(1000)cefhtxd qufoGm;
um vdyftif;&yfuGuf (&,u)Hk;teD;vdyftif;a&tdkiftpyfwGif tqHk;owfonf/ trSwf(2)NrdKYdk;tauGYonf
ausmufcrf;vrf;udkausmfNyD;aemuf um;vrf;atmufepfjryfaysmufuG,fvsuf&Sd\/ 4if;trSwf(2)NrdKYdk; tauGY
wGif usHK;a[mif;ae&m txift&Sm;&dSygonf/ NrdKYwHwdkif; ajrom;eH&HwGif *0Htkyfrsm;pepfwus uyfpDxm;aom
rlvNrdKYdk;rsufESmpm tpdyftydkif;rsm;vnf; t<uif;tusef&Sdygao;onf/ 4if;ae&mrS NrdKYa[mif;trSwftom;
t<uif;tusefwdkhrSm oxHkNrdKYa[mif;\ wefzdk;rjzwfEdkifaom owfaotaxmuftxm;rsm;yif jzpfygonf/
NrdKYdk;rsm;udk ae&mtESHwl;NzdKzsufqD;xm;jcif;rS uHaumif;axmufr vGwfuif;aecJUayonf/
ajrmufNrdKYdk; trSwf(3)ESifU(4)wdkYonf ta&SYNrdKYdk;ESpfpif;\ tquftpyfyifjzpfonf/ ta&SYajrmufNrdKY
axmifUae&mudk aZw0efausmif;0if; (tkwfwHwdkif;) ta&SYajrmufNrdKYdk;axmifUae&mrSmyif apwDi,fwpfql
wnfxm; trSwftom;jzpfaeonf/ trSwf(3)NrdKYaxmifUay:wGifjzpf\ 4if;tjyifbuf trSwf(4)NrdKYaxmifU
rSm ,ck&mbmpdkufxm;onf/ NrdKYdk;ajrawmifudkvnf; wl;NzdKajrndxm;onf/ 4if;wdkhESpfpif;tMum; usHK;ae&m
tpwGif aerdE&awmifrS prf;acsmif;wpfck pD;0ifaeonf/

yifv,fqyd u
f rf;a&vrf; xGuaf yguf
oxHkta&SYbuf jroydwfawmifwef; tjrifU 700 ay rS ta&SYNrdKYdk; tjrifU 100 aytxd &Gmus
aeaom rdk;a&udk usHK;a[mif;rsm;rSwpfqifU taemufNrdKYdk; tjrifU 50 ay ESifU vdyftif;tjrifU 25 ay xJodkh
pD;0ifapygonf/ vdyftif;onf taemufNrdKYdk;tjyifbufrS uefawmfr*Fvm(,ckaomufoHk;a&uefBuD;)ESifU
wpfqufwnf;jzpf oxHkNrdKYtaemufbufrSm ajredrfUcsdKifU0Srf;jzpfonf/ oxHkNrdKYa[mif;acwfu 4if;ajredrfU
ydkif;wGif a&jyifus,fBuD;&SdcJUNyD; xdka&jyifudkaqmif;ESifUaEG&moDrsm;wGif cef;ajcmufjcif;r&Sdatmif xdef;odrf;
xm;rnfjzpfonf/ ydkvQHaomrdk;a&ESifU pkaqmif;a&wkdhudk taemufbuf (rD;&xm;vrf; taemuf) &Sdqm;acsmif;
odkH pD;qif;apNyD; 4if;ajrmufbuf (15)rdkifcefhtuGm&Sd bD;vif;jrpfxJodkh pDqif;aprnfjzpfygonf/ aEG&moDwGif
qm;acsmif; a&rjywfrvyfap&efvnf; yifv,frS 'Da&twuf tusqm;iHa&ESifU usHK;a&? uefa&wdkhrS
a&csKd wahkd ygi;f pyfp;D 0ifaprnfjzpfonf/ xdahk MumifU oxHNk rKd aY [mif;acwfu yifv,fqyd u
f rf;NrKd BY u;D onf yifv,f
urf;pyfeD;vmonfjzpfap a0;oGm;onfjzpfap? avSqdyf? oabFmqdyf jzpfEdkifygonf/ tcsdKYynm&Sifrsm;u
oxHktaemufbufwGif yifv,furf;ajca&mufvmom qdyfurf;jzpfEdkifrnf[k ,lq ,cktcg yifv,f
urf;ajcESifU 10 rdkif 12 rdkifrQ uGmvSrf;NyD; qdyfurf;rjzpfEdkifawmhaMumif; t,ltqonf rrSefuefEdkifyg/
vdyt
f if;ESiUf qm;acsmif;wdt
hk aetxm;udMk unf
U oxHNk rKd aY [mif;acwfu qdyu
f rf;t0iftxGuf a&vrf;aMumif;
azmufvkyfxm;yHkudk odomxif&Sm;apygonf/

- 246 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

qHawmf&iS af pwDrsm;ESiUf omoedu taqmufttHt


k ajctae

a&Tpm&HapwD0if;twGif; apwDrsm;wnfxm;yHk (aumif;uif"gwfyHk)


oxHk&mZ0if? rGef&mZ0if? a&Tpm&Hbk&m;ordkif; ponfwdkh bk&m;ocif(8)0gajrmufonfUtcg *0Hyawh
&[EmavQmufxm;awmif;yef oxHkodkh<ua&mufawmfrlvmNyD; w&m;a[monf? udk,fpm;awmfxm;onf?
qHawmfrsm;ay;oem;awmfro
l nf[k azmfjyxm;onft
U wdik ;f ,cktcg usKd ux
f ;D d;k ? Zif;usKd u?f ZGu
J yiftp&Sad om
awmifxyfapwDrsm; wnfxm;udk;uG,fMuonf/ oxHkbk&if&aom qHawmf(2)qludk pd&HapwD(a&Tpm&H)wGif
Xmyemxm;onf[lvnf; od&ygonf/ wpfzefomoemESpf(128)ckESpf(bDpD 416)wGif t&Sifr[dEBuD;rSL;aom
&[Emig;yg;<uvm oxHkbk&if ok0P&mZmrif;BuD;tm; qHawmf(8)qlay;onf/ ,ckjroydwfawmfapwD?
o&uvsmPDapwD(ay:awmfrlbk&m;)? pHoD;apwDESifU eef;OD;apwD(eef;awmf&mbk&m;)wdkhwnfxm;cJUonf[k
tqdk&Sdygonf/
oxHkNrdKYay:&Sd azmfjyygqHawmfapwDig;qlpvHk; ,cktcg udkvdkeDacwf (1900)jynfUESpfcefhrSp topf
rGe;f rHxm;Ny;D jzpfygonf/ NrKd aY [mif;awmifbufwiG f *0Htw
k af usmufpw
D w
H ikd ;f 0ef; cyfxm;vsuf a&Tpm&HapwDawmf
BuD;rSmvnf; rSefpD? 0wfausmif;? wef;aqmifjyom'frsm;jzifU ,ckacwf vuf&mtqifwefqmwdkh vTrf;jcHKaeyg
Ny/D y&0kP\
f ajrmufbufwiG f yd#uwfapwD? ta&Sb
Y ufwiG f odMum;bk&m;(jrode;f wefapwD)ESiUf a&Tacs;cHapwD

- 247 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

rsm;? ta&SaY jrmufaxmifw


U iG f *0Ha&uefBu;D (apwDyx
k ;kd rsm;wnfpOfu ausmuftw
k x
f w
k ,
f o
l nfu
U si;f a[mif;)
wdkhudk awGY&ojzifU Ak'omoemESifUywfouf oxHkrif;tqufquf o'gMunfndKpdwf&SdonfUtavsmuf
bk&m;&Sifudk &nfpl; O'dapwDawmfrsm; wnfxm;onfU "avUtpOftquf&SdcJUaMumif; od&ygonf/
,if;apwDawmfrsm;udk acwfcGJjcm;owfrSwf&ef ,ckrjzpfEdkifawmhyg/ odkh&mwGif apwDa[mif;tysuftpD;rsm;rS
<uif;usef&pfaom *0HapwDtxGwf(xD;awmf)tpdyftydkif; wpfckudk y&0kPftwGif; ta&SYajrmufbufa&uef
axmifU wpfae&mrSmawGY&\/ xdkhtjyif apwDyp,maxmifUae&m tvSqifonfU jcaoFhrsufESmyHk ausmufwHk;
wpfwHk;rSm usifwG,fyHk&Sd twGif;om;udkz,fypfNyD; ab;om;ESpfzufESifU ta&SYbufwdkhudk kyfvHk;ay:atmif
xkppfxm;jcif;jzpfonf/ tjrifEU pS af y? AsuEf pS af yomom&Sad om *0Hausmufw;kH onf jcaoFyh \
kH rsuEf mS wpfyikd ;f
twGuo
f mjzpf ud,
k cf Emwpfcv
k ;kH twGuq
f v
kd Qif tjcm;tpdwt
f ydik ;f rsm;qufum xkqpfxm;ay;&ayOD;rnf/
,ck wpfydkif;udkom awGY&awmh\/ apwDa[mif;udk jyKjyifolwdkhu roHk;awmhyJ pGefhypfxm;cJUjcif;jzpf\/
a&S; a[mif;okawoDwt
hkd wGurf l *0Htpdyt
f ydik ;f ESpcf w
k rhkd mS wefz;kd Bu;D aom a&S;a[mif;oufaotaxmuft
xm;jzpfawmhonf/
a&S;a[mif;*0Hausmuftkwf

odMum;bk&m;ajc&if;&Sd *0Hausmuf jcaoFrsufESm (ab;? ta&SY? taemuf jrifuGif;)


*0Hausmuftkwfudk acwfcGJjcm;owfrSwf wdusoufwrf;wGuf,l&ef rjzpfEdkifao;ay/ odkhaomf
odMum; bk&m;'kw,
d yp,meH&rH ck u
f yfrsm;twGi;f ajrrD;zkwf yk <f uyHrk sm;wGif r[medygw Ak'0 ifZmwfawmf(ZmwfBu;D
q,fbGJY) okyfazmfyHkrsm;ESifU qufpyf *0HjcaoFhrsufESmyHk 0wKypnf;\ a&S;ausaMumif; qufpyfoufwrf;
(Relative Date)udk od&onf/
a&Tpm&HapwDww
H ikd ;f awmifbufwiG f uvsmPDord &f o
dS nf/ xdo
k rd rf suEf mS pm (vrf;ab;)wGif *0HapwD
a[mif;tpdwt
f ydik ;f (3)ckukd pGeyhf pfvsux
f m;onfuv
kd nf; awG&Y onf/ uvsmPDord yf wfvnf&dS oJausmufqpf
odrfedrdwfwdkifrsm;rSm r[medygwfawmfAk'0ifZmwfuGufrsm; jzpfygonf/ (OD;jr\ tdEd,a&S;a[mif;ESpfcsKyf
(1930-34)tydkif;(1) pm 203-4 udkIYyg)/ taxmuftxm;rsm;t& oxHkwGif ajrrD;zkwftEkynmESifU
ausmufqpftEkynmvnf; xGef;um;cJUaMumif; odEdkif\/ OD;jru Ak'0ifZmwfuGufrsm;\ oufwrf;udk c&pfESpf
11-12 &mpkESf vuf&m[kqdkxm;aomfvnf; 4if;umvxufrsm;pGm ydkapmrnf[k cefhrSef;&\/

- 248 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

a&Tpm&HapwDrS *0HausmufapwD tpdwftydkif;rsm;


*0Hausmufqpf tEkynmypnf;rsm;udk ydkwGifwGifus,fus,foHkpGJcJU[efwl\/ odkhaomf*0Hausmuf
rSm aESmif;acwfvlwdkh vrf;cif;ausmuftjzpfvnf; oHk;onfjzpf a&S;*0Hypnf;rnfrnfrQ vrf;cif;ausmuf
tjzpf xkco
JG ;kH pGcJ aUJ Mumif; rcefrh eS ;f Edik af wmhay/ udv
k ekd aD cwfO;D umvrSmyif oxHNk rKd w
Y iG ;f vrf;rsm;udk *0HausmufjzifU
pwifcif;cJyU gonf/ xdv
k yk if ef;rsm;udk 1887 ckEpS u
f pwifzpYJG nf;aom oxHNk rKd Y jrLeDpy,ftzG(YJ pnfyifom,m)u
aqmif&Guf&\/ xdkvkyfief;rsm;udk 1923 ckESpfwGif zGJYpnf;aom oxHkcdkifa'oE&tkyfcsKyfa&;aumifpD
('dp&dwaf umifp)D uvnf; NrKd w
Y iG ;f ? NrKd Y jyifausmufcif;vrf;rsm;udk cif;onf/ xdpk Ofu NrKd Y ;kd a[mif;rsm; (ta&Sb
Y uf?
ajrmufbufNrKd Y ;kd rsm;)wGif awmifay:prf;ausmufw;kH (Conglomerate)rsm; ausmufw;kH Bu;D rsm;udk cGjJ zwf&aom
ausmufw;kH rsm;? *0Hausmufw;kH rsm;jzifU uyfpw
D nfxm;aMumif; awG&Y \/ (taemufajrmufaxmifh trSw(f 2)NrKd Y ;kd
erlemudkMunfUyg)/ ,ck xdkNrdKYdk;rsm;wpfavsmuf ausmuftkwfrsm;rSm &Sm;yg;ukefNyDjzpfygonf/ oxHkbm;tHodkh
qufoG,fxm;aomvrf;? oxHkrS0if;pdef&Gmodkh qufoG,faomvrf;? ponfwdkhrSm oxHkNrdKYopfumv tapmqHk;
vrf;rsm;jzpfzG,f&Sd 4if;vrf;ydkif;rsm;azmufvkyfcJUpOfu ausmufcif;&eftvG,fwul&Edkifaom NrdKYa[mif;
ausmufrsm;udkyif ,liifoHk;pGJcJUayrnf/ rSwfwrf;rSwf&m r&ao;ojzifU twdtus rajymEdkifao;ay/
tcsdKY NrdKYdk; *0Htkwfcsyfrsm;udk oxHkNrdKYwnfaxmifcgp bkef;awmfBuD;ausmif;wdkufBuD;rsm;\ r[m&H
wHwdkif;wGif ,liif;oHk;pJGcJUMuao;\/ (oxHk&GmOD;ausmif;wdkufwHwdkif; ESifUaq;HkBuD;teD; eef;awmf&mausmif;
wdu
k f awmifbufww
H ikd ;f rsm;udMk unfyU g) NrKd w
Y iG ;f tcsKd w
Y u
kd w
f mtdraf jcrsm; wHwikd ;f 0if;cwfxm;&m a&S;a[mif;
*0Htkwftenf;ESifUtrsm; yg0ifaeygonf/
a&Tpm&Hbk&m;BuD;awmifbuf wHwdkif;atmufajcrSm rlv*0Htkwfdk;pDwHwdkif;jzpfzG,f&Sd\/ udkvdkeDacwf
bk&m;jyifcsdefusrS *0HtkwfwHwdkif;rsm;udk topfxkwf,loHk;pGJxm;[efrwlay/ ta[mif;udkjyefpDxm;jcif;vm;?
rlvtkwfpDwHwdkif;vm; cGJjcm;&efcwfygonf/ odkh&mwGif NrdKYtaemufazmifawmfOD;apwD atmufajctkwfdk;u
*0H tkwfpDbdeyfawmfwHwdkif;rSm rlvtwdkif;&SdcJUrnf[k ,HkMunf&\/ ,ckazmifawmfOD; bkef;awmfBuD;ausmif;
0if;twGif; *0HtkwfukAwHk;BuD;rsm; ta&twGuf wpfq,ffausmfrQ awGYEdkif\/ *0HausmufukAwHk;\
rsufESmwpfzufwGif t0dkif;ykHajcmufvucefh teufwpfayausmfxGif;vsufxm;onfrSm rlvtwdkif;&Sdonf/
acwfopfwnfaqmuf a&;vkyo
f m;rsm;vufrS vGwu
f if;vsuf useaf eorQukd rSwo
f m;azmfjy&jcif; jzpfygonf/

- 249 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

vrf;cif;&ef ajreD(*0Hausmuf)rsm; aygaygvdIifvdIif&,lEdkifaom ae&mudk jrefrmbmomjzifU ajreDukef;


[kac:Mu\/ oxHak jrmufbufwiG f xd*k 0Hausmufxw
k pf cef;(ajreDuek ;f )&d\
S / ,ck ay:awmfr&l mG ESiUf ajreDuek ;f &Gm
ta&SYbufawmifajctxd us,fjyefhonfU (,ck&mbmjcH) ae&mjzpf\/ om&uvsmPD(ay:awmfrl) apwDudk
xdkukef;ay:wGif awGY&ygonf/ ,ck OmPfawmf(119)ay&Sdaom rGrf;rHNyD;apwD&ifjyifrSm us,fvnf;us,f?
ukef;vnf;aumif;ygonf/ &ifjyifawmf ta&SYajrmufaxmifUwGif om&uvsmPDodrf (Ak'aCmoodrf)wpf
aqmif&Sdonf/ taemufodkh rsufESmjyKxm;aom apmif;wef;ESifU tmHkcHwefaqmif;wGif oGyfjym;yef;csDum;rsm;
jzifU udkvdkeDacwfu ay:awmfrlbk&m;udk awmjcHKzHk;vQufawGY&yHk? 'g,umwdkhu rGrf;rHwnfxm;MuyHkrsm;
okyfazmfa&;qGJxm;\/ yef;csDum;wpfcsyfwGif rlvapwDi,fyHko@eftm; (pdwfrSef;jzifU) a&;qGJxm;onfrSm
jrifawGY aeusapwDyHkawmfrsdK;r[kwfay/ xdkyef;csDum;ESifU ,SOfvsuftopf rGrf;rHNyD;aom apwDt&G,ftpm;
(pau;udkuf) yHkudkvnf; awGY&onf/
ta&SYbuftmHkcHwef;aqmifwGif udkvdkeDacwfvuf&mtkwfwdkufBuD;\ xkwfwef;t*Faw eH&Haq;
a&;yefcsDrsm; a&;qGJxm;onf/ udkvdkeDacwf(rEav;) vuf&myefcsDrsm;jzpf\/ xdk apmif;wef;\ ta&SYbk&m;
wHwdkif;tjyifbufwGif bkef;BuD;ausmif;ESpfausmif;&SdonfUteuf ajrmufbufausmif;0if;(o&uvsmPDodrfESifU
bk&m;wHwdkif;jcm;vsuf) rlv*0Htkwfcsyfrsm;[k ,lq&aom *0Htkwfcsyfa[mif;rsm;udk awGY&ygonf/ tcsdKY
udk aAm"dyifajc&if;wGif pHepfwuf xyfpDvsufvnf;aumif;? tcsdKYudk apwDi,fbdeyfawmfvnf;aumif;
awGY&onf/

om&uvsmPDay:awmfrlapwDESifU rlvay:awmfrlapwDyHk
om&uvsmPD(ay:awmfrl)apwD&Sd&modkh oxHkNrdKYwGif; a&Tpm&HapwDrS NrdKYv,fA[dkcsufudk jzwf
vsufazmufvkyfxm;aom vrf;rBuD;wpfckonf ajzmifUajzmifhwef;vsuf qdkufa&mufaeonfudk aumif;uif
"gwfyHkay:wGif jrifEdkif\/ ,ckoxHkNrdKYa[mif;\ ajrmufbufwGif uyfvsuf okbdEe*&-ok"r0wDNrdKYuGuf
wpfae&m wnfxm;aMumif; oxHk&mZ0iftqdk&Sdygonf/ xdkNrdKYuGufonf ,ckajreDukef;ESifU ay:awmfrl&Gmwdkh
ta&Sb
Y uf om&uvsmPDuek ;f ywf0ef;usif (,ck &mbmjcpH u
kd cf if;ESio
Uf pfawmajr)ae&mjzpfz,
G &f \
dS / xdak e&mrS
*0Htkwfausmufwnf taqmufttHka[mif;rsm; a&S;tcgu rnfrQ&SdcJUrnfudk cefhrSef;&efcufcJygonf/
,ckvufveG u
f ek Nf y;D ausmufxw
k pf cef;jzpfomG ;Ny[
D o
k m tMurf;tm;jzifU ,lq&\/ 4if;om&uvsmPDapwDEiS Uf
qufpyf awmifbufwGif a&ykyfprf;acsmif; ajrmufbufuyfvsif tm&[E&mr(&[Emwkduf)udkawGY&yg

- 250 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

onf/ oxHkacwf tapmydkif;(okbdEe*&)u &[Ersm;oDwif;oHk;&m ausmif;a[mif;ae&m[kqdk\/ xdkausmif;


\ wHwdkif;0if;cwfxm;onfU 80Htkwfrsm;udkvnf; ,cktcg *0HtkwftopfjzifU tpm;xdk; tkwfa[mif;rsm;
udk ausmif;0if;twGif; vrf;cif;xm;vsufawGY&ygonf/ xdk&[Emwdkufac: a&S;a[mif;ausmif;wdkuf ywf0ef;
usiEf iS Uf om&uvsmPD(qHawmf)apwDywf0ef;usirf mS oxHNk rKd aY [mif;tapmydik ;f (auvmo wdu
k u
f v
k m;xuf
ydkapmaom)acwf taxmuftxm;udk xyfrH&SmazG&ef vdktyfygao;onf/

azmifawmfO;D bk&m;ESiUf yd#uwdu


k af pwD
oxHkNrdKYa[mif;\ xif&m;aomordkif;rSwfwdkifwpfck (Historical Landmark)rSm yd#uwfawmfrsm;
a&mufvmjcif;yifjzpf\/ xdkyd#uwfawmfrsm;udk &&SdcsdefrSp omoemawmfoHk;&yf xGef;vif;onf[k
oxHk&mZ0ifuqdkonf/ ,if;oxHkomoemudk tajcwnf Ak'bmomyd#uwfomoemonf tjcm;ta&SY
awmiftm&Sa'orsm;odkh ysHYESHhoGm;cJUonf[kvnf; ,lqMu\/ rSefeef;&mZ0ifawmfBuD;wGif yd#uwfawmfudk
&,lvakd om yk*b
H &k iftaemf&xmESiUf yd#uwfyikd &f iS f oxHb
k &k ifrEl[mwdhk tcsi;f rsm;MuNy;D ppfycJG if;usi;f onftxd
y#dyujzpf&onf[k azmfjyonf/ yJcl;uvsmPDodrfausmufpmwGif jrefrmou&mZf(419)a&mufaomtcg taemf&xmrif;onf yd#uwfoHk;yHkESifUwuG &[ef;oHCm
taygif ; ud k &mrnwd k i f ; rS a qmif , l c J U yk * H j ynf B uD ; omoemawmf j rwf u d k w nf a pcJ U o nf /
(uvsmPDygVdausmufpm? pm-82)
[k azmfjyonf/
,if;azmfjycsufrsm;udk a&S;a[mif;okawoerSwfwrf;rSwf&m rl&if;ausmufpm &SmrawGY&aomfvnf;
yd#uwfawmfa&mufvmpOfu avSazmifqu
dk &f mqdyu
f rf; wnfxm;aom txdr;f trSwaf pwDEiS Uf yd#u
d wfawmf
okdrSD;odrf;qnf;ylaZmfxm;&m yd#uwfwdkufapwDwdkhudk oxHkwGif awGY&ygonf/
azmifawmfOD;bk&m;[kac:aom apwDrSm ,ckeef;cJ&yfuGuf uefawmfr*Fvm a&uefBuD;ESifU taemuf
NrdKYdk;tMum; trSwf(3) t .x .uausmif;\ ajrmufbufwGif&Sdonf/ apwD\awmifbufwGif azmifawmfOD;
ausmif;wdkufudk awGYEdkif\/ apwDukef;rSm tvsm;? teH ay 100 cefhtjrifU 8 aycefh av;axmifUyHk&Sdonf/
ukef;ay:wGif oD[dkVf? xlygHkyHkpHapwDudk wnfxm;onf/ tcsdKYu rlvapwDonf a&Tpm&HyHkpHrsdK;jzpfonf[k
qdk\/ ta&SYbuf rkcfavSum;xdyfwGif ewfeef; wpfaqmiftopfylaZmfxm;\/ xdkewfeef;tkwfpDeH&HwGif
,cif 1958 ckESpfu OD;zdk;vwfESifUtwl ygarmuvkpfESifU ordkif;aumfr&SiftzGJY a&mufcJUpOfu awGY&aom
'Gg&ygewfkyf *0Hausmufcsyfudk jrKyfvsufuyfxm;onf/ usef'Gg&ygvewfkyf *0Hausmufcsyfwpfckudk
taemufbufavSum;\ b,fbuf xef;yif&if;(rlvae&m)rSmyif awGY&ygonf/ rlv*0H tkwfcsyfBuD;
(ukAwHk;)rsm;udk vnf; apwDawmifbuf bkef;BuD;ausmif;0if; awGYEdkifygonf/ xdkausmif; 0if;ajrjyifwGif
ajrrD;zkwt
f w
k rf sm;udk wl;azmfavhvmonft
U cg oxHNk rKd Y ;kd tkwcf syrf sm;wGif awG&Y onfU vufa&;pif;trSwt
f om;
rsdK;yg&SdaMumif; awGY&ygonf/ odkhjzpf azmifawmfOD;apwDonf a&S;a[mif;taqmufttHkwpfck jzpfrnf[k
qdkEdkifygonf/
yd#duwfwdkufapwDonf NrdKYa[mif;awmifbufydkif; a&Tpm&Hbk&m;y&0kPftwGif; ajrmufbufwHcg;
teD;&Sd\/ apwD[kqdkaomfvnf; atmufajcav;axmifUyp,mrSm av;rsufESm*lbk&m;ESifUwl\/ txuf0g
rS txGwfapwDaMumifUom apwD[kac:\/ xdkapwDi,fonf taqmufttHk\ y"metpdwftydkif;r[kwfay/

