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Mangala C N,2Suma B. M.Tech 6 sem(QIP) , Department of CSE , RVCE, Bangalore. Asst Prof, Department of CSE, RVCE, Bangalore

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Abstract - Image segmentation is a classical problem in computer vision and is of paramount importance to medical imaging. The segmentation is complicated by lack of clarity, the overlap of intensities and many other factors. Even though there are several brain image segmentation techniques proposed, accuracy in these lags, so the main objective of this paper is to improve the accuracy of segmentation. This Fuzzy Local Gaussian Mixture Model(FLGMM)algorithm estimates the segmentation result that maximizes the posterior probability by minimizing an objective energy function, in which a truncated Gaussian kernel function is used to impose the spatial constraint and fuzzy memberships are employed to balance the contribution of each GMM(Gaussian Mixture Model).Results of the proposed algorithm show that this algorithm can largely overcome the difficulties raised by noise, low contrast, and bias field, and using Discrete cosine enhancement technique to enhance the image substantially improve the accuracy of brain MR image segmentation for accurate result. Keyword - FLGMM , Bias field , Fuzzy C-means , GMM, Brain MR image, posterior probability, objective function, energy function , Fuzzy clustering.

1.

INTRODUCTION specific in nature depending upon the type of noise present in the image. Image Segmentation is an important step in image analysis. Segmentation is a process of dividing an image into regions having similar properties, such as gray level, color, texture, brightness, contrast, etc. Feature extraction deals with pattern recognition whose main aim is classification of patterns and sub-patterns in an image or scene finally based on the results obtained in Image pre-processing, segmentation, pattern recognition and feature extraction, the image will be analyzed and classified. There are a number of techniques to segment an image into regions that are homogeneous. Not all the techniques are suitable for medical image analysis because of complexity and inaccuracy. There is no standard image segmentation technique that can produce satisfactory results for all imaging applications like brain MRI, brain cancer diagnosis etc. Optimal selection of features, tissues, brain and nonbrain elements are considered as main obstacles for brain image segmentation. Accurate segmentation over full field of view is another hindrance. Operator supervision and manual thresholding are other barriers to segment brain image. During the segmentation procedure verification of results is another source of difficulty. 2. LITERATURE ANALYSIS Segmentation of MR Images is a challenging problem due to its complexity as well as the absence of models of the anatomy that fully captures the possible deformations in each

Brain image segmentation is one of the most important parts of clinical diagnostic tools. Brain images mostly contain noise, inhomogeneity and Bias field. Therefore, accurate segmentation of brain images is a very difficult task. However, the process of accurate segmentation of these images is very important and crucial for a correct diagnosis by clinical tools. This paper review of the methods used in brain segmentation. The review covers bias field estimation and its correction, magnetic resonance imaging and methods for noise reduction, inhomogeneity correction, segmentation and enhancement of the image by using Discrete Cosine Transform technique. With the immense growth in computers and technology, considerable efforts have been made in computer-aided diagnosis using medical images to improve the analysis of medical images. A lot of research efforts have been directed in the field of Medical Image Analysis with the aim to assist in diagnosis and clinical studies. Computer-aided analysis of medical images obtained from different imaging systems such as MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging), CT (Computer Aided Tomography) scan, ultrasound B-scan involves four basic steps: a) image filtering or preprocessing, b) image segmentation, c) feature extraction, and d) classification or analysis of extracted features by classifier or pattern recognition system. The main aim of image preprocessing is to suppress unwanted noise and to enhance image features important from further analysis point of view, and is most of the time

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structure.[2]Conventional MRI relies on a difference in a weighted average of spectral and temporal information from tissue to tissue to make a diagnosis. The intensity of the MR image of human tissue is homogeneous and the structure of each tissue is connected, but is difficult to separate the adjacent tissue due to the small intensity changes and smoothed boundaries between tissues. Further, the lacks of clearly dened edges includes intra and inter observer variability, which deteriorates the signicance of the analysis. Brain tissue is a complex structure. The diagnosis of many brain disorders involves accurate tissue segmentation of brain MR images. Manual delineation of the two brain tissues, white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM) in brain MR image by a human expert is too difficult. Thus,[7]segmentation of brain MR images is an important step for the same, and has attracted the attention of many researchers for the last decade.In section 4 we present the results of the segmented images our proposed method. In the last part section 5 we provide our conclusions and a brief idea of our future work is expressed. 2. PROPOSED SYSTEM

