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WatchGuard Certified Training

Branch Office VPN Tunnels and Mobile VPN


Fireware XTM and WatchGuard System Manager v11.6

Revised: July 2012


Updated for: Fireware XTM v11.6

Notice to Users
Information in this guide is subject to change without notice. Companies, names, and data used in examples herein are fictitious unless otherwise noted. No part of this guide may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, for any purpose, without the express written permission of WatchGuard Technologies, Inc.

Copyright and Patent Information


Copyright 2012 WatchGuard Technologies, Inc. All rights reserved. WatchGuard, Firebox, Fireware, LiveSecurity, and spamBlocker are either registered trademarks or trademarks of WatchGuard Technologies, Inc. in the United States and other countries. This product is covered by one or more pending patent applications. All other trademarks and tradenames are the property of their respective owners. Printed in the United States.

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Table of Contents

Branch Office VPN Tunnels .................................................................................................... 1 Introduction .................................................................................................................... 1


What You Will Learn ...................................................................................................................... 1 Exercise ......................................................................................................................................... 1 What BOVPNs Can Do For You ..................................................................................................... 1

What You Should Know ................................................................................................. 2


How Branch Office VPNs work ..................................................................................................... 2 Terms and Definitions .................................................................................................................. 4 What Happens During Phase 1 Negotiations ............................................................................. 8 What Happens During Phase 2 Negotiations .......................................................................... 25 How VPNs Work With Multi-WAN ............................................................................................... 33 Use IPSec Certificates for the IKE Credentials ........................................................................ 34 Add Policies in Policy Manager to Allow VPN Traffic ............................................................... 38 Troubleshoot Branch Office VPN Tunnels ................................................................................ 38

Before You Begin ......................................................................................................... 41


Necessary Equipment And Services ......................................................................................... 41 Management Computer Configuration ..................................................................................... 41 Firewall Configuration ................................................................................................................. 41

Exercise ........................................................................................................................ 42
Make a Manual VPN Between a Single-WAN XTM Device and a Multi-WAN XTM Device .... 42

Frequently Asked Questions ....................................................................................... Related Courseware and Information ........................................................................ What You Have Learned .............................................................................................. Test Your Knowledge ................................................................................................... Mobile VPN ........................................................................................................................... What You Will Learn .................................................................................................... Connect Remote Users Securely to the Corporate Network .....................................

48 49 49 50 51 51 51

Types of Mobile VPN .................................................................................................................. 52 Enable the XTM Device for Mobile VPN .................................................................................... 53 Distribute Client Software and Configuration File ................................................................... 54

Use Mobile VPN with IPSec With a Mac OS X or iOS Device ..................................... 55
Configure the XTM Device ......................................................................................................... 55 Configure the VPN Client on an iOS Device ............................................................................. 56 Configure the VPN Client on a Mac OS X Device ..................................................................... 56

Exercise 1: Set Up Mobile User VPN with PPTP ........................................................... 57


Activate PPTP on the XTM Device .............................................................................................. 57 Add Users to the PPTP-Users Group ......................................................................................... 58 Restrict PPTP Users by Policy .................................................................................................... 59 Configure the Windows Client Computer ................................................................................. 59

Exercise 2: Configure Mobile VPN with IPSec and Prepare Mobile VPN Client Configuration Files .......................................................................................................... 61
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Exercise 3: Restrict Mobile VPN with IPSec Users by Policy ....................................... 66 Exercise 4: Use the Shrew Soft IPSec Client ................................................................ 69
Install the Shrew Soft VPN Client .............................................................................................. 69 Connect and Disconnect the Shrew Soft VPN Client .............................................................. 70

Exercise 5: Configure the XTM device for SSL VPN ..................................................... 72


Activate the XTM Device for SSL VPN ....................................................................................... 72 Add Users to the SSLVPN-Users Group ..................................................................................... 74 Restrict SSL VPN Users by Policy .............................................................................................. 75

Exercise 6: Change the Port Used for Mobile VPN with SSL ....................................... 77 Exercise 7: Use the Mobile VPN with SSL Client .......................................................... 78
Install the Mobile VPN with SSL Client ..................................................................................... 78 Connect with the Mobile VPN with SSL Client ......................................................................... 79

Test Your Knowledge ................................................................................................... 80

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WatchGuard Fireware XTM Training

Fireware XTM Training

Branch Office VPN Tunnels


Creating IPSec VPNs in Fireware XTM

Introduction
What You Will Learn
In this course, you learn how to make branch office virtual private networks (BOVPNs) between WatchGuard XTM devices with Fireware XTM, when one or both devices have multiple connections to the Internet. You learn how to make these VPNs manually, not with the WatchGuard Management Server. You also learn how VPN failover works.

Exercise
This course includes a step-by-step exercise to show you how to make VPNs in a multi-WAN environment. It also illustrates a use case that might apply in your organization. Before you start the exercise, make sure to read Before You Begin, on page 41. This section has a list of the equipment and software you need for the exercise, and gives you basic information about how to prepare your device.

What BOVPNs Can Do For You


A BOVPN enables computers at one office to securely transmit private data through an untrusted public network to computers at another office. The BOVPN provides these benefits: Privacy or confidentiality of the data The VPN uses encryption to guarantee that traffic between the two offices is secret. An attacker that intercepts the traffic cannot understand it. Data integrity The VPN guarantees that the data that passes through it has not been altered in transit. Data authentication The VPN guarantees that data that passes through the tunnel actually comes from one of the two endpoints of the VPN, and not from some attacker on the Internet. Direct private IP address to private IP address communication The computers at the two offices communicate as if they were not behind devices configured with Network Address Translation (NAT). The data tunnels through NAT for a transparent connection between the devices.

About Side Notes Side notes include extra information that is not necessary to understand the training. They might be configuration or troubleshooting tips, or extra technical information. This training module does not include instructions to use Fireware XTM CLI or the Web UI. All configuration changes are made with Policy Manager, and you monitor the XTM devices with WSM and related tools.

What You Should Know


How Branch Office VPNs work
A Branch Office VPN tunnel (BOVPN) is a method that two networks can use to send data through an untrusted network (typically, the Internet), with an encrypted, authenticated connection.
In this training, the gateway device at each location is a WatchGuard XTM device, but your XTM device can make an IPSec VPN tunnel to any device that implements the IPSec standards.

One gateway device at each location completes the IPSec encapsulation process for all the computers behind the gateway device. The computers at each location do not need any special software and they are not aware that the IPSec encapsulation process takes place. The XTM device looks at traffic that comes from and goes to computers on its protected networks. It knows what traffic to encrypt and send to the other office based on the source and destination IP address of the traffic and the VPN settings.

Figure 1: Normal traffic and VPN traffic

IPSec is built on a collection of several different protocols. BOVPNs can have more than 30 settings. The configuration on your XTM device must mirror the configuration of its peer device. We will look at every setting in the XTM device VPN configuration to give you the information you need to make successful VPNs every time.

Ports, Protocols, and Traffic Types for IPSec VPNs


UDP port 500 Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) and Internet Key Exchange (IKE) Before you can send traffic through the VPN, the two devices must exchange a series of messages in what we call negotiations. You will learn about these message exchanges in the subsequent sections. These negotiations begin over UDP port 500. If UDP port 500 is not open between the two devices, IPSec VPNs do not work. UDP port 4500 NAT Traversal (NAT-T) NAT traversal can overcome the limitations of some NAT devices that are incompatible with IPSec traffic. If one of the devices is behind a network device that does Network Address Translation
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What You Should Know

(NAT), the VPN negotiations can move to UDP port 4500, and all subsequent traffic between the two devices uses UDP port 4500. NAT-T prevents the NAT device from interfering with the IPSecencoded traffic by re-encapsulating it in an additional layer of UDP and IP headers. IP Protocol 50 Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) After VPN negotiations succeed, traffic between the two sites can be securely and privately sent over the tunnel with ESP. ESP authenticates and encrypts the traffic and encapsulates it in new IP datagrams with IP protocol 50. The ESP traffic may or may not be re-encapsulated in UDP port 4500 packets, depending on whether NAT-T is used. IP protocol 51 Authentication Header (AH) Similar to ESP, AH encapsulates VPN traffic between the two sites after VPN negotiations succeed. AH does not encrypt traffic, however, it only guarantees that the traffic came from the correct source and that it was not tampered with in transit. Because AH does not provide privacy (encryption), it is rarely used for IPSec VPNs today. IP protocol 50 and 51 are not ports; no ports are associated with ESP or AH. ESP and AH are distinct IP protocols, like ICMP (IP protocol 1), TCP (IP protocol 6), or UDP (IP protocol 17).

About VPN Negotiations


When two IPSec gateway devices want to make a VPN between them, they exchange a series of messages about encryption and authentication, and agree on many different parameters. This process of agreeing on the VPN parameters is called VPN negotiations. One device in the negotiation sequence is the initiator and the other device is the responder. VPN negotiations happen in two distinct phases: Phase 1 and Phase 2. Policy Manager puts the settings for the two phases in two areas: When you create the branch office gateway, you configure Phase 1 settings. When you create the branch office tunnel, you configure Phase 2 settings.

Phase 1
The main purpose of Phase 1 is to set up a secure encrypted channel through which the two devices can negotiate Phase 2. When Phase 1 finishes successfully, the devices quickly move to Phase 2 negotiations. If Phase 1 fails, the devices cannot begin Phase 2. Phase 1 negotiations can use one of two modes: Main Mode or Aggressive Mode. We discuss the two modes in more detail in a subsequent section.

Phase 2
The purpose of Phase 2 negotiations is for the two peers to agree on a set of parameters that define what traffic can go over the VPN, and how to encrypt and authenticate the traffic. This agreement is called a Security Association.

Phase 1 negotiations are often called IKE negotiations or ISAKMP negotiations. Depending on the mode used, they are also called Aggressive Mode Negotiations or Main Mode Negotiations. Phase 2 negotiations are often called IPSec negotiations or Quick Mode negotiations.

About the Gateway Name and the Tunnel Name


When you create a gateway and tunnel, you assign names to each of them. These names are for your use only; the XTM device does not send them to the remote peer. Use a name that helps you identify the remote device for the gateway. For the examples in the next sections, we call the gateway RemotePeer, and we call the tunnel BranchOfficeTunnel. In the next section we introduce some terms you might see in the training. Then, we look at all the different parameters that the two VPN devices agree upon during the VPN negotiations. Finally, we show all steps required to set up a VPN between two XTM devices.

Branch Office VPN Tunnels

Terms and Definitions


Use this list as a reference for the rest of the training course.
IPSec is built on a collection of open standards, protocols, and algorithms that include: Internet Key Exchange (IKE) protocol Oakley key determination protocol Diffie-Hellman key exchange algorithm Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) Authentication Header (AH) Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) Encryption algorithms: DES 3DES AES (128, 192, or 256bit key length) Authentication algorithms: HMAC-SHA1 HMAC-MD5 IPSec operates at the Network layer, Layer 3, of the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) Reference Model.

AES Advanced Encryption Standard This encryption algorithm is the strongest available. Fireware XTM can use AES with encryption keys of length 128, 192, or 256 bits. AES is also more efficient and more secure than 3DES. Aggressive Mode One of the two modes that Phase 1 VPN negotiations can use. It uses a total of three messages between the two IKE peers. Aggressive Mode does not give protection for the identities of the two IKE peers. AH Authentication Header Defined in RFC 2402, AH provides security by adding authentication information to the IP datagram. Because AH does not provide encryption, it is not typically used for VPNs. Because AH calculates a message digest of the entire IP packet, AH can never be used behind a device that does network address translation (NAT). NAT, by definition, changes IP headers. This means that verification of the message digest that AH calculates will always fail when NAT is involved. The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) assigned AH the IP protocol number 51. (Compare to TCP which is IP protocol 6, and UDP which is IP protocol 17.) DES Data Encryption Standard An older encryption algorithm that is still in wide use. It uses an encryption key that is 56 bits long. 3DES Triple-DES or three-DES An encryption algorithm based on DES. The DES encryption algorithm is applied to a data set once with one symmetric key, and then the result is encrypted again with DES with a different key. Finally, this result is encrypted one more time with DES with the first key. Diffie-Hellman group (DH group) A group of integers used for the Diffie-Hellman key exchange. The Diffie-Hellman group is also called the DH group or key group. Fireware XTM can use DH groups 1, 2, and 5. The larger key groups give larger integers to use in the exchange, which provides stronger security.