- 251 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

azmifawmfOD;bk&m;awmifbuf bkef;BuD;ausmif;0if;twGif;&Sd ukAwHk;yHk rlv*0HtkyfcsyfBuD;


tb,fUaMumifUqdkaomf taqmufttHk\ yp,mtqifUrsm; apwDi,fodkhwuf&ef ewfvrf;avSum;
jyKvkyfrxm;aomaMumifU jzpf\/ avSum;tpm; t&yfav;rsufESmpvHk;wGif rkcfaygufrsm;&SdMu\/ vdkPf0wGif
wHuJi,fESpfxyfESifU tpGef;xGuf rkcfaygufrsdK;wnfxm;onfjzpf yk*HtmeEmapwDyEwfyHkpHESifh qifwl\/
txufyp,moHk;qifU wnfaqmufxm;yHkrSmvnf; tmeEmvdkPf*luJhodkh qifwlNyD; txufwGif uGrf;awmif
(oDc&)tpm; apwDwpfqlvHk; aygufxm;onfom uGJjym;jcm;em;onf/ 'kwd,yp,mjrifUjrifUESifU wwd,
yp,medrfUedrfU ab;ESpfzufrsm;wGifvnf; tvif;aygufo@mef rkcfaygufrsm;&Sdonf/ tjcm;jywif;aygufrsm;
azmfjyrxm;ay/ atmufyp,m\ rkcfayguf t&G,ftpm;ESifU taqmufttHkukd,fxnftcsdK;tpm; nDnGwf
rQwonf[k qdkEdkifygonf/ ta&SYbufESifUtaemufbuf rkcfvdkPftrdk;aygufwGif t&HapwDi,fwpfqlpD
wnfxm;vsuf&Sd\/ taqmufttHkudk apwD[krqdkbJ vdkPf*lbk&m;[k qdk&atmif twGif;odkh0if&ef
rkcfayguftm;vHk;udk ydwfqdkhxm;NyD;jzpfaomaMumifU qHk;jzwf&efcufaeygonf/ &mZ0ifrsm;wGif azmfjyouJhodkh
twGif;Orif&SdNyD; xdkOrifrSm yd#uwfawmfrsm;odkrSDodrf;qnf;xm;&m yd#duwfwdkufjzpfaMumif;udk ,Hk&cufcuf
jzpfvsuf&Sdygonf/ udk,fxnfESifU yp,mtrdk;rsm;txd *0Htkwfcsyfrsm;jzifU wpfqlvHk;wnfxm;onfudk awGY
&\/ yp,mtqifw
U ikd ;f wGif atmufajcrS Mum;zwfBu;D ? MumzwfBu;D atmufrS ca&yGiw
Uf ef;wdEhk iS Uf cg;ywfyef;wef;
rsm;jzifh udk,fxnfudk wefqmqifxm;\/ yef;wef;tMum;wdkh Adokumtqifwefqmtjzpf azmif;vHk;
azmif;jym;rsm;twdk;tqkwf pDrHxm;NyD; atmufajctpGef;udk ajyjypfpGmavsmqif;oGm;aponf/ tjyif tvS
t*Fawyef;tjc,ftvS,fwdkhonf rl&if;vuf&mvm;? taemufydkif;jyKjyifolwdkhvuf&mvm;qdkonfudk odrSDol
&Skm;ygonf/

- 252 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

odMum;bk&m; yp,mrS ZmwfawmfpOfu


h iG ;f rsm;

odMum;bk&m;
a&Tpm&HapwD\ta&Sb
Y ufwiG f odMum;bk&m;ac: jrode;f wefapwDonf yd#uwfawmfrsm; oxHo
k adhk &muf
cJUaMumif; taxmuftyHUjzpfaponfU a&S;a[mif;taqmufttHkwpfckjzpf\/ apwDonf av;axmifUyHkwGif
cdkeef;csdK;ESifUyp,moHk;qifUcH txufwGif apwDBuD;wnfonf/ yxryp,mwGif ewfvrf;oHk;zuf(ta&SYbuf
ryg)ESifU avS;um;us,fus,fpDrHxm;onfrSm xl;jcm;onf/ 'kwd,yp,mrS avSum;xdyfae&mwdkhwGif rwf&yf
kyyf mG ;awmfwpfqpl t
D wGuf rkcv
f P
kd jf rifjU rifw
U pfcpk &D MdS uonf/ wwd,yp,mwGiv
f nf; rkcv
f P
kd if ,frsm;xm;&S\
d /
'kwd,yp,mywfvnfwGif ESpfayywfvnft&G,f rSefuGufrsm;udk cdkeef;csdK;tvdkufoifUtwdkif; jyKvkyfNyD;
if;wdkhwGif abmifygaom av;axmifUyHk ajrrD;zkwfkyf<ucsyfrsm; xnfUoGif;ylaZmfxm;\/ yp,mywfvnf
kyf<ucsyfta&twGuf 61 csyf&SdcJUrnf/ ,ck 15 csyfudkom awGY&awmUonf/ yp,m\taemufawmifbuf
avS um;&if;ae&mrSp awrd&Zmwf? r[mZeuZmwf? ok0PomrZmwf? aerdZmwf ponfjzifU tpOftwdkif;
ZmwfuGufrsm;udk a0oE&mZmwftxd pHjyuGufrsm;jzifU Zmwfa&vnfatmif wefqmqifokyfazmfygonf/
odMum;bk&m;rS ajrrD;zkwfkyf<uZmwfawmfyHkrsm;onf t&Sifr[mAk'aCmo jyKpkawmfrlcJUaom t|
uxmusrf;pmrsm;rS Zmwuedygwfawmf aumufEkwfcsufrsm;jzpfrnf[k ynm&Sifwdkh ,lqygonf/ plV
Ak'aCmoESifU r[mAk'aCmo[l rax&fESpfyg;&SdaMumif;? plVAk'aCmoonf oxHkjynfom;jzpfNyD;
od[Vkd u
f Re;f odhk <uoGm;pOf rZRrd a'o(tdE,
d )? Ak'* g,mrS <uawmfrv
l maom usr;f jyKy*k Kd vv
f f r[mAk'a CmoESiUf
awGq
Y MkH uaMumif;? xdak emuf0o
d 'k rd *usr;f paomtXuxmusr;f rsm;jyKpo
k l r[mAk'a Cmoudk rdrZd mwdoxHjk ynf
odhk yifaU qmifawmfrv
l maMumif;? xdt
k &SiEf pS yf g;ESit
f wl oD[Vkd rf S yd#uwfawmfrsm;udyk g yifaU qmifvmcJaU Mumif;?
4if;\ (Buddhaghosa and Burma )pmwrf; (JBRS, LVIII, Oct, 1975)wGif OD;vlaz0if;azmfjyygonf/
taMumif;udk rGe&f [ef;awmfrsm;\tpOftquf ]tmp&d,y&r&}q&mpOf rSww
f rf;wGif awG&Y onf[q
k \
kd /
Ak'aCmobGJYtrnf&aom rax&fESpfyg; oxHkodkh qdkufa&mufvmaMumif;ESifU yd#uwfusrf;pmrsm;
&&SdaMumif;udk a&S;a[mif;okawoetaxmuftxm;tjzpf ,ckodMum;bk&m;kyf<uyHkrsm;ESifhwuG uvsmPD
odrfausmufqpfedrdwfwdkifrsm;u oufaojyvsuf&Sdonf[k qdkygonf/ Zmwu tVuxmusrf; okyf
azmfyHkrsm;\ oufwrf;udk c&pf 5 &mpkESpfvuf&m[k cefhrSef;ygonf/ t&ifr[mAk'aCmoonf yg|dbmom
usrf;rsm;avhvmvdkufpm;a&;udkom tm;ay;awmfrlNyD;? ouwbmomjzifUa&;om;jyKpkxm;aom &mrm,eESifU
r[mbm&wusrf;rsm;udk avhvmvdkufpm;jcif; rjyK&efwm;jrpfcJUonf/ xdkhaMumifU jrefrmEdkifiHwGif &mrm,eESifh
r[mbm&wwdkhudk avhvmjcif;rjyKMubJ 4if;ouw,Ofaus;rIonf tjcm;ta&SYawmif tm&Sa'orsm;qDodkh

- 253 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

om jyefhyGm;oGm;cJUjcif;jzpfonf/ jrefrmEdkifiHwGif t&Sifr[mAk'aCmoaMumifh ygVdbmomjzifU ax&0g'omoem


xGef;vif;awmufycJUjcif;jzpfayonf/ (Lu Pe Win p 90)

a&Tacs;cHb&k m;

a&Tpm&HapwD0if;twGif;&Sd yd#uwfawmf ausmufpmcsyfrsm;(udkvdkeDacwf)


a&Tpm&HapwD0if;twGif; odMum;bk&m;\ ta&SYbufapwDBuD;udk a&Tacs;cHbk&m;[kvnf;aumif;?
u&ifbk&m;vnf;aumif; ac:Muonf/ odMum;bk&m;ESifU qwlavmuft&G,ftpm;&Sd\/ odkhaomf AdokumyHkpHrSm
uGmjcm;rI&Sdonf/ yp,mqifUwGif ewfvrf;ESifU rkcfvdkPfrsm;ryg&Sday/ a&Tpm&Hbk&m;0if;twGif;&Sd apwDrsm;\
txufydkif;yHkpHonf aemufxyfrGrf;rHolwdkh jyKjyifxm;aom yHkpHjzpfrnf[kvnf; t,ltq&Sdygonf/
a&Tacs;cHESifU odMum;bk&m;y&0kPftwGif; rEav;rS &aoUBuD;OD;cEDu oxHkwGif yd#uwfomoem
jyefvnfxlaxmif&ef &nf&G,f pdkufxlcJUaom ausmufpmwdkifrsm;&Sd\/ oxHkrS'g,umrsm;\ tvSLawmf[k
vnf; qdk&rnf/ rif;wkef;rif;\ yOro*Fg,emwif yd#uwfausmufpmrsm; e,lemtwkdif;pdkufxlxm;cJUjcif;
jzpfonf/ jrefrmUpG,fpHkusrf; OD;cEDtaMumif;wGif ]rEav;awmifajc pEmrkedESifU oxHkNrdKY a&Tpm&Hbk&m;rsm;
wGif ausmufcsyfa& 3000 ausmf&Sd yd#uwfawmf t|uxmrsm;udk ausmufxuftu&mwifcJUavonf}
[k awGY&ygonf/ ,cka&Tpm&Hbk&m;0if;wGif udkvdkeDacwf jyKjyifrGef;rHjznfUpGufwnfxm;aom wefaqmif;?
Z&yf? "rmHkponfUwdkhudkvnf; awGYrnfjzpf a&S;a[mif;taxmuftxm;rsm; aysmufuG,fvsuf&SdNyD/ udkvdkeD
acwfOD;u bk&m;y&0PfrSawGY&onfU a&S;a[mif;ausmufpmwdkifrsm; ausmufqpfkyfwkponfrsm;udkrl
a&S;a[mif;okawoeOD;pD;Xmeu pkpnf; yd#uwfwdkufapwDESifU a&uefBuD;tMum; ,ckbk&m;a*gyuHk;\
ta&SYbufwGif tkwfwdkufausmufpmHkwpfckaqmufvsuf odrf;xm;onf/ oxHka'otwGif;rS acwftquf
quf a&S;a[mif;0wKypnf;rsm;udk bk&m;BuD;a*gyuHk;ESifUESifUwGJvsufxm;aom ]ok0Pblrdjywdkuf} twGif;
cif;usif; jyoxm;onfudkvnf; awGY&ygonf/

- 254 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

om&uvsmPDodrf(ajreDukef;ay:awmfrlteD;)

uvsmPDodrf

a&Tpm&HapwD\awmifbuf uvsmPDodrf
(*0Hywdok"kHodrf)

"rapwDac: &mrm"dywdrif;(1412-1492)BuD;onf vuFm'DyoD[dkVfuRef; uvsmPDjrpf O'ukauy


a&odrw
f iG f Oyor'uHaqmifNy;D jyefvmaom &[efawmfrsmtm; [Hom0wDaejynfawmf uvsmPDord af wmf
udk orkwfaponf/ aejynfawmf ywf0ef;usif tjcm;odrfBuD; (9)odrfESifUwuG? &mrna'oNrdKYe,fwdkif;wGif
odrfi,faygif; (387)odrfudk orkwfapygonf/ xdktcsdefrSp &[Emodrf(a&S;odrfa[mif;)ESifU uvsmPDodrf
(odrfopf)[l odrfESpfrsdK;ESpfpm;&SdvmcJUonf/ odrfopforkwfonfUtcg tcsdKY&[Emodrfa[mif;udkyif xyfqifU
orkwfay;cJUonfvnf;&Sd\/ oxHkwGif ]80Hywdok"Hkodrf}[k trnf&dSaom odrfa[mif;udk xyfqifU orkwfcJU
onfUtwGuf uvsmPDodrf[k xif&Sm;vmygonf/ 4if;odrfudk a&Tpm&HapwD\awmifbuf r[m&mrfwHwdkif;
tjyifbufwiG f awGEY ikd yf gonf/ udv
k ekd aD cwfu tkww
f u
kd t
f jzpf rGr;f rHxm;Ny;D jzpfaomfvnf? 4if;odryf wfvnfwiG f
rlvedrdwfwdkif(24)wdkif? Zmwfedygwfrsm;xGif; pdkufxm;vsuf&Sd\/ taemufawmifaxmifUwGif a&S;rGefbmom
jzifU ausmufpmwdik t
f usKd ;rSm b'ord u
f kd orkwpf Oftcgu &[efawmf tyg;wpfaxmif? vly*k K vo
f ;kH axmif?
ynm&Sdwpf&mausmf? Oyoum(500)ESifU jA[P(ykPm;)(300)wdkh y&dowftjzpfyg0ifonf? aAm"dyifudkvnf;
pdkufcJUMuonf[k a&;xkd;xm;onf/ (Luce, 1950 p.6)

&efatmifjrifapwD
a&Tpm&HapwDy&0kPf\ ta&SYajrmuf? ,cktxu(2) ausmif;0if;\ awmifbufwGif &efatmifjrif
apwD&Sdonf/ av;axmifUyEufcH? yp,moHk;qifU(cdkeef;rsdK;ryg)apwDBuD;jzpfonf/ yp,mwdkh ewfvrf;avSum;
r&Sday/ tcsdKYu a&Tpm&HapwDESifU acwfNydKifwnfxm;onf[k qdkygonf/ jrefrmhpG,fpHkusrf; oxHkNrdKYtaMumif;
(pmrsufESm 477)wGifrl taemf&xmrif;u oxHkatmifyGJtxdrf;trSwftjzpfwnfonf[k azmfjyonf/ oxHk
&mZ0ifwiG f taemf&xmrif; oxHNk rKd u
Y kd atmifjrifonfU txdr;f trSwaf pwDukd 4if;wyfpcef;cs&m NrKd aY jrmufbuf
u (,ckay:awmfrl&Gm ta&SYbuf? ay:awmfjyefbk&m;ukef;) Z,blrdukef; wnfxm;onf[k azmfjyonf/
(oxHk&mZ0if? pm-117)

- 255 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

oxHktrSwf(1)tvuausmif;0if;twGif;&Sd tkwfcGufbk&m;rsm; xGufay:onfUajrjyif


&efatmifjrifapwDESifU wpfwef;wnf;&Sdaom ajrmuf
bufrS ,cktrSw(f 2) txu ausmif;0if;ESiUf trSw(f 1)
tvu ausmif;0if;wdkhwGif apwDa[mif;rsm; ajr
atmuf epfjrKyfvsuf&SdaMumif; txmuftxm;rsm;
awG Y & onf / 4if ; ajrjyif r S m ajrusif ; wl ; onf U t cg
tkwfcGuf kyfyGm;awmfrsm; awGY&avh&SdaMumif; od&
onf/ ,ckc&D;pOfrSmyif trSwf(1) tvu ausmif;
0if;rSm ausmif;aqmifopfaqmufvkyf&ef tkwfjrpf
usif;wlpOf tkwfcGufkyfyGm;awmf av;qlay:xGufvm
aMumif;od&onf/ ausmif;aqmifopf taqmufttHk
vSLol atmufusif;&yfOD;zkef;jrifUarmif\ aetdrfwGif
ylazmfxm;\/ vGefcJUaom tESpf 30 cefhuvnf;
trSwf(2)txu ausmif;0if; tdrfomusif;wl;pOf
tkwcf u
G f yk yf mG ;awmf tajrmuftrsm; xufay:vmcJzU ;l \/
tcsdKYudk a&Tpm&H bk&m;a*gyuHk;ESifU wGJzufxm;aom
ok 0 P b l r d j ywd k u f w G i f cif ; usif ; jyoxm;ygonf /
tkwfcGufkyfyGm; qif;wk rsm;onf b*Fvm;a'o Ad[me,f(emvEm)? ygv-aoeacwf c&pf 9 &mpk
ESpv
f uf&m[efrsm; jzpfygonf/ yk*w
H iG f trsm;tjym;awG&Y tcsKd u
Y yk*aH cwftaxmuftxm;[k qkMd uygonf/
xdkif;(,dk;',m;) EdkifiHwGif 'Gg&0wDacwf (6 &mpkESpf - 10 &mpk) taxmuftxm;[k owfrSwfonf/
&efatmifjrifapwD wnf&mukef;ESifU wpfwef;wnf;&Sdaom ajrjyifESifU qufpyfaeaom eef;awmf&m ESifU
a&Tpm&Hy&0kPftMum; ta&SYbufydkif;rSmvnf; oxHkacwfu bmoma&;tqmufttHkrsm;wnfxm;cJUrnf[k
,lq&ygonf/

- 256 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

Al;bk&m;apwD
a&Tpm&Hy&0kPf\ taemufbufuyfvsuf armfawmfum;vrf;jcm;NyD; Al;bk&m;apwDudk zl;awGYEdkif\/
oxHkNrdKYaps;BuD;ESifU um;*dwfwdkhtMum; acsmifususwnfae wdrfjrKyfae\/ ,ckvnf; 'g,umwdkhu bufpHk
rGrf;rHxm;&SdNyDjzpfonf/ yk*Hu Al;bk&m;uJUodkh ykHpHrsKd;r[kwf/ 4if;trnfESifUvnf;rqdkifay/ rlvu ]bDvl;
&efatmifapwD}[k orkwfcJUonf[kqdk\/ apwDtysuftpD;udk NcKHEG,f&Sif; a':Al;qdkolu rGrf;rHay; cJUojzifU
]Al;bk&m;} trnfwGifonf[k qdk\/ &efatmifjrifbk&m;ESifU 4if;ywf0ef;usifrS bk&m;a[mif;rsm;uJUodkhyif
oxHkacwftaqmufttkHa[mif;wpfck jzpfEdkifygonf/

eef;awmfO;D bk&m;
,ckoxkHNrdKY ckdifaq;kHBuD;0if;\ awmifbufuyfvsufvrf;jcm; wnfaeaomapwDBuD;wpfql
jzpfonf/ eef;awmfOD;bkef;BuD;ausmif;0if;ESifU wpfwef;wnf;&Sd\/ eef;awmfa[mif;ae&mteD;rSmyifawG Y
eef;ODapwD[kac:aMumif; oxkH&mZ0ifuqdkygonf/ ,ckoxkHNrdKYa[mif; (ok"ryl&)rwnfcifu ok"r0wD(okbEd e *&)NrKd b
Y &k if "rZ&mZm-ok0Prif;Bu;D vufxuf? omoemESpf (128)ckEpS w
f iG f xkrd if;Bu;D \ orD;awmf
(eef;OD;oD&d)&aom bk&m;qHawmfESpfqludkxmyem wnfonf[kqdk\(oxkH&mZm0if?pm-69)/ oxkH(ok"ryl&)
NrdKYukd omoemESpf (161)ckESpfusrS Oya'0rif;uwnfcJUjcif;jzpf apwDuNrdKYxuf(33)ESpfapmonf[k wGuf
,l&\/ xdkapwDtysuftpD;udk ukdvdkeDacwfOD; 1869 ckESpfwGif oxkHaumfr&Sifemrif;BuD;rpwmpdefh*Ref;
pwif awG&Y cdS o
UJ nf/ 4if;u eef;awmfO;D bk&m;[l ac:cyUJ gonf/ ,ck apwDbed yfawmfEiS Uf av;axmifyU p,mwdrhk mS
(a&S;a[mif;)*0Htkwfcsyf rsm;ukd awGYEdkifygonf/ eeffawmfukef;\ taemufbufNrdKY wHwdkif;t&ma[mif;ESifU
usKH Y a [mif ; ud k , ck r awG Y & awmU ojzif U ,ck e ef ; awmf O D ; apwD \ ta&S Y b uf u yf v suf ae&mwG i f
awmifESifUajrmufwef;vsuf epfjrKyfaernf[k cefhrSef;&ygonf/ ajrmufbufESifU ta&SYbuf eef;awmfusKH;ESifU
NrdKYkd;a[mif;ae&mukdrl ,ckckdifkH;ae&mteDwGif awGY&ygao;onf/

jroydwaf wmifay:apwD
oxkNH rKd Y jroydwaf wmifay:apwDonf aTpm&HapwDBu;D uJo
U yhkd if xif&mS ;aom ajrjyiftrSwt
f om;wpfck
jzpfygonf/ ay (700)ausmfjrifUawmifay:wGif wnfxm; ay:vGifonf/ awmifwef;wpfavQmuf oxHk
auvmoapwD? v0apwD? bk&m;ig;qlapwDrsm;ESifU wpfwef;wnf;&Sdonf/ jroydwfawmifay:apwDrS
taemufbufr;D &xm;vrf;txd ajrjyifrmS oxkNH rKd aY [mif;e,fajr[l owfrw
S Ef ikd yf gonf/ tjcm;xif&mS ;aom
trSwftom;udk azmfjyyg&aomf oxkHrD;&xm;blwmkHrS ta&SYbuf jroydwfawmifajc&if; bk&m;rkcfOD;odkh
azmufxm;aom NrKd w
Y iG ;f vrf;onf oxkNH rKd aY [mif;ukd ajrmufyikd ;f ESiaUf wmifyikd ;f ESpyf ikd ;f tnDtrQ cJjG crf;xm;ouJo
U hkd
&Sd\/ ok"ryl& oxkHNrdKYrwnfaxmifrd ok"r0wD(okbdEe*&) NrdKY wnfpOftcguyif jroydwfapwDukd
wnfaxmifcUJaMumif; oxkH&mZ0ifuqdkonf/ rlvu ]od*Feduf} apwD trnfwGifonf[kqdk\/ (oxkH
&mZ0if? pm-69) qHawmf? oGm;awmfrsm; xmyem wnfxm;onfU wefcdk;BuD;bk&m;wpfql jzpfygonf/
jroydwaf pwDwnfxm;&m jroydwaf wmifwef;onf NrKd aY [mif;\ ta&SY NrKd Y ;dk wpfxyf toGiu
f adk qmif\/
NrKd Y ;dk qko
d nfrmS umuG,af &;twGuf NrKd w
Y iG ;f rSNrKd Y jyifot
hkd ay:p;D rS vSr;f Munf&U ef? tapmift
U aecsxm;&ef &nf,
G f
&if;jzpfonf/ jroydwfawmifwef;onf tjrifUay(700)cefhom&Sd twuftqif;rcufay/ NrdKYta&SYbuf?
taemufbuftm;vk;H ukd tay:p;D jrifuiG ;f aumif;onf/ awmifcu
G v
f yfwiG f ajrSx
d m;aom avSum;xpfo@ef