3.3 Preprocessing

Noise Removal We have used Gaussian filter. In this approach, there are two major steps: 1. Detect noisy pixel using new impulse detector 2. Utilize weighted directional information to calculate the Gaussian value for removing impulse noise and preserve details. 3.4 Bias filed Estimation and correction: The bias field in a brain MR image can be modeled as a multiplicative component of an observed image, as shown in the following: I = b J + n (1) Where I is the observed image, J is the true image to be restored, b is an unknown bias field, and n is the additive zero-mean Gaussian noise. The goal of bias field correction is to estimate and eliminate the bias field b from the observed image I. Without loss of generality, the bias field b is assumed to be slowly varying in the entire image domain. Ideally, the intensity J in each tissue should take a specific value vi, reflecting the physical property being measured, e.g., the proton density in MR images. The bias filed estimation done by using BCFCM The most important shortcoming of standard FCM algorithm is that the objective function does not think about the spatial dependence therefore it deal with image as the same as separate points. In order to decrease the noise effect during image segmentation, the proposed method incorporates both the local spatial context and the non-local information into the standard FCM cluster algorithm using a novel dissimilarity index in place of the usual distance metric.

The first step involves pre-processing and an image Segmented and enhancement procedure where pre-processing stage considers the removal of noise , Bias Field estimation and bias field correction and image enhancement techniques are used to improve an image. After the MR image enhancement, To make a fair comparison, all algorithms were initialized by using the k-means clustering. The segmentation accuracy was measured by the Jaccard similarity (JS), The value of JS ranges from 0 to 1, and a higher JS represents more accurate segmentation. 3.1 Data Flow Diagram

Fig1 . Data Flow diagram of FLGMM The Fig 1 show the data flow diagram of FLGMM . Here input MRI image is implement by grey level cooccurrence matrix which formulates image segmentation by fuzzification process gives affect MRI image for test the system.

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Therefore a modified FCM algorithm is used to segment the image in our proposed paper. The membership value decides the segmentation results and hence the membership value is evaluated by the distance measurement denoted as kid . Therefore the approach modifies the distance measurement parameter .

3.5 Bias

Corrector

This utility performs slab identification, inter-slice intensity correction, bias field estimation, and corrected image generation all together using it MRI Bias Field Correction Filter (in the Code/Basic Filter directory). The main purpose of this utility is to show how to use the filter. The Inter Slice Intensity Corrector utility also uses the same filter. The Bias Corrector utility uses all of the functionality of the MRI Bias Field Correction Filter class. Therefore, users who want to learn the functionality of the filter class might want to take a look at the utility's code first. The reason why there are small utilities instead of just one program is to provide users to perform and examine each step individually so that users have a chance to adjust the parameter values before running the long optimization step.

This algorithm works by assigning membership to each data point corresponding to each cluster center on the basis of distance between the cluster center and the data point. More the data is near to the cluster center more is its membership towards the particular cluster center. Clearly, summation of membership of each data point should be equal to one as shown in the Fig 4. Let I = {I (k) Rd ; 1 k n} be a set of d-dimensional image features. The FCM [22] partitions this feature set into c clusters based on minimizing the sum of distances from each feature to every cluster centroid weighted by its corresponding membership. Let the membership function be U = {ui (k)} Rc n , where u ( k) [0 , 1] is the degree of feature I ( k) belonging to cluster i and follows the constraint

The first row of images of the following is the images before and after the correction. The left image (before image) shows the Venetian artifacts along x axis. You can see the improvement in the right image (after image). The improvement is clearer in the histogram second row of images show in Fig 3.