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Diffie-Hellman key exchange A method of making a shared encryption key available to two entities without actually exchanging the key. The encryption key for the two devices is used as a symmetric key for encrypting data. The security of the resulting encryption key comes from the extreme difficulty of solving certain mathematical problems in reverse (the discrete logarithm problem). Only the two parties involved in the key exchange can get the shared key, and the key is never sent over the wire. ESP Encapsulating Security Payload Defined in RFC 2406, ESP provides confidentiality and integrity of data. ESP takes the original data payload of a data packet and replaces it with encrypted data. It adds integrity checks to be sure that the data is not altered in transit, and that the data came from the proper source. The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) assigns a number to each protocol. For ESP, the IP protocol number is 50. (Compare to TCP, which is assigned IP protocol number 6, and UDP, IP protocol number 17.) Hash A mathematical transform applied to a set of data. This transform takes a string of bits as input and produces an output called the hash or hash value. (The hash value is normally much smaller than the original data input.) A hash is generally a oneway function. It is not possible to find the original input if the only data you have is the hash. There are different hash algorithms, but for any given input and any given algorithm, the hash value is always the same. If two entities each have a set of data and they want to see if they are the same data set without actually exchanging the data, they can both use the same hash algorithm to compute the hash of their own data set. Next, they exchange the hash values that they each compute and compare them. If the two hash values match, then the input data is the same on each side. If the hash values do not match, then the data sets are not identical. VPN traffic uses a variation of the hash method called a Hashed Message Authentication Code or HMAC (sometimes also called a Keyed HMAC). Similar to the normal use of hash functions, each VPN peer computes hashes of data to guarantee the datas integrity. In addition, each side mixes the data with a secret key before the hash is computed. This guarantees the authenticity of the data; each side knows that the data came from the authorized peer and not an imposter or attacker. IKE Internet Key Exchange Defined in RFC 2409, IKE specifies methods to obtain authenticated keying material for use with ISAKMP. IKE peer The entity to which your XTM device makes a VPN tunnel. The IKE peer is typically another IPSec device such as another firewall, or a remote users computer with software that can make an IPSec VPN tunnel. IPSec A collection of cryptography-based services and security protocols to protect communication between entities that send traffic through an untrusted network (such as the public Internet). ISAKMP Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol Defined in RFC 2408, ISAKMP provides a framework to use to authenticate a communicating peer, for key generation techniques, and to manage (negotiate, form, and destroy) Security Associations. IKE and Oakley operate within this framework.
Branch Office VPN Tunnels 5 Symmetric-key encryption is an encryption scheme where both parties share one key that is used to both encrypt and decrypt data. It is much faster than the alternative, asymmetric-key encryption. In what is known as public-key cryptography, one private key encrypts the data and a different public key decrypts it. It is not possible to use publickey encryption for every set of data that goes through a VPN fast enough for acceptable throughput. Public-key cryptography is used in the Diffie-Hellman key exchange algorithm, but ultimately a symmetric key is used to encrypt the data through the VPN. The symmetric key is derived through the highly secure DiffieHellman key exchange. Because the hash value is much smaller than the actual, raw data, it is much more efficient to compute hash values and use them to compare data sets than to exchange and compare the raw data.

Key expiration
Phase 1 keys usually expire based on an amount of time, but some devices allow expiration of Phase 1 keys based on the amount of data exchanged. Fireware XTM expires the Phase 1 key based only on the amount of time passed. Phase 2 keys usually expire based on an amount of time or an amount of data sent. The first event that happens (time elapsed or amount of data sent) causes the key to expire. If you set either the time or data limit to zero, the XTM device disregards that limit. If you set both the time and data limits to zero, the XTM device expires the key after 8 hours. If you set the data limit to less than less than 24,576 kilobytes, then 24,576 kilobytes is used.

Phase 1 and Phase 2 session and encryption keys change periodically. This makes sure an attacker cannot get access to a large data set with the same encryption keys. When a key must change, the appliance declares the current key no longer valid and negotiates a new key with the IKE peer. Main Mode One of the two modes that Phase 1 VPN negotiations can use. It uses a total of six messages between the two IKE peers. Main Mode gives protection to the identities of the two IKE peers. MD5 Message Digest 5 This is a hash algorithm. Verification of the MD5 sum provides data integrity (a guarantee that the data has not changed in transit). In IPSec, authentication of the data (a guarantee that the data came from the proper source) is achieved by enhancing the hash with a shared secret key (see HMAC explanation in the definition of hash). MD5 is not considered as strong a hash algorithm as SHA-1. Oakley Oakley Key Determination Protocol This is a protocol for two parties to agree on a secret key. RFC 2412 describes the protocol named Oakley, by which two authenticated parties can agree on secure and secret keying material. The basic mechanism is the Diffie-Hellman key exchange algorithm. PFS Perfect Forward Secrecy A guarantee that the keying material used to generate one encryption key is not used to generate a new encryption key. If one key is compromised, it gives the attacker no information about subsequent encryption keys. Quick Mode The mode that Phase 2 VPN negotiations use. Quick Mode is the only mode that Phase 2 uses. The two IKE peers exchange three messages to complete Quick Mode. Replay An attack that captures data packets sent from one IKE peer to another, and then sends them to the recipient again. The attacker can get information about the IPSec implementation from the responses it gets from the recipient. Fireware XTM uses the sequence numbers in ESP packets to reject duplicate packets and old packets, to protect against replay attacks.

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What You Should Know

SA Security Association This is a contract between two IPSec endpoints. The SA is an abstract object that contains all the information necessary for two entities to exchange data securely. Successful completion of each part of VPN negotiations, Phase 1 and Phase 2 negotiations, results in an SA. There is only one Phase 1 SA between two IKE peers. The Phase 1 SA defines encryption and authentication parameters that protect all Phase 2 negotiations. The Phase 2 SA is unidirectional. If a tunnel is a bidirectional tunnel (traffic can go in and out of the protected network), each peer has one incoming SA and one outgoing SA for that tunnel. Thus, each tunnel has at least one Phase 2 SA, and usually has two. However, there can be multiple tunnels between two IKE peers. Each Tunnel Route you add to the Branch Office Tunnel results in at least one unique Phase 2 SA (and usually two, because most tunnels are bidirectional) when Phase 2 negotiations finish. SHA-1 Secure Hash Algorithm 1 A type of hash algorithm called a cryptographic hash function. It provides data integrity (a guarantee that the data has not changed in transit) as well as authentication of the data (a guarantee that the data came from the proper source). SHA-1 is considered a stronger hash algorithm than MD5. SPI Security Parameters Index This is a unique 32-bit number that identifies an IPSec (Phase 2) SA. The SPI number is an identifier in the header of every IPSec data packet. This number tells the receiving gateway device to which IPSec data flow the packet belongs. The SPI number is not bidirectional. Each device keeps an SPI number for traffic it sends (outgoing SPI) and an SPI number for traffic it receives (incoming SPI). Traffic selector The configuration parameter that tells the gateway device what traffic should be handled by IPSec. Traffic selectors in Fireware XTM are called tunnel routes. Traffic selectors consist of source IP addresses and destination IP addresses. Each peer has a reverse match of the other peers traffic selectors. If one peer has subnet A as the local part of its traffic selector and subnet B as the remote part of its traffic selector, then the other peer has subnet B as local and subnet A as remote. When a data packet comes in from a host on an internal network, Fireware XTM checks to see if the source and destination IP addresses of the packet match a traffic selector. If they do, and if there is a policy to allow the traffic, then Fireware XTM encapsulates the data packet in IPSec and sends it to the IPSec peer.
In Fireware XTM 11.3.1 and later, the XTM device does a route lookup first. If a traffic flow matches an IPSec traffic selector, but a route to the destination is also in the devices local routing table (not in the devices default route), the device can honor that route. You can configure the device not to use IPSec to handle the traffic when a non-default route exists in the local routing table. Phase 1 SAs are sometimes called ISAKMP SAs. Phase 2 SAs are usually called IPSec SAs.

Branch Office VPN Tunnels

In previous versions of Fireware XTM 11.x, the XTM device always used IPSec to process the traffic when a traffic selector matches. In v11.3.1 and later, you can control this behavior in Policy Manager (select VPN > VPN Settings). To configure the XTM device to honor nondefault routes and use them to take precedence over IPSec traffic selectors, select the Enable the use of non-default (static or dynamic) routes to determine if IPSec is used check box.

Tunnel The virtual path between two locations on the Internet that have a VPN between them. This virtual path is called a tunnel because data packets are encapsulated inside ESP headers and trailers, and inside a new IP header. Thus, two computers behind two IKE gateways can send packets to private IP addresses, effectively tunneling through the public Internet.

What Happens During Phase 1 Negotiations


The main purposes of Phase 1 are: To mutually authenticate the IKE peers. Each peer presents authentication credentials to its peer. The credentials can be either a shared secret or an IPSec certificate. If one peer does not accept the credentials of the other, Phase 1 negotiations fail. To set up a secure encrypted channel through which the two devices can negotiate Phase 2. When Phase 1 finishes successfully, the devices quickly move on to Phase 2 negotiations. The Phase 2 negotiations are protected by the encryption and authentication parameters agreed upon during Phase 1. If Phase 1 fails, the devices cannot begin Phase 2. When you configure a VPN, the first thing you do is to add a gateway. You configure all the Phase 1 settings when you create the gateway. To create a new Branch Office VPN Gateway:

1. Open Policy Manager for your XTM device. 2. Click . Or, select VPN > Branch Office Gateways.
The Gateways dialog box appears.

Figure 2: Add a Branch Office Gateway

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What You Should Know

3. Click Add.
The New Gateway dialog box appears. The subsequent sections discuss the different parts of this dialog box.

Figure 3: New Gateway

The Devices Exchange Credentials


During Phase 1, the two devices exchange credentials to ensure that only an authorized peer is able make a VPN tunnel. Each device sends its credentials to the other device along with a Phase 1 identifier. Phase 1 identifiers are examined in the section, The devices find and identify each other on page 10. You can select Pre-Shared Key or IPSec Firebox Certificate for the type of credentials the peers use to prove their identities to each other. Both gateway endpoints must use the same credential method. For example, if one peer uses preshared key, the other peer must also use pre-shared key. And, if one peer uses certificates, the other peer must also use certificates.

Branch Office VPN Tunnels

You specify which method the peers use in the New Gateway dialog box, on the General Settings tab, in the Credential Method section.

Figure 4: Credential Method

Pre-Shared Key
The pre-shared key is a way for each device to prove that it is the authorized IKE peer for this VPN. The devices use the pre-shared key, along with the Phase 1 identifier, to verify that the remote peer is the correct entity and not an imposter. Do not give the pre-shared key to anyone except the administrator of the remote IKE peer device. If you use a pre-shared key, make sure to choose characters that are difficult to guess. You can use a string of numbers, upper and lower-case letters, and punctuation marks. The pre-shared key must exactly match the pre-shared key that the remote device uses. We recommend that you use pre-shared keys for your first VPN. They are easier to configure than certificates, and it is less likely that you will make an error.

IPSec Firebox Certificate


A certificate is a document used to verify the identity of an unknown individual. For IKE negotiations, the unknown individual is the remote IKE peer. During Phase 1 negotiations, the two IKE peers exchange certificates. If each device accepts the peers certificate, then each side trusts that the peer is actually who it claims to be. You can use an IPSec certificate for the credential method only if a certificate appears in the Select the certificate to be used for the Gateway list at the bottom of Figure 4. We discuss certificates in more detail in a subsequent section.

The devices find and identify each other


When your XTM device initiates Phase 1 negotiations, it determines: How do I identify myself to the remote peer? If I have more than one external interface, which one do I use to send IKE packets to the peer? Do I know how to find the remote device? Do I know its IP address or can I learn its IP address from a DNS query? When your XTM device responds to IKE negotiations from the peer, your XTM device must decide: Does my configuration allow me to negotiate with this device, based on the way the device identifies itself and the source IP address of the IKE packets?

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If I specified more than one external interface for this peer to use for negotiations, did the IKE packets come to the correct one? You specify how the XTM device answers these question when you configure the Gateway Endpoints at the bottom of the New Gateway dialog box.

Figure 5: Gateway Endpoints

Each row in the Gateway Endpoints list in Figure 5 represents one set of gateway endpoints. You can add more than one set of gateway endpoints if either device has more than one external interface it can use to send and receive IKE negotiations. This allows VPN Failover to occur. An IPSec device can terminate one specific VPN on only one interface at a time. However, if a device has more than one external interface and one of them is not available, your XTM device can try to negotiate with a different external interface. Your XTM device can do VPN failover if: Your Firebox X e-Series or WatchGuard XTM device runs Fireware 10.x or later, has more than one external interface, and the remote device can do VPN failover. You want your XTM device to use one external interface to make the VPN first. However, if that interface is not available, you want your device to use a different external interface to make the VPN. The remote peer is a Firebox X e-Series or WatchGuard XTM device that runs Fireware 10.x or later, and it has more than one external interface. You want your XTM device to make the VPN with one of the remote peers external interfaces first. However, if that interface is not available, you want your device to be able to make the VPN with one of the remote peers other external interfaces. We examine VPN failover in detail in a subsequent section. The XTM device automatically starts tunnel negotiation upon reboot if the Start Phase1 tunnel check box is selected.

Branch Office VPN Tunnels

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To add a set of gateway endpoints:

1. Open the New Gateway dialog box. 2. Click Add.


The New Gateway Endpoints Settings dialog box appears.