- 257 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

ajrjyefrh mS vnf; awmifaf y: NrKd Y ;dk wpfxyfozG,f wnf&adS eygonf/ auvmo(bD;vif;)awmifwiG f tjrifaU y(500)
txd awmifay:(ausmufw;Hk pD)NrKd Y ;dk rsm;ukad wG&Y ojzifU oxkNH rKd aY [mif;wGiv
f nf; NrKd w
Y nfonft
U cg awmifapmmif;
awmifxdyf ae&mrsm;ukdygrusef NrdKYtpDtrHjyKaMumif; ,kHMunf&\/ ,ck oxkHNrdKYa[mif; ta&SYNrdKYkd;ukd ESpf
xyfcefhomawGY&NyD;? ajrmufbufESifU taemufajrmufbufwGif NrdKYkd;ig;xyfcefhawGY&\/ ,ckta&SYNrdKYkd;ESpfxyf
uko
d mru awmifay:EiS aUf wmifapmif;NrKd Y ;dk ygxnfw
U u
G v
f Qif NrKd yY wfvnf NrKd Y ;kd a[mif;ta&twGuf nDw
G o
f mG ;p&m
&Sdonf/

bk&m;uke;f a[mif;rsm;

oxHkNrdKY bifvdkif&yfuGuf bk&m;ukef;ESifU tkwfcsyferlemrsm;


oxkNH rKd aY [mif;awmifyikd ;f bifvidI &f yfuu
G u
f dk uGi;f qif;onft
U cg a':rwift
U rd Nf c0H if;twGi;f bk&m;uke;f
a[mif;ukad wG&Y Ny;D vufa&;pif;tkwef rlem;rsm; aumuf,&l onf/ 4if;bk&m;uke;f onf ajrjyifrt
S jrifU 16aycef?h
tcsif; 22aycefhtG,f&Sdonf/ eHab;wGif 0gkHrsm;aygufvsuf? tkyfrdk;xm;ojzifU jrifuGif;rS uG,faysmufvsuf
&Sdonf/ ukef;\ta&SYajrmufbufwGif tkwfwHwdkfif;wpfck ukef;ay:odkha&mufvsufaeonf/ tkwfcsyferlemrsm;\
tG,ftpm;rSm txl 2 1^2vufrESifU 3vufr? trsKd;tpm;yifjzpfygonf/ teH6 1^2? 7vufrESifU 81^2
vufrpD&dSMu tvsm;rnfrQ&Sdr nfrod&yg/ erlemaumuf,lcJUaomtkwfjym;av;jym;pvkH;rSm vufpif;aMumif;
trSwfyg&Sdonf/

oxHkNrdKY bifvdkif&yfuGufrS xGufay:aeaom tkwfdk;wef;wpfck


bifvidI &f yfuu
G f OD;uGeyf g? OD;ajc? a':jrwif? a':oif;aqGw\
hkd tdraf jc&if;wGif tkwf ;dk wef;wpfcu
k adk wGY
&ojzifU tkwfcsyferlemrsm;aumuf,ljcif;? tkwfukef;udkrSwfwrf;wifjcif; jyKygonf/

- 258 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

1/ tvsm; 15 1^2 vufr _teH 7 1^2vufr _txl3vufr


2/ tvsm; 161^2 vufr _teH 7 1^2vufr _txl3vufr
3/ tvsm; 16vufr _teH8vufr _txl3vufr
tG,ftpm;&SdMuonf/ 4if;tkwfcsyfrsm;wGif vufa&;pif;trSwftom;rsm;udk ppfaq;awGY&Sdonf/
bifvIdif&yfuGufta&SYydkif;?bifvIdifprf;acsmif;\ta&SYbufwGif OD;n0g? a':at;cdkif? a':ykH? OD;wl;wdkhNcH
rsm;ESifU 4if;wdkhteD;ywf0ef;usifwGif tkwfcsyftptersm;xGufay:vsufawGY&ojzifU erlemaumuf,lcJUonf/
tkwfcsyfxGufay:aeonfUajrjyifonf &Gmvrf;xuf 4aycefhydk jrifUvsuf? opfyif ?0g;yifrsm;zkH;tkwfxm;onf/
vrf;ab;wpfavsmuf? vrf;ESpfzufvkH;ay 700 cefhtuGmta0;wGif tkwfkd;tkwfprsm;udk awGY&yg;onf/
erlemaumuf,l&aom tkwftaumif;wpfcsyfrSm
tvsm; 18vufr _ teH10 1^2vufr _ txl3vufr t&G,f&Sdonf/ tusKd;ydkif;ESpfckwdkhrSm
1/ tvsm;(tusKd;)8 1^2vufr_teH6 1^2vufr_txl2 1^2vufr
1/ tvsm;(tusKd;) _teH10 1^2vufr_txl3vufr t&G,ftpm;rsm;jzpfMu\/
tkwfcsyfwdkif;wGif vufa&;pif;aMumif;rsm;yg&Sdonf/

oxHkNrdKY ausmufpmHkrS Mwyf? y@dwfESifUanmif0dkif;ausmufpmwdkifrsm;

a&S;a[mif;ausmufpmcsyfrsm;
oxkNH rKd aY [mif; acwfNyKd iaf usmufpmrsm;udk aTpm&Hb&k m;y&0kPw
f iG f odr;f qnfxm;\/ ta&;tBu;D qk;H
ausmufpmokH;csyf&Sdygonf/ tm;vkH;rSm zwfr&atmif yGef;wD;ae\/ wpfcsyfvkH;zwfr&atmifysufpD;aeaom
ausmufpmwpfcsyfwGif ]<urf;}(aMumif;a&-36)? ]oQrf;}(aMumif;a&-42)wdkhudk a&S;rGefbmomjzifUawGY&
jrefrm&mZm0ifxu
J *Rr;f ESi&Uf rS ;f wdu
hk kd &nfeT ;f ovm;xif&\/ 'kw,
d ausmufpmwpfcsyf (Mwmyfausmufpm)rSm
txufae&m xdkifawmfrlkyfyGm;okH;qlygonf/ (tv,fql wyfysOfacGxkdifvsuf? o&zlaqmif;xm;onf/
ab;ESpfqlrSm tv,fr@dKifukd ausmuyfvsuf ajcqif;xkdifonf)/ atmufydkif;pm a&S;rGefbmomrSm a0g[m&
pum;tcsKdY v0? <urf;? ZA wdkhrSm 0? *Rrf;ESifU *smAm;vlrsKd;wdkh jzpfrnf[k ,lqonf/ wwd,ausmufpm
(y@dwfausmufpm)rSm 'kwd,ausmufpmuJUodkhyif ygVdESifUa&S;rGefbmom a&mpyfvsuf&Sdonf/ bk&ifwpfyg;\
trnfESifU 4if;\bJGYawmfemr&SnfBuD;udk azmfjyNyD;? jynfolrsm;u rif;BuD;tm; tkdtaojyKykH? rif;BuD;onf

- 259 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

]Mwyf}t&Sio
f cif jzpfonft
U jyif?]y@dw}f ynm&Sv
d nf;jzpfy?Hk pnfBu;D ukw
d ;D (rif;Bu;D tm;) wpfceJ uf cs;D ajrm ufyHk
wdkhyg&Sdonf/ bk&if\bGJYawmftrnfajcmufBudrfyg&Sd\/
4if;bGJYtrnfrsm;rSm1/
rukw&mZmemr&mZ'd&mZ (rif;wumwkhd\rif;)
2/
y&aroGm& (tjrwfqkH;rif;BuD;? oD0ewfrif;bGJYawmf)
3/
oG&&mZ(rif;BuD;)
4/
tab,r[m&mZ (aMumufjcif;uif;aomrif;)
5/
a'0gwda'0 (ewfwumwdkh\ewfESifUwlaomrif;)
6/
A[knmPom*&*rm& (todnPfynm\yifv,fBuD;)
7/
N*DUedws"r"& (xm0&ukodkvfaumif;rI&Sdol)
8/
"aeoGm& (<u,f0jcif;\ocif)
&
9/
ouvwmrSm0dao,faMwavmu"r (vl? ewf? jA[m)okH;yg;wdkh\csyf0wfwefqmESifU
aMu;0ga'o [ljzpfonf(Luce,1950,pp-10)/
y@dwfausmufpmwGif rif;\bGJYwdkhtrnftqkH; ESpfusdyf&Spfqlbk&m;&Sdcdk;yg|d*gxmudk a&;xdk;xm;\/
Ny;D aemuf rGepf mta&;udk ponf/ ESpu
f syd &f pS q
f b
l &k m;&Scd ;dk *gxmrSm oD[Vdk u
f Re;f &[ef;awmfrsm;\ erum&Bu;D
bk&m;&Sdcdk;*gxmyif jzpfonf/ ,if;*gxmrSm atmufygtwdkif;jzpfygonf/
earmoAAk'geH
1/ wPSuFa&m
r[m0da&m?
15/ okZmawm
oAavmua*g
2/ ar"uFa&m
r[m,aom
16/ yd,'D
e&moabm
3/ o&euFa&m
avmu[dawm
17/ tX'D
umkedaum
4/ 'DyuFa&m
ZkwdEa&m
18/ 'r'D
warmEka'g
5/ aum@anm
Zdeygarmaum
19/ od'awm
tarmavmu
6/ r*Favm
yk&domoabm
20/ wdaomp
&''H0a&m
7/ okraem
okre"da&m
21/ zkamp
0&a'gAka'g?
8/ a&0awm
&wd0'aem
22/ 0dydp
tEkyarm
9/ aombdawm
*keoraEm
23/ odcd
oA[dawmowm
10/ taemr'd
ZEkwarm
24/ a0bl
rkc'g,aum
11/ y'karm
avmuyaZmawm 25/ uukoaEm
owG0ga[m
12/ em&a'g
0&om&xd
26/ aumem*raem &eOma[m
13/ y'krkwa&m
owoma&m
27/ uayg
od&doraEm
14/ okara"g
t*yk*avm?
28/ a*gwarm
ousyk*Fa0g
{aw oanp oHAk'g taeu owaum#da,m . . . (OD;cspfodef;? pm - 4-5)/
,if;ausmufpmatmufyikd ;f wGif ZmwfawmfBu;D q,fbt
YGJ rnfrsm;ukd twdck sK;H a&;onf/ Mwyfausmufpm
rSmrl atmufqkH; 15aMumif;cefhukdom aumif;pGmzwfI &onf/ pmayta&;tom; tqifUtwef;jrifU
um&H? eabxyfrsm;ygonf/ taMumif;t&mtcsKyfrSm ]oxkHrif;BuD;onfppfrJUumv at;csrf;csdef jynfol

- 260 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

wdu
hk dk ukov
kd jf yKjcif; oHCmtm;ajrvSLjcif;jyKMu&ef wdu
k f
wGe;f onf/ ppfyu
JG mvrl qlyal omif;Murf;olw\
hkd vSw
H H
udak jrm ufNy;D ? owd& pdS mG jzifU ausmaf pmaom&efow
l u
hkd o
kd mG ;
a&mufzrf;qDonf/ NrKd aY wmfuv
dk nf; usK;H ? ajrmif;? wHwikd ;f ?
&ifwm;? jytdk;rsm;jzifU cdkifcHUap tcsufjyrD;wdkifrsm;jzifU
bk&if\trdefhtwdkif; aqmifGufEdkifatmif pDrHxm;onf/
MwmyfEiS yUf @dwaf usmufpmESpcf syu
f kd a&;xd;k
olrSm oxkHbk&if rukwrif;jzpfonf/ a&S;rGefausmufpm
rsm;wGif wpfacsmif;iif ]O} o&udk ]u}Asnf;tu&m\
tv,fraS &;qGjJ cif;jyKygonf/ vuf,mbuftqk;H rS rqGJ
yg/ odjhk zpf a&S;a[mif;pmvk;H ]u}ukd ]aem}[k tzwf
rSm;Ny;D ? ]rukw}ukd ]raem[}(wESi[
Uf xyfv)JG [k vGrJ mS ;
zwfIcJUjcif;jzpfonf/ xkdrS ]rEl[mrif;}[k &mZ0ifu
qko
d nf[yk garmuvpk Bf uq
H ygonf/ xko
d q
hkd v
kd Qif rEl[m
aumh*Gef;*lausmufpm
rif;onf ausmufpmESpfcsyfudk yk*Hrif;taemf&xmESifU
rawGYrDESpftenf;i,ftwGif; a&;xdk;cJU&ayrnf/ 4if;
ausmufpmrsm;wGif &ufpGJa&;xkd;rxm;ayonf/ ygarmua'gufwmxifatmifu xdkodkhrjzpfEdkif[k jiif;qdk
vQuf c&pfESpf (8) &mpkESpf txda&S;usrnf[k cefhrSef;\/ oxkH&mZ0ifwGif ]rukw}ESifU trnfwl-qifuGJ
rif;wpf yg;\trnfuakd wG&Y \/ xdrk if;\trnfrmS uko&mZmjzpf \/ xdrk if;onf oxkb
H &k if(58)qufwt
hkd euf
(45) qufajrmufrif;jzpfonf/ 4if;aemuf rif;(13) qufMumrS rEl[mrif; bk&ifjzpfonf/ tcsufudk
axmuf MwyfEiS yUf @dwaf usmufpmwk\
hd &ufpu
JG kd c&pf 8&mpk[k a'guw
f mxifatmifucefrh eS ;f cJ[
U efwal yonf/
ausmufpmrsm;wGi&f ufprJG yg pmoGm;pmvmESiUf vufa&;vufom;uko
d m cefrh eS ;f Edik \
f / ynm&Sirf ikd u
f ,f
atmifoGifurl ausmufpmwdkh\&ufpGJudk yk*Htaemf&xmacwf (c&pf 11-&mpkESpf)avmuftxdyif rapmEdkif
aMumif;jiif;ygonf/ ausmufpmwGiyf gaom ]rukw} trnfonf rkwr rGerf if;qufux
kd al xmifco
UJ l ]r*'l;}ESiUf
4if;\nD ]r*'g}wdkhtrnfESifU qifwlaeaMumif;? ]ru'l;}ESifU ]ruwm}ukd &nfTef;xm;jcif; jzpfEdkifaMumif;?
ausmufpmrsm; vufa&;vufom;rSm vnf;odyfa&S;rus? acwfv,frGefvufa&;ESifUwlaMumif;? odkhjzpf c&pf
13-&mpkESpf ausmufpmrsm;omjzpfEkdifonf [k qdk\ (Aung Thwin 2005,pp,106-108)wpfzef ausmufpm
ygaom ygVdbGJYtrnf]&mZemr &mZm"d&mZ} qdkonfrSm yJcl;bk&if&mZm"d&mZfukd &nfTef;&ma&mufojzifU
14-15&mpkESpftxd aemufusEdkifao;onf [kqdk\/
oxkHausmufpmrsm;(,ckausmufpmkH)wGif aumU*Gef;vdkPf*l ausmufqif;wkawmf ouFef;pGef;
;ausmufpm\ rdwLwpfwdkifukdawGY&\/ ,if;ausmufpm\jrefrmbmomjyefrSm
bk&m;kyfwkawmfukd (rkwr)rdzk&m;jzpfoluREfkyfonf 'ktfa0gyfNrdKYwGifaexdkifNyD; jrwfpGmbk&m;ukd
xkxGif;jyKvkyfcJUygonf/ ajrESifUausmufqif;wkawmfbk&m;rsm; 'ktfa0gyfNrdKYtwGif; aomfvnf;aumif;
NrdKYe,ftjyiftyaomfvnf;aumif; wnf&SdorQwdkhudk uREfkyf\wynfUrsm;u pGrf;&nf&SdxkxGif;cJUyg
onf/ tjcm;tjcm;aomq&mrsm;onf ausmufbk&m;rsm;ukd xkxGif;EdkifMuygapownf;/
[ljzpfygonf/

- 261 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

rkwrawmifwef; ajrmufbuf&Sd ("n0wDNrdKYa[mif;) aumif;uif"mwfyHk


4if;ausmufpmyg('ktfa0gyf) NrdKY\wnfae&mudk ygarmuvkpfonf oxkHrSukef;vrf;c&D;? rkwrrS
a&vrf; c&D;jzifUoGm;&aom ,ckbm;uyf&Gm(odkhr[kwf)bm;tHNrdKY jzpfaumif;jzpfrnf[k rSef;ygonf/ ygarmu
rdkufu,fatmifoGifurl 'ktfa0gyf[laoma'otrnfukd rkwrESifUwGJ,SOfvsufawGY&onfjzpf ausmufpm
onf c&pf(1176)ckEpS t
f xd a&S;usEidk rf nf? odrhk [kwf c&pf(1292)ckEpS t
f xdvnf; aemufusEikd o
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Y o
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H ufrapmaom atmufjrefrmEdik if H
NrdKYa[mif;wpfck[k rSef;ygonf/ (Aung Twin 2005, P-61)
oxkH&mZ0iftqdktrdefhwpfckwGif oxkHrif;Oya'0&mZmvufxuf nDawmfO'dE&mZmrif;onf NrdKYudk
pGechf gG awmifbufoahkd TaY jymif;um rkwr teD;wGif "n0wDtrnfjzifU NrKd o
Y pfwnfaxmifonf[k azmfjyonf/
rkwr&mZ0ifuvnf; "n0wDNrdKYwGif O'dErS odE**Fgtxd rif; aygif; 12 quf tkyfpdk;cJUonf/ aemufqkH;rif;
odE**Fg\om;awmfrsm; orv? 0drvnDaemifwkdhu yJcl;(O)oddkh aTYajymif;NyD; NrdKYeef;wnfonf [kqdkonf/
,if;"n0wD? (ouw-pyg;pkduf&mNrdKY)onf ,ckausmufpmrS rGefbmom'ktfa0gyftrnfyifjzpfrnf[k cefhrSef;
ygonf/ NrdKYae&mrSm rkwrNrdKY\ ajrmufbufydkif;awmifay:&Sd\[k OD;ynm\ rkwrppfwrf;pma[mif;
usrf;azmfjyonf/ ,ckacwf N*dK[fwk"gwfyHkay:wGifvnf; 4if;rkwrawmifwef; ajrmufbufwGif NrdKYuGuf
yHko@mef wpfckudk awGY&ygonf/ xdkae&mrSwpfzef rkwrrS ajrmufbuf 12 rdkiftuGm oHvGifjrpftaemuf
bufurf;&Sd prge*dk&fNrdKYa[mif;ae&modkh ajymif;a&GYvsuf xD;eef;pdkufxlcJUao;[efwl\/ 4if;prge*dk&fNrdKYonf
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NrKd w
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awmifwef;udk tv,fikHvsuf NrdKYwnfxm;onf/ xdkNrdKYESpfNrdKYwdkh\ t&G,ftpm; qwlcefh&Sd\/

- 262 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

usefppfom;\ rGeaf usmufpmrsm;


oxHNk rKd aY [mif;acwfausmufpmtm;vH;k rSm &ufprJG ygaom a&S;rGeaf usmufpmrsm;jzpfMu\/ ,ckausmuf
pmHktwGif; pkaqmif;xm;onfU ausmufpmwpfcsyfwGif ou&mZf 460(at'D-1098)udka&;xdk;xm;\/ oxHk
ysuf tESpf(40)MumNyD;rS ausmufudk pdkufxlcJUjcif;jzpf\/ yk*Hbk&if usefppfom;rif;BuD;u oxHk&Sd
NydKysufaeaom bk&m;wpfqludk ]avmuvltaygif;wdkhMumjrifUpGm udk;uG,fEdkifMuap&ef a&S;uxufomvGef
jrifUjrwfBuD;us,fcdkifcHUatmif trnfausmfMum;aom tvkyf0efwdkhtm; topfjyKjyifwnfaqmufvSLwef;ap}
aMumif; tvSLawmfarmfuGef;wifausmufpmjzpf\/ ausmufpmudk 1891 ckESpfu ausmufpm0ef
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rif;jzpfaMumif;udk &[ef;ykPm;okcrdefolawmfaumif;jzpfMuaom vltaygif;wdkhodMuukefavmh/ rif;onfomvQif
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tESpf 40 ausmf)txd vlaerI&Sdao;aMumif; od&onf/ oxHk&mZ0ifwGif (71)ESpfMumaomtcg oxHktkyfpdk;
olr&SdawmhbJ vGifwD;acgifjzpfcJUonf[kqdk\/ ZrL'DyOD;aqmif;usrf;wGifvnf; oxHkrS&[efawmfrsm;onf
bk&m;qHawmf? "gwfawmf? arGawmfwdkhudk ,laqmifNyD; 'vNrdKYpm;xHay;tyfonf/ v'NrdKYpm;(taemf&xm\
trwf)u qHawmf? "gwfawmf? arGawmfwdkhudk Xmyem 've,fav;&yfwGif apwDBuD;av;qlwnfcJUonf[k
awGY&ygonf/ ,if;taxmuftxm;rsm;t& qufpyfMunfUvQif oxHkrif;aejynfawmfBuD; ysufpD;oGm;onfU
aemuf usef&Sdaeaom NrdKYolNrdKYom;wdkhonf rdrdwdkha'oudkpGefhcGmNyD; 've,fqDodkh a&Tajymif;aexdkifMurnf[k
cefhrSef;&ygonf/ oxHkNrdKYysufonfUtcsdefwGif NrdKY\umuG,fa&;pepf? a&usHK;rsm;ESifhwuG yifv,fa&vrf;xGuf
aygufrSmvnf; ysufpD;oGm;cJUayrnf/ ukefpnful;oef;a&mif;0,f&m qdyfurf;NrdKYwpfNrdKYvnf; r[kwfEdkifawmhay/
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f m vlaersm;jym;vmzG,&f ydS gonf/ yk*aH cwf
wpfavQmufvHk;rSm yJcl;ESifU 'v(wGHaw;)wdkhwGif qdyfurf;NrdKY jzpfvmum pnfum;vmcJUonf/ aemiftcgwGif
qdyfurf;NrdKY jzpfvmonf/ oxHkum; &Gmodrf&Gmi,fuav;rQom jzpfvQufusef&pfawmhonf/ c&pfESpf 13

- 263 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

oxHak usmufpmH?k ausmufpmwdik Ef iS Uf kyw


f rk sm;

- 264 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

oxHak usmufpmH?k ausmufpmwdik Ef iS Uf kyw


f rk sm;

- 265 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

&mpkEpS rf pS xlaxmifcaUJ om rkwr 32 NrKd eY ,fwiG f oxHo


k nf aumh(a*g)h NrKd eY ,ftwGi;f rS &Gmwpf&mG rQomjzpfchJ
ygonf/ (rkwr&mZ0if? pm-44)/

kyyf mG ;qif;wkawmfrsm;
a&Tpm&Hb&k m;0if;twGi;f &Sd ausmufpmHk &yfawmfral usmufqpfyk yf mG ;awmfwpfqEl iS Uf xdik af wmfrEl pS q
f l
&Syd gonf/ &yfawmfral usmufqpfyk yf mG ;awmfonf ausmufjym;wGif azmif;<uyHx
k q
k pfxm;Ny;D OmPfawmfav;ay?
AsufESpfayt&G,fcefh&Sdonf/ tb,rkj'mESifU 0&'rkj'm[efESpfrsdK;yg&Sdonf/ ykcHk;ESpfzufwdkhtxuf [oFmwpf
kyfpDyg&Sd\/ rsufESmawmftcsdK;tpm;use oyg,fonfUtoGif&Sdonf/ ouFef;awmfyg;yg;0wfHkxm; *kywESifU
ygvaoeacwf[efrsdK;&Sdaomfvnf; oif;ydkif(cg;0wfawmf) qifjref;yHkrSm tapmydkif;acwfvuf&mrsdK; r[kwf[k
ynm&SifwdkhowfrSwfonf/ (Tin Hla Thaw)
ausmufqif;wkxdkifawmfrlwpfqlonf OD;acgif;awmfwGif rudk#fo&zlaqmif;vsuf em;wGif em;yefudk
qif,ifxm;onf/ OmPfawmfo;kH aycefah usmufjym;wGif azmif;<uyHx
k q
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jrifawGYaeusyHkpHrsdK;jzpf udk,fvHk;awmfjynfUNzdK;NyD;? &iftkyfus,fonf/ cg;odrfonf/ yk*Hacwfodkhr[kwf rkwr
acwftapmydkif;vuf&mjzpfrnf[k cefhrSef;&ygonf/ oxHkysufNyD;aemuf rkwracwfvnf; oxHkrSa&S;a[mif;
bk&m;? apwDrsm;udk xyfrHjyKjyifcJUMuNyD; kyfyGm;awmfrsm; xkvkyfvSL'gef;[efwlygonf/
ausmufqpfxdkifawmfrlkyfwkrSm OmPfawmfESpfaycGJcefh&Sdonf/ rsufESmawmfrSm EIwfcrf;xlxJvuf
rGef- crmtoGifaqmifonf/ blrdzrkj'mjzifU xuf0,fzGJYacG xkdifawmfrlyHkjzpfonf/ txufwGifazmfjyaom
kyf yGm;awmfESifU acwfNydKifwpfqljzpfEdkifygonf/
tb,rkj'mjzifU aMu;oGe;f 'DyuFmjrwfpmG bk&m;yHak wmfwpfqu
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q&mawmfOD;tm'dp0Ho udk;uG,fxm;pOfawGY&onf[kqdk\/ 1910 ckESpfavmufu vrf;azmufpOf a&ajrmif;
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udk;uG,fx;onf[k qkdygonf/ kyfyGm;awmftoGifo@efrSm nmvufawmfudk yifUwifxm;NyD; tb,rkj'm
(ab;rJU)[ef&Sdonf/ b,fvufawmfonf ouFef;pudk qkyfudkifvsufxm;onf/ nmvufacsmif;rsm;ESifU
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hk kd pkvsurf xm;bJ? vufrudak b;odhk cyfum;um;jzefx
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f El iS Uf wpfax&mwnf;
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wHceG w
f ikd af us;&GmrS OD;vStek ;f \ aetdraf &Sw
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ynm&Sifwdkh cefhrSef;aomaMumifU c&pfESpfESpf 4 &mpkrS 7 &mpktxd a&S;usrnfU taxmuftxm;yifjzpfonf/
a&Tjym;ay:wGif qkay;[efazmif;<ucyfESdyfxm;aom Ak'kyfyGm;awmfESpfqludkvnf; oxHkNrdKY orD;awmf
ukef;teD;rS (1960-ckESpfavmuf)wGif wl;azmf&&SdcJUzl;aMumif; od&ygonf/ yxra&Tjym;kyfyGm;awmfonf
cEmudk,fjynfUNzdK;wkwfcdkifonfUtoGif&SdNyD; rsufESmawmfcyf0dkif;0dkif;rSm jyHKawmfrl[ef&Sdonf/ OD;acgif;xuf
ydEq
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dS nf/ vnf&pfawmfo;kH qifx
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awmfudk*kywacwftoGif cyfyg;yg;0wfHkvsuf oif;ydkif0wfqifyHkrsdK;yifjzpfonf/ nmzufvufawmfrSmab;odkh