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Fig 4. Result of Fuzzy C-means clustering. 3.7 Implementation Details of FLGMM algorithm: Image segmentation aims to partition the image domain into c disjoint regions, such that = {i}c where i=1. For each voxel x, if its neighborhood region is denoted by Ox, {i Ox}c i=1.forms a partition of Ox. We assume the local image data within Ox satisfy the GMM. Let p (y i Ox |I(y)) be the posterior probability of voxel y belonging to the sub region i Ox on condition that it has the intensity value I(y). According to the Bayes rule, we have p(y i Ox |I(y)) = p(I(y)|y i Ox )p(y i Ox ) p (I(y)) where p(I(y)|y i Ox ) is the probability distribution within the sub region i Ox , p (y i Ox ) is the prior probability of voxel y belonging to i Ox , and p(I(y)) is the probability of observing the intensity I(y). To minimize the GMM energy E x FLGMM over every voxel x in the image domain , following objective function can be defined for FLGMM algorithm

Fig 6. Illustration of (left column) two 7T-weighted brain MR images with skull, (middle column) the estimated bias field, and (right column) segmentation results.

Fig. 7. JS values of (left) GM segmentation and (right) WM segmentation Six clinical T1-weighted brain MR images (1st row), their segmentation results obtained by using AFCM (2nd row), BCFCM (3rd row), GKFCM (4th row), SFKFCM (5th row),Wells algorithm (6th row), Leemputs algorithm(7th row), CLIC (8th row), BCFCM (9th row), the proposed algorithm (10throw), and the ground truth (11th row) shown in Fig 8 as shown below

c

JFLGMM = ui(y)m di(I(y)) dy i=1 Where di(I(y))= K(x y) (ln_(pi(x)/((2)d/2 |i(x)|1/2 exp((1/2)(I(y) b(x)vi)T i(x)1 (I(y) b(x)vi)))dx 4. Results and Discussion. In the below Fig5 shown, first row indicates the 3-T(Tesla) weighted brain MR images, images in the second row is the estimated bias field for the corresponding images and final row is the segmentation results.

Fig 5. Illustration of (top row) three 3T-weighted brain MR images, (middle row) the estimated bias field, and (bottom row) segmentation results.

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state-of-the-art algorithms. However, similar to other FCMand EM-based segmentation approaches, the FLGMM algorithm has a non-convex objective function, and hence may be trapped by local optima. Accurate brain tissue segmentation from magnetic resonance (MR) images is an essential step in quantitative brain image analysis. However, due to the existence of noise and intensity inhomogeneity in brain MR images, many segmentation algorithms suffer from limited accuracy. Even though the segmentation algorithm implemented in this paper overcomes the problem of accuracy and has more accurate results compared to all other algorithms, it uses a non convex objective function and hence can be trapped by local optima. So as an enhancement for this project, in the future computational complexity can be reduced and robustness to the initialization can be improved. REFERENCES [1] A modified possibilistic fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm for bias