Figure 6: Add a new set of gateway endpoints

This dialog box has two separate sections used to define a set of gateway endpoints: Local Gateway This section is for identification of the local gateway (at the top), and is used to configure how this XTM device identifies itself. Remote Gateway This section is for identification of the remote gateway (at the bottom), and is used to configure how the XTM device expects the peer to identify itself. A set of gateway endpoints is a set of Phase 1 identifier information for each IKE peer (your XTM device and the remote device). Phase 1 identifiers are used like this: Each side configures its device to send identifying information (Phase 1 ID) to the other side during Phase 1. The ID has a specific type and a value for that type. Each side also specifies an ID type and a value for that ID type for the remote device. This tells the local device what to expect from the remote device during Phase 1 negotiations. Each devices Phase 1 identifier must exactly match what the other device expects to receive. If the ID information that one device sends to its peer does not match what the peer expects, IKE negotiations fail.

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Each device can use one of four types of identifiers, or Phase 1 ID types: IP Address (ID_IPv4_ADDR) The value for this ID type must be a dotted-decimal IP address, without a subnet mask. This is almost always the IP address assigned to the device interface that terminates the VPN. In some network topologies, the value for the IP address ID type can instead be the IP address of a device configured for Network Address Translation (NAT) that is between the IPSec device and the Internet. In these cases, the NAT device has a one-to-one NAT mapping that sends all ports and protocols to the IPSec device behind it. Domain Name (ID_FQDN) The value for this ID type is a string of text. This is usually a fully qualified domain name (such as example.domain.com or myexample.com) that has a record in the DNS system for the IP address assigned to the external interface. It is not necessary for this name to have a corresponding record in DNS. The value for this ID type can also be a simple name that serves only as a Phase 1 identifier, but does not have an address record in DNS. If your XTM device has a static IP address on the external interface and you publish a DNS record for this IP address, you can use the domain name for the Phase 1 identifier. To learn your XTM device IP address, the other device can send a DNS query for the domain name. However, in these cases you usually use the IP address for the Phase 1 identifier because the IP address never changes. If your XTM device has a dynamic IP address and you use the Dynamic DNS service, you can use the DynDNS host name for your Phase 1 identifier, for example, myexample.dyndns.org. The dynamic DNS service lets the remote peer find your XTM device with a DNS query even when your XTM device IP address changes often, so that the peer can initiate IKE negotiations. Remember, this ID type is intended to relate to a DNS record but it is not necessary. Consider this scenario: IPSec device A has a dynamic IP address but does not use a dynamic DNS service. Thus the DNS system has no record for device As external interface. Device A can use Domain Name for its ID type, and the value can be a string of text that does not have a record in the DNS system. This is the only identifier information that the other IKE peer, device B, knows about device A. When device B wants to initiate IKE negotiations to make the VPN to device A, device B sends a DNS query to resolve this name to an IP address. The DNS query fails and device B cannot find device A. In this scenario, device A must be the initiator. IKE negotiations can succeed in this scenario as long as all other parameters match. Aggressive Mode must be used. If you use certificates for the credential method, the value for this ID type is the DNS Name or Domain Name field in the certificate. When you view the certificate with a Windows certificate viewer, the certificate field name is DNS Name, and it is listed as a Subject Alternative Name.
When the appliance has a dynamic IP address but no DNS record, you can use this ID type and the next one (User ID on Domain) in a similar way. A later side note tells you the main difference between the two types in this situation. After each ID type we show the common representation of the ID type as it is defined in the relevant RFCs. For example, with the IP Address ID Type, the IKE RFCs define the ID type ID_IPv4_ADDR.

Branch Office VPN Tunnels

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Some IPSec appliances can use User ID on Domain for the remote peer only, and cannot use it for the local identifier. Firebox SOHO, SOHO 6, and legacy (non-eSeries) Edge appliances cannot use User ID for the local gateway identifier. Devices running Fireware XTM and WFS can use User ID for the local ID. The main difference between the User ID on Domain and the Domain Name ID types when the external IP address is dynamic is this: the peer does not try to resolve a User ID on Domain with a DNS query, but it usually does try to resolve a Domain Name. With User ID on Domain, the peer simply waits for the remote device to begin IKE negotiations. With Domain Name the peer can try to initiate negotiations by first doing a DNS query to find the other device.

User ID on Domain (ID_USER_FQDN) This is typically a users ID in the form of an email address, such as bsmith@myexample.com. It can also be a simple string of text that does not represent a real email address, such as bobs_firebox. If you do not use certificates for the credential method, the value of the ID is only a string of identifying text. It can be a real email address, or just a simple name. You usually use this ID type when the remote IKE peer is a user who connects from a single computer (instead of an IPSec device such as a firewall). This is the case with the WatchGuard Mobile VPN client: the software uses User ID on Domain for its local Phase 1 identifier. (In the profile settings of the WatchGuard Mobile VPN IPSec client software, the local identifier is called Fully Qualified Username. The Phase 1 ID type that the WatchGuard Mobile VPN client sends is actually ID_USER_FQDN.) If an IPSec appliance that acts as the IKE gateway supports it, this ID type can be the devices own local Phase 1 identifier. You can use this ID type for the local identifier if your XTM device has a static IP address or a dynamic IP address on its external interface. If the IP address on your XTM device is dynamic, this ID type creates a situation that is similar to the previous scenario (a domain name that does not resolve to an IP address in DNS). When a device has a dynamic IP address and it uses this ID type for its Phase 1 identifier, it must be the initiator. This is because the identifier alone is not sufficient information for its peer to find it. The value for this ID type never resolves to an IP address in DNS. If you use certificates for the credential method, the value for this ID type is usually the email address field in the certificate. The certificate field name is RFC822 Name, and is listed as a Subject Alternative Name when you view the certificate with a Windows certificate viewer. X500 name (ID_DER_ASN1_DN) Use this ID type only when you use certificates for the credential method. The value for the ID is the value of the certificates Subject field. The format of an X500 name is similar to the format of a distinguished name in an LDAP-style directory service. For example: CN=MyExample,OU=Main Office,O=myexample.com,ST=NY,C=US

The Local Gateway Identifier


In the Local Gateway section, you configure the gateway identification information for the XTM device. You also configure the external interface that sends and receives local packets when the XTM device uses the local gateway.

Figure 7: Local Gateway information

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The details you include in the Local Gateway section depend on how the external interface is configured: If your XTM device has a static public IP address on the external interface, your XTM device should use the external interface IP address to identify itself to the remote device. Select the By IP Address option. In the IP Address text box, select or type the external interface IP address. If your XTM device has a dynamic IP address on the external interface (DHCP or PPPoE), the IP address assigned to your XTM device external interface changes often, so the remote peer cannot expect your XTM device to use the external interface IP address as the IKE identifier. In this case, you must select the By Domain Information option. Then click Configure.
In versions prior to 11.x, the IP Address drop-down list in Figure 7 shows the IP addresses for all the XTM device interfaces. Be careful to not select an optional or trusted IP address. The XTM device can terminate BOVPNs only on external interfaces.

Figure 8: Local Gateway ID information if the XTM device has a dynamic address

The Configure Domain for Gateway ID dialog box appears:

Figure 9: Local Gateway ID information if you do not use certificates

If you use pre-shared keys for the credential method, you can specify two different types of Domain Information identifier: By Domain Name If you registered your own domain name, use that name. Because the remote peer will usually send a DNS query to find your XTM device IP address, the DNS system should always resolve this domain name to the external IP address of your XTM device.

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The XTM device Dynamic DNS capability uses only the service provided by Dynamic Network Services (also known as DynDNS.com or DynDNS.org). There are other Dynamic DNS services with the same capability. If you use one of these services, you usually have a computer on a network behind the XTM device that runs a Dynamic DNS updater client software package. The ID Type X500 that appears in Figure 10 is not available for the Local ID if you do not use certificates. It is always available for the Remote ID.

If you use the Dynamic DNS capability of the XTM device, you can use the DynDNS domain name that you register. This way, the remote device can find your XTM device by DNS lookup. It is not necessary for the DNS system to have a record associated with the name you use here. If the DNS system does not have a record for this domain name, then the remote device cannot find your XTM device by DNS lookup. In this case, your XTM device must be the one to initiate the IKE negotiations. Remember that the remote peer usually does a DNS query to resolve this name to an IP address, even when the DNS system has no such record. If you do not register a DNS name for your XTM device (whether DynDNS or a static record), you should use the next ID type, User ID on Domain, so that the remote peer does not waste CPU cycles with an unnecessary DNS query. By User ID on Domain Use this ID type if the DNS system has no address record for your XTM device external interface IP address. In this case, your XTM device must be the initiator. If the XTM device has a certificate available and you use certificates for the credential method in Figure 4, one additional option appears in the Figure 9 dialog box: By x500 Name:

Figure 10: Local Gateway ID information if you use certificates for the credential method

You can use this type of local gateway identifier only if you use certificates for the credential method. The X500 name is the distinguished name in the certificate you select for this gateway. This name appears in the certificate as the Subject Name. When you use certificates for credentials and you select By Domain Information for the local gateway identifier, you cannot edit the value for the local ID type you select. Policy Manager automatically puts the correct value for the ID type you select, based on the information in the XTM device certificate.

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The Remote Gateway Identifier


In the Remote Gateway section, you configure the information for the remote IKE peer. This is how the XTM device expects the remote peer to identify itself.

Figure 11: Remote Gateway information

For this XTM device to find the remote device, one of these conditions must be true: The XTM device must know the IP address of the peer ahead of time. If the remote device has a static IP address, select Static IP address and type the IP address in the IP Address text box. The XTM device must know a domain name that the DNS service can resolve to an IP address. If the remote device has a dynamic IP address, select Dynamic IP address. If there is a domain name the XTM device can use to find the remote device, you set it in the next section. If your XTM device cannot find the peers IP address with a DNS query, the remote device must be the initiator. In Phase 1, the remote IKE peer must identify itself correctly. To identify itself, the remote device can use any of the four ID types discussed at the start of this section. In the Specify the gateway ID for tunnel authentication section, you select which ID type the remote peer uses, and the value of that ID type. If the remote device has a static IP address, it should use that IP address for the phase 1 identifier. Select By IP Address and type the remote peer IP address. For the other three identification types, select By Domain Information and click Configure. Refer to the previous sections for information on these ID types. If you use certificates and you do not use an IP address for the remote ID type, you must manually type the domain information (whether Domain Name, User ID on Domain, or X500 name). You can get this information from the remote device administrator or if you view the remote peers certificate in a certificate viewer.
If the XTM device cannot find the peer with one of those methods, then it cannot initiate negotiations. It must wait for the other device to initiate negotiations.

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When you use Domain Name or User ID @ Domain to specify the remote gateway ID, the Attempt to resolve check box controls whether the XTM device attempts to resolve the domain.

Select the Attempt to resolve check box if the remote gateway uses dynamic DNS to maintain a mapping between a dynamic IP address and a domain name.

The Devices Decide Whether to Use Main Mode or Aggressive Mode


You must use Aggressive Mode if the credential method is pre-shared keys and one of the devices has a dynamic IP address.

Phase 1 negotiations can use one of two modes: Main Mode or Aggressive Mode. The device that starts the IKE negotiations (the initiator) sends either a Main Mode proposal or an Aggressive Mode proposal. The responder can reject the proposal if it is not configured to use that mode. Aggressive Mode communications take place with fewer packet exchanges than Main Mode communications. Aggressive Mode is less secure but faster than Main Mode. To specify how the XTM device starts negotiations, in the New Gateway dialog box, select the Phase 1 Settings tab.

Figure 12: Select the mode to use for Phase 1 negotiations

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The XTM device can use one of three methods to start IKE negotiations: Main Mode Main Mode IKE negotiations require a total of six messages (three two-way exchanges of information). The peers never exchange their identities in the clear. Use Main Mode when both devices have static external IP addresses. If you use pre-shared keys for the credential method, to use Main Mode, both sides must use an IP address as the Phase 1 ID. If one side or the other does not use an IP address for the Phase 1 ID type, you can use Main Mode only if you use certificates for the credential method. The XTM device will not use Aggressive Mode if you select Main Mode. Aggressive Mode Aggressive Mode IKE negotiations require a total of four messages. Each message includes more information than in a Main Mode exchange. This makes Aggressive Mode more efficient than Main Mode, but not as secure, because the peers exchange their identities without encryption. Use Aggressive Mode when one of the devices has a dynamic external IP address, or both have dynamic IP addresses. An exception is possible when you use certificates for the credential method instead of pre-shared keys. See the previous description about Main Mode. Main failback to Aggressive To start IKE negotiations, the XTM device sends a Main Mode packet. If the remote gateway device rejects the first packet, the XTM device sends an Aggressive Mode packet to try to start IKE negotiations again. When the XTM device is the responder, it completes either a Main Mode or an Aggressive Mode exchange, depending on the way the peer initiates IKE negotiations. Select this option if it is possible for the remote peer to use Main Mode, but you want negotiations to succeed if the remote peer can only use Aggressive Mode.
The two devices agree on all the same Phase 1 parameters regardless of which mode is used. The difference is the number of packet exchanges and how much information each packet contains.

The Devices Agree on Whether to Use NAT Traversal


NAT Traversal (NAT-T) is an IPSec extension that can resolve problems that occur when one or both of the IKE peers is behind a device with NAT. Some devices use NAT in a way that breaks IPSec, or in a way that makes it impossible to allow more than one IPSec connection through the NAT at the same time. To enable NAT Traversal, select the Phase 1 Settings tab.