- 266 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

wGJavmif;csxm;NyD; vuf0g;udk tjyifodkh xkwfxm;vsuf 0&'rkj'm[ef&Sdonf/ b,fvufawmfrSm wawmif


qpfrS txufodkhauG; vufzsm;ykcHk;odkh xduyfcsxm;onf/
'kwd,a&Tjym;awmfonf cEmudk,ft&G,fawmfcefh&SdNyD; rsufESmoG,fonf/ OD;acgif;rSm ckywftacG
tvdyfo@mefrsdK;&Sdonf/ nmvufawmfonf txufodkhauG;vsuf tb,rkj'm[ef&SdNyD; b,fvufawmfudk
ab;odkcsxm;vsuf vuf0g;udktjyifodkhxkwfNyD; 0&'rkj'm[ef&Sdonf/ ouFef;awm0efHkyHkrSm yxra&Tjym;
kyfyGm;awmfESifUtoGifwlygonf/ *kywacwfvuf&mrsm;[k ,lq&ojzifU a&Tjym;kyfyGm;awmfwdkhrSm c&pfESpf
5 &mpkESpfxufydk rapmEdkifaMumif; tuJjzwfcJUMuygonf/ jrefrmEdkifiHESifU tdrfeD;csif; xdkif;EdkfifiHzufwGifrl
tdE,
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awmfukd awG&Y onf/ xdahk MumifU a&S;a[mif;Ak' kyyf mG ;awmfrsm;
taxmuftxm;udrk w
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ta&Sb
Y ufurf; tif'&ma'o? tr&0wDNrKd w
Y iG af wGEY ikd yf gonf/
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tr&0wDkyfyGm;awmfonf OmPfawmf(11)vufr
t&G,&f o
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0dwurkj'm[efrsdK;&SdNyD; b,fvufawmfrSm pD0&[w (ouFef
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ap 0wfHkygonf/ 8kywqif;wkuJhodkh ouFefawmfyg;yg;
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20 rS 30 txd twGet
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xm;jcif;jzpfonf/ tdEd,ajrmufydkif;wGif xGef;um;cJUaom
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tr&0wD(A maravati)wGif xGe;f um;cJaU om tEkynmvuf&m
[ef jzpfaMumif;od&ygonf/

- 267 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

ta&SaY wmiftm&Sa'owGif tr&0wDacwf aMu;qif;wkrsm;udk xdik ;f Edik if t


H aemufawmifyikd ;f 'g&G 0wD
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f nf;aumif;? ta&SaY jrmufyikd ;f
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NrdKYa[mif;rSvnf;aumif; awGY&onf[k od&ygonf/
jrefrmEdik if w
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wpfqludk oxHkNrdKYeef;awmf&mbkef;awmfBuD;ausmif;wGif ylaZmfxm;vsuf&Sdygonf/ ,ck 4if;eef;awmf&mausmif;
q&mawmfOD;t*0Hou xdef;odrf;apmifUa&Smufxm;vQuf&SdNyD; rlvurGefjynfe,f usdKufra&mNrdKYe,frS wl;azmf
awGY&Sd&onf[kod&ygonf/ aMu;oGef; qif;wkawmfrSm OmPfawmf 11 vufr t&G,ftpm;yifjzpfonf/
ouFefawmfrSm nmycHk;udkvSyfxm;NyD; twGefhtacguf tpif;pif;oHk;q,frQwGJvsm;usqif;aeyHk&Sdonf/
b,fvufawmfu ouFefpudkqkyfudkifvQuf pD0&[wrkj'm[efrSm rl&if;twdkif;jzpfaomfvnf; nmvuf
awmfrSmrl wGJavmif;usvQuf 0&'rkj'm[eftjzpf topfjyKjyifxm;aMumif; od&\/ rlvtwdkif;qdk vQif
4if;nmvufrkj'monf wHawmifqpfrStxufodkhauG; vuf0g;udkaxmifum tjyifodkhxkwfxm;om
tb,rkj'm[efjzpfzG,f&Sd\/ &yfawmfrl[efonf udk,fudkEGTJ b,fodkhtenf;i,fudkif;NyD; cg;udkwpfqpfcsdK;xm;
vQuf&Sdonf/ OD;acgif;awmfwGif oD&dvuFmkyfyGm;awmfrsm;uJhodk Mumzl;o@mef txG#fyg&Sdonf/ ta&SYawmif
tm&Sa'orS awGY&NyD;orQ tr&0wDkyfyGm;awmfrsm;twdkif; tppwlnDaeNyD; oD[dkVf(oD&dvuFm)rl&if;?
tr&0wDkyfyGm;awmfESifU ydkeD;pyfpGm wlnDrI&Sdonf/ odkhjzpff oxHk? eef;awmf&mausmif; wdkufrS
tr&0wDvuf&mAk'kyfyGm;awmfonf oxHka'owGifomru? jrefrmEdkifiHwpfckvHk;wGifyg a&S;tusqHk;kyfyGm;
awmfwpfqljzpfaMumif; awGY&ygonf/

oxHkrS awGY&aom tkwfcGwfkyfyGm;awmftcsdKY

- 268 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

tkwfcGufkyfyGm;awmfrsm;
tEd,EdkifiH? AD[me,f? Ak'*g,ma'owGif xGef;um;cJUaom ygvESifUaoeacwf (8-11 -&mpkESpf)
vuf&mjzpftkwfcGufkyfyGm;awmfrsm;udk jrefrmEdkifiHoa&acw&mNrdKYa[mif;ESifU yk*HNrdKYa[mif;wdkhwGifvnf;aumif;?
xdkif;EdkifiH 'Gg&0wDacwf NrdKYa[mif;rsm;wGifvnf;aumif; awGY&avU&SdaMumif; od&ygonf/ yk*HacwfwGif 4if;
tkwfcGufrsdK;xif;&Sm;aom erlemwpfckrSm tedk'a'0(taemf&xm)rif;trnf yg&SdaomyHkpHrsdK;yifjzpfonf/
rsufESmbufwGif Ak'*g,m 0wfausmif;BuD;twGif; blrdzrkj'mtjzpf xuf0,fzGJYacGxdkifawmfrlykHyg&SdNyD;?
aAm"dyifEiS aUf &Tyv
k v ifatmifawmfryl u
kH kd okyaf zmfxm;jcif;jzpfonf/ yHu
k ykd if Ak'0 if&pS cf ef;okyaf zmfyt
kH w
k cf u
G f
\ tv,fA[dkcsuf zl;awGYEdkifygao;onf/ tedk'a'0rif;BuD;udk,fwdkif rdrdvufawmfjzifU bk&m;udk
oGe;f vkyaf wmfrMl umif; urn;f pmudk aemufausmbufwiG f a&;xd;k xm;ojzifU yk*aH cwftaemf&xmtkwcf w
G rf sm;
[k ac:wGifvQuf&Sd\/ jrefrmEdkifiHtxufydkif;uomrS atmufydkif;NrdfwfNrdKYtxd yk*Hacwftaemf&xm tkwfcGuf
trsdK;tpm;udkawGY&\/ wGHaw;e,f? armif'Dbk&m;wGif taemf&xmtrnfjzifU tkwfcGufrsdK;udkawGY&jzifU
atmufjrefrmEdkifiH wGHaw;a'otxd taemf&xma&mufcJUrnf[k ,lqonf/ xdktkwfcGufrsdK;udk oxHkwGif
rawG&Y bl;ao;ay/ 2002 ckEpS w
f iG f bD;vif;NrKd eY ,f? t,ufor&Gm? usKd uo
f vef;apwDukd bk&m;a*gyutzGu
YJ
rGef;rHjyKjyifonfU tcg xdkapwD\taemufbuf ajrxdef;wHwdkif;udk jyKjyifpOf tedk'a'0(taemf&xm)trnf
a&;xdk;xm;aom tkwfcGufudkawGY&aMumif;od&ygonf/
oxHkNrdKYa[mif;wGifvnf; a&S;a[mif;tkwfcGufkyfyGm;awmfrsm; rMumcP awGY&SdcJU&zl;ygonf/ oxHkNrdKY
odru
f ek ;f &yfuu
G rf S ,cktrSw(f 2)txu ausmif;0ef;ESiUf trSw(f 1)tvu ausmif;0ef;twGi;f ajrwl;onft
U cg
rsdK;vnf;aumif;? rdk;wGif;umva&wdkufpm;vnf;aumif; awGY&aMumif; od&Sd&ygonf/ 1970 jynfUvGefESpf
rsm;u trSwf(2) txu ausmif;0if;twGif; tdrfomusif;twGuf ajrwl;pOf ta&twGufwpfaxmifeD;yg;rQ
wl;azmfawGY&SdcJUzl;ygonf/ taumif;yuwd zl;awGY&aom kyfyGm;awmfwdkhudk MunfndKol 'g,dumrsm;u
rdrw
d t
hkd rd f ylaZmf&ef yifaU qmifomG ;MuaMumif; tcsKd u
Y kd a&Tpm&Hb&k m;jywdu
k (f ok0Pbrl jd ywdu
k )f odhk ydahk y;vSL'ge;f
cJUaMumif;? usefaom wpfydkif;usdK;yHkawmfrsm;udk ausmif;tkyfq&mrBuD;u odrf;qnf;cJUNyD; aemufumvMum
onft
U cg tjcm;ausmif;tkyrf sm;vufxufwiG f rxde;f odr;f Edik af wmhyJ ausmif;teD;&efatmifjrifapwD0if;twGi;f
pGefhypfcJUaMumif; od&ygonf/
c&D;xGut
f zGaYJ &muf&pdS Of (24-1-2009)&ufaeh txu(2)ESiUf wpfqufwnf;&Sad om ajrmufbuf
ukef;jrifUay:rS tvu(1)ausmif;0if;twGif; ausmif;aqmifopfaqmuf&ef ajrwl; ay:xGufvmonfU tkwf
cGuf yk yf mG ;(4)qlukd rSww
f rf;wifc&UJ ygonf/ xdak usmif;0if;twGi;f upm;uGi;f ajruGuv
f yfwiG f tcsi;f ESprf w
D m
cefh t0dik ;f yHk *0Htw
k pf t
D w
k f ;kd wpfcu
k v
kd nf; rSww
f rf;wifco
UJ nf/ *0Hausmufen
D Kd a&mif;tqif;ESiUf a&S;a[mif;
taqmufttHk tkwfbdeyfrsm;[k ,lq&aom ajrjyifudkvnf; ausmif;0if;\ajrmufbufydkif;rS awGY&ygonf/
ausmif;q&mrwdkh\ ajymjycsuft& rdk;wGif;tcg ausmif;0if;ajrjyifrS a&pD;aMumif;rsm;wGif tkwfcGufi,frsm;
xGufay:avh&SdNyD; ausmif;om;rsm;awGY&onf[k qdkygonf/
oxHkNrdKYa[mif;udk uGif;qif;olrsm;teufrS 1892 ckESpfwGif a&muf&SdcJUol ar*smtm&fpDwify,f\
tpD&ifcHpmwGif a&Tpm&Hbk&m;\ ta&SYbuf (,ck txu(2)ESifh tvu(1)ae&m)wGif apwDa[mif;
tysuftpD;rsm;udk rdrdawGYcJUaMumif; azmfjyygonf/ odkhjzpf oxHkNrdKYa[mif;wGif ,cifapwDa[mif;tysuf
tpD;onf acwfopfoxHkNrdKYBuD;atmufwGif epfjrKyfaeqJ&Sdrnf[k arQmfvifU&ygonf/ ,ckc&D;xGufumv
twGif;rSyif apwDa[mif;rsm;udk bifvdIif&yfuGufrSwpfql? atmufusif;&yfuGufrSwpfql rSwfwrf;wif&onf/

- 269 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

apwDwpfql\ atmufajcbdeyfawmf[k ,lq&aom tkwfdk;wpfydkif;udkvnf; bifbdIif&yfuGuf 0g;wef;vrf;?


0g;awmausmif;teD; tdrfwpfaqmif\a&SYajruGufvyfwGif awGY&dSNyD; rSwfwrf;wifcJUygonf/
oxHkNrdKYa[mif;rSawGY&aom tkwfcGufkyfyGm;rsm;onf xdkNrdKYrysufpD;rDu bmoma&;taqmufttHk
a[mif;(apwD)\ Xmyemypnf;rsm;jzpfygonf/ apwDa[mif;t<uif;tuseftkwfcsyfrsm;onf oxHkNrdKYdk;ESifU
acwfNydKifvufa&;piftkwfcsyfrsm;jzpfaMumif;udkvnf; awGY&ygonf/ tkwfcGufrsm;\ ykHo@mefESifUtEkynm
vuf&mwdkhrSm oa&acw&m? 'Gg&0wDESifU yk*HNrdKYa[mif;tkwfcGufrsm;ESifU qifwlyHkpHrsdK;yifjzpfonf/ xdktkwfcGuf
rsm;udk aAm"dyifESifUa&Tyv
v if atmifawmfrlcef;(Ak'0ifwpfcef;) tjyif? Ak'0if&Spfcef;okyfazmfyHkrsdK;udkvnf;
awGY&ygonf/ tjcm;yHkpHwpfrsdK;rSm ajccsxdkifawmfrlyHkjzpfNyD; vufawmfrSm"rpurkj'm[ef odkhr[kwf 0dwurkj'm
[ef&Sdygonf/ tkwfcGufwdkh\ t&G,ftpm;rsm;rwl? uGJjym;jcm;em;rIrsm;&Sdygonf/ tao;pm;ESpfvufrt&G,frS
tBu;D pm;av;vufrcefh t&G,t
f xdawG&Y onf/ oxHNk rKd Y (ok"r0wD? ok"ry&l ) xGe;f um;pOftcgu Ak'b
mom
,Ofaus;rI taxmuftxm;rsm;jzpfaomaMumifUvnf;aumif;? ,if;taxmuftxm;rS wpfqifU bmoma&;
taqmufttH(k apwD)rsm; NrKd aY [mif;twGi;f tESt
hH jym;wnfaeyHu
k kd od&aomaMumifv
U nf;aumif;? a&S;a[mif;
okawoevkyfief;rsm; qufvufaqmif&GufrnfUtcg taxmuftyHUjzpfapEdkifrnf[k ,lqygonf/

a&S;a[mif; aiG'*Fg;jym;rsm;
ukeo
f ,
G q
f yd u
f rf;NrKd Y taxmuftxm; aiG'*Fg;jym;rsm;udk oxHrk rS w
S w
f rf;wifcjUJ cif;r&daS o;ay/ 2002
ckESpfu ordkif;okawoeuGif;qif;tzGJYonf oxHkNrdKY awmifbuf a*gh(aumh)&Gm avomausmif;q&mawmf
odr;f qnf;xm;aom a&S;a[mif;aiG'*Fg;jym;udk awGcY &UJ onf/ usyjf ym;t&G,f ckoif;yHw
k pfzuf? oD&0d pyw
kH pfzuf
ygonfU trsdK;tpm;jzpfygonf/ usdKuomNrdKYa[mif; wlazmfrI (1986)ckESpfwGif '*Fg;rsdK;ta&twGuf
wpfaxmifausmf awGYcJUaMumif; od&Sd&ygonf/ (udkudk? 1987? pm 23-25)/ ,ckaumhavomausmif;0if;
twGi;f apwDa[mif;jyKjyif&ef ajrwl;pOfawG&Y aom '*Fg;jym;ta&twGuf q,fjym;cefah wG&Y onf[k qdyk gonf/
rkwrauGY yifv,furf;dk;wrf;wpfavsmufwGif '*Fg;trsdK;tpm;udk ppfawmif;? usdKuom? 0if;u? oxHk?
aumhcyHk(rk'Hk) aumh[Aif(rk'Hk)paom a'orsm;wGif awGY&ao;aMumif; od&dS&ojzifU oxHka'orS ukefzvS,f
a&mif;0,frI taxmuftxm; tjzpfvnf;aumif;? ysLacwfESifUacwfNydKif a&S;NrdKYa[mif;acwfwpfacwfxGef;
um;cJUyHkudkvnf;aumif; cefhrSef;&m taxmuftyHUjzpfapEdkifygonf/

oxHkNrdKY a*ghavomausmif;rS a&S;a[mif;aiG'*Fg;rsm;

a&mifpkH ausmufyw
k ;D apUrsm;
'*Fgjym;uJhodkhyif jrefrmEdkifiHordkif;rwifrDacwf ukefoG,fa&;vkyfief;oHk;? ukefzvS,fypnf;wpfrsdK;rSm
a&mifpHkausmufykwD;aphrsm;yif jzpfMuygonf/ a&mifpHkausmufywD;apUrsm;onf a&T? aiG paom tzdk;wefykwD;

- 270 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

apUrsm;avmuf wefzdk;rBuD;aomfvnf; ukefzvS,fa&mif;0,f&m aiGaMu;tpm; toHk;jyKEdkifygonf/ r[l&m


ausmuf (agate)? ovif;ausmuf(quartz)paom ausmufrmrsm;udk obm0twdkif;jzpfap? vdkaomta&mif
udk aq;qdk;jzpfap ausmufaoG;tEkynmjzifU yHkazmfNyD; taygufazmufxm;aom vuf0wf&wemwpfrsdK;yif
jzpfonf/ ausmufacwfopfumvrSp aMu;acwfESifU oHacwfOD;umvtxd a&S;vlrsdK;wdkh toHk;jyKcJUMu
ojzifU jrefrmEdkifiHwGif awmiforef? AdEdk;? [efvif;? oa&acw&m paom a&S;a[mif;ae&mrsm;rS
wl;azmf awG&Y cdS yUJ gonf/ atmufjrefrmEdik if H oxHak 'owGif usKd uo
m? prg,ef *d&k (f arSmb
f )D ? 0if;u (bD;vif;)ESiUf
oxHkteD;qifjzLuRef;wdkh a&mifpHkausmufykwD;aphrsm; pkaqmif;&&SdcJUzl;ygonf/ ajrjyifawGYtxmuftxm;rsm;
jzpfaomfvnf; 4if;wdkhawGY&Sd&m ajrjyifwGif ausmufacwfopfrS aMu;acwfESifU oHacwfOD;umvtxd vlaerI
taxmuftxm;rsm; awGYEdkifao;aMumif; cefhrSef;&ygonf/

ausmufBudwq
f kH
ausmufBudwfqHk (Saddle Quern) ESifU 4if;ESifUwGJzufvsuf&Sdaom 'vdrfh(Muller)wdkhonf tdEd,
EdkifiHa&S;NrdKYa[mif;acwf taxmuftxm;wpfrsdK;yifjzpfygonf/ xdkif;EdkifiH 'Gg&0wDNrdKYa[mif;rsm;vnf; wl;azmf
awGY&Sd&aMumif; od&ygonf/ oxHka'o usdKuomNrdKYa[mif;rS BudwfqHkESifU 'vdrfhwHk;rsm;udk 2000 jynfUESpf
uGif;qif;c&D;wGif awGYcJU&ygonf/ (pH0if; 2004? pm 202 ykH? 14-c? 8? 15 u? c? *) ,ckuGif;qif;c&D;wGif
oxHkteD; uwdkufBuD;NrdKYa[mif;rS BudwfqHkwpfckudk rSwfwrf;wif&ygonf/ if;ypnf;udk NrdKYa[mif;tv,f
ydkif;rS ajrwl;pOfawGY&onf[k pHkprf;od&dS&ygonf/

usdKuom(ravmhacsmif OD;pH0if;tdrf&Sdonf)

- 271 -

uwdkufBuD; (bkef;BuD;ausmif;&Sdonf)

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

ajrxnfypn;f (td;k uG)J rsm;


ajrxnfypnf;? tdk? tif? cGuf? a,mufrsm;onf a&S;acwfvlwdkh aehpOfoHk;0wKypnf;rsm; jzpf
tajrmuftrsm;awGYEdkifNyD; acwfudkcGJjcm;owfrSwf&m toHk;0ifygonf/ ,ckuGif;qif;c&D;pOfwGif oxHkNrdKYwGif
bifvdIif&yfuGufrS tkd;uGJp erlemtcsdKYaumuf,lcJUonf/ teDa&miftdk;om;ay:wGif tpif;aMumif;rsm;jcpfxm;yHk
rSm oa&acw&mtdk;rsm;ESifU qifwlygonf/ qifjzLuRef;&GmrS pkaqmif;cJUaom tdk;uGJrSm teDa&mif; ajymifacsm
tdk;rsdK;jzpfonf/ tdk;om;aqG;ajrYrI tajctaet& a&S;usrnf[k ,lq&onf/
r&rf;uke;f &Gm blwif;acsmifrS td;k i,fEpS v
f ;kH (tuGyJ ikd ;f rsm;)udk pkaqmif;&&Scd yUJ gonf/ tdrw
f ikd u
f si;f wl;pOf
ajratmufwpfayteufrS awGY&aMumif; od&\/ tdk;tBuD;(tjrifU 4 vufr)\ ab;om;wGif rsOf;tajzmifUay:
axmifvu
kd rf sO;f wdk oH;k acsmif; tajcwpfcw
k nf;rS aepG,u
f o
UJ hkd jzmxGuaf eyHu
k akd wG&Y onf/ tv,frsO;f aMumif;
wGif twufuav;wpfckyg&dSonf/ tdk;i,f(tjrifU 3 vufr)\ tajcatmufbufwGifvnf; tvm;wlwH
qdyftrSwftom;udk a&;jc,fxm;onf/ tdk;om;rmaMum ajymifacsmjzpfNyD; tndKa&mif&Sdonf/ tdk;rsm;udk
rMumcPwl;azmf&&SdcJUaomfvnf; dkufcGJ pGefhypfcJUMuonf[k pHkprf;od&Sd&ygonf/

oxHk?bifvdIif&yf tdk;uGJrsm;

r&rf;ukef;? blwif;acsmif tdk;uGJrsm;

ausmufacsmvufeufypn;f rsm;
ausmufacsmacwfESifU ausmufacwfopf(Neolithic)umvonf vGefcJUaom tESpfwpfaomif;rS
av;axmifceft
h xd a&S;usrnf[k cefrh eS ;f &\/ jrefrmEdik if yH ifv,furf;d;k wef;rSm qm;? ig;? om;&Jw&d pmefi,frsm;
&SmazG&,lEdkifojzifU ausmufacwfopfvlaerI&SdcJUygonf/ ,if;vlaerItaxmuftxm;oufaotjzpf rdk;BudK;
oGm;[kac:aom ausmufacsmacwfvufeufud&d,mrsm;udk ajray:rSmyif awGY&avU&dS\/ usdKuom? 0if;u
tp&Sdaom NrdKYa[mif;ae&mrsm;wGif ausmufrkd;BudK;oGm;rsm; awGYzl;ygonf/ (pH0if;? 2004? pm? 202? yHk? 14
u)/ ,ckuGif;qif;tzGJY r&rf;ukef;&Gmodkh a&muf&SdpOf &Gmom;rsm; aumuf,lpkaqmif;xm;aom ausmufvuf
ewfud&d,m 4 ckudk pkaqmif;&&SdcJUygonf/ 4if;wdkhteuf tvsm;wpfayausmft&Snf&Sdaom ausmufeuf
eufrSm toGm;wpfzufudk yJuGyf? wHpnf;uJhodkh tacsmaoG;xm;onfU ud&d,mwpfrsdK;jzpfonf/ usefaom
oHk;ckwdkhrSm trif;rygaom ykqdefoGm; okhdr[kwf aqmufoGm;vufeufi,frsm; jzpfMuygonf/ ausmuf
vufeufrsm;awG&Y aom ae&mrSm vGecf aUJ om(10)ESpcf efu
h wl;ajrmif;wpfck azmufvyk cf NUJ y;D xdw
k ;l ajrmif;urf;yg;
ESpfzufwGif rdk;wGif;tcgausmufvufeufESifU tdk;jcrf;uGJrsm; ay:xGufvmonf[kqdkygonf/ &Gmom;OD;odef;vGif
qdo
k o
l nf 4if; ausmufvufeufrsm;udk ordik ;f taxmuftxm;rsm;jzpfaMumif; em;vnfojl zpf ESppf OfEpS w
f ikd ;f
aumuf,lodrf;qnf;xm;cJUonf/ 2005ckESpfwGif ordkif;okawoeuGif;qif;tzGJY r&rf;ukef;odkY&mufvmpOf