field estimation and segmentation of brain MR image-Comput. Med. Imag.Graph., vol. 35, pp. 383397, Jul.2011. [2] Z. X. Ji, Q. Chen, Q. S. Sun, D. S. Xia, and P. A. Heng, MR image segmentation and bias field estimation using coherent local and global intensity clustering, in Proc. 7th Int. Conf. Fuzzy Syst. Knowl. Discov., 2010, vol. 2, pp. 578582. [3]U. Vovk, F. Pernus, and B. Likar, A review of methods for correction of intensity inhomogeneity in MRI, IEEE Trans.Med. Imag., vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 405421, Mar. 2007. [4] C. Li, C. Gatenby, L. Wang, and J. Gore, A robust parametric method for bias field estimation and segmentation of MR images, in Proc. IEEE Conf. Comput. Vision Pattern Recog., 2009, pp. 218223. [5] C. Li, C. Xu, A. Anderson, and J. Gore, MRI tissue classification and bias field estimation based on coherent local intensity clustering: A unified energy minimization framework, in Proc. 21st Int. Conf. Inf. Process. Med. Imag., Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 2009, vol. 5636, pp. 288 299. [6] C. Li, C. Xu, A. Anderson, and J. Gore, MRI tissue classification and bias field estimation based on coherent local intensity clustering: A unified energy minimization framework, in Proc. 21st Int. Conf. Inf. Process. Med. Imag., Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 2009, vol. 5636, pp. 288299 [7] K. Sikka, N. Sinha, P. K. Singh, and A. K. Mishra, A fully automated algorithm under modified FCM framework for improved brain MR image segmentation, Magn. Reson. Imag., vol. 27, pp. 9941004, Jul.2009. [8] D. Pham and J. Prince, Adaptive fuzzy segmentation of magnetic resonance images, IEEE Trans.Med. Imag., vol. 18, no. 9, pp. 737752, Sep.1999. [9] A. Liew and H. Yan, An adaptive spatial fuzzy clustering algorithm for 3-D MR image segmentation, IEEE Trans. Med. Imag., vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 10631075, Sep. 2003. [10] S. C. Chen and D. Q. Zhang, Robust image segmentation using FCM with spatial constraints based on new kernel-induced distance measure, IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybernet., vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 19071916, Apr. 2004. [11] M. S. Yang and H. S. Tsai, A Gaussian kernel-based fuzzy c-means algorithm with a spatial bias correction, Pattern Recog. Lett., vol. 29, pp. 17131725, Sep. 2008. [12] H. Permuter, J. Francos, and I. Jermyn, A study of Gaussian mixture models of color and texture features for image classification and segmentation, Pattern Recog., vol. 39, pp. 695706, Apr. 2006. [13] L. Gupta and T. Sortrakul, AGaussian mixture based image segmentation algorithm, Pattern Recog., vol. 31, pp. 315325, Mar. 1998. [14] H. Greenspan, A. Ruf, and J. Goldberger, Constrained Gaussian mixture model framework for automatic segmentation ofMR brain images, IEEE Trans. Med. Imag., vol. 25, no. 9, pp. 12331245, Sep. 2006. [15] K. Blekas, A. Likas, N. P. Galatsanos, and I. E. Lagaris, A spatially constrained mixture model for image segmentation, IEEE Trans. Neural Netw., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 494498, Feb. 2005. [16] D. Tran, T. Le, and M. Wagner, Fuzzy Gaussian mixture models forspeaker recognition, in Proc. Int. Conf. Spoken Language, 1998, pp. 759 762.

Fig 8 Six clinical T1-weighted brain MR images. 5. Conclusion and Future-Work: This algorithm uses a truncated Gaussian kernel function to incorporate spatial constraints into local GMMs, and employs the fuzzy membership function to balance the contribution of each GMM to the segmentation process. Our results in both synthetic and clinical images show that the proposed algorithm can largely overcome the difficulties raised by noise, low contrast, and bias fields, and is capable of producing more accurate segmentation results than several

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International Journal of Latest Research in Science and Technology. [17] J. Zeng, L. Xie, and Z. Liu, Type-2 fuzzy Gaussian mixture, Pattern Acknowldgement Recog., vol. 41, pp. 36363643, Dec. 2008. [18] J. C. Bezdek, Pattern Recognition With Fuzzy Objective Function Mangala C N received the B.E. degree in Computer Algorithms. Norwell, MA: Kluwer, 1981. Science and engineering from the NCET-Bangalore, VTU[19] L. Wang, L. He, A. Mishra, and C. Li, Active contours driven by local Belgaum,India, in 2006, and Pursuing the M.Tech degree Gaussian distribution fitting energy, Signal Process., vol. 89, pp. 2435 in Computer Science and Engineering from the RVCE 2447, Dec. 2009. Bangalore,VTU-Belgaum , India. She is currently a Asst. [20] Y. J. Chen, J. W. Zhang, and J. Macione, An improved level set Professor in the Faculty of Computer Science and method for brain MR images segmentation and bias correction, Comput. Technology, EWIT-Bangalore, VTUUniversity, Med. Imag. Graph., vol. 33, pp. 510519, May 2009. Belgaum India. Member of ISTE. [21] M. Sasikala, N. Kumaravel and S. Ravikumar, Segmentation of Brain MR Images using Genetically Guided Clustering , Proceedings of the 28th Her research interests include image processing, datamining and data IEEE warehouse and medical imaging. EMBS Annual International Conference New York City, USA, Aug 30-Sept 3, 2006.

and engineering from the NMAMIT,Nitte,Manglaore University in (1998) - India and Got M.Tech degree in Computer Science and Engineering from the RVCE M.Tech.(CSE) NITK, Surathkal in 2004 , India. She is currently a Asst. Professor in the Faculty of Computer Science and Technology, RVCE-Bangalore, Autonomous College, India. Her research interests include image processing, data mining and data warehouse and computer networks.

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