Figure 13: NAT Traversal fields

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When the IKE peers agree to use NAT Traversal, they make an additional step for each data packet sent over the VPN. After an IPSec device encapsulates a data packet inside the IPSec wrapper, it encapsulates it one more time inside a UDP wrapper. By re-encapsulating traffic in UDP packets, the IKE peers can overcome the problems that IPSec has with some implementations of NAT. Traffic goes over UPD port 4500 when NAT Traversal is used.

How the Peers Agree on Whether to Use NAT-Traversal


There are many different types of Vendor-IDs. The NAT-T Vendor-ID includes a special hash to signify that it is for NAT-T.

Each side advertises its ability to use NAT-T in the first IKE packet. If a device can use NAT-T, the first IKE packet from the device contains a part called a Vendor-ID payload. If both the initiator and the responder include the NAT-T Vendor-ID payload, then they can use NAT-Traversal.

How the Peers Detect Whether One of Them is Behind a NAT Device
If the peers can both use NAT-T, the second IKE packet from each peer includes a part called the NATDiscovery payload. The NAT-Discovery payload that one device sends includes the result of a computation that is based on the source and destination IP addresses and the source and destination ports of the packet when it leaves the IKE device. When the peer device gets the NAT-Discovery payload, it performs the same computation in reverse, based on the same type of information. However, the receiving end does the computation based on the information it sees for the packet (which can be different from the information the sending device sees when a NAT device is between the two). Both sides compare the results of their own computation with the corresponding value each gets from the other side. If one or both of the devices is behind a NAT, then the two results of the same computation do not match because NAT changes the source IP addresses, the source ports, or both. The mismatch means that there is a NAT device in front of one of the IKE peers. If the values do match, then no NAT is detected and the devices do not use NAT-T. Even though both devices can use NAT-T, it is not necessary if neither device is behind a NAT.

How Data Traverses the NAT


If both devices can do NAT-Traversal, and if a NAT is detected, then the devices immediately change the port they use to communicate. The remaining IKE negotiations switch to UDP port 4500. Data transfers over the VPN also use UDP port 4500, instead of ESP as the transport method. After the VPN finishes negotiation of Phase 1 and Phase 2, actual data can be sent over the VPN. When NAT-T is used, data sent over the VPN is encapsulated in IPSec before the device sends it, just as the device normally does without NAT-T. However, with NAT-T each packet is re-encapsulated once more inside a UDP port 4500 packet before the device sends it. When the peer gets a NAT-T packet that contains data, it unwraps the IPSec packet from the UDP encapsulation. Then it can process the resulting packet as it normally does for IPSec traffic.

The NAT Traversal Keep-Alive


The NAT-T keep-alive keeps the NAT open on the NAT device. A NAT device does outbound Network Address Translation by changing the source port and source IP address of a packet before it sends it. The device keeps a map of the original source port/IP address and the new source port/IP address. It uses the map so that when a packet returns in response (when the destination of the response packet is the translated source port and translated source IP address), it can send the response back to the correct computer (the response to the original IP address that started the data flow is sent with the flows original source port).

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The NAT device maintains this map for only a short time when there is no traffic that matches the map. If the device does not see traffic that uses the NAT map for a certain amount of time, it closes the NAT. NAT timeouts for UDP traffic are typically much lower than NAT timeouts for TCP connections. If UDP-encapsulated traffic is sent from behind the NAT device, NAT is opened on the NAT device. To keep the IPSec tunnel active when NAT-T is used, the IPSec devices keep the NAT map alive. The IPSec device behind a NAT sends a NAT-T keep-alive packet to keep the NAT map active. The peer that receives the NAT keep-alive packet replies with a keep-alive ACK to keep the NAT active on the remote NAT device. The Keep-Alive Interval affects your XTM device only if your XTM device is the IKE peer behind the NAT. It specifies how often your device sends a NAT keep-alive packet to keep the NAT map active on the NAT device in front of the XTM device. When the remote IKE peer is behind a NAT, it has its own settings for the keep-alive interval. Your XTM device responds to the NAT keep-alive messages it gets from the other side, but your XTM device does not influence the interval that the peer uses between the keep-alives it sends.

Each Device Decides Whether to Send IKE Keep-alive Messages


You specify this on the Phase 1 Settings tab of the gateway.

Figure 14: Keep-alive interval

IKE Keep-alive and Dead Peer Detection (DPD, discussed in the next section) messages enable the XTM device to detect if the IKE peer is still alive. For VPN failover, either IKE Keep-alive or DPD is the method the XTM device uses to determine whether to fail over to another gateway endpoint pair. This is the only part of the gateway configuration that is not actually part of the Phase 1 negotiations. This setting is only to enable or disable the option, and to specify the interval between the messages. For IKE Keep-alive to work, each peer must be able to respond to the keep-alive messages sent by the other side. When both peers can use IKE Keep-alive messages, each device sends a Hello packet (the IKE Keep-alive message) to the other side at regular intervals. When a device receives an IKE Keep-alive packet, it returns an acknowledgement (a keep-alive ACK) to the peer that sent the message. When the sending peer gets the ACK, it knows that the remote peer is still alive and that the Phase 1 SA between them is still valid. If a device sends a specified number of keep-alive messages that get no response, the device closes the VPN and tries to start tunnel negotiations again.
All WatchGuard products respond to IKE Keep-alive messages. However, they are specific to WatchGuard products, so other vendors appliances might not respond.

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If you use VPN failover and the maximum number of keep-alive failures is reached, the XTM device starts negotiations with the next gateway endpoints pair in the list (see Figure 5). If there is only one pair in the list, the device starts IKE negotiations again with that pair. For a fast VPN failover, we recommend you set the Message interval to a low value, such as 10 seconds, and set the Max failures to a lower value, such as 2. If you have only one gateway endpoint pair for the gateway (you do not use VPN failover), keep the default settings. For a VPN to a third-party device (not a WatchGuard product) we recommend you do not use this option. To configure the XTM device to not send keep-alive messages, clear the IKE Keep-alive check box. For a VPN to any Firebox or XTM device that can use Dead Peer Detection, we recommend you do not use this option. To configure the device to not send keep-alive messages, clear the IKE Keepalive check box.

The Devices Decide Whether to Use Dead Peer Detection


You specify Dead Peer Detection settings on the Phase 1 Settings tab.

Figure 15: Dead Peer Detection settings

Dead Peer Detection (RFC3706) is a traffic-based detection of an inactive peer. It works in a similar (but more intelligent) way to IKE Keep-alive. When Dead Peer Detection (DPD) is enabled, the XTM device sends a DPD probe (a message similar to the IKE Keep-alive message) only if traffic is not received from the peer for a specified length of time, and data is waiting to be sent to that peer. This method is more scalable than IKE Keep-alive messages because DPD probes are sent only when no traffic is received from the other side for some amount of time. (Compare this to the IKE Keep-alives mechanism, which sends keep-alive messages at regular intervals regardless of the health of the tunnel.) In the Traffic idle timeout text box, set the amount of time traffic can be idle before the XTM device sends a DPD probe to the peer. In the Max retries text box, set the number of times the XTM device should send a DPD probe before the peer is declared dead because it received no response. Dead Peer Detection is an industry standard that is used by most IPSec devices. If it is supported by the devices on both ends, we recommend you use Dead Peer Detection instead of IKE Keep-alive, particularly for VPN failover. Note
Do not select both IKE Keep-alive and Dead Peer Detection. Use one or the other, but not both. Use Dead Peer Detection if both endpoint devices support it.

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The Devices Agree on a Transform to Use for Phase 1


A Transform is a set of authentication and encryption parameters and the amount of time the Phase 1 SA lasts. The initiator sends one or more transform proposals to the responder. The responder either selects one of the proposed transforms, or it rejects the Phase 1 proposal. You specify the transform proposals your XTM device sends when it is the initiator, or the transforms it can accept if it is the responder, in the Transform Settings section of the Phase 1 Settings tab.

Figure 16: Transform Settings

The Transform Settings list includes the Phase 1 transforms the XTM device can send for this VPN. To add a transform, click Add. To edit a transform, select a transform in the list and click Edit.
The Phase 1 Transform dialog box appears.

Figure 17: Phase 1 Transform dialog box

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The Phase 1 transform settings must exactly match the settings for the Phase 1 transform that the IKE peer accepts, or IKE negotiations fail. The items you can set in the transform are: Authentication Authentication ensures that the information received is exactly the same as the information sent. You can use SHA1 or MD5 as the algorithm the peers use to authenticate IKE messages from each other. SHA1 is more secure. Encryption Encryption keeps the data confidential. You can select DES, 3DES, or AES with 128, 192, or 256-bit key strength. AES is the most secure.
The Phase 1 SA is commonly called the IKE SA. The technically correct term is the ISAKMP SA. If the remote IKE peer can set a KB limit for the Phase 1 SA Life, make sure to set its Phase 1 SA Life to 0 KB, and use a time setting that matches the Fireware XTM peers Phase 1 SA life. Fireware XTM does not use an amount of data for Phase 1 SA expiration. Diffie-Hellman Group 1 provides 768 bits of keying material, Group 2 provides 1,024, and Group 5 provides 1,536.

SA Life When Phase 1 is completed, the two peers have a Phase 1 Security Association (SA). This SA is valid for only a certain amount of time. After the Phase 1 SA expires, any new Phase 2 renegotiation requires the two peers to also renegotiate Phase 1. Some IKE peers can also specify an amount of data, in KB, that can pass through the VPN before the Phase 1 SA Life expires. Fireware XTM does not specify a data lifetime. In general, if the peer requires a value for Phase 1 SA data limit, you set the peer to use 0 KB to specify no KB timeout. Key Group The Diffie-Hellman Group specifies the length of a mathematical parameter used for the DiffieHellman key exchange. You can select group 1, 2, or 5. A higher number indicates a more secure key exchange.

Use Multiple Phase 1 Transforms


If you are not sure what Phase 1 transforms the remote peer is configured to accept or propose, you can add multiple transforms for the XTM device to use. To do this, Phase 1 must use Main Mode. When the XTM device is the initiator, it can send multiple Phase 1 transforms in the Main Mode proposal it sends to the IKE peer. This lets the peer select the transform it can use. Conversely, when your XTM device is the responder to a Main Mode proposal, and you added more than one Phase 1 transform to the gateway settings, your XTM device can review multiple transforms in the configuration to determine if the transform sent by the peer is acceptable (or to select one of multiple transforms sent by the peer). Because there are many different possible combinations of values for the four items in the Phase 1 SA proposal, it is always better to get the exact Phase 1 parameters that the remote peer uses. Try not to guess, or to rely on multiple possibilities. In some situations, however, the administrator of the remote device may give you incomplete information. Or, the peer device may have certain IKE or IPSec settings hard-coded and the configuration might not show these settings. In other words, the administrator might not know what the device will send or accept for some parameter and cannot configure it. In these situations, get as much information as you can. Tell the administrator of the peer device to check the manufacturers documentation to discover the values for hard-coded parameters. Note
You can add more than one Phase 1 transform only if you use Main Mode for Phase 1. If you use Aggressive Mode, you can only have one Phase 1 transform in the gateway configuration.

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When Phase 1 is Finished


When Phase 1 finishes, the two devices can negotiate Phase 2 over a secure encrypted channel. Their Phase 2 negotiations are protected by the Phase 1 SA (Security Association). Through the Phase 1 negotiations, the two IKE peers generate keying material to use for Phase 2 negotiations. We look at this aspect of Phase 1 when we discuss Perfect Forward Secrecy.

What you Learned


You learned about the different settings that control Phase 1. All the information is in the gateway object you create. After you create a new gateway, it appears in the Gateways dialog box.

Figure 18: The newly configured gateway appears in the Gateways list.

What Happens During Phase 2 Negotiations


The purpose of Phase 2 negotiations is to establish the Phase 2 SA (sometimes called the IPSec SA). The IPSec SA is a set of traffic specifications that determines what traffic the XTM device can send over the VPN, and how to encrypt and authenticate that traffic. Unlike Phase 1 negotiations, which have two different modes (Aggressive Mode and Main Mode), Phase 2 uses only one mode: Quick Mode. Like Phase 1, a goal of Phase 2 negotiations is for the two peer devices to agree on a set of parameters. You specify all the Phase 2 parameters when you create the Tunnel in Policy Manager.

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To add a tunnel:

1. Open Policy Manager for your XTM device. 2. Click . Or, select VPN > Branch Office Tunnels.
The Branch Office IPSec Tunnels dialog box appears.

Figure 19: Click to add a new tunnel

3. Click Add.
The New Tunnel dialog box appears.

Figure 20: New tunnel. Make sure to select the correct gateway.

4. In the Tunnel Name text box, type a friendly name for the tunnel. For this example, we type BranchOfficeTunnel.
Fireware XTM does not send this name to the peer device. It is only used to identify the tunnel in your devices configuration.

The subsequent sections describe the purpose of each element in the tunnel configuration.