- 272 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

ausmufvufeuf ud&d,mrsdK;pHk (137)ckudk ay;tyfcJUonf/ 4if;ypnf;rsm;udk orkdif;okawoeOD;pD;XmewGif


odrf;qnf;xm;vsuf &Sdygonf/
vufa&;pif;trSwftom;yg ajrtkwfcsyfrsm;
*0Htkwfcsyfrsm;ESifhtwl yl;wGJ ajrrD;zkwftkwfcsyfrsm;udk oxHkNrdKYdk;rsm;? taqmufttHkukef;a[mif;
rsm;rS awGY&onfUteuf vufa&;pif;trSwftom;ygonfU tkwfcsyf(tusdK;ydkif;)rsm;tm; rSwfwrf;wif&onf/
oxHkNrdKYa[mif;taemufydkif;? eef;cJ&yfuGuf? uGufopfydkif;ae ajrwl;vkyfom; OD;ukvm;(ac:)OD;rsdK;vGifonf
4if;uGufopfydkif; wrDvfumvDr,fawmfbk&m;ausmif;0if;twGuf a&uef(tiSm;)wl;azmfpOf ajrmufatmuf
ajcmufaycefhteufrS tkwfdk;wef;wpfydkif;udk wl;azmfawGY&SdcJUaMumif;? tkwfdk;tus,f ig;aycefh? tkwfvTmoHk;
vTmcefh wl;azmfcJU&aMumif; pHkprf;od&Sd&ygonf/ 4if;tkwfdk;rS tkwfcsyftusdK;tydkif;tcsdKYudk rdrdaetdrfa&SYwGif
vrf;cif;&ef o,f,cl o
UJ nfco
UJ nfq\
kd / 4if;tkwu
f sKd ;ydik ;f rsm;rS vufa&;pif;trSwt
f om;ygaom tkwyf ikd ;f av;ck
udk erlemaumuf,lonfUtcg 1
(1) tvsm;(tusdK;) 7 2--1 vufr (19 pifwDrDwm) _ teH 8 -2 vufr (21 .5 pifwDrDwm)
_ txl 3 vufr ( 7 .5 pifwDrDwm) ab;apmif;vufpif; 2 pif;? 3 pif; /
(2) tvsm;(tusdK;) 6 2--1 vufr (19 pifwDrDwm) _ teH 8 .7 vufr (22 pifwDrDwm)
_ txl 3 vufr ( 7 .5 pifwDrDwm) ab;apmif;vufpif; 3 pif;? 3 pif; /

- 273 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

vufa&G;pif;tkw(f bD;vif;ukoed mH)k


"gwyf kH - OD;rsKd ;wifMU unf

vufa&G;pif;tkwf(uwdkufuav;)

vufa&G;pif;tkwf(aumhu'Gwf?cifav;jzLjcH)

vufa&G;pif;tkw(f jrovGe?f jroydwaf wmif)

- 274 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

pH0if; (1968) rS ul;,lazmfjyonf

- 275 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

1
tvsm;(tusdK;) 7 2--1 vufr (19 pifwDrDwm) _ teH 7 -2 vufr (19 pifwDrDwm)
1
_ txl 2 -2 vufr ( 7 pifwDrDwm) ab;apmif;vufpif; 3 pif;? 3 pif; /
1
(4) tvsm;(tusdK;) 6 .1 vufr (16 pifwDrDwm) _ teH 8 -2 vufr (21 .5 pifwDrDwm)
_ txl 3 vufr ( 7 .5 pifwDrDwm) ab;apmif;vufpif; 2 pif;? 3 pif; /
awG&Y ygonf/ tusKd ;tydik ;f rsm;jzpf yuwdtvsm;udk rod&aomfvnf; 18 vufr (44 pifwrDwm)
t&G,ftpm;&dSygrnf/ 4if;erlem tkwfjym;av;jym;udk bifvdIif;&yfuGuf &,u Ou| OD;oef;atmifxH
tyfESH xm;ygonf/

(3)

oxHt
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aumh? &if;NidrfNrdKYa[mif;rsm;yif jzpfMu\/ rkwr 32 NrdKYpm&if;0if NrdKUa[mif;rsm;jzpfMuygonf/
'kwd, tkyfpkNrdKYa[mif;rsm;onf rkwr 32 NrdKYacwfxufapmNyD; ysLacwfESifhacwfNydKif? oxHkacwf
NrdKYa[mif;rsm;jzpfMuygonf/ oxHkcdkiftwGif;rS usdKuom(tapmydkif;)? auvmoawmifajc&if;rS 0if;u?
Zkwfokwf? bD;vif;?jrpfteD;rS uwdkufuav;? uwdkufBuD;? r&rf;ukef; paomNrdKYa[mif;rsm;jzpfMu\/ 4if;wdkY
a&S;usaMumif; taxmuftxm;udk vufa&;pif;tkwfcsyfawGY&SdrIt& qHk;jzwf&jcif;jzpfygonf/
NrdKYwnfyHkpHpepfrSmvnf; rkwracwfNrdKUa[mif;rsm;ESifrwlyJ NrdKUdk;ESifhusHK;xyfrsm;rsm;wnfxm;onf/
Oyrm usKd uo
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onf/ 4if;A[drk @dKiu
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wnfyHktwdkif; wnfxm;jcif;jzpfygonf/
[dELjA[Pusrf;pmrsm;jzpfMuaom a0'usrf;? OyedoQusrf; ponfwdkYwGif 4if;pBuFm0Vmwnf[ef
taMumif;udk awGY&ygonf/ Ak'usrf;pmrsm;twdkif; jrefrmwdkYvdkufemcJhMuaom pBuFm0Vmqdkif&m t,ltq
rSmvnf; 4if;[dELjA[PpBuFm0Vm wnf[eftwdkif;yif jzpfonf[kqdk\/
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tv,fwGif ewfa'0gwdkYae&m jrif;rdk&fawmif&Sdonf/ aeonf xdkawmifudk vSnfUywfvsufoGm;ae\/
A[dkwlpuf0ef;rsm;o@mef awmifwef;BuD;ckepfxyfwdkYonf urmBuD;udk 0dkif;&Hxm;\/ jrpfBuD;ckepfwefwdkYu
vnf; awmifwef;rsm;tMum;wGif jcm;xm;vsuf&Sd\/ awmifwef;ESifhjrpfBuD;wdkYtjyifbuf taqmif
ta,miftjzpf opfyifBu;D wpfyifpaD yguaf eaom uRe;f Bu;D av;uRe;f ESihf 4if;wdw
Yk nfaeonfh r[mork'& mBu;D
&Sdygonf/ 4if;uRef;BuD;av;uRef;wdkYrSm ajrmuft&yfrS Ow&*kkuRef;? awmift&yfrS ZAL'DyuRef;? ta&SUt&yfrS
jAKAm 0da'[uRe;f ESihf taemuft&yfrS ty&a*g,meuRe;f wdYk jzpfMu\/ xdu
k Re;f Bu;D wpfuRe;f pDwiG f uRe;f i,faygi;f

- 276 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

(500)pD &HaeMuonf/ uRef;BuD;rsm;\ yHko@mefwdkYrSmvnf; rwlMuay/ ajrmufuRef;onf av;axmifhyHk?


awmifuRef;onf rSefuluGufyHk? ta&SUuRef;onf puf0dkif;jcrf;yHkESifh taemufuRef;onf t0dkif;yHk&Sdonf[k
qdkygonf/
uJhodkY urmavmuBuD;wnf[efudk rSefeef;&mZ0ifawmfBuD;wGif atmufygtwdkif;azmfjyxm;onf/
xdkol(jA[m)wdkY\ bkef;aMumifhvnf;aumif;? jzpfNrJaom "rwmtm;jzifhvnf;aumif;? twGif;um;a&T?
tyum;zeftwdNyD;aom tcsif;,lZemig;q,f? t0ef;,lZem wpf&mYig;q,f&Sdaom bmPk&mZm
rnfaom a&mifjcnfwpfaxmifaqmifaomaerif;onf waygi;f vjynfaU eh rde&f moDESpq
f ,fah jcmufv;kH
Ow&mb&PD euuu
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S u
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urmOD;olwdkYonf wpfckaomtvif;udk &apownf;[k awmif;wukefonf&Sdaomf twGif;um;
ywjrm;? tyum; aiGjzifNh y;D aom tcsi;f av;q,fu
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ac:a0:Muukef\/ odkY ae? vwdkYonf xif&Sm;pGmjzifh onfhaeYyifvQif jrif;rdk&fow&Aef oD'g
ork'& mav;pif;? uRe;f Bu;D av;uRe;f ? uRe;f i,fEpS af xmif [drEmawm? jrpfBu;D ? pBumF 0Vmawmifwo
Ydk nf
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ESpfckwdkYonf xif&Sm;pGmjzpfukef\/
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tkyfcsKyfoltjzpf aerif;\tEG,fawmfudk wifajrmufMuonf/ xdktcg ZrL'DyguRef;oltaygif;wdkYonf r[m
orwrif;udkrSD toufarG;Muukefonf/ r[morwrif;uvnf;
cdk;ao;xm;jy tp&Sdaom ykefoluefwdkY raESmuf,SufEdkifatmif NrdKY? jy? usHK;? ajrmif;? ypif? &ifavsmuf
tp&Sdaom NrdKY\t*Fgckepfyg;? NrdKY\tpmav;yg;ESifh jynfhpHkaom rv
vwdkif;? uko0wDjynfudk wnf
axmifrl\/
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rEwfrif;onf uRef;i,fESpfaxmift&H&Sdaom uRef;BuD;av;uRef; pMum0aw;rif;pnf;pdrfudk cHpm;&onf/
xdkrv
vwdkif; uko0wDjynf rif;aygif;wpf&mtqHk; r&dErrif;\om;ajr;? jrpfwdkYu t,kZ,syl&jynf?
Am&mPoDjynf? uyvjynf? [wdyk&jynf? {upuKjynf? 0ZD&rkwjynf? r'k&jynf? t&dEyl&jynf? Eywjynf?
aumorDjynf? prjynf? rd"dvmjynf? &mZN*dKvfjynf? wuodkvfjynf? ukodemHkjynfponfhjzifh tpOftquf
wnfaxmifMuNyD;aemuf Mouu&mZfrif;BuD;\ om;awmf? orD;awmfwdkYonf uydv0wfjynfudk wnfaxmif
Muonf[kqdk\/ uydv0wfjynf oka'g'erif;BuD;om;awmfonf bk&m;avmif;od'wukrm&jzpf r[m
orwrif;rS bk&m;avmif;od'wfrif;wdkif? oHk;odef;oHk;aomif;av;axmifhig;&majcmufusdyfudk;a,muf aomrif;
wdo
Yk nf rif;aejynfawmfEpS q
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Ykd nf pMum0Vmudk
pdk;rdk;olrsm; jzpfMu pMu0aw;rif;? rEwfrif;[k trnfwGifcJhygonf/ 4if;rif;wdkYwnfaxmifaom
NrdKUeef;rsm;udkvnf; pBuFm0Vmwnf[ef twdkif;wnfcJhMuonf[k qdkygonf/
tdEd,rS NrdKYwnfeef;wnf"avh jrefrmEdkifiHodkhjyefYESHha&muf&SdvmyHkudkvnf; odkYawGY&ygonf/ uyd

- 277 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

v0wf? a'0[ESifh aumvd,oHk;jynfaxmifrS ousomuD0ifrif;wdkYonf yOmv&mZfrif;wdkYESifh ppfBuD;rsm;jzpf


Mu&m omuD0ifrif;wdkhIH;onf/ xdktcg uydv0wfjynfrS tbd&mZmrif;onf bDpD 800 cefY rdrdAdkvfajc
tvHk;t&if;udk,l rZKdra'orSxGufcGmcJhNyD; oCF&Vtrnf&Sdaom waumif;jynfBuD;udk wnfaxmifonf
[kqdk\/ r[mou&mZf 88 ckESpf (bDpD 604) wGif ouFe*dk&fjynfrif;BuD;om;awmf? orD;awmf
omud,rif;onf rSL;rwfAdkvfygtaygif;ESifhwuG rZKdra'orScGJxGuf tpOfojzifh ov
vm0wDjrpfudkul;
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awGY&ygonf/ wpfzef rZKdra'owGif a*gwrjrwfpGmbk&m;yGifhawmfrlpOf om0wdjynfESifh uydv0wfjynf
ppfjzpfMujyefaomtcg omuD0ifrif;wdkYppfIH;jyefvQif (bDpD 624-544)ckESpftwGif; "Z&mZmrif;onf
rdrdtvHk;t&if;ESifhtwl waumif;odkYa&mufvmNyD; a&S;ousomuD0ifrif;wdkYpHae&m oCF&Xrnfaom
waumif;jynfBuD;udk yOmv&mZfjynforkwf xD;eef;NrdKUjywnfaxmifonf[k qdk\/
rSef;eef;&mZ0ifawmfBuD;ESifh rPd&wemyHkusrf;wdkYu azmfjyaomtxufygaumufEIwfcsufrsm;onf
rZKdra'orS tm'dp0Ho omuD0ifrif;wdkYa&mufvm [dELESifh Ak'bmom t,l0g'rsm;ESifhtwl NrdKY jy
xlaxmifonfh "avhvnf;txufjrefrmwaumif;a'oodkYa&muf&SdvmyHkyifjzpfygonf/ waumif; NrdKYeef;
wnfaxmifonfhtcg pBuFm0Vmt,ltq twdkif;wnfcJhaMumif;udkvnf;awGU&\/ waumif;&mZ0ifwGif
'kw,
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f sKd i;f onf rdrZd mwdrvnfNrKd rU S waumif;
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waumif;&mZ0ifazmfjycsufygaom jAKA0da'[uRef;trnfonf pBuFm0VmwHwdkif;twGif;uRef;BuD;
av;uRe;f &So
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wpfqifh avhvmawGY&Sd&aom usdKuomNrdKYa[mif;ESifh ZkwfokwfNrdKYa[mif;wdkYwGif awGYEdkifygonf/ ZkwfokwfNrdKY
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ajrjyiftaetxm;onf pBuFm0Vmwnf[efrlyHk twdkif;yifjzpf txl;rSwfom;zG,fjzpfygonf/ ZkwfokwfESifh
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qdkaomf uwdkufBuD;\ twGif;xyf NrdKYdk;oHk;xyfwdkhwnfaqmufxm;yHkESifh oxHkNrdKYa[mif;\ tjyifNrdKYdk;oHk;xyf
wdkY wnfaeyHkwdkYrSmrsm;pGm qifwlaeaomaMumifhjzpfygonf/
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4if;uwdu
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bufwGifvnf; qdyfuRef;? aumhuoJESifh r&rf;ukef;&Gmrsm;wnfxm;aom *0Hukef;udk awGY&ygonf/

- 278 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

uwdu
k Bf u;D NrKd aY [mif; aumif;uif"gwyf kH

uwdkufuav;NrdKYa[mif; aumif;uif"gwfyHk

xdk*0Hukef;ajrjrifhrsm;rSm ausmufacwfopfumvrSp vlaerI&SdcJhaMumif; taxmuftxm;rsm;


awGY&onf/ ordkif;rwifrDacwfaESmif;ydkif;odkY a&mufonfhtcg tdEd,wdkif;&if;om;wdkY\ "avhtwdkif;vdkuf
rif;aejynfNrdKYrsm;udk wnfcJhaMumif; taxmuftxm;rsm;vnf;&Sdygonf/ NrdKYkd;a[mif;? usHK;a[mif;ae&mrsm;&Sd
jcif;? taqmufttHkukef;a[mif;rsm;vnf;&Sdjcif;? vufa&;pif;trSwftom;yg tkwfcsyfrsm; &SmazGawGY&Sd&jcif;
ponfwdkhyifjzpfMu\/
oxHk&mZ0ifwGif *0Hukef;rsm;onf bD;vif;jrpf0a&aMumif;twGif; usa&mufvsuf? a&v,fuRef;
rsm;jzpfczhJ ;l onf [kq\
kd / oxHNk rKd aY wmfukd pGechf mG NrKd w
Y nf&ef ae&mopf&mS azGol &mZmaZeDrif;onf uRe;f pk
ay:wiG f r&dblrd ok"rm0wDNrKd u
Y kd ,m,DwnfaxmifcahJ Mumif;? xdak emuf auvmoawmifajc&if;a&Tavmif;
tif;teD;wGif [&do&blrd ok"rm0wDESifhwdkufukvm;NrdKYa[mif;teD;wGif ok0Pblrd? ok"r0wDNrdKYrsm;udk
xyfrHa&TYajymif;xlaxmifcJhaMumif; azmfjyxm;ygonf/ wpfzefc&pfESpf 1057 ckESpfwGif yk*Htaemf&xm;rif;ESifh
oxHrk El[mrif;wdYk ppfcif;Muonft
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cHwyfrsm;wnfcNhJ y;D ckcaH Mumif; azmfjyxm;onfuv
kd nf; awG&Y ygonf/ odjhk zpf *0Huek ;f rsm;ay:rS NrKd Y ;dk a[mif;?
usHK;a[mif;ae&mrsm;udk c&pfESpf 11 &mpkavmufu cHwyfukef;rsm;jzpfrnf[k xifjrif,lqcsufrsm;&Sdygonf/
odkY&mwGif uwdkufBuD;ESifhuwdkufuav;NrdKUuGufwdkY wnfxm;yHkrSm c&pfESpf 11 &mpkESpfxuf rsm;pGma&S;usEdkif
onf[k cefYrSef;&ygonf/
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i,faeygonf/ uwdkufuav;onf 35 {ucefYrQom&Sd oxHkxuftq (20)rQi,f\/ uwdkufBuD;onf
70 {ucefYrQ&Sd {u 700 cefYus,faom oxHkxuf 10 qrQi,faeonf/ xdkuJhodkYao;i,faejcif;uyif
a&S;NrdKYa[mif;wnfxm;yHk NrdKYwnfAdokum ynmoabmudk ydkay:vGifap\/
uwdkufuav;onf tvsm;&Snfaom ajcz0g;wpfzufyHkESifwlonf/ ta&SYajrmufbufodkY ajcOD;
vSnx
Uf m; tv,ftenf;i,ford af eygonf/ xdyEf pS zf ufrmS vH;k 0ef;onf/ aumif;uif"gwyf akH y:wiG f tjyifNrKd Y ;kd
oHk;xyfESifhtaemufawmifbufwdkYrSm awmifukef;wpfckpDjzpf tv,fwGif ododomomedrfhavsmhvsuf&Sd\/
ta&SYajrmufbuf awmifukef;wGifvnf; av;axmifhNrdKYdk;wpfxyfcefYywfvnf&Hvsuf&SdEdkifygao;onf/

- 279 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

oxHk qifjzLuRe;f rS awG&Y aom ausmufacsmvufeufrsm;


uGi;f qif;tzGYJ qdu
k af &mufcsed w
f iG f xdak wmifuek ;f ay:&dS tmb,&mrbke;f Bu;D ausmif;0ef;twGi;f a&Tbo
kH m&ifjyif
&GmoGm;rsm;vrf;azmufvQuf&Sd&m ajrZmcJrsm;ESifhtwl a&S;a[mif;vufa&;pif;tkwfcsyfrsm;ay:xGufvmaMumif;
awGY&ygonf/ if;tkyfcsyfrsm;awGY&SdrI taxmuftxm;t& uwdkufuav;NrdKYdk;rsm;onf yk*Htaemf&xm
acwfxufaemufrusEkdifaMumif; cefhrSef;&NyD; ok0Pblrdacwf NrKYda[mif;wpfNrdKY[k owfrSwfygonf/
uwdkufBuD;onfvnf; tvsm;ykwdkwkdESifU ajcz0g;yHk&Sd\/ ajcOD;ajrmufbufodkhvSnfU ajczaESmifhonf
awmifbuf&Sdonf/ tv,fae&mrSm ododomomao;odrfvQuf vl\nmbufajc&mESifhqifwlonf/ ,if;
ajcy0g;yHkukef;\tv,fA[dkususae&mwGif NrdKYdk;oHk;xyfudk xif&Sm;pGmawGYEdkifygonf/ taemufzufjcrf;u
NrdKYdk;rsm;u ydkxif&Sm;onf/ tjyifNrdKYdk; &SdEdkifao;aomfvnf; txyfrnfrQ&SdaMumif; rcefhrSef;Edkifay/ vlaetdrf
acsrsm;udk ukef;\ajrmufzsm;? awmifzsm;ESifh ta&SY jcrf;wdkhomawGY&NyD; taemufjcrf;rSm vlaetdrfajcr&Sday/
NrdKYuGuf\ajrmufydkif;wGif apwDwpfqlESifU bkef;BuD;ausmif;0ef;wdkhu ukef;\wpf0ufcefhae&m,lxm;NyD; usef
aom awmifbufwpfydkif;rSm vGifjyifjzpfonf/ odkhjzpf uwdkufBuD;&Gm NrdKYa[mif;ukef;onf wl;azmfokaooe
jyK&ef tajctaeaumif;onf[k qdkEdkifygonf/ if;tv,fNrdKYuGufrS av;axmifUyHk wHwdkif;oHk;xyftus,f
t0ef;udk wdkif;wmonfUtcg taemufbuf twGif;xyfNrdKYdk;onf tvsm;? awmif? ajrmuf ay 1000 &Sd\
awmufbufNrdKYdk;onf ay 500 cefh&SdaMumif; od&onf/ twGif;wHwdkif;oHk;xyfESifU usHK;ESpfxyfwdkhtxlonf
ay 200 cefh&Sdonf/ xdkhaMumifU A[dkeef;awmf&mukef; av;axmifUuGuf\ {&d,monf {u 30 rQom
&Sdygonf/
uwdkufBuD;twGif; NrdKYuGuf av;axmifUyHkonf oxHkNrdKYa[mif;\ tjyifNrdKYuGufyHkESifh eD;eD;pyfpyfqif
wlaeygonf/ t&G,ftpm;csif; EdIif;,SOfvQif oxHku 23 qrQ ydkBUuD;onf if;uwdu
k Bf u;D twGi;f NrKd u
Y u
G f
av;axmifyU u
kH kd tjyif0ef;u ajcz0g;yHEk iS Uf iHv
k Quw
f nfxm;yHk xl;jcm;onf[k qdEk ikd yf gonf/ xdt
Yk jyif uwdu
k f
Bu;D NrKd u
Y u
G w
f nfaeyHu
k kd twk,
l oxHNk rKd u
Y kd wnfrnf[k ,lq&onf/ oxH\
k ta&Sb
Y uf? awmifbufEiS Uf
taemuf awmifbufwrhkd S obm0awmifwef;rsm; umqD;vQu&f jdS cif; taemufbufraS umhoefuRe;f ? qifjzLuRe;f
paom uke;f rsm;0dik ;f ywfxm;yH&k jdS cif;wdrhk mS twGi;f av;axmifyh kH NrKd u
Y u
G t
f m; tjyif0ef;u ajcz0g;yHjk zifih x
kH m;
onfESifh qifwlaeygonf/ xdkYaMumifh oxHk(ok"ryl&)NrdKYwnfpepfudk avhvmrnfqdkvQif uwdkufBuD;udk
erlemtjzpf avhvmoifUayonf/

- 280 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

oxHk qifjzLuRe;f rS awG&Y aom a&mifpkH ausmufywD;aphrsm;


uwdu
k Bf u;D twGi;f xyf NrKd Y ;kd rsm;rS tkwcf syu
f pkd pfaq;onft
U cg vufa&;pif;trSwt
f om; yg&adS Mumif;
awGY&ygonf/ xdktcsufu oxHkacwfESifU acwfNydKifjzpfaMumif; azmfjyaeygonf/ if;ta&SYbufNrdKYdk;wGif
80HOrifvP
kd w
f pfc&k ydS gonf/ vdik v
f rf;onf NrKd Y ;kd atmufajcwpfavQmuf azmufxm;rnf[k cefrh eS ;f &\/
uwdu
k Bf u;D twGi;f xyf NrKd u
Y u
G \
f taemufajrmufaxmifrU S ay 200 ceft
h uGm uke;f ay:wiG f (apwD
a[mif;)uke;f (6)ckukd wpfpw
k nf;awG&Y onf/ ta&SEY iS t
hf aemuf wef;vQuf yxruke;f onf tcsi;f 36
ay? tjrifU 6 ay? 'kw,
d uke;f onf tcsi;f 32 ay? tjrifU 7 aycef&h o
dS nf/ if;wdYk 2 cktMum; ay; 70
cefu
h mG ygonf/ if;aemuf wwd,uke;f onf uke;f 2 ckqufvQuf tcsi;f 93 ayESihf tjrifU 9 aycefph &D \
dS /
xdaYk emuf pwkwu
ek ;f onf tcsi;f 41 ay? tjrif 10 aycef?h yOruke;f onf tcsi;f 40 ay? tjrifU 10
aycef&Y MdS u\/ wpfuek ;f ESiw
Uf pfuek ;f ay; 40 rS ay 70 cefph u
D mG a0;Ny;D twef;vdu
k w
f nfaeygonf/ apwD
a[mif;uke;f vm; ocsFKifd ;vm;qdo
k nfukd rod&ao;yg/ uke;f rsm;udk a&S;a[mif;okawoejzifh wlazmf&vQif
uwdu
k Bf u;D NrKd aY [mif; taMumif;udo
k mru oxHNk rKd aY [mif;ordik ;f taxmuftxm;rsm; &Edik rf nf[k arQmv
f ifU
&ygonf/
uwdu
k Bf u;D rS awmifbufoYkd qufomG ;vQif v,fuu
G jf yiftMum; aumhuoJuRe;f ? qdyu
f Re;f ESiUf
r&rf;ukef;wdkhudk wpfqufwnf;awGYEdkifygonf/ awmifbuftpGef;qHk;rSm r&rf;ukef;? rdkufobkrf;[kac:Mu
onf/ xdt
k rnfonf r&dblrd ok"r0wDtrnfrS qif;oufvmonf[q
k \
kd ( oxH&k mZ0if? pm . 80)/
uRe;f i,fig;ckwu
hkd akd ygi;f NrKd w
Y nfaomaMumifU ypKd iyf [
kH k a&S;uac:onf[v
k nf; qdyk gonf/
r&rf;ukef;awmifydkif;wGif ta&SYESifUtaemuftvsm;&SnfNrdKYuGufi,fwpfckudk awGY&ygonf/ NrdKYdk;oHk;

- 281 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

xyfcefaY wG&Y \/ ,ckr&rf;uke;f wGzJ uftxufwef;ausmif;udk twGi;f xyfNrKd u


Y u
G f wnfaqmufxm;\/ NrKd u
Y u
G f
\ ajrmufbufwiG f t0dik ;f yHo
k @mef ajruGuif ,fEpS cf k ta&SEY iS t
Uf aemuf ,SOv
f suw
f nfae\/ &Gmvrf;rBu;D \
taemufbuft0dkif;yHkwGif a&TrmvmapwDESifU bkef;BuD;ausmif;wnfxm;onf/ ta&SYbuft0dkif;yHktwGif;rSm
,ckaus;&GmOu|H;k wnfxm;onf/ if;t0dik ;f yHEk pS cf \
k ajrmufbufuyfvsuf vrf;taemufbufrmS opfyif?
0gyifraygufaom*0HMuyfukef;wpfck&Sdonf/ if;*0Hukef;\ ajrmufbuftpGef; av;axmifUyHkvlaeukef;wpf
ck&o
dS nf/ if;ajrmufbuf qdyu
f Re;f ESiUf aumhuoJuRe;f wdw
hk iG v
f nf; a&S;a[mif;taqmufttHt
k <uif;tuserf sm;
&SMd uygonf/ odjhk zpf uwdu
k u
f av;? uwdu
k Bf u;D ? aumhuoJ? qdyu
f Re;f ? r&rf;uke;f wdu
Yk kd a&S;NrKd aY [mif;
,Ofaus;rItarGtESpaf 'owpfct
k jzpf awG&Y onf/ r&rf;uke;f &Gm OD;xGe;f 0if;\jcrH S tkwu
f ek ;f wGif oifyek ;f ausmuf

oxHk r&rf;uke;f OD;xGe;f 0if;\ jct


H w
k u
f ek ;f rS&aom oifyek ;f ausmufjym;ay:wiG f
a&S;a[mif; tu&m? vufa&;ESiUf ]a,"rma[wkyb
0g} *gxmtpydik ;f udk
a&xGi;f xm;aom ausmufpm

- 282 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

i,fwpfcu
k kd awG&Y \ t&G,t
f pm;rSm (4)vufrcehEf iS Uf txl vufr0wfcef&h \
dS / rsuEf mS zufwiG f pmta&;
tom;yg&\
dS / xdpk mrSm ]a,"rma[wkyb
0g} *gxmtpydik ;f rQomjzpfonf/ xdpk mvufa&;onf yk*aH cwfr
wdik rf D oxHak cwfvufa&;yifjzpf\/
uGi;f qif;tzGo
YJ nf r&rf;uke;f a&TrmvmapwDy&0kPt
f wGi;f rS topfrrG ;f rHjcif;rjyK&ao;aom apwD
a[mif;uke;f (10)uke;f udk rSww
f rf;wifco
UJ nf/ vufa&;piftw
k cf sy(f 3)csyu
f v
kd nf; erlemaumuf,pl ak qmif;
cJUygonf/ a&S;oxHkNrdKYa[mif;acwf apwDa[mif;udk yk*HvGefuvm rkwracwfwGif xyfrHjyKjyifcJUonf[k
,lq&aom bk&m;a[mif;ESpq
f u
l v
kd nf; qdyu
f Re;f &Gmta&Sb
Y ufwpfq?l uwdu
k u
f av;&Gm tb,&mrbke;f Bu;D
ausmif;0if;wpfql awG&Y ojzifh rSww
f rf;wifcyUJ gonf/
r&rf;uke;f &Gmtaemufbuf qdyu
f Re;f acsmif;d;k wpfavsmufrmS ausmufacsmacufvufeuf ud&,
d m
rsm;xGuaf y:vsu&f ydS gonf/ ,cif 2005 ckEpS u
f iG ;f qif;okawoetzGu
YJ ausmufacsmvufeufrsm;? ausmuf
uGi;f ESiUf ausmufvufeufaoG;ausmufw;kH rsm; ta&twGuf (137)ckukd pkaqmif;&S&cd o
UJ nf/ if;r&rf;uke;f
ausmufacwfopfvufeufu&d ,
d mrsm;onf oxHak 'owGif ausmufacwfrS oHacwfO;D umvtxd vlaerI
wpfqufwpfpyfwnf;&SdcJUaMumif; oufaotaxmuftxm;rsm;yif jzpfygonf/
oxHt
k eD;ywf0ef;usirf S uwdu
k u
f av;? uwdu
k Bf u;D / r&rf;uke;f ? qifjzLuRe;f paom NrKd aY [mif;uke;f
rsm;onf yk*v
H eG u
f mvrkwr acwfNrKd aY [mif;uke;f rsm; r[kwMf uay/ yk*rH wdik rf u
D jrefrmEdik if H ysLacwfEiS Uf
acwfNydKifxGef;um;cJUaom oxHk;acwfNrdKYa[mif;i,fuav;rsm; jzpfMuygonf/

- 283 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

jrefrmEdik if H ysLNrdKaY [mif;rsm;ESiUf EIid ;f ,SOjf cif;


jrefrmEdik if w
H iG f ysLNrKd aY [mif;rsm; xGe;f um;cJo
U nfukd awGEY ikd yf gonf/ t0dik ;f yHk ysLNrKd aY wmfa[mif;rsm;
rSm jrefrmEdik if t
H v,fyikd ;f rS oa&acw&m? rdik ;f arm? 0wD;(EGm;xd;k Bu;D )wdjhk zpfMu\/ xdNk rKd aY [mif;rsm;udk t0dik ;f
yH[
k k qd&k jcif;rSm tjyifNrKd Y ;kd yHo
k @mefonf rsO;f ajzmifrh sm; r[kwMf uyJ? rsO;f auG;rsm;jzifU wnfaqmufxm;
t0dik ;f (odrYk [kw)f bJOyHo
k @meftoGiu
f kd aqmifvQu&f jdS cif;aMumifjh zpf\ xdNk rKd Y ;kd rsm;onf tjyif0ef;wGif NrKd Y
axmifrh sm;udk rawG&Y ay/ od&Yk mwGif twGi;f xyf av;axmifyh o
kH @mef&o
dS nfukd owdjyK&rnfjzpf\/ Oyrm
-oa&acw&mESihf rdik ;f armNrKd aY [mif;wdt
hk wGi;f wGif NrKd v
Y ,f av;axmifyU NkH rKd u
Y u
G &f ydS gonf/ if;udk eef;awmf
ukef;[kac:onf/ tkyfcsKyfa&;A[kdcsuf? tBuD;tuJtwGuf oD;oefhae&myifjzpf\/ [efvif;ysLNrdKYa[mif;\
tjyifww
H ikd ;f onf rsO;f auG;rsm;jzpfaomfvnf; av;axmifph yfpyf yHo
k @mefuakd qmif twGi;f xyf av;
axmifyh ikH ,fwpfxyf&o
dS nf/ AdEd;k NrKd \
Y tjyifww
H ikd ;f onf rsO;f auG;rsm; r[kwMf uyJ rsO;f ajzmifrh sm;omjzpf
twGi;f xyf eef;awmfuek ;f rSm wdusaom av;axmifyh o
kH @mef&ydS gonf/ xdaYk Mumifh oxHNk rKd aY [mif;\ pwk*yH kH
NrKd u
Y u
G u
f kd t0dik ;f yHrk [kwo
f jzifh a&S;rusEikd [
f k rqdo
k may/ if;tjyifww
H ikd ;f onf ysLNrKd aY [mif;wpfck jzpfaom
[efvif;NrKd aY [mif; tjyifww
H ikd ;f uJo
h Ykd axmifrh sm;onf auG;Ny;D twGi;f xyf av;axmifyh kH wpfxyf&o
dS nft
U wGuf
[efvif;NrdKYa[mif;ESifh ydkqifwlonf/
odaYk omf atmufjrefrmEdik if &H dS oxHNk rKd aY [mif;ESiw
hf uG tjcm;NrKd aY [mif;rsm;wGif ysLNrKd aY [mif;rsm;ESirhf wl
yJ NrKd Y ;kd txyfxyf wnfaqmufxm;rIrmS xl;jcm;rIwpf&yfjzpfonf/ usu
d o
m\ twGi;f xyfNrKd Y ;kd rSm ud;k xyfcefh
&S
d Zkwo
f w
k t
f wGi;f xyfNrKd Y ;kd ckEpS x
f yfcef&h adS yonf/ uwdu
k Bf u;D ? aumhxif;? vdycf ;kH ? uuwpf paom NrKd Y
a[mif;i,frsm;rSmyif twGi;f xyfNrKd Y ;kd oH;k xyfcef&h adS yonf/ uJo
h Ykd NrKd Y ;kd tcif;tusi;f yHpk u
H kd txufjrefrmEdik if H
ysLNrKd aY [mif;rsm; rawG&Y ay/ od&Yk mwGif ysLNrKd aY [mif;Bu;D rsm;wGif awG&Y &dS aom vufa&;pif;trSwt
f om;yg
ajrrD;zkwt
f w
k cf syrf sm;udk oxHNk rKd aY [mif; twGi;f NrKd Y ;kd uke;f ? taqmufttHu
k ek ;f ESihf tjyifbuf&cdS w
H yfrsm;wGif
awG&Y &dS jcif;? '*Fg;? ykw;D aphrsm;udk awG&Y &dS jcif;wdahk Mumifh oxHNk rKd aY [mif;onf ysLacwfNrKd aY [mif;rsm;ESihf acwfNyKd if
jzpfaeonf[k qdk&ayrnf/

- 284 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

ajrrD;zkwu
f acsonf (MuKH w)l

ajrrD;zkwu
f acsonf (0if;u)

ajrrD;zkwfkyf<utydkif;usdK;(0if;u)

ajrrD;zkwfkyf<utydkif;usdK;(MuHKwl)

- 285 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

teD;0ef;usifrS NrdKYa[mif;rsm;ESifh EdIif;,SOfjcif;


oxHak 'owGif oxHNk rKd aY [mif;wpfcw
k nf;om wnf&cdS o
hJ nfr[kwyf J ysLNrKd aY [mif;rsm;ESihf acwfNyKd if
[k,q
l &aom NrKd aY [mif;ae&mrsm;pGm&Syd gonf/ if;wkrhd mS usKd uo
m? Zkwo
f w
k Ef iS hf prge*d&k (f vuGe;f Asn;f ) NrKd Y
a[mif;Bu;D rsm;? aumhxif;? vdycf ;kH ? r&rf;uke;f (qdwu
f Re;f )? uwdu
k Bf u;D ? uwdu
k u
f av; paom NrKd aY [mif;rsm;
jzpfMuonf/ xdNk rKd aY [mif;rsm;\ NrKd Y ;kd rsm;ESihf taqmuftOD; uke;f a[mif;rsm; ysLNrKd aY [mif;rsm;wGif awG&Y aom
vufa&;piftrSwt
f om;yg ajrrDzw
k f tkwcf syrf sm;? '*Fg;? ykw;D aphrsm;udk awG&Y &dS onf/ xdaYk Mumifh atmuf
jrefrmEdik if H oxHak 'oonf txufjrefrmEdik if H ysLNrKd aY [mif;rsm;ESihf acwfNyKd ix
f eG ;f um;cJaU om a'owpfck
jzpfEikd yf gonf/ a'otwGi;f wpfpw
k pfa0;wnf;awG&Y aom NrKd aY [mif;Bu;D rsm;ESihf NrKd aY [mif;i,frsm;udw
k pfNyKd if
wnf;wnfcjUJ cif;xuf wpfae&mNy;D wpfae&m a&TaY jymif;wnfaxmifjcif;rsKd ;vnf; &SEd ikd yf gonf/ xdahk MumifU
acwfumvtm;jzifU &Snv
f sm;aom oufwrf;udak zmfeT ;f vQu&f o
dS nf/ od&Yk mwGif oxHak 'otwGi;f a&S;a[mif;
okawoewl;azmfrIvkyfief;rsm;udk ,cktcg pwifcgp tajctaeom&Sdao; oxHkacwfNrdKYa[mif;rsm;udk
wdusoufwrf;(Absolute Dating) ray;Edik af o;ay/
oxH(k ok0Pbrl )d acwf a&S;NrKd aY [mif;rsm;teuf oxHo
k nf aemuftusq;kH NrKd Y jzpfaMumif;? xdNk rKd Y
onf c&pf 1057 ckEpS f ysuo
f ek ;f oGm;cJaU Mumif;udk &mZ0ifrw
S w
f rf;rsm;t& od&&dS \/ Zkwo
f w
k ?f usKd uo
m?
uwdu
k f paomNrKd rY sm;taMumif; &mZ0ifrw
S w
f rf; rawG&Y awmhay/ ,if;wdo
hk nf oxHrk wdik rf u
D NrKd rY sm; jzpfz,
G &f dS
yg\/ oxHyk suNf y;D aemuf c&pf 13 &mpkwiG f rkwr NrKd Y qufvufxeG ;f um;cJo
h nf/ ,ck oxHek ,frS a*g?h aps;
roG,?f &if;Nird ?f td0?J tdAsp?f vuGe;f Asn;f ? 'H0k ef;? wdu
k u
f vm;(t&ufor)? ,if;tHEk iS hf ppfawmif;NrKd aY [mif;
rsm;onf rkwr NrKd &Y H (32)NrKd eY ,f pm&if;0ifNrKd rY sm;jzpfMuygonf/ ppfawmif;? wdu
k u
f vm;? aps;roG,Ef iS 'hf 0kH ef;
wd\
hk t&G,t
f pm;rSm oxHNk rKd EY iS Ehf iId ;f pmvQif tvGeaf o;i,fMu\/ useaf omNrKd rY sm;rSm NrKd Y ;kd NrKd w
Y myiftxift&Sm;
r&SMd uay/ xdahk Mumifh oxHo
k nf a'otwGi;f ay:viG x
f if&mS ;qH;k NrKd aY [mif;Bu;D wpfcjk zpfaMumif; awG&Y ygonf/

- 286 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

NcHKiHkoHk;oyfcsuf
oxHkNrdKYwnfaom &ufpGJudk tpOftvmt& Ak'acwfESifh acwfNydKifjzpfonf[k qdkaomfvnf;
a&S;a[mif;okawoe taxmuftxm; rawGY&ao;ojzifh apmvGef;rnf[k xifygonf/ ,cktcsdeftxd
oxHNk rKd aY [mif;udk tcsed ,
f
l ususeewl;azmfoak woejyKvyk Ef ikd jf cif; r&Sad o;ojzifh wdus&ufpJG (Absolute
Y suo
f ek ;f aom &ufpu
JG rkd l "rapwDrif;\ yJc;l uvsmPD odraf usmufpm
Dating )udk rod&ao;ay/ oxHNk rKd y
azmfjycsut
f & c&pfEpS f 1057 (omoemESpf 1601 ckEpS ?f ou&mZf 419)jzpfaMumif;od&onf/ vuf&dS
oxHNk rKd aY [mif;\ NrKd Y ;kd ? NrKd w
Y mESiw
hf uG a&S;a[mif;omoedu t<uif;tuserf sm;? kyw
f ?k kyv
f ;kH ? ky0f uf?
pOfu
U iG ;f ? a&S;rGeaf usmufpm paomajrjyifawGY taxmuftxm;rsm;onf oxHNk rKd Y rysurf u
D ordik ;f taxmuf
txm;rsm;yif jzpfygonf/
oxH?k yJc;l ESihf oa&acw&m tp&Sad om atmufjrefrmEdik if w
H iG f awG&Y aom Ak'0 g'qdik &f m kyw
f ak wmf
rsm;rSm tdE,
d Edifk if H *kyw
acwf ( c&pf4 &mpk & &mpkEpS f )vuf&m[efrsm;omjzpf rsm;pGma&S;us[ef
vuPmr&SdaMumif;? xdkhjyif oxHkAk'omoemonf [dELt,l0g'aMumifh MoZmvTrf;rdk;aecJU[efwlaMumif;?
odjhk zpf ta&SaY wmiftm&Sohkd Ak'o
moem OD;pGmysEH ahHS &muf&v
dS mcJaU om ok0Pbrl t
d &yfonf oxHrk jzpfEikd f
aMumif; ordik ;f t,ltqwpf&yf &Scd yhJ gonf/ xdt
k ,ltqudk vufco
H rl sm;u oxH\
k a&S;usaom ordik ;f
[lonfrmS '@m&Drsm;udk tajccHxm;aom tpOftvm pGv
J ef;,HMk unfrrI sm;omjzpfonf[
l apm'u wufcUJ
Muygonf/ wu,f&adS eaom ordik ;f taxmuftxm;rsm;rSm c&pfEpS f (4 &mpk? 7 &mpk) taxmuftxm;rsm;
omjzpfonf[k wifjycJMU uonf/ oxHrk t
S r&0wDvuf&m[ef( c&pfEpS f 2 &mpkrS 5 &mpkEpS )f aMu;kyyf mG ;awmf
wpfqal wG&Y &dS jcif;aMumifh ,cifu oxHEk iS hf atmufjrefrmEdik if H *kyw
acwf (c&pf 4-7&mpkEpS )f taxmuf
txm;omawG&Y onf[al om ordik ;f t,ltqudk jyifqifEikd af yonf/ odMum;bk&m; pOfu
U iG ;f rsm;ESihf uvsmPD
odref rd w
d w
f ikd af usmufqpfyk rf sm;onf t&Sirf [mAk'a Cmo\ ygVt
d |uxmusr;f rsm;yg&adS om Ak'0 ifokyf
azmfZmwfuGufrsm;yifjzpf yk*HacwfwGif xdktpOftvmydkNyD; toHk;wGifus,fcJUaMumif;awGY&onf/ jrefrm
,Ofaus;rIwiG f Ak'0 ifZmwfawmfrsm;\ tcef;u@vGr;f rd;k xm;jcif;aMumifh [dEL jA[Pwd\
hk &mrm,eZmwf
awmfrsm;twGuf ae&mr&Sad y/ oxHo
k moemwGif [dEL MoZmvTr;f rd;k vQu&f o
dS nf[al om t,ltqrSm odMum;
bk&m;rSpOfu
U iG ;f ky<f ursm;udk od0ewfrif;ESihf &mrZmwfuu
G f okyaf zmfyrkH sm;tjzpf t"dyg ,af umuf rSm;,Gi;f cJU
jcif;aMumifhomjzpfaMumif; awGY&ygonf/