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Peers Use the Phase 1 SA to Secure the Phase 2 Negotiations


The Phase 1 SA that the two peers create applies only to the two peers that negotiated the SA. If you have multiple VPNs to different remote devices, your XTM device makes a unique Phase 1 SA to each device. Because the Phase 2 negotiations are protected by the Phase 1 SA, you must select the correct gateway to use for the tunnel. To select the gateway for the remote peer device to which the XTM device sends VPN traffic for this tunnel, in the New Tunnel dialog box, select a gateway from the Gateway drop-down list.

Peers Exchange Phase 2 IDs


The administrators of both IPSec devices must agree on what traffic can pass through the VPN. The two devices exchange Phase 2 IDs to specify the IP addresses behind each device that is allowed to send traffic through the VPN. Phase 2 IDs are always sent as a pair in a Phase 2 proposal: one Phase 2 ID shows which IP addresses behind the local device can send traffic through the VPN, and the other Phase 2 ID shows which IP addresses behind the remote device can send traffic through the VPN. Because the Phase 2 IDs are part of the Phase 2 Security Association (SA), they are sent as part of the Phase 2 negotiations. Fireware XTM supports three types of Phase 2 IDs: Host IP address [ID_IPV4_ADDR] This is a simple dotted-decimal IP address. For example, 192.168.50.200. Network IP Address [ID_IPV4_ADDR_SUBNET] This is a dotted-decimal IP address that represents a subnet, followed by the slash notation of the subnet mask. Although you use slash notation for the network IP address, Fireware XTM sends the Phase 2 ID as a dotted-decimal IP address followed by a dotted-decimal subnet mask. For example, if the network IP address is 192.168.50.0/24, Fireware XTM sends the Phase 2 ID as: 192.168.50.0 255.255.255.0 IP address range [ID_IPV4_ADDR_RANGE] This is a range of IP addresses. The range you specify includes the first IP address and the last IP address you specify, as well as every IP address in between. When you add tunnel routes on the Addresses tab of the New Tunnel dialog box, you specify the Phase 2 IDs.
If more than one pair of local/remote IP addresses can send traffic over the VPN, then a unique SA is created for each pair. The devices do a Quick Mode negotiation for each local/remote pair.

Figure 21: The Addresses tab for this tunnel includes IP subnets for the Phase 2 IDs.

The remote IKE peer must have the same type of Phase 2 IDs and they must be the reverse of the Phase 2 IDs on your XTM device.
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About Broadcast over a BOVPN Tunnel


To enable broadcast routing through the tunnel, check the Enable broadcast routing over the tunnel check box for every tunnel resource.

Figure 22: Enable Broadcast routing over the tunnel

The devices on both ends of the tunnel must use Fireware XTM v11.x to enable this option. When you enable broadcast routing, the tunnel supports broadcasts only to the limited broadcast IP address, 255.255.255.255. Local subnet broadcast traffic is not routed through the tunnel. (A local subnet broadcast is also called a directed broadcast, such as the 192.168.1.255 in the 192.168.1.0/24 network). If you select this option, make sure to configure Helper Addresses.

Figure 23: The Addresses tab for this tunnel shows the IP subnets in bold, to indicate that broadcast routing is enabled for this tunnel.

If broadcast routing through the tunnel is enabled for the added tunnel routes, the tunnel resources appear in bold. When broadcast routing is enabled, you must configure Helper Addresses, which are unused IP addresses on the network at each end of the tunnel. The XTM device uses these addresses as

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the endpoints of the GRE tunnel (General Routing Encapsulation tunnel protocol) inside the IPSec BOVPN tunnel. The XTM device sends the broadcast traffic through the GRE tunnel. The remote IKE peer must use the same Helper Addresses, and they must be the reverse of your XTM device Helper Addresses. When broadcast routing is not enabled the tunnel resources are not bold and the Helper Addresses are not required.

About Multicast Over a BOVPN Tunnel


In addition to Broadcast over BOVPN, Fireware XTM also introduces Multicast over BOVPN. This feature lets you extend multicast beyond your LAN and private networks. When you enable Multicast over BOVPN, you can configure your XTM device to route multicast traffic through a BOVPN tunnel to another XTM device. Multicast supports one-way traffic streams from a sender at one end of the BOVPN tunnel to a receiver, or group of receivers, at the other end of the tunnel. The sender sends the multicast packets to the XTM device through an internal interface, such as the Trusted or Optional interface. When the XTM device receives a multicast packet on the internal interface, it forwards it through the BOVPN tunnel. When the XTM device at the other end of the tunnel receives the multicast packet, it forwards it to its internal interface. The devices that actually receive the multicast packets must first associate themselves with a group IP address. This group IP address must be known on both ends of the tunnel. Just like broadcast over BOVPN, multicast over VPN requires Helper Addresses to negotiate the GRE Tunnel.

Figure 24: XTM device configured to send Multicast over BOVPN

The settings in Figure 24 show that the XTM device is enabled to send multicast traffic. This means that the origination IP address is a host within the trusted interface network. Origination IP The IP address of the multicast sending device at one end of the tunnel. Group IP A reserved multicast group IP address that is associated with recipients of the multicast traffic.

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Input Interface The XTM device internal interface with the subnet that holds the origination IP address as one of its hosts.

Figure 25: XTM device receiving Multicast over BOVPN

The settings in Figure 25 show that the XTM device is enabled to receive multicast traffic. The origination IP address is an address on the other end of the tunnel. Origination IP and Group IP The same values as in the tunnel configuration of the sending XTM device. Output Interface The XTM device internal interfaces where the multicast traffic is routed. The receiving hosts must be located on one of the selected internal interfaces.

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Peers Agree on Whether to Use Perfect Forward Secrecy and Which DiffieHellman Group to Use for PFS
At the top of the New Tunnel dialog box Phase 2 Settings tab, you specify whether to use Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS) and which Diffie-Hellman group to use to generate new keying material.

Figure 26: Perfect Forward Secrecy

About Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS)


Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS) specifies how Phase 2 keys are derived. When PFS is enabled, both IKE peers must use PFS, or Phase 2 rekeys fail. PFS guarantees that if an encryption key that is used to protect the transmission of some of the data is compromised, an attacker can get access only to the data protected by that key, not subsequent keys. The two IKE peers always use the first Phase 1 SA to protect the first Phase 2 negotiations. The same Phase 1 SA is used to protect Phase 2 rekey negotiations for as long as the Phase 1 SA is valid. If the Phase 1 SA expires before the next Phase 2 SA expiration, then Phase 1 negotiations must start again when the two IKE peers negotiate the Phase 2 rekey again. This is true whether PFS is enabled or disabled. When PFS is disabled, and Phase 2 SAs expire, the two peers use the existing keying material to derive a new encryption key for the new Phase 2 SA. When PFS is enabled, the two IKE peers must generate a new set of Phase 1 keying material for every negotiation of a new Phase 2 SA. This ensures that when Phase 2 SAs expire, the encryption keys used for new Phase 2 SAs are never generated from existing Phase 1 keying material. When the two IKE peers generate new keying material as part of PFS, they do not complete a new set of Phase 1 negotiations from the beginning. The encryption and authentication parameters the IKE peers agreed upon in the Phase 1 SA negotiations are still valid, and the authentication of the peer is still valid. These things are still valid as long as the Phase 1 lifetime does not expire. Even though PFS does not require a new set of Phase 1 negotiations for each Phase 2 rekey, to generate new session keys for every Phase 2 renegotiation is computationally expensive. Thus, PFS can cause a short delay in the Phase 2 rekey negotiation process.

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Peers Agree On a Phase 2 Proposal


As we saw previously, the IP addresses that can send traffic over the tunnel are part of the Phase 2 SA. The remainder of the Phase 2 SA is a group of encryption and authentication parameters. Fireware XTM sends these parameters in a Phase 2 proposal. The proposal includes the algorithm to use to authenticate data, the algorithm to use to encrypt data, and the timeline to make new Phase 2 encryption keys. To set these parameters, select or create an IPSec Proposal for the tunnel.

1. In the New Tunnel dialog box, select the Phase 2 Settings tab. 2. From the IPSec Proposals list, select a Phase 2 proposal. Or, click Add to create a new proposal.

Figure 27: Phase 2 Proposals The New Phase 2 Proposal dialog box appears.

Figure 28: New Phase 2 Proposal dialog box

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What You Should Know

3. In the Proposal Details section, configure these options for the new Phase 2 proposal:
Name Type a name for the proposal. Fireware XTM does not send this name to the IKE peer; it is only for your identification purposes. Type Most often, you select ESP (Encapsulating Security Payload). ESP provides authentication and encryption of the data that passes over the VPN. The other option, AH (Authentication Header), provides no encryption to the data that passes over the VPN. AH only provides authentication of the data. (If you select AH, the Encryption drop-down list in Figure 28 is not available. Authentication Authentication ensures that the information received is exactly the same as the information sent. You can select either SHA1 or MD5 as the algorithm the peers use to authenticate IKE messages from each other. SHA1 is more secure. Encryption Encryption keeps the data confidential. You can select DES, 3DES, or AES with 128, 192, or 256-bit key strength. AES is the most secure. Force Key Expiration The longer a Phase 2 encryption key is in use, the more data an attacker has for mounting an attack on the key. Phase 2 expiration can happen based on the amount of time passed since the SA was created, the amount of data that goes over the VPN since the SA was created, or both. - Select the Time check box to expire the key after a quantity of time. Type or select the quantity of time that must pass to force the key to expire. - Select the Traffic check box to expire the key after a quantity of traffic. Type or select the number of kilobytes of traffic that must pass to force the key to expire. If both Force Key Expiration options are disabled, the key expiration interval is set to 8 hours.

4. Click OK to save the new proposal.

How VPNs Work With Multi-WAN


In Fireware v10.x and Fireware XTM v11.x, you can configure each side of a BOVPN tunnel to create multiple gateway endpoints for each tunnel. When your XTM device has more than one external interface, you can specify which interface the XTM device uses for a VPN to another office. Or, specify that the tunnel can use any of the local external interfaces in a failover scenario, and the order that the interfaces failover. When the remote XTM device has more than one external interface, you can specify which interface your XTM device uses for VPN communications with that office. Or, specify that the XTM device uses any of the remote sites external interfaces for the VPN in a failover scenario, and in what order.

What Multi-WAN Can Do For Your VPNs


Multiple Internet connections provide these benefits to your VPNs: Redundancy If one Internet gateway is down, the VPN peers automatically use a different gateway (VPN failover). When the preferred gateway is available again, the peers automatically use it (VPN failback). Stability Connections that go through the VPN stay connected when VPN failover and failback occur.

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VPN traffic load distribution You can specify which external interface to use for each VPN. For example, you can use a less expensive Internet connection for a VPN with a small amount of traffic, and a more expensive connection for a VPN that is more critical or that has more traffic.

How the XTM Device Detects That the IPSec Peer Gateway is Down
The XTM device detects that the IPSec peer gateway is down in two ways: IKE Keep-alive or DPD messages get no response Ethernet link failure is detected on an external interface
When you use certificates, make sure that both devices have correct time zone settings, and that their internal clocks have approximately the same time (within a few minutes). Certificates are timesensitive and are valid for a specified period of time (only after a specific start date and time and only before a specific end date and time). If the time for one of the clocks is different by a large amount, IKE negotiations can fail because a certificate is not yet valid (the clock is set before the Valid From date) or is no longer valid (past the Valid To date).

Use IPSec Certificates for the IKE Credentials


A certificate is a document used to verify the identity of an unknown individual. For IKE negotiations, the unknown individual is the remote IKE peer. During Phase 1 negotiations, the two IKE peers exchange their certificates. If each device accepts its peers certificate, then each side trusts that the peer is actually who it claims to be. A certificate is issued by a certification authority (CA), which is an entity that represents an organization you trust for this purpose. A certification authority also issues a certificate for itself, called the CA certificate. When the CA issues a certificate to an entity, it guarantees that the entity is actually who it claims to be. The CA indicates this guarantee by signing the certificate it issues to the entity. In a transaction between an entity with a certificate and another party, the certified entity presents its certificate to the other party as proof of its identity. Thus, any party that wants to accept the certificate must trust the certification authority that issued the certificate. You indicate your trust in the CA when you import the CA certificate to the XTM device. You learn how to import certificates in the section About Certificates Issued By a Third-party Certification Authority on page 35. When the CA signs a client certificate, the client certificate and the CA certificate have a cryptographic relationship. Because the two certificates are cryptographically tied to each other, you must have the CA certificate to verify the client certificate. In many situations, the same CA issues the client certificate for both gateway devices. If this is the case, the first and third certificates are the same CA certificate and your XTM device needs only two certificates: the CA certificate and the local devices client certificate. If the two gateway devices use certificates issued by different certification authorities, then each device needs two CA certificates: one from the CA that issued the local devices certificate and one from the CA that issued the remote devices certificate. To use certificates with a VPN, each gateway endpoint must have these certificates: The CA certificate from the certification authority that issued the certificate for the local device. Your XTM device must verify the client certificate for the local device (see the subsequent point). It does this with the CA certificate from the authority that issued the client certificate. Make sure you import the CA certificate before you import the client certificate. This enables the XTM device to verify the client certificate. The client certificate for the local device. For your XTM device, this is the certificate that your XTM device sends to its VPN peer. The peer device verifies this certificate by checking it against a CA certificate. The CA certificate from the certification authority that issued the remote devices IPSec certificate. When your XTM device receives an IPSec certificate from its IKE peer, it must have a way to verify the peers certificate. It does this with the CA certificate of the certification authority that signed the remote peers certificate.