- 287 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

oxHw
k iG f a&S;a[mif;rGeaf usmufpmrsm; t<uif;tuset
f csKd &Y MdS u\/ ,if;wdt
hk euf Mwmyfausmif;pmESiUf
y@dwfausmufpmwdkhwGif rukw[laom rif;trnfyg&Sd\/ NrdKYwnf? eef;wnfjcif;? cHwyfaqmufjcif;? t
apmift
h a&Smufrsm;xm; NrKd u
Y u
kd muG,&f jcif; ponfh taMumif;rsm; a&;xd;k xm;onfU xdak usmufpm\ txuf
ydik ;f yg|b
d mom pmaMumif;rsm;wGif ]tm'dumav&uy&l }[laom pmyd'k u
f kd awG&Y ojzifh oxHo
k nf a&S;vGe;f av
Ny;D aomuvm ]&uy&l }trnfjzifU wnfwefch zUJ ;l aMumif; od&\/ if;yg|b
d mom pmaMumif;rsm;rSmyif ]earm
oAAk'g}[laom pmydk'fjzifhp ESpfusdyf&Spfqlbk&m;bGJYawmfrsm;udk a&;xm;aom ]tV0Dowd y&dwfawmf}
*gxmyg&\
dS / ,if;*gxmudk jrefrmESiUf od[Vkd Ef ikd if w
H w
hkd iG f &Gwq
f Mkd uNrjJ zpfaMumif; od&ygonf/ oxHNk rKd aY [mif;
acwfu od[Vkd Ef iS hf ul;vl;qufqrH &I cdS aUJ Mumif; taxmuftxm;wpfck jzpfygonf/
oxHak usmufpmrS ]rukw} [laom rif;trnfukd aemufvw
l u
hkd raem[ (rEl[m)[k tzwfrmS ;cJ[
U ef
wlonf[k ygarmuvpk u
f qdak yonf/ rdu
k u
f ,fatmifoiG u
f rl ]rukw}\trnfonf rkwr rif;qufukd
wnfaxmifol ]ru'l;} rif;\nDawmf ]ru'g}trnfjzpfEikd af Mumif;? xdaYk Mumifh if;oxHrk eG af usmufpmrsm;onf
yk*Hacwfxuf rapmEdkifaMumif;? rkwr rGefacwftaxmuftxm;omjzpfEdkifaMumif; tqdkjyKwifjycJUonf/
ppfppf ]rukw}ESi]hf rEk[m} onf vlwpfa,mufwnf; jzpfEikd o
f uJo
h Ykd wpfO;D pDvnf;jzpfEikd yf gonf/ if;y@dwEf iS hf
Mumyfausmufpmrsm;wGif &ufpaJG &xd;k xm;cJjU cif; r&Sad y/ tu,f ,if;wdo
hk nf oxHNk rKd Y ysuo
f ek ;f csed af &mufrS
a&;xd;k aom ausmufpmjzpfcv
UJ Qif rEk[mrif;ESihf oufqikd af yvdrrhf nf/ xdo
k rYkd [kwyf J oxHNk rKd Y pnfyifaumif;pm;
aepOf tcga&;xd;k xm;cJjU cif; jzpfcv
UJ Qif rukwonf rEk[mESihf xyfwjl zpfawmhrnf r[kwaf y/ oxHak usmufpm
vufa&;udk yk*aH cwfO;D rGeaf usmufpmvufa&;ESihf ,SOMf unfNU y;D c&pf 11 &mpk taxmuftxm;[k ausmufpm
ynm&Sirf sm; cefrh eS ;f MuonfrmS taMumif;ykwcd ikd v
f o
kH nf[k qdEk ikd yf gonf/ odaYk omf oa&acw&m ausmuftd;k td;k
ysLpmvufa&;ESihf yk*&H mZukr&ausmufpm ysLbmomvufa&;wdrYk sm;pGm uGv
J rJG rI &Sad Mumif; owdjyKqifcsizf ,
G f
jzpfygonf/
oxHak 'orSm rkwr auGyY ifv,f urf;d;k wef;wGif wnf&NdS y;D tdE,
d rS ta&SaY wmiftm&Sujkd zwf
wkyEf iS yhf ifv,fa&;aMumif; ukepf nfu;l oef;a&mif;0,fa&;vrf;aMumif;ay:wiG &f o
dS nf/ oxHrk S ta&Sb
Y ufohkd
bk&m;oH;k qlawmifMum;vrf;rSwpfqifh rJemrfjrpf0rS ;f ESihf rJacgijf rpf0uRe;f ay:'orsm;odYk ukeo
f ,
G af &;vrf;aMumif;
wpfo,
G v
f nf; ayguaf &mufvsu&f \
dS / xdaYk Mumifh oxHo
k nf c&pfEpS Of ;D umvavmufrpS ta&SaY wmiftm&S
a'otwGi;f ukezf vS,af &mif;0,f&m qdyu
f rf;NrKd w
Y pfcjk zpfz,
G &f ydS gonf/ tdE,
d ESihf ta&SaY wmiftm&Sa'twGi;f ukef
zvS,af &mif;0,f&m oH;k pGcJ aUJ om a&S;a[mif;aiG'*Fg;rsm;udk oxH?k bm;tH? 0if;uESihf usu
d o
m NrKd aY [mif;rsm;wGif
awG&Y &dS ygonf/ vuf&dS oxHNk rKd aY [mif;\ NrKd Y ;kd rsm;? usKH ;rsm;ESiehf ef;awmf&muke;f rsm;\ taetxm; udMk unfv
h Qif
rkwr yifv,fauGY a'otwGi;f ta&;ygaom rif;aejynf NrKd Y Bu;D wpfcjk zpfcaUJ Mumif; awGEY ikd yf gonf/
rkwr yifv,fauGY urf;d;k wef;rSm 80Hausmuf"avh (Laterite Culture) wpf&yf xGe;f um;cJyU gonf/
oxHNk rKd Y ;kd rsm;udk 80Htw
k cf syrf sm;jzifU wnfxm;jcif;? apwDyx
k ;kd rsm;udk *0Htw
k jf zifh aqmufvyk jf cif;? a'o
twGi;f *0Hausmufqpfyk w
f rk sm; awG&Y jcif;wdrhk mS oxHNk rKd aY [mif;\ xl;jcm;csu[
f k qdEk ikd yf gonf/ if;*0Htw
k rf sm;
\ oufwrf;udk cefrh eS ;f &ef cJ,Of;ygonf/ od&Yk mwGif *0Htw
k Ef iS w
hf v
JG suf awG&Y aom ajrrD;zkwf tkwcf syrf sm;onf
tvGeaf &S;usaMumif;udk if;tkwcf syyf g vufa&;pif;trSwt
f om;oauFwrsm;t& cefrY eS ;f Edik yf gonf/ oxHk
a'otwGi;f vufa&;piftw
k cf syrf sm;udk usu
d o
m? MuKH w?l 0if;u? t,ufonfr? Zkwo
f w
k ?f aumhxif;?
bm;tH? armfvNrKd i?f rk'EkH iS hf xm;0,f om*& NrKd aY [mif; tp&Sad om a'otESt
H jym; ae&mrsm;wGif awG&Y jcif;
aMumifU oxHak cwfNrKd Y jy,Ofaus;rI ysEYH w
hHS nf&&dS m e,fajrrSm rkwr yifv,fauGY wpfcv
k ;kH eD;yg; ysEYH o
hHS nf[k

- 288 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

qdEk ikd o
f nf/ odjhk zpf oxHNk rKd aY umif;pm;pOftcg rkwr yifv,fauGY 0ef;usiw
f pfcv
k ;kH \A[dck suf NrKd Y Bu;D wpf
NrdKYjzpfEkdifygonf/
azmfjyyg vufa&;piftw
k cf syrf sm; awG&Y aom rkwr yifv,fauG0Y ef;usi;f rS a&S;NrKd aY [mif;ae&m rsm;onf
yk*rH wdik rf u
D wnfaqmufxm;cJjU cif;jzpfonf/ oxkNH rKd aY [mif;wnfaqmufyrkH mS usu
d o
m? Zkwo
f w
k ?f aumhxif;?
uwdkufBuD;paom oxHkteD;0ef;usifrS NrdKYa[mif;rsm; wnfaqmufxm;yHkESifU qifwlaeygonf/ if;wdkh\
tjyif0ef;ywfvnf NrdKYdk;yHko@mefonf t0ef;t0dkif;yHkrsdK;jzpf\/ twGif;xyfrSm av;axmifhyHko@mef&Sd\/
if;twGi;f xyfrsm;udk t&pftxyf ta&twGurf sm;rsm; wnfaqmufxm;jcif;udv
k nf; awG&Y ygonf/ if;NrKd w
Y nf
tpOftvmudk oxHNk rKd aY [mif;wGif xyfraH wG&Y &dS jcif; jzpfygonf/ Oyrm - oxHNk rKd aY [mif;\ ajrmufbufNrKd Y ;kd udk
a&wGufvQif (5)xyfrQ&SdaMumif; awGY&rnfjzpfygonf/ a&S;NrdKYa[mif;BuD;rsm;\ twGif;xyfESifh tjyifxyf
NrdKYdk;txyfrsm;rsm; wnfaqmufxm;jcif; tpOftvmudk oxHkNrdKYa[mif;a'otwGif;om awGY&jcif;u
a'o\xl;jcm;csuw
f pf&yf[k qd&k ygrnf/ xdjhk yif oxHNk rKd aY [mif;ESihf teD;ywf0ef;usiaf 'orsm;wGif ok0Pbrl ad cwf
taxmuftxm;rsm;udkomru ordkif;rwifrDacwf taxmuftxm;rsm;vnf; awGY&SdcJhNyD;jzpfonf/ ,if;
taxmuftxm;rsm;onf atmufjrefrmEdik if H oxHak 'otwGuf yk*aH cwfxufapmonfU taxmuftxm;
rsm;yifjzpfonf/

- 289 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

a&SYqufvufaqmif&Guf&ef vdktyfrnfU okawoevkyfief;rsm;


oxHka'oonf &mZ0iftaxmuftxm;t&vnf;aumif;? a&S;OD;uGif;qif;okawoeawGY&Sdcsufrsm;
ESifU rsufarSmufacwf okawoeawGY&Sdcsufrsm;t& vnf;aumif;? ok"r0wD? ok"ryl&? ok0Pblrd tp&SdonfU
trnfrsm;jzifU a&S;a[mif;NrdKY jy,Ofaus;rIxGef;um;&ma'otjzpf owfrSwfEdkifcUJNyDjzpfygonf/ ,ck c&D;pOfrSm
oxHkcdkiftwGif;&Sd oxHkNrdKYe,fwpfckwnf;udkom uGif;qif;cJU&ygonf/ usefaom usdKufxdk? bD;vif;ESifU
aygifNrdKYe,frsm;udkvnf; aemufxyf uGif;qif;tzGJYrsm; apvTwf&ef vdktyfygOD;rnf/ 4iftjyif oxHka'oESifU
qufpyfrI&Sdaom armfvNrdKifcdkifudkvnf;aumif;? u&ifjynfe,fbm;tHcdkifpaom a'orsm;udkvnf;aumif;
qufvuf okawoejyK&ef vdktyfayOD;rnf/ odkhrSom a'oBuD;wpfckvHk; (Regional Basic Unit) twGuf
jcHKiHkNyD; em;vnfoabmaygufEdkifayvdrfhrnf/

r&rf;uke;f NrKd aY [mif; qdyu


f Re;f &Gm ta&SyY ikd ;f rS tkwu
f ek ;f a[mif;wpfck

- 290 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

oxHNk rKd aY [mif; vdyt


f if;&yfuu
G &f dS NrKd Y ;kd a[mif;wpfyikd ;f yHk

oxHNk rKd aY [mif; vdyt


f if;&yfuu
G &f dS NrKd Y ;kd a[mif;wpfyikd ;f yHk

- 291 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

,ckuGif;qif;c&D;pOfrSm yPmrtqifUomjzpf pepfwuswdkif;wmrSwfom;ppfaq;jcif; (Surveying)


ESifUwl;azmfokawoejyKjcif; (Excavation)wdkhudk raqmif&GufEdkifcJUao;yg/ ,if;vkyfief;pOfrsm;udk qufvuf
aqmif&Guf&ygOD;rnf/ wl;azmf&efrvG,fonfU oxHkNrdKYay: &yfuGufrsm;uJhodkh acwfopfvlae tdrfajcrsm;
atmuf epfjrKyfaeaom ae&mrsm;udk pepfwus axmufvSrf;ppfq;onfU (Reconnaissance Survey)
enf;udk oHk;oifUygonf/ 4if;enf;onf wl;azmfjcif;xuf aiGtukeftusoufomaom enf;pHepfwpfrsdK;
jzpfygonf/
wl;azmfoak woejyKjcif(Excavation)udk aqmif&u
G o
f nft
U cg taqmufttHk uke;f a[mif;(Structural
Mound) udk wlazmfjcif;tjyif? taqmufttHkrS uif;vGwfaom vlaerIajrvTm(Habitation Site)udk a&G;
teufEdIufwl;jcif;(Vertical Digging) udkvnf; aqmif&GufoifUygonf/ odkhrSom ausmufacwfrS owKacwf
vlaerIodkh rnfodkhul;ajymif;vmcJUaMumif; taxmuftxm;&Edkifrnfjzpfygonf/
tpD&ifcHpmwGif oxHkNrdKYa[mif;acwfNrdKYa[mif;ukef;rsm; (oxHk? qifjzLuRef;? uwdkufuav;?
uwdkufBuD;? r&rf;ukef;)ESifU 4if;wdkh\ NrdKYdk;a[mif;? usHK;a[mif;? apwDa[mif;ukef;rsm;udk azmfjycJUNyD; jzpfygonf/
,if;wdkhteufrS oifUawmfrnfUae&mudk a&G;cs,fowfrSwf qufvufokawoejyK&ef &Sdygonf/
oxHkNrdKYa[mif;BuD;wGif ajrmufbufydkif; orD;awmfukef;? ajreDukef;? ay:awmfrlpaom ae&ma'orsm;
rSm vlae&yfuGufESifU vGwfuif;ojzifU wl;azmfa&;tcuftcJ odyfr&SdEdkifyg/ qifjzLuRef;? uwkdufuav;?
uwdu
k Bf u;D ? r&rf;uke;f wdrhk mS qufo,
G o
f mG ;vma&; tcuftcJ tenf;i,f&\
dS / ausmufcif;wmd;k vrf;jzifo
U m
qufoG,foGm;vm&\/ odkh&mwGif oxHkNrdKYa[mif;acwf ,Ofaus;rIoufaotaxmuftxm;&&ef arQmfvifU
EdkifonfUtaetxm; &Sdygonf/
txl;ojzifU uwdkufBuD;NrdKYa[mif;onf pHjyerlemaumif;NrdKYa[mif;wpfck[k qdkavmufonf/ 4if;\
{u(70)rQ us,f0ef;aom NrdKYuGufudkyif a&S;a[mif;jyuGuf(Open Museum)wpfcktjzpf owfrSwfazmfxkwf
ay;&efoifUonf[k xifjrif,lqrdygonf/ 4if;\tv,fA[dkcsuf(eef;&mukef;) {u(30)rQ us,f0ef;aom
av;axmifUyHkNrdKYuGufrSm NrdKYdk;oHk;xyfESifU usHK;ESpfxyfywfvnf&Hvsuf ajrjyifay: txif;om;ay:aeonfU
tae txm;rsdK;udk tjcm;rnfonfUae&mwGifrQ awGYEdkifawmhrnf r[kwfay/ usdKuom? Zkwfokwf? 'Hk0ef;?

uwdkufBuD;NrdKYdk; wpfae&m

- 292 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

oxHkajrmufbufNrdKYdk; wpfae&m
oxHk paomNrKd u
Y u
G rf sm;vkd opfyif? opfawm? O,smOf? aetdr?f wdu
k w
f m? ponfwhkd zH;k vTr;f xm;jcif;tvsO;f r&Syd J
awGY&rnfjrifuGif;rSm a&S;NrdKYa[mif;wpfck\ oabmobm0udk csufcsif;em;vnfoabmaygufapEdkifygonf/
oxHkNrdKY BuD;ay:xGef;vm&ef tajccHvlaerIukef;wpfckjzpf azmfxkwfay;oifUygonf/ xdkukef;ay:rS awGY&aom
tkwu
f ek ;f i,ftajcmufcu
k v
kd nf; erlemtjzpf wl;azmfoak woejyKrnfqykd gu oxHNk rKd aY [mif;acwf taxmuf
txm;rsm; &Edkifrnf[k arQmfvifU&ygonf/
oxHkNrdKYa[mif; uGif;qif;okawoetaMumif;t&mrsm;udk tNyD;rowfrD vGefcJUaom tESpfig;
q,fausmfu oxHkNrdKYudk jrefrmEdkifiHordkif;aumfr&SifrS AdkvfrSL;b&Sif? &efukefwuvdkvf ta&SYwdkif;&mZ0if
txl;l ygarmuq&mBu;D *st
D yd cf sv
f (k pf)wdEhk iS fU twlomG ;a&muf uGi;f qif;okawoejyKcaUJ om &efuek w
f uov
kd f
yx0Dygarmua'gufwma':oif;Munf (ordkif;aumfr&SiftzGJY0if)\ ]ok0Pblrd oxHkNrdKYa[mif;avhvm
csufrsm;}aqmif;yg; (ppfynm*sme,f? twGJ 3? trSwf 2? 1958 ck? ZGef? pm 146-153 )rS ed'gef;pmydk'fudk
aumufEIwfazmfjyvdkygonf/ 4if;aqmif;yg;wGif ] MumvQif taxmuftxm;rsm; aysmuf&awmhrnf} [k
tpcsDvQuf oxHkNrdKY\ tajctae? usHK;ESifU NrdKYdk;rsm;? eef;awmf&m? cHwyfa[mif; ponfwdkhudk 1958 ckESpf?
{NyDv 23 &ufaehrS 25 &ufaeh wGif jrefrmEdkifiHordkif;aumfr&Sif aumfrwDtzGJY0ifwpfOD; taejzifU
uGi;f qif;okawoejyKc&UJ ygonf/ yk*jH ynf&U iS t
f aemf&xmrif; oxHu
k kd ppfrufwu
kd cf u
kd o
f rd ;f ydu
k cf o
UJ nfU
c&pfou&mZf 1057 ckESpfrSp a&cJUonf&Sdaomf ESpfaygif; 901 ESpf&SdacsNyD/ rGefwdkhudk jrefrmrsm;
ppfrufatmifjrifNyD;cJUonfup oxHkNrdKYvnf; rif;aejynfrS a&GYavsm NrdKYi,fwpfcktjzpf
,ckwdkifatmifwnf&SdcJU&m vlaetqufrjywf&SdcJUjcif;? vltrsm; NrdKYtESHhaexdkifcJUMujcif;? rif;r&SdojzifU
NrdKYdk;? usHK;ponfwdkhvnf; jyKjyifrIr&SdcJUjcif; ponfUwdkhaMumifh usHK;rsm;aumMuayNyD? NrdKYdk;rsm;vnf;
tcsdKYae&mwdkh a&;a&;rQom awGhjrif& tcsdKYae&mwdkhum; vHk;0aysmufuG,faeonfudk awGY&Sd&
avonf/ ,cktcg NrdKYajrmufbuf&Sd NrdKYdk;rsm;teD;ywf0ef;usifwdkhESifU tcsdKYae&mwdkh NrdKYdk;wdkhwGif
*0Hausmufrsm;wl;aeMu&m ,ckuJhodkhom *krjyKyJxm;ygu MumaomfNrdKYdk;rsm;yg wjznf;jznf;aysmuf
uG,foGm;rnfudk pdk;&drfbG,f&mawGY&Sd&ayonf/
[l a&;om;wifjycJUygonf/

- 293 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

vuf&SdoxHkNrdKYudk jroydwfawmifajcwGif jrif&yHk


,ckvuf&Sd oxHkNrdKYa[mif;tajctaeonf vGefcUJaom tESpf(50)xufydk yGef;wD;? ysufpD;rI&SdrnfrSm
rvJGay/ ]pdk;&drfbG,f&m} jzpfaeygonf/ xdktajctaeudk xdef;odrf;Edkif&ef teD;uyfBuD;MuyfrIvdktyfygonf/
tjcm;aom NrdKYa[mif;BuD; (AdEdk;? awmifwGif;BuD;? a&Tbdk? waumif;? yJcl;? oa&aw&m? ajrmufOD;)wdkhwGif
a&S;a[mif;okawoeXmeH;k cGrJ sm;zGiv
Uf pS
f apmifaU &SmufouJo
h hkd oxHw
k iG f a&S;a[mif;okawoeH;k cGrJ &Sd ao;ay/
oxHkonf a&S;a[mif;ESifh ordkif;wefzdk;BuD;rm;onfqdkaomfvnf; okawoeaqmif&GufrIwGif odrfi,f
aeqJjzpfygonf/
wpfqufwnf;rSmyif jrefrmhp,
G pf u
kH sr;f (pmrsuEf mS - 476-9) oxHNk rKd t
Y aMumif; azmfjycsurf S pmwpfy'kd f
udk aumufEkwfazmfjyvdkygao;onf/
a&S;oxHkjynf\ NrdKYawmfae&monf ,ckacwf oxHkNrdKYwnf&m t&yfyifjzpfaMumif; okawoe
taxmuftxm;rsm;t& od&ayonf/ tcsdKYordkif;q&mrsm;url ygVdbmomjzifU a*gVrwdue*&ac:
aumvmoawmifajc&if;&Sd t,ufonfr &Gmae&mjzpfonfU wdkufukvm;NrdKYa[mif;onf a&S;oxHkNrdKY
wnf&m[kqdkjyefonf/ omoemou&mZf 137 ckESpfwGif oxHkjynfudk a&vTrf;rdk; ysufonfESiUf
ou&mZf 144 ckESpfwGif oxHkNrdKYa[mif;awmifzuf auvmoawmifteD;wGif NrdKYopfwnf&onf/
rif;q,fqufpdk;pHNyD;rS NrdKYa[mif;odkh jyefajymif;&onf[k qdkjyefavonf/
txufygaumufEkwfcsufwGif oxHkNrdKYwnfae&mta&TYtajymif; rnfrQ&SdcJUaMumif; ray:vGifHkomru
oxHkNrdKYwnf&SdrIrSmvnf; raocsmovdk jzpfcJU&onf/ oxHkonf NrdKYae&mrsm;pGmwGif us,fus,fjyefhjyefh
wnfaeaom NrdKYa[mif;BuD;jzpf\/ wdkufukvm;NrdKY(ok0Pblrd)wl;azmfcJUpOf oxHktpm; auvmoawmif
ajc&if;rS wdkufuvm;NrdKYa[mif;&mudk OD;pm;ay;a&G;cs,fcJUonf/ ,if;wdkufukvm;rSmvnf; NrdKYa[mif;ESpfck
(t,uforESifU 0if;u)&Sdaejyef\/ pifpif oxHkordkif;azmfxkwf&ef NrdKYa[mif;wpfckrQudkomru oxHkESifU
teD;ywf0ef;usifrS acwfNydKif[k,lq&aom tjcm;NrdKYa[mif;rsm;udkyg us,fus,fjyefhjyefh okawoejyK&ef
vdktyfrnfjzpfygonf/ a&S;a[mif;okawoe pl;prf;avhvmrIwGif (Site Unit )ae&mwpfck? (Local Unit)
e,fwpfckESifU (Region Unit) a'owpfck[l tqifUqifUvTrf;jcHKrdatmif aqmif&GufoifUygonf/

- 294 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

oxHNk rKd aY [mif; ajrmufbuf pwkwN rKd Y ;kd udk wl;NzKd xm;vQuaf wG&Y yHk
wpfae&mwGif wpf&moD ESpf&moDrQ okawoejyKNyD; ESpftMumBuD;qdkifiHxm;jcif;rsdK;vnf; r&Sd?
rjzpfaumif;ay/ ok0Pbrl d oxHNk rKd aY [mif;a'o[kqEkd ikd af om ppfawmif;jrpf0ESiUf oHviG jf rpf0Mum;&Sd a&S;a[mif;
ae&mtm;vHk; azmfxkwfNyD;rSom ok0Pblrdordkif; ay:vmrnfjzpfygonf/
oxHk[kqkdvQif acwfqufquf acwfBuD;ig;acwfrQ xif&Sm;atmif azmfxkwfay;&ygrnf/
(1)
bk&m;ryGifUrDumv? &aoUESifU odMum; wnfay;onfqdkaom NrdKYdk; (7)xyf? usHK;(7)xyfESifU
oxHkNrdKYrsm; (usdKuom? Zkwfokwf)/
(2)
bk&m;yGifUawmfrlNyD; <uvm w&m;a[mjcif;? qHawmfa0jcif;jyK&m oxHkNrdKY (bDpD-6&mpkESpf)
(okbdEe*&) (usdKufxD;dk;? ZGJuyif? Zif;usdKuf paom qHawmfbk&m;rsm;)?
(3)
bk&m;y&deAd m ef pH0ifNy;D aemuf tESp(f 300)ausmf wwd,o*Fg,emwiftNy;D ud;k wdik ;f ud;k Xme
odkh omoemjyKapvTwfpOf t&SifaomP ESifU Ow&wdkh <ua&mufawmfrlcJUonfqdkaom
oxHkNrdKY (okr0wD? ok0Pblrd) (omoemESpf 235? bDpD 309) (t,ufor? 0if;u?
wdkufukvm;)
(4)
t&Sifr[m Ak'aCmorax&f<uvmNyD; yd#duwfawmfrsm; qdkufa&mufvmcJUonfqdkaom
oxHkNrdKY (at'D 5 &mpk) (yd#uwfwdkufapwD? azmifawmfOD;apwDESifU,ckoxHkNrdKY&SdNrdKYa[mif;)
(5)
yd#uwfawmfrsm;udk taMumif;jyK yk*Htaemf&xmrif;u wdkufcdkufodrf;,l&onfqdkaom
oxHkNrdKY? (at'D 11 &mpk) (,ck oxHkNrdKYdk;ESifU cHwyfukef;rsm;)
[l oxHkacwfBuD; (5)acwf&SdcJUaMumif; tpOftvm rSwfom;vmcJUMuygonf/ ,if;tpOftvmqdkdk;pum;
rnfrQ rSefuefaMumif; acwfopfodyHenf;us okawoejyKjcif;u tajz&may;&rnfjzpfonf/ odkhrSom
ok0Pblrd trSefjzpfaMumif; oufaoxljyEdkifayvdrfUrnf/
,cktcg acwfopfordkif;ynm&SiftcsdKYu ]oxHk[lonf wu,fyifr&Sd? pdwful;xJwGifom&Sdonf}
[kqdkygonf/

- 295 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

oxHNk rKd Y ;kd ta&SaY jrmufaxmifaU e&modhk jrefrmordik ;f tzGYJ ESiUf ordik ;f okawoeuGi;f qif;tzGYJ
qdkufa&mufvmcJUpOf
For the historical reality is that
Sona and Uttara had nothing to do with the )origin of Theravade Buddhism in
Burma ..... there was no conquest of Thaton by Aniruddha in 1057; and as a consequence
Lower Burma did not "Civilize" Upper Burma

ponfjzifU a&;om;wifjyvmonfudk awGY&ayonf (Aung Thwin, The Mists of Raman~n~a, the Legent
that was Lower Burma, Honolulu, University of Hawai Press, 2005-p 321)
tcsKYduvnf; taemf&xm (tek'a'0) wdkufcdkufcJUaom oxHkonf atmufjrefrmEdkifiHrS oxHkNrdKY
r[kwfaMumif;? ,ck ,dk;',m;(xdkif;)EdkifiH euGefyxkrfNrdKYomvQif jzpfaMumif; (Tha Hla, Dr, Thaton and
Nokorn Pathom, SHIROKU, No 16, Kyoto, 1981) a&;om;azmfjy jyefonf/ tusdK;qufum; ok0Pblrd
onf ,ckxdkif;EdkifiHyifjzpfonf[laom tajzxGufcJUygonf/ odkhjzifU jrefrmwdkh *kPf,l0ifU<um;cJUMuaom
Ak'bmom,Ofaus;rItajctjrpf ok0Pblrd? oxHkNrdKYa[mif;onf wdrfjrKyfae&mrS aysmufuG,fvkvkjzpf&
ygonf/ jyefvnfazmfxkwf&ef? xdef;odrf;apmifUa&Smuf&ef wm0efonfvnf; ao;i,fvSrnfr[kwfay? tcsdef?
aiGaMu;ESifU uRrf;usifolrsm;vdktyfygrnf/
,cktcg a&S;NrdKYa[mif;a'orsm;onf c&D;oGm;vkyfief;ESifUvnf; qufEG,faeNyD;? oxHka'oonf
usdKufxD;dk;bk&m;zl;c&D;pOf? armfvNrdKif? bm;tH paomjynfe,fNrdKY BuD;rsm; c&D;pOfvrf;aMumif; usa&muf
wnfonfjzpf&m? ok0Pblrdacwf a&S;a[mif;ae&mrsm;udk azmfxkwfay;Edkifrnfqkdygu ,Of;aus;rItarGtESpf
xdef;odrf;apmifUa&Smufa&; vkyfief;omru c&D;oGm;vkyfief;twGufvnf; taxmuftyHUjzpfapEdkifayvdrfhrnf/

- 296 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

usKd uo
mNrKd aY [mif; bk&m;wpfaxmifuek ;f rS 80HapwDwpfqu
l kd rjyKjyifraD wG&Y pOf
tcsdKY NrdKYa[mif;rsm;onf vrf;rBuD;ESifU uGmvSrf;aeao;ojzifU qufoG,fa&;cufcJvsuf&Sd\/ 4if;wdkh
ay:xGufvmap&ef vrf;opf? vrf;aumif;rsm; azmufvkyfjcif;? c&D;onfrsm; emaepm;aomufp&m aexdkifcif;
pDpOfay;jcif;rsm;vnf; r&Sdrjzpf vdktyfrnfjzpfygonf/ a'ocHjynfolrsm; todynmwdk;yGm;a&;ESifU a&S;a[mif;
ypn;f xde;f odr;f apmifaU &Smufa&;twGuf a'otwGi;f jywdu
k if ,f(Site Museum)rsm; wnfaxmifay;jcif;vnf;
vdt
k yfygrnf/ oxHw
k iG f a&Tpm&Hb&k m;jywdu
k Ef iS Uf ausmufpmHo
k m&S
d a&S;a[mif;jywdu
k rf &Sad o;ay/ Zkwo
f w
k w
f iG f
usdKufxD;apmif;&ifjyifESifU wGJvsuf*0Hjycef;wpfck&Sd\/ usdKufxD;aqmif;bk&m; qifwyfjrif;wyfwdkhESifU NrdKYdk;rsm;
Munfhp&m&Sd\/ usdKuomESifU 0if;uwGif jywdkufr&Sdao;ay/ usdKuombk&m;wpfaxmifukef;rSm obm0twdkif;
jywk d u f w pf c k o zG , f wif U w ,f p G m &S d usd K uf u om Nrd K Y a [mif ; ES i f h w G J N yD ; c&D ; oG m ;{nf U o nf r sm;
vnfywfMunfUIp&mjzpfatmif zefwD;ay;oifUygonf/
oxHkonf yk*HrwdkifrDu NrdKYawmfwpfckjzpfaMumif; tjiif;yGm;bG,fr&Sdyg/ ajray:awGYtaxmuftxm;
rQavmufESifUyif ausmufacwfrSaMu;acwf? oHowKacwfrsm;tqifUqifU vlaerIrjywfrvyf&SdcJUaMumif; cefhrSef;
Edkifayonf/ ydkrdkckdifrmaom taxmuftxm;rsm;jzifU oxHkNrdKYa[mif; ordkif;azmfxkwfa&;twGuf vHkYvpdkuf
xkwfBudK;yrf;Mu&efom vdktyfygonf/

bk&m;wpfaxmifuek ;f rS *0Hypn;f tcsKd EY iS Uf a&S;a[mif; vufa&;pif;tkwcf syrf sm;yHk

- 297 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

ed*;kH
rGefvlrsKd;wdkYonf c&pfESpftpOD;ydkif;umvrSp ppfawmif;jrpfESifhoHvGifjrpf ESpfoG,fpyfMum;a'owGif
&mrna'o[kac:aom rGefrif;jynfaxmifwpfckudk wnfaxmifvsuf twnfwusaexddkifvmcJhMuygonf/
if;rGefjynfaxmif\ A[dkcsufronf ok"r0wDac: oxHkjynfyifjzpf ok0Pblrd odkYr[kwf ]a&Tajr}[l
vnf;ac:Mu\/ ok0PblrdqdkonfrSmvnf; b*Fvm;yifv,fauGY ywf0ef;usifa'oudkvnf;aumif;? ta&SY
awmiftm&Suek ;f wGi;f ydik ;f wpfcv
k ;kH udak omfvnf;aumif; &nfeT ;f ajymqdrk rI sm;&Syd gonf/ tpOftvmqdpk um;t&
Ak'b
&k m;&Siv
f ufxufrpS oD[&mZmrif;onf ok0Pbrl Nd rKd aY wmfukd wnfaxmifco
hJ nf[q
k \
kd / oD[Vkd &f mZ0if
wpfapmifjzpfaom ]r[m0Ho} usr;f c&pfEpS t
f BuKd 3 &mpkEpS t
f wGi;f t&Siaf omPESihf t&SiOf w&rax&fwYkd
Bu;D rSL;aom Ak'o
moemjyKtzGo
YJ nf ok0Pbrl o
d Ykd qdu
k af &mufvmcJNh y;D omoemjyKawmfral Mumif;azmfjyxm;\/
&mZm"dywd ("rapwD) rif;Bu;D \ uvsmPDord af usmufpmwGif aomPESiOhf w&rax&fwYkd qdu
k af &mufvmcJah om
ok0Pbrl Nd rKd aU [mif;ae&mudk ]aCmVrwu
d } ac: wdu
k u
f v
k m;NrKd aU [mif;jzpfaMumif;? ,ckb;D vif;NrKd eY ,fauvmo
awmifajc&if;? oxHkrSrdkif (30) cefYtuGm&Sd t,ufor&Gm&SdaMumif; azmfjyxm;onf/
rSefeef;r[m&mZ0ifawmfBuD;wGif oxHkNrKdYrS t&Sifr[mAk'aCmorax&fBuD;onf at'D 400 cefh
oD[dkVf (oD&dvuFm) odkY <uoGm;awmfrlNyD; Ak'yd#uwfusrf;pmrsm;udk rGefbmomtu&mjzifh a&;ul; oxHkodkY
yifhaqmifawmfrlcJhaMumif; azmfjyyg&Sdonf/ if;rax&fBuD;ESifhywfoufaom ordkif;taxmuftxm;rsm;tay:
orkid ;f ynm &Sit
f csKu
Yd 'G[
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f aYkd 'owGif
c&pfESpf 5 &mpk ax&0gAk'bmomxGef;um;aecJhaMumif; a&S;a[mif;okawoetaxmuftxm;rsm;
oufaocHvsuf&Sdonf/ rSefeef;r[m&mZ0ifawmfBuD;u qufvuf yk*HjynfrStaemf&xmrif;BuD; (10441077) onf oxHkudk ppfcsDwufwdkufcdkufNyD; oxHkbk&ifrEk[mrif;udk atmifjrifaomtcg rif;ESifhwuG
yd#uwfawmf tpHkoHk;q,fudk yk*HjynfodkY,laqmifoGm;aMumif;? xdkpOftcgrSp oxHkjynfonf yk*HEdkifiH\
vufatmufwGif at'D 13 &mpkESpftxd usa&mufoGm;cJhaMumif; azmfjyygonf/
rGefNrdKUawmfa[mif; t<uif;tusefwdkYonf rkwryifv,fauGYywf0ef;usifa'o tESHhtjym;wnf&Sd
aeygonf/ 1970 jynfhvGefESpfrsm;twGif; opfawmXmeTefMum;a&;rSL;OD;atmifjrifh (opfawm"gwfyHktif*sif
eD,m) onf aumif;uif"gwfyHkrsm;udk zwfIavhvmNyD;vQif rkwryifv,fauGYywf0ef;usifa'o&Sd usKduom?
wkduvm;? Zkwfokwf? oxHk? prge*kd (arSmfbD)? NrdKYa[mif;BuD;rsm;ESifh aumhxif;? ppfawmif;? vdyfcHk;? uuwpf?
rkoif? ZGJ*vm? r&rf;ukef;? uwkdufBuD;? uwkdufuav;? qifjzLuRef;tp&Sdaom NrdKYa[mif;ukef;i,frsm;udk
azmfxkwfay;cJhygonf/
usKduom (ajrmufvwDwG'f 17 'D*&D 21 rdepfESifh ta&SYavmif*sDwG'f 96 'D*&D 51 rdepf) onf
rkyv
ifEiS hf usKu
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kH @meftwdtusrqkEd idk af om tvsm;
&Sn0f ef;0kid ;f onft
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dS nf/ t&G,t
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hf aemuf 2500 rDwmcefEY iS t
hf eH awmifajrmuf
1000 rS 2000 rDwmcefY&Snfvsm;us,f0ef;onf/ ta&SUbufydkif;rSm us,fjyefYtaemufbufokdY usOf;ajrmif;
oGm;Ny;D yifv,fauGu
Y rf;k;d tpyfoaYdk &mufonf/ twGi;f xyfNrKd Y ;dk rsm;onf (7) xyfcef&Y \
dS / if;NrKd aY xmifrh sm;onf
auG;0kdufaevsuf&Sd\/ tus,fqHk;twGif;xyf NrdKYuGufonf tcsif; 750 rDwmcefY&Sd\/ tv,fA[kdwGif
usKdufcEHk[k bGJYtrnfwGifvsuf&Sdaom apwDwpfqltm; 0ef;&Hxm;vsuf&Sdonf/
usKu
d o
mNrKd aY [mif;onf txl;ojzifh pdw0f ifpm;zG,af umif;aom a&S;a[mif;okawoeESihf orkid ;f qkid f
&m ae&mwpfcyk ifjzpfygonf/ tb,fah Mumifq
h adk omf if;\ NrKd u
Y u
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kH @mefx;l axGqef;jym;yHEk iS hf xkNd rKd aY [mif;udk

- 298 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

rkwryifv,fauGYxdyfpGef;ae&m awGY&Sd&jcif;aMumifhyifjzpfonf/ uJhokdYwnfaeyHktaetxm;onf


yifv,fjyifokdY tvG,fwul0ifxGufoGm;vmEkdifjcif;? ukef;wGif;ydkif;ESifhvnf; qufpyfrI&Sdjcif;paom tcGifh
tvrf;rsm;&SdaMumif;azmfjyaeygonf/ usKduomNrdKUa[mif;okdY uGif;qif;okawoe c&D;rsm;xGufcJhpOfu if;\
tjyifxyfNrdKYkd;ESifhtwGif;xyfNrdKUdk;rsm;rS vufa&;pif;tkwfcsyf (tkwfrsufESmjyifwpfzufwGif vufacsmif;jzifh
tpif;aMumif;rsm;a&;jcpfxm;aomtkwf) ajrmufrsm;pGmudkrSwfwrf;wifcJh&ygonf/ if;vufa&;pif; tkwfcsyf
"avhrSm txufjrefrmEkdifiHwGif ysLNrdKYa[mif;BuD;rsm; awGY&jcif;jzpf ysLtkwf[ktvG,fwul ac:Muaomf
vnf; acwfudkydkif;jcm;owfrSwf ysLacwf"avhqkdif&mtkwf[lomac:oifh\/
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(bef;NrKd aY [mif;) wGif ygVb
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uGif;qif; okawoe (2000 jynfhESpf) jyKonfhtcg vufa&;pif;tkwfcsyfrsm;ukd &SmazGawGY&Sd& aomaMumifh

- 299 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

NrdKUa[mif;onf 15-&mpkESpfxuf ykda&S;usEkdifaMumif; cefYrSef;Edkifyg onf/ t,ufor&GmrSawmifbufuyf


vsuf 0if;u&Gmvnf; 1975-76ckEpS rf sm;twGi;f tkwu
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rsm;xGufay:aeonfjzpf tvGefa&S;usaMumif; xif&Sm;onf/ 0if;u rS c&pf 6-&mpkESpf vufa&;jzihf
urn;f pmygaomtkwcf u
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- 300 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

a&S;a[mif;oxHkNrdKYuGuftwGif; tjynfUt0wnfvsufae&m,lxm;NyD;jzpf NrdKYa[mif;twGif;&Sd a&S;a[mif;


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odMum;bk&m;ac:jrodef;wef apwD? yd#uwfwkdufapwDrsm;wnf&Sdonf/ odMum;bk&m;wGif ajrrD;zkwfZmwfBuD;
q,fbGJY okyfazmfkyf<ucsyfrsm; uyfpDxm;vsuf&Sdonf/ bk&m;BuD;awmifbuf uvsmPDodrfa[mif;rS
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paomZmwfawmfrsm;udk okyfazmfxm;onfjzpf t&SifAk'aCmoorkdif;aMumif; ESifhqufpyfrI&SdaMumif;
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oufwrf;udkif;wkdYxkvkyfrI [efyeftaetxm;t& c&pf 9 &mpkrS 11 &mpkESpfrsm;twGif; tEkynmvuf&m
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tcsKdYudkxdef;odrf;xm;ygonf/ if;wkdYESifhtwl ausmufqpfAk'kyfwkawmfrsm; ajrrD;zkwfAk'kyfwkrsm;udkvnf;
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aomfvnf;aumif;? oxHkESifhqufpyfaevsuf&Sdaom NrdKYa[mif;i,frsm;udkaomfvnf;aumif; pepfwuswl;azmf
okawoejyKjcif;udk raqmif&u
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rsufarSmufacwfordkif;ESifU a&S;a[mif;okawoeynm&Sifrsm;txd uGif;qif;avUvmawGY&Sd&aom tcsuf
tvufrsm;? aumif;uif"gwfyHkavUvmzwfIjcif;enf;ynm(Remote Sensing)t& azmfxkwfxm;aom
NrdKYa[mif;&mwnfykH? a&S;vlwdkhzefwD;cJUaom ajrjyiftaetxm; (Man-made Land Scape)? a&ay;a0rIpepf
(Water Management System)rsm;t& ok0PblrdNrdKYa[mif;[lonf jrefrmEdkifiHwGif&SdaMumif; pmIolrsm;
udk,fwdkifqHk;jzwfEdkifvdrfrnf[k ,HkMunfarQmfvifUygonf/
a&Ttqif;0if;aom ok0Pblrd trsdK;om;,Ofaus;rItarGtESpfrsm;udk jrwfEdk;pGm umuG,fxdef;odrf;
apmifUa&Smuf&efonf a&TEdkifiHom;tm;vHk;\ r[mwm0efBuD;yif jzpfygonf/

OD;pH0if;
ordkif;okawoe
2013ckESpf? Zefe0g&Dv? (6)&uf(we*FaEGaeh)

- 301 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

ok aw o e

--usrf;udk;pm&if;
udkudk
cifarmifBuD;
cspo
f ed ;f ? OD;?
aiGaiGp;kd ? a':

pH0if;? armif?

pH0if;? OD;?

pH0if;? OD;?
pH0if;? OD;?

pH0if;? OD;?

pH0if;? OD;? rsKd ;OD;? OD;

wifarmifaxG;? OD;

wifarmifaxG;? OD;?
wifvSaomf

- ]usdKuomNrKd aY [mif; yPmrwl;azmfavhvmcsu}f (1987)


- ]0if;u? t&uforESihf ok0Pbrl Nd rKd aU [mif;t,ltq}? &Sm&SmazGazG
jrefrmordik ;f ? aguw
f moef;xGe;f (75)ESpjf ynfh txdr;f trSwpf mapmif(2)/
- rGeaf usmufpmaygi;f csKy?f &efuek Nf rKd ?Y
a&S;a[mif;okawoeXme? (1965)
- usKd uo
mNrKd aU [mif; pwkwt
Burd f wl;az:oak woevkyif ef; (aemuf
qufwGJ) yPmravhvmawGY&Sdcsufrsm; tpD&ifcHpm? a&S;a[mif;
okawoe OD;pD;Xme? 2001/
- ]ppfawmif;ESifh oHvGifjrpfESpfoG,fpyfMum;&Sd a&S;NrdKUa[mif;rsm;tm;
yPravhvmcsu}f r[mZmbGu
YJ sr;f ? &efuek w
f uov
kd ?f ordik ;f Xme/
(1986)
- ]rGefjynfe,f usdKufxdkESifh bD;vif;NrdKUe,frsm;odkY ordkif;okawoe
uGif;qif;c&D;(27-4-2001 rS 7-6-2001)? jrefrmhordkif; tzGJY
okawoepmapmif? &efuek ?f wuov
kd yf EkH ydS w
f u
kd /f (2004)
- usdKuomESifh teD;0ef;usifrS t&ma[mif;rsm;? wuodkvfrsm;
ordik ;f okawoeOD;pD;Xme? 2001/
- ]&efukefwdkif;? wGHaw;NrdKUe,f? jyowdkuftkyfpk? wHcGefwdkifaus;&Gm?
a&S;a[mif;ay:awmfrl Ak'kyfyGm;awmfrsm; avhvma&;c&D; tpD&if
cHpm}? (2005ckEpS ?f Zlvikd v
f )/
- ]wdkufukvm;NrdKYa[mif;}? jrefrmUa&S;a[mif;NrdKYawmfrsm;?
&efuek w
f uov
kd f pde&f wkcef;rwGif zwfMum;aomokawoepmwrf;
rsm;/ (19-20)? 2006? Zefe0g&/D
- oxHNk rKd aY [mif; uGi;f qif;okawoetpD&ifcpH m? a&S;a[mif;okawoe
trsdK;om;jywdkufESifUpmMunfUwdkufOD;pD;Xme(awmifydkif;) ,Ofaus;rI
0efBu;D Xme? 2009 ckEpS ?f ZGev
f /
- usdKuomNrdKYa[mif;?
&efuek w
f uov
kd f pde&f wkcef;rwGif zwfMum;aomokawoepmwrf;
rsm;/ (19-20)? 2006? Zefe0g&/D
- usdKuomNrdKUa[mif;udkavhvmjcif;? ordkif;Xme? &efukefwuodkvf?
2001/
- ]a&Twd*HkapwD\oufawmf}? uefompdrf;vJhpmwrf;rsm;? &efukef?
rif;vSpmtkyw
f u
kd /f (1969)

- 302 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

awmifaygufq&mawmf
OD;puygv
Edik cf ifarmifav;? OD;?
ynm? OD;?

zmeDA,f? owd;k ok"rEiS hf


azarmifwif? OD;?
zd;k vwf? OD;?
zd;k vwf? OD;?
b&SifAdkvfrSL;
abbD? a':?

armifarmifou
kd ?f OD;?
armifb;l ? OD;?
rkwr NrKd ?Y 45 ck ppfwrf;
jr? OD;(1961)
jrifaU tmif? OD;
jrifo
U ef;aiG? OD;?
jrifah tmif? OD;(1978)?
jrifah tmif? OD;(1975)?

rSefeef;&mZ0ifawmfBuD;?
&nfped ?f OD;?

ok aw o e

Ak'o
moedu yx0Dusr;f Bu;D ? &efuek ?f e'D{&ma&mifpykH EkH ydS w
f u
kd ?f
('kwd,tBudrf)(1985)
- wdrjf rK yaf ysmufu,
G af eonfh rGew
f \
Ykd NrKd jU yEdik if rH sm;? &efuek ?f a&Tjynfph kH
atmhzq
f uf? 1999/
- rkwr&mZ0ifaygif;csKyfESifh rkwrppfwrf; pma[mif;usrf;? oxHkNrdKU?
ok0P0wD yd#uwfyEkH ydS w
f u
kd /f (1927)
- oxH&k mZ0ifaygi;f csKyu
f sr;f Bu;D ? oxH?k ok"r0wD yHEk ydS w
f u
kd ?f 1927/
- ZrL'DyOaqmif;usr;f ? &efuek ?f jrefrmEdik if H okawoetoif;
(wnf;jzwf)/ (1960)
- 1957-58 ckESpf? a&S;a[mif;okawoenTefMum;a&;0ef\ESpfcsKyf
tpD&ifcpH m? &efuek ?f a&S;a[mif;okawoeXme/ (1958)?
- jrefrmha&S;a[mif;&mZ0ifEiS hf ,Ofaus;rIoak woe? &efuek ?f ynmeEm
yHEk ydS w
f u
kd /f (1962)
- taemf&xmrwdik rf u
D jrefrmESikd if ?H &efuek ?f yk*pH mtkyw
f u
kd /f 1971?
- oxHNk rKd aU [mif;? yxrtBurd ?f wlazmfoak woevkyif ef; tpD&ifcpH m?
(1999-2000) ckEpS ?f wl;azmfrXI mepk (atmufjrefrmjynf)? 2000
ck? Zefe0g&D 4 &uf/ (2000)?
- yJc;l cdik f ol&o
J rdeu
f rG ;f qdyo
f Ykd uGi;f qif;okawoec&D; tpD&ifcpH m?
jrefrmEdik if H ordik ;f aumfr&Si?f 1970/
- a&Tarma"m&mZ0ifordik ;f ? rEav;? yd#uwfawmfjyefyY mG ;a&;Xme/
- trsKd ;om;pmMunfw
h u
kd ?f aytrSw-f 2272/
- a&S;a[mif;tkwcf u
G f yk yf mG ;qif;wkawmfrsm;? yxrwG?J &efuek ?f wuov
kd f
yHkESdyfwdkuf/
- ok0Pbrl d wl;azmfru
I kd acwfcjJG cif;?
- uvsmPDygVad usmufpm jrefrmjyef (vufa&;rl)
rGejf ynfe,faeh? txde;f trSwpf mapmif? 1977? rwfv
- ]ok0Pbrl Nd rKd aY [mif; ordik ;f taxmuftxm;}? wuov
kd f ynm
ya'ompmapmif? twGJ 12? tydik ;f 1? Pufwifbm? 1978/
- ]ok0Pblrd odkYr[kwf wdrfjrKyfaeaom a&S;a[mif;a'owpfck}?
jrefrma&S;a[mif;,SOaf us;rIoak woe? &efuek ?f atmifcsr;f om yHEk ydS f
wdkuf/
- yxrwG?J rdwv
D mNrKd ?U rdb*kPf yd#uwfyEkH ydS w
f u
kd ?f 1956/
- ]vif(ef),ef(if)ESihf qufpyfaom a&S;a[mif;jrefrmEdik if o
H rdik ;f wpf&yf}?
oef;xGef; 75arG;aeYvufaqmif &Sm&SmazGazGjrefrmordkif;twGJ- 2?
&efuek ?f ode;f xdu
k &f wemyHEk ydS w
f u
kd ?f 1999/

- 303 -

OD;pH0if; ( ordik ;f okawoe )

ok 0 P bl rd

&nfpdef? OD;?

&Sr;f ? OD;? q&mBu;D (1922)

ok aw o e

]ysLacwfjrefrmEdkifiH\ EdkifiHjcm;qufqHa&;}? EdkifiHordkif;okawoe


pmapmiftwGJ 4? &efuek ?f pmayAdrmefyEkH ydS w
f u
kd ?f 1979/
a&S;a[mif;okawoe TefMum;a&;0ef\
1957 - 58 ckEpS t
f wGuf ESpcf sKyt
f pD&ifcpH m
omoe0Hopmwrf;? &efukef? NAdwdoQbm;rm; yHkESdyfwdkuf? 1922?
J.B.R.S, Vol. XL,1921, p.133

a&Taemf?armif?ppfuJawmfrif;? -

rGef&mZ0ifESifhapwDawmfordkif;aygif;csKyf? &efukef?
[Hom0wDowif;pmwdkuf? 1899/
vJv
U 0UJ if;? a':?
- oxHkNrdKYa[mif;?
&efuek w
f uov
kd f pde&f wkcef;rwGif zwfMum;aomokawoepmwrf;
rsm;/ (19-20)? 2006? Zefe0g&/D
vlaz0if;? OD;(1958)
- uvsmPDrGefausmufpm? &efukef? a&Todef;yHkESdyfwdkuf? 1958?
(wnf;jzwfjyefqdk)/
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