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What You Should Know

The certificates that your XTM device can use to prove its identity appear in New Gateway dialog box in the Select the certificate to be used for the Gateway list (see Figure 4). Items in this list can be certificates that were issued by a WatchGuard Management Server, or certificates issued by a thirdparty certification authority that you manually import to the XTM device.

About Certificates Issued by the WatchGuard Management Server


The WatchGuard Management Server is an optional component of the WatchGuard System Manager (WSM) software. When you install the WatchGuard Management Server, you install a server that lets you easily manage the VPNs for many Firebox or XTM devices. This also installs a certification authority, called the WatchGuard Certificate Authority, to issue and verify certificates for the managed client devices. Note
If your XTM device is a managed client of a WatchGuard Management Server, you will probably use the Management Server to create managed VPNs. You cannot create managed VPNs with Policy Manager. Instead you use the Management Server to set up managed VPNs between managed devices. The Management Server writes the VPN information to Policy Manager for each device, so that you can see the managed VPN in Policy Manager. However, you cannot alter the managed VPN information with Policy Manager.

Only client certificates appear in Policy Manager; you do not manage CA certificates with Policy Manager. Use Firebox System Manager to see CA certificates.

If you choose not to create a managed VPN between two managed XTM devices, you can use Policy Manager to manually set up a VPN between them. You can use the certificates issued by the Management Server when you create a manual VPN. The WatchGuard Management Server automatically sends an IPSec certificate to the managed XTM device, and it appears at the bottom of the New Gateway dialog box. You can use this certificate to create a VPN to another Firebox or XTM device if both devices are managed by the same WatchGuard Management Server. The Management Server also automatically sends each managed XTM device the CA certificate so that each XTM device can verify the certificate that its peer sends in Phase 1. You do not manually import any certificates (described in the next section) if you use these certificates.

This training module does not discuss how to use the Management Server to create VPNs.

About Certificates Issued By a Third-party Certification Authority


If you use third-party certificates, you import the certificates manually. You must import at least two, and possibly three, of these certificates: The CA certificate from the certification authority that issued the certificate for this XTM device. The client certificate for this XTM device. If the remote device uses a certificate issued by a different certification authority (not the CA that issued your XTM device certificate), you must import the CA certificate from the certification authority that issued that devices certificate.
The client certificate and the CA certificate that issued it can be combined with a chained certificate. Fireware XTM understands and can properly split a chained certificate when you import it in Base64-encoded PEM format.

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To import certificates, use Firebox System Manager (FSM).

1. Connect to the XTM device with Firebox System Manager. 2. Click . Or, select View > Certificates.
The Certificates dialog box for this XTM device appears.

Figure 29: Certificates for your XTM device

3. To make a Certificate Signing Request, click Create Request. The wizard to generate a certificate request starts. You can then submit the certificate to a certification authority to be signed. You can also use your own certification authority to create the signed certificate.
Certificates must be in Base-64 format. Both the Certificate Request Wizard and the Certificate Import features ask you to select the function for the new certificate. Make sure to select IPSec, Web Server, Other.

4. To import the signed certificate to the XTM device, click Import Certificate / CRL. Make sure to import the CA certificate from the signing authority first.
You must provide the XTM device configuration (read-write) passphrase to import a certificate.
After you import the certificate and open Policy Manager, it will appear at the bottom of the New Gateway dialog box.

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What You Should Know

About Certificate Revocation Lists


A certification authority can revoke a certificate that it previously issued. When it does this, the certification authority declares that it no longer guarantees the authenticity of the certificate, or the identity of the certificate holder. To keep your certificate-based VPNs secure, the XTM device must have access to a list of the revoked certificates, called a Certificate Revocation List (CRL). To manually import the CRL, in the Certificates dialog box, click Import Certificate / CRL. After you import this list, the XTM device consults it before it accepts a certificate from any IKE peer. The XTM device can also consult a CRL server to see if a certificate is revoked. To select the location of the CRL server:
A revoked certificate is different from a certificate that has expired. It is easy to see the Valid To date on a certificate, and expiration happens automatically after that time. To revoke a certificate is to declare it invalid before the expiration date. The LDAP server you specify in Figure 30 is different from the LDAP server you specify if you use an LDAP server for user authentication. You specify that server in Policy Manager at Setup > Authentication > Authentication Servers. The XTM device uses the LDAP server you specify there to verify the credentials of users that authenticate to the XTM device for firewall authentication or for Mobile User VPN sessions.

1. Open Policy Manager for your XTM device. 2. Select VPN > VPN Settings.
The VPN Settings dialog box appears.

Figure 30: LDAP Server settings for CRL

3. Select the Enable LDAP server for certificate verification check box. 4. In the Server text box, type the IP address or domain name for the LDAP server that hosts the CRL.
The XTM device can only use LDAP to check certificates against this CRL server. Change the port number in the Port text box only if the LDAP server listens on a non-standard port for LDAP.
The two most common protocols used to check CRLs are LDAP and HTTP. Fireware XTM v11.x can only use LDAP to check CRLs, not HTTP.

5. Click OK.

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Add Policies in Policy Manager to Allow VPN Traffic


Fireware XTM allows traffic to and from your network only if Policy Manager has a policy to allow the traffic. This is true for all traffic, regardless if it goes through a VPN or not. In this section we look at three different methods you can use to add policies that allow traffic over your BOVPNs.

Automatically Add Policies That Allow Traffic Over All Ports And Protocols
When you select the Add this tunnel to the BOVPN-Allow policies check box, Policy Manager automatically adds the Any policy to your configuration. This policy allows all traffic through the VPN. You can remove this policy only when you clear the Add this tunnel to the BOVPN-Allow policies check box in every tunnel.

Use the BOVPN Policy Wizard


Use the BOVPN Policy Wizard to easily add policies that allow traffic through the VPN over specific ports and protocols. This adds new aliases in the Aliases dialog box for the BOVPN or BOVPNs you selected in the wizard.

Manually Add Policies


You can add your own policies to allow traffic from the peer device: From Specific addresses on the other side of the VPN To Specific addresses behind your XTM device You can also add your own policies to allow traffic to the peer device: From Specific addresses behind your XTM device To Specific addresses on the other side of the VPN

Use the tunnel name as an interface


You can also choose to use the tunnel name as an interface for: The Tunnel Address Aliases created by BOVPN Policy Wizard

Troubleshoot Branch Office VPN Tunnels


Branch office VPN tunnels rely on a reliable connection, and matching VPN configuration settings on both VPN endpoints. A configuration error or network connectivity issue can cause problems for branch office VPN tunnels. WSM includes some tools that can make it easier for you troubleshoot problems with your branch office VPN tunnels.

VPN Diagnostic Report


You can use the VPN Diagnostic Report in Firebox System Manager to see configuration and status information about any branch office VPN gateway and associated tunnels. To generate the VPN Diagnostic Report:

1. Connect to the local gateway endpoint with Firebox System Manager. 2. Select Tools > Diagnostic Tasks.
The Diagnostic Tasks dialog box appears.

3. Click the VPN tab. 4. From the Gateway drop-down list, select a branch office VPN gateway.

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What You Should Know

5. In the Duration text box, type or select a duration for the report to collect log data.
The default duration is 20 seconds. The maximum is 60 seconds.

6. Click Start Report.

When you run the VPN diagnostic report,Fireware XTM temporarily increases the diagnostic log level for the selected gateway, and then collects detailed log data about the gateway and all associated tunnels. At the end of the specified duration, the report is generated, and the log levels return to their previous levels. The VPN Diagnostic Report has six sections. The first two sections show the configuration settings for the selected gateway and all tunnels that use that gateway. Gateway Summary shows a summary of the gateway configuration, including the configuration of each configured gateway endpoint Tunnel Summary shows a summary of the tunnel configuration for all tunnels that use the selected gateway The last four sections show run-time information based on the log message data collected when the report was run. Run-time Info (gateway IKE_SA) shows the status of the IKE (Phase 1) security association for the selected gateway Run-time Info (tunnel IPSEC_SA) shows the status of the IPSec tunnel (Phase 2) security association for active tunnels that use the selected gateway Run-time Info (tunnel IPSec_SP) shows the status of the IPSec tunnel (Phase 2) security policy for active tunnels that use the selected gateway Related Logs shows tunnel negotiation log messages, if a tunnel negotiation occurs during the time period that you run the diagnostic report The information provided by the VPN Diagnostic Report can help you see the status of tunnel negotiations, and help you determine what caused the tunnel negotiations to fail. The VPN Diagnostic Report is especially helpful if you have multiple tunnels, because it helps you to focus on just the one you want to troubleshoot.

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Filter Log Messages by Gateway IP Address


If you want to troubleshoot the VPN connection for a longer period of time than the VPN Diagnostics Report supports, you can look at the log messages directly in Traffic Monitor. Each log message related to a branch office VPN tunnel has a header that shows the IP addresses of the local and remote gateway. The format of the header is: (local_gateway_ip<->remote_gateway_ip) Where: local_gateway_ip is the ip address of the local gateway remote_gateway_ip is the IP address of the remote gateway
If you have installed WatchGuard Log Server and Report Server, you can also use the Search feature in Log and Report Manager to filter log messages by gateway IP address.

You can use the gateway IP addresses to filter the log messages to find log messages related to a specific gateway.

If you use this method to troubleshoot your BOVPN tunnels, you might need to increase the diagnostic log level for IKE traffic in order to see enough detailed log information. To change the diagnostic log level for IKE traffic:

1. In Policy Manager, select Setup > Logging. 2. Click Diagnostic Log Level. 3. In the category list, expand the VPN category and select IKE. 4. Move the slider to increase the level of detail the XTM device sends to the log file.
When you increase the IKE diagnostic log level, the log file captures diagnostic log messages for all branch office VPN gateways. If you have several VPN gateways, you can filter the log messages by the gateway IP address to see only the log messages for a specific gateway.

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Before You Begin

Before You Begin


This section includes a list of all the equipment and software necessary to complete the exercise, along with initial basic configuration information.

Necessary Equipment And Services


Management computer To configure the XTM device, you must have a computer with WSM version 11.4 installed. For all exercises, this computer is connected to the XTM device trusted interface. WSM v11.6 management software / Fireware XTM v11.6 OS with a Pro upgrade Your instructor should provide this software. You can also download it from the WatchGuard web site with a valid LiveSecurity login. WatchGuard security device WatchGuard XTM 2 Series, 3 Series, 5 Series, 8 Series, XTM1050, or XTM 2050 device Feature key Your instructor will provide a feature key to enable the necessary XTM device features for the exercise. Any additional computers These are additional computers used to test the traffic flow across XTM device interfaces, not servers. Ethernet cables You must have enough crossover and straight-through Ethernet cables to complete the exercise. Use a crossover Ethernet cable to connect a computer directly to a XTM device interface. Use a straight-through Ethernet cable to connect a device to a switch.

Management Computer Configuration


Before you begin the exercise, make sure your management computer is configured correctly. Install WSM managementsoftware and the Fireware XTM OS with a Pro upgrade. You do not have to install the server components, just the WSM client software. Use a crossover Ethernet cable to connect the management computer directly to the trusted interface 1 on the XTM device. Make sure your management computer has an IP address in the same subnet as the trusted interface with the correct subnet mask. Use the XTM device trusted interface IP address as the default gateway of the computer.

Firewall Configuration
If your XTM device is not yet configured, run the Quick Setup Wizard and select Routed Mode.

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Exercise
Make a Manual VPN Between a Single-WAN XTM Device and a MultiWAN XTM Device
When your XTM device has only one external interface and you create a VPN to a XTM device that has more than one external interface, your XTM device has more than one remote gateway to select for IKE negotiations. If one of the external interfaces on the remote XTM device does not respond, your XTM device can try another external interface at the remote peer. Conversely, if your XTM device has more than one external interface, and one of the interfaces is not available, it can use the other external interface to create a VPN to its remote peer.

Network Topology
This diagram shows the two XTM devices and their external interfaces connected to the Internet.

Figure 1: Network topology for the exercise

Your classroom is set up to simulate the Internet connections. XTM device A has one external interface and XTM device B has two external interfaces. In this exercise, you work with a partner. Student A configures the single-WAN XTM device (XTM Device A). Student B configures the multi-WAN XTM device (XTM Device B). In the examples, Student A uses 10 for the student number and IP addresses, and Student B uses 20 for the student number and IP addresses, as shown in the diagram.

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Exercise

Configure XTM Device A (Single-WAN Device)


Configure the External Interface
1. From Policy Manager, select Network > Configuration.
The Network Configuration dialog box appears.

Figure 2: Interfaces tab of Network Configuration dialog box

2. Set the IP address for Interface 0 to 203.0.113.10/24, and the default gateway to 203.0.113.1. 3. Click OK.

Add a Branch Office Gateway


1. Select VPN > Branch Office Gateways. 2. Click Add.
The New Gateway dialog box appears.

3. In the Gateway Name text box, type a friendly name. For this example, type RemotePeer. 4. In the Credential Method section, select Use Pre-Shared Key. 5. In the Use Pre-Shared Key text box, type shh-secret!, or another string that you and your partner agree on. 6. Click Add to add a new gateway endpoints pair.
The New Gateway Endpoints Settings dialog box appears.

7. In the Local Gateway section, select By IP Address. 8. In the IP Address text box, type 203.0.113.10.
The External Interface drop-down list has only one item because this device has only one external interface.

9. In the Remote Gateway section, select Static IP address. In the IP Address text box, type the IP address of XTM Device Bs primary WAN interface, 203.0.113.20. 10. In the Remote Gateway section, select By IP Address. In the IP Address text box, type 203.0.113.20. 11. Click OK.
The new gateway endpoints pair appears in the Gateway Endpoints list.

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12. To add a second gateway endpoints pair, repeat Steps 612. Make sure to change the Remote Gateway settings, as described in the subsequent steps. 13. In the Local Gateway section, select By IP Address. In the IP address text box, type 203.0.113.10.
This part is the same as the previous gateway endpoint pair. Your device has only one external interface.

14. In the Remote Gateway section, select Static IP address. In the IP address text box, type the IP address of XTM Device Bs secondary WAN interface, 198.51.100.20. 15. In the Remote Gateway section, select By IP Address. In the IP address text box, type 198.51.100.20. 16. Click OK.
The new gateway endpoints pair appears in the Gateway Endpoints list with the first pair.

17. Select the Phase 1 Settings tab.


The mode is set by default to Main Mode. You can use Main Mode because both IKE peers have static IP addresses. If one of the devices had a dynamic IP address on the external interface, you would use Aggressive Mode.

18. In the Dead Peer Detection section, set the Max retries value to 3.
This is set to a lower value than the default to ensure a faster VPN failover.

19. Do not change the other settings. 20. Click OK.


The new gateway appears in the Gateways dialog box.

21. Click Close to return to Policy Manager.


The Gateway configuration is complete.

Add a Branch Office Tunnel


1. Select VPN > Branch Office Tunnels.
The Branch Office IPSec Tunnels dialog box appears.

2. Click Add.
The New Tunnel dialog box appears.

3. In the Tunnel Name text box, type a friendly name for the tunnel. For this exercise, type BranchOfficeTunnel. 4. Click Add and add a new tunnel route.
The Tunnel Route Settings dialog box appears.

5. In the Local text box, type the network address of the trusted interface on your device in slash notation. For this exercise, type 10.0.10.0/24. 6. In the Remote text box, type the trusted network address at the remote device. For this exercise, type 10.0.20.0/24. 7. Click OK.
The new tunnel route appears in the New Tunnel dialog box in the Addresses list.

8. Make sure the Add this tunnel to the BOVPN-Allow policies check box is selected.
When this check box is selected, Policy Manager automatically adds the BOVPN-Allow.out and BOVPNAllow.in policies that allow all traffic to flow between the two trusted networks.

9. Click OK.
The new tunnel appears in the Branch Office IPSec Tunnels dialog box.

10. Click Close.


The new BOVPN-Allow.out and BOVPN-Allow.in policies appear in Policy Manager. The configuration for XTM Device A is complete.

11. Save this configuration to your device.

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Exercise

Configure XTM Device B (Multi-WAN Device)


Configure the Two External Interfaces
1. From Policy Manager, select Network > Configuration.
The Network Configuration dialog box appears.

Figure 3: Interfaces tab of the Network Configuration dialog box

2. Set the IP address for Interface 0 to 203.0.113.20/24. The default gateway setting is 203.0.113.1. 3. Double-click Interface 6 and edit it. 4. In the Interface Type drop-down list, select External. 5. In the Interface Name (Alias) text box, type a new name for the interface. For this example, type WAN2. 6. Select Use Static IP. 7. In the IP address text box, type 198.51.100.20/24. 8. In the Default Gateway text box, type 198.51.100.1. 9. Click OK to return to Policy Manager.

Add a Branch Office Gateway


1. Select VPN > Branch Office Gateways. 2. Click Add. 3. In the Gateway Name text box, type a friendly name for the gateway. For this example, type RemotePeer. 4. In the Credential Method section, select Use Pre-Shared Key. 5. In the Use Pre-Shared Key text box, type sshh-secret!, or another string that you and your partner agree on. 6. Click Add.
The New Gateway Endpoints Settings dialog box appears.

7. In the Local Gateway section, select By IP Address. In the IP address text box, type 203.0.113.20. 8. From the External Interface drop-down list, select External.
External is the default name for interface 0. If you changed the name of interface 0, select that name.

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9. In the Remote Gateway section, select Static IP address. In the IP address text box, type the IP address of XTM Device Bs primary WAN interface, 203.0.113.10. 10. In the Remote Gateway section, select By IP Address. In the IP address text box, type 203.0.113.10. 11. Click OK.
The new gateway endpoints pair appears in the Gateway Endpoints list.

12. To add a second gateway endpoints pair, repeat Steps 612. Make sure to change the Local Gateway settings, as described in the subsequent steps. 13. In the Local Gateway section, select By IP Address. In the IP address text box, type 198.51.100.20. 14. From the External Interface drop-down list, select WAN2.
This is the most common place to make an error. Make sure to select the interface name that corresponds to the secondary WAN interface on this device.

15. In the Remote Gateway section, select Static IP address. In the IP address text box, type the IP address of XTM Device Bs secondary WAN interface, 203.0.113.10.
These settings do not change from the previous gateway endpoint pair you added. The remote XTM device has only one external interface.

16. In the Remote Gateway section, select By IP Address. In the IP address text box, type 203.0.113.10. 17. Click OK.
The new gateway endpoints pair appears in the Gateway Endpoints list with the first pair.

18. Select the Phase 1 Settings tab.


The mode is set by default to Main Mode. You can use Main Mode because both IKE peers have static IP addresses. If one of the XTM devices had a dynamic IP address on the external interface, use Aggressive Mode.

19. In the Dead Peer Detection section, set the Max retries value to 3.
This is set to a lower value than the default to ensure a faster VPN failover.

20. Do not change the other settings. 21. Click OK.


The new gateway appears in the Gateways dialog box.

22. Click Close to return to Policy Manager.


The Gateway configuration is complete.

Add a Branch Office tunnel


1. Select VPN > Branch Office Tunnels.
The Branch Office IPSec Tunnels dialog box appears.

2. Click Add.
The New Tunnel dialog box appears.

3. In the Tunnel Name text box, type a friendly name for the tunnel. For this exercise, type BranchOfficeTunnel. 4. Click Add and add a new tunnel route.
The Tunnel Route Settings dialog box appears.

5. In the Local text box, type the network address of the trusted interface on your device in slash notation. For this exercise, type 10.0.20.0/24. 6. In the Remote text box, type the trusted network address at the remote device, 10.0.10.0/24. 7. Click OK.
The new tunnel route appears in the Addresses list.

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Exercise

8. Make sure the Add this tunnel to the BOVPN-Allow policies check box is selected.
When this option is selected, Policy Manager automatically adds the BOVPN-Allow.out and BOVPN-Allow.in policies to your configuration. These policies allow all traffic to flow between the two trusted networks.

9. Click OK.
The new tunnel appears in the Branch Office IPSec Tunnels dialog box.

10. Click Close.


The new BOVPN-Allow.out and BOVPN-Allow.in policies appear. The configuration for XTM Device B is complete.

11. Save this configuration to your device.

Physically Connect all Devices


Both Devices
1. Connect one end of an Ethernet cable to the device Interface 0. 2. Connect the other end of this Ethernet cable to the hub or switch that connects to the 203.0.113.x network.

XTM Device B
1. Connect one end of an Ethernet cable to the device Interface 6. 2. Connect the other end of this Ethernet cable to the hub or switch that connects to the 198.51.100.x network.

Demonstrate the Configuration


1. Get the IP address of your partners management computer. 2. Start a continuous ping to that address. For example, if your partners management computer IP address is 10.0.20.2, open a command prompt and type: ping 10.0.20.2 -t 3. Disconnect interface 0 on XTM Device B The devices start new IKE negotiations with XTM Device Bs secondary WAN interface. Only one to three pings should time out.

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Frequently Asked Questions


What if my XTM device has a private IP address on the external interface?
A private IP address is an address from one of the three ranges defined in RFC-1918. These addresses are sometimes called non-routable addresses, because they are not allowed to be routed by public Internet routers. The private address ranges are: 10.0.0.0/8 [10.0.0.110.255.255.254] 172.16.0.0/12 [172.16.0.1172.31.255.254] 192.168.0.0/16 [192.168.0.0192.168.255.254] In this situation, it is likely that your XTM device is behind a device that does NAT. Whether your XTM device can make a BOVPN to another device depends on the type of NAT this device uses. Most devices today have an IPSec pass-through option. Make sure to enable this option on the NAT device. After you enable the IPSec pass-through option on the NAT device, you must still decide how your XTM device identifies itself to the remote device. You have several options: One way to configure the local gateway for the gateway endpoints is to select By Domain Information. - If the NAT device has an IP address that can be resolved by DNS query of a domain name, then the remote device can find your device by domain name. Use the fully qualified domain name that resolves to the public IP address on the external interface of the NAT device. - If there is no domain name that resolves to an IP address for the NAT device, you can still use By Domain Information. However, because the remote device cannot find your device, this means that your device must always be the initiator. You may be able to select By IP Address for the local gateway in the gateway endpoints settings. The IP address for the local gateway must match the source IP address that the remote device sees for packets coming from this XTM device. If your XTM device is behind a device that applies NAT to outgoing packets, the remote device sees the source of your XTM devices packets as the IP address on the NAT device. If this is the case, and if the NAT device has a static public IP address, you can type the public IP address on the Internet-facing interface of the NAT device for the IP address of the local gateway for the gateway endpoints settings. If the IP address on the NAT device is dynamic, you must select By Domain Information for the local gateway in the gateway endpoints settings.

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Related Courseware and Information

Related Courseware and Information


WatchGuard Training: Fireware XTM Advanced Networking Training The Multi-WAN module in the Advanced Networking course shows you how Fireware XTM handles outgoing, non-IPSec traffic with each of the four different multi-WAN modes of operation: Round-robin Failover Interface Overflow Routing Table

More FAQs The WatchGuard Knowledge Base provides articles that can help expand your knowledge. For example, the Knowledge Base has articles about: - BOVPN Interoperability - Use NAT through a BOVPN tunnel - Set up a default route to send all Internet-bound traffic through a BOVPN - Use tunnel switching to route VPN traffic between two BOVPN tunnels - Use traffic management with BOVPN tunnels - Improve availability of your VPN connection - Configure VPN failover Search the Knowledge Base at http://customers.watchguard.com.

What You Have Learned


You have learned: What happens in IPSec Phase 1. What happens in IPSec Phase 2. How to enable broadcast routing over a VPN. How to create a VPN tunnel between a single-WAN XTM device and a multi-WAN XTM device. How VPN failover works.

Branch Office VPN Tunnels

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Test Your Knowledge


Use these questions to practice what you have learned and exercise new skills.

1. True or false? The XTM device uses the Gateway Name as the Phase 1 ID to identify itself to the remote peer. 2. True or false? If more than one pair of local/remote IP addresses can send traffic over the VPN, then a unique SA is created for each pair. 3. If you want to add multiple Phase 1 transforms, Phase 1 must be configured in __________ mode. (Select one.)
A) B) C) D) E) Default Quick Aggressive Passive Main

4. Where do you configure the Phase 2 proposal? (Select one.)


A) B) C) D) In the BOVPN policy In the Branch Office gateway settings In the Branch Office tunnel settings In the tunnel route

5. True or false? You can configure a maximum of one tunnel per gateway. 6. Which is the most secure encryption method? (Select one.)
A) B) C) D) E) F) SHA1 MD5 AES-128 AES-256 DES 3DES

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6. D 5. False 4. C 3. E 2. True 1. False ANSWERS

Fireware XTM Training

Mobile VPN
Securely Connect Mobile Users

What You Will Learn


WatchGuard System Manager offers three methods to securely connect mobile users to your corporate network. In this training module, you learn how to: Select the mobile VPN type(s) appropriate for your network Configure the XTM device to allow mobile VPN connections Prepare the Mobile VPN client configuration files Install and use the Mobile VPN client on a remote device

In this module, you will connect to one or more XTM devices. If you take this course with a WatchGuard Certified Training Partner, your instructor will provide the IP address and passphrases for devices used in the exercises. For self-instruction, you can safely connect to a XTM device on a production network. It is helpful to conduct a portion of this exercise from a computer connected to the external network.

Connect Remote Users Securely to the Corporate Network


You can use Mobile VPN to allow your employees who telecommute and travel to connect to your corporate network while maintaining privacy and security. WatchGuard System Manager supports three forms of remote user virtual private networks: Mobile VPN with PPTP Mobile VPN with IPSec Mobile VPN with SSL

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When you use Mobile VPN, you first configure your XTM device and then the remote client computers. You use Policy Manager to configure the settings for each user or group of users. For Mobile VPN with IPSec and Mobile VPN with SSL, Policy Manager creates a Mobile VPN client configuration file that includes all the settings necessary to connect to the XTM device. You can also configure your policies to allow or deny traffic from Mobile VPN clients. Mobile VPN users authenticate either to the Firebox user database on the XTM device or to an external authentication server. In this module, we use the Firebox authentication method to illustrate the authentication process.

Types of Mobile VPN


WatchGuard System Manager includes three types of mobile VPN. Each type uses a different protocol to establish and encrypt a connection: PPTP Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol PPTP traffic begins over TCP port 1723. This port is used as a control channel to pass connection information between the mobile user and your XTM device. After the connection setup is complete, the encrypted traffic then passes over IP protocol 47, Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE). Both TCP port 1723 and IP protocol 47 must be open between the mobile user and your XTM device for PPTP to work. IPSec Internet Protocol Security VPN negotiations happen over UDP port 500. If this port is not open between the remote client and your XTM device, the VPN can not work. Data that passes over the VPN is encapsulated in ESP packets (Encapsulating Security Payload). ESP uses IP protocol 50. This is not a port; ESP does not use ports. Instead, ESP uses its own IP protocol number, 50. Compare to TCP (IP protocol 6) and UDP (IP protocol 17). UDP port 4500 can also be necessary for Mobile VPN with IPSec VPNs. This port is for NAT Traversal (NAT-T) If either end (the XTM device or the remote client) is behind a network device that does Network Address Translation, IPSec-encapsulated traffic is re-encapsulated in new UDP port 4500 packets. This prevents problems that can occur with some NAT devices that do not correctly handle IPSec traffic. SSL Secure Sockets Layer SSL VPNs typically pass all traffic over TCP port 443. Because port 443 is also used for the HTTPS traffic that goes to secure web sites, it is normally open everywhere. This is a major advantage of SSL VPNs, because it is not uncommon for a mobile user to be at a location that blocks IPSec or PPTP traffic. The WatchGuard Mobile VPN with SSL option also lets you change the port that your XTM device uses for Mobile User VPN with SSL. You can use any TCP or UDP port for Mobile User VPN with SSL. While there are subtle advantages and disadvantages to each method, the type of Mobile VPN you select largely depends on your existing infrastructure and your network policy preferences. The configuration and system requirements for both the XTM device and client side are similar. The XTM device can manage all three types of mobile VPN simultaneously. A client computer can be configured to use one or more VPN connection methods.

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Connect Remote Users Securely to the Corporate Network

Some considerations that may influence your selection of a mobile VPN protocol are: Encryption support Client OS support Authentication server compatibility VPN tunnel capacity and licensing

Use this table to compare the characteristics of each mobile VPN protocol: Mobile VPN Type
Mobile VPN with PPTP

Client OS Support
No client installation necessary. PPTP is included with Windows OS Shrew Soft VPN client supports: Windows Vista Windows 7 Windows XP (32/64bit) For iOS devices, no client installation is necessary. iOS includes an IPSec VPN client. Windows Vista Windows 7 Windows XP (32 and 64-bit) Mac OS X v10.5 Mac OS X 10.6 (32-bit)

Authentication Server Support


Firebox-DB RADIUS

Maximum VPN tunnels


50 tunnels

Mobile VPN with IPSec

Firebox-DB RADIUS* LDAP Active Directory

Base and maximum tunnels vary by XTM device model. License purchase is required to enable the maximum number of tunnels.

Mobile VPN with SSL

Firebox-DB RADIUS LDAP RSA SecurID Active Directory

Base and maximum tunnels vary by XTM device model. Pro upgrade for the Fireware XTM OS is required for maximum SSL VPN tunnels. To support more than one SSL VPN tunnel you must have a Pro upgrade.

* The Shrew Soft IPSec VPN client is not compatible with 2-factor authentication.

For the base and maximum number of tunnels supported for Mobile VPN with IPSec and Mobile VPN with SSL, see the detailed specifications for your XTM device model. Note
SSL and IPSec VPN both support AES-256 encryption. PPTP is limited to 128 bit (non-AES) encryption.

Enable the XTM Device for Mobile VPN


To configure the XTM device to accept connections from remote users, you must: Activate Mobile VPN By default, the XTM device does not allow remote users to connect to protected resources on the trusted and optional networks. To allow these types of connections, you must first activate the form of Mobile VPN on the XTM device. In the case of SSL and PPTP, this is a single checkbox. With IPSec, you must also create and distribute Mobile VPN client configuration files. Define settings Each type of Mobile VPN includes settings such as encryption method and keep alive interval. These settings are unique for each type of Mobile VPN. For example, only PPTP requires the configuration of a range of IP addresses on the trusted network for PPTP clients.

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Select and configure authentication Before connecting to resources on the company network, remote users must authenticate. You can select an authentication method for each type of Mobile VPN. Configure policies Even though the Mobile VPN connection is secure, you may want to limit access to trusted and optional networks through the Mobile VPN tunnel. If you use the XTM device as the authentication server, the required Firebox User Groups are automatically added to your XTM devices configuration. For RADIUS, LDAP, and Active Directory authentication, you must manually add the correct group to your authentication server. The required groups are: - For Mobile User VPN with PPTP PPTP-Users - For Mobile VPN with IPSec The name of the Mobile VPN with IPSec group you define - For Mobile VPN with SSL SSLVPN-Users or the name of the Mobile VPN with SSL group you define Note
If you define custom users or groups in the Mobile VPN with SSL authentication settings, only the group name SSLVPN-Users appears in the Mobile VPN with SSL policy. Even though the group name in the policy does not match the custom groups or user names you defined, this policy does apply to all users and groups you configured in the Mobile VPN with SSL authentication settings.

Regardless of which authentication server you use, you must manually add users to these groups to allow them to connect with Mobile VPN.

Distribute Client Software and Configuration File


Mobile VPN with IPSec on Windows clients For Mobile VPN with IPSec users on Windows devices, you must distribute the Shrew Soft VPN client software and a Mobile VPN client configuration file to each remote user. The configuration file is generated by Policy Manager when you configure Mobile VPN with IPSec on the XTM device. The client software is available on the WatchGuard web site. Mobile VPN with iPSec on iOS devices For Mobile VPN with IPSec users on iOS devices, you do not need to distribute client software or a Mobile VPN client configuration file. The VPN client that is included on all iOS devices can make a Mobile VPN with IPSec connection. Mobile VPN with SSL Mobile VPN with SSL users download the client automatically from the XTM device.

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Use Mobile VPN with IPSec With a Mac OS X or iOS Device

Use Mobile VPN with IPSec With a Mac OS X or iOS Device


Apple Mac OS X 10.6 and later, and iOS devices (iPhone, iPad, and iPod Touch) include a built-in Cisco IPSec VPN client. You can use this client to make an IPSec VPN connection to an XTM device. To do this, you must configure the VPN settings on your XTM device to match those on the iOS or Mac OS X device. Then you can configure the settings on the iOS device so that the VPN client can connect.

Configure the XTM Device


To configure Mobile VPN with iPSec to work with the VPN client on Mac OS X or iOS devices, you run the Mobile VPN with IPSec Wizard. Then you change the Phase 1 and Phase 2 settings in the Mobile VPN with iPSec configuration to settings that are supported by the VPN client on the Mac OS X or iOS device. Many of the VPN tunnel configuration settings in the VPN client on the iOS device are not configurable by the user. It is very important to configure the settings on your XTM device to match the settings required by the VPN client on the Mac OS X or iOS device. The Mobile VPN with IPSec configuration settingson the XTM device must be set to values that are shown in the subsequent table. Configuration
User authentication server Tunnel authentication method Internet Traffic Phase 1 Authentication Phase 1 Advanced Settings
You learn how to use the Add Mobile VPN with iPSec Wizard in Exercise 2. If you want to use this VPN profile for all supported VPN clients, set the SA Life to 8 hours. When the SA Life is set to 8 hours, The Shrew Soft VPN and WatchGuard Mobile VPN with IPSec clients rekey after 8 hours, but the VPN client on the iOS device uses the smaller rekey value of 1 hour.

Setting compatible with the VPN client on iOS devices


Use any supported authentication method (Firebox-DB, RADIUS, SecurID, LDAP). Set a Tunnel passphrase. The VPN client on iOS cannot use an RSA certificate for tunnel authentication. Force all Internet traffic through the tunnel (default-route VPN). The VPN client on the iOS device does not support split tunneling. DES, 3DES, AES (128-bit), or AES (256-bit). SA Life 1 hour. The VPN client on the iOS device is configured to rekey after 1 hour. If this profile is only used for connections by VPN client on iOS devices, set the SA Life to 1 hour to match the client setting. Key Group Diffie-Hellman Group2 Do not change any other Phase 1 Advanced settings. Authentication SHA1 or MD5 Encryption 3DES, AES (128-big), or AES (256-bit) Force Key Expiration 1 hour, 0 kilobytes Disable PFS. Perfect Forward Secrecy is not supported by the VPN client on the iOS device.

Phase 2 Proposal

Phase 2 PFS

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Configure the VPN Client on an iOS Device


The XTM device does not generate a client configuration file for the VPN client on the iOS device. Because there are few configurable settings on the VPN client on the iOS device, the user can manually configure the client settings to match the settings configured on the XTM device. To configure the VPN settings on the iOS device:

1. On the iOS device, select Settings > General > Network > VPN > Add VPN Configuration. 2. Configure these settings in the VPN client: - Server The external IP address of the XTM device - Account The user name on the authentication server - Use Certificate Set this option to OFF - Group Name The group name in the XTM device Mobile VPN with IPSec configuration - Secret The tunnel passphrase in the XTM device Mobile VPN with IPSec configuration - Users Password The password for the user in the authentication server configuration

Configure the VPN Client on a Mac OS X Device


The XTM device does not generate a client configuration file for the VPN client on the Mac OS X device. The user must manually configure the VPN client settings to match the settings on the XTM device. To configure the VPN settings on the Mac OS X device:

1. Open System Preferences and select Network. 2. Click + at the bottom of the list to add a new interface. Configure these settings: - Interface VPN - VPN Type Cisco IPSec - Service Name type the name you want to use for this connection - Server Address The external IP address of the XTM device - Account Name The user name on the authentication server - Password The password for the user on the authentication server - Shared Secret The tunnel passphrase you set in the XTM device Mobile VPN with IPSec configuration - Group Name The group name you chose in the XTM device Mobile VPN with IPSec configuration

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Exercise 1:

Set Up Mobile User VPN with PPTP

Successful Company starts with just a few mobile users and decides to use the PPTP client built into the Windows operating system on their laptop computers. It requires more configuration than the alternatives, but it is a good way to start to implement a company network policy which includes remote users.

Activate PPTP on the XTM Device


First, we must activate PPTP on the XTM device. During this process, you must also define an address pool which can be used by PPTP users while connected.

1. Open WatchGuard System Manager and connect to the XTM device you want to configure. 2. Click . Or, select Tools > Policy Manager.
Policy Manager opens the configuration file for the selected XTM device.

3. Select VPN > Mobile VPN > PPTP.


The Mobile User VPN with PPTP Configuration dialog box appears.

4. Select the Activate Mobile VPN with PPTP check box.

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5. In the IP Address Pool section, click Add.


The Add Address dialog box appears.

6. From the Choose Type drop-down list, select Host Range.


The Value and To text boxes appear in the dialog box.
Make sure you select IP addresses that are not used by any device behind the XTM device.

7. In the Value text box, type 10.0.1.50. 8. In the To text box, type 10.0.1.74.
This sets a range of virtual IP addresses that PPTP remote users can use while connected. You can configure 50 addresses. If you select Host Range and add a range of IP addresses that is larger than 50 addresses, Mobile VPN with PPTP uses the first 50 addresses in the range. You must add at least two IP addresses for PPTP to operate correctly.

9. Click OK. 10. Click OK again to close the Mobile VPN with PPTP Configuration dialog box.

Add Users to the PPTP-Users Group


Because we did not select the Use RADIUS authentication to authenticate Mobile VPN with PPTP users check box, the local Firebox user database is used and the XTM device is the authentication server. We must now add a user and make the user a member of the PPTP-Users group.

1. Select Setup > Authentication > Authentication Servers.


The Authentication Servers dialog box appears.

2. Select the Firebox tab.

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3. In the Users section, click Add.


The Setup Firebox User dialog box appears.

The SSLVPN-Users and PPTP-Users Firebox Authentication Groups do not appear in the screen shot in Step 3 until you enable Mobile VPN with PPTP or SSL.

4. Type the Name and (optional) a Description of the new user. 5. Type and confirm the Passphrase you want the user to use to authenticate. 6. In the Firebox Authentication Groups section, in the Available list, select PPTP-Users and click .
The PPTP-Users group appears in the Member list.

7. Click OK.
The user is added to the PPTP-Users group. The configured username and passphrase can now be used to authenticate.

Restrict PPTP Users by Policy


When we activated Mobile VPN with PPTP, Policy Manager automatically created a policy called WatchGuard PPTP in the XTM device configuration. However, that policy allows remote users only to authenticate to the XTM device and send PPTP traffic to the device itself. This policy does not allow access to resources on the Trusted and Optional networks. To allow PPTP users to connect to network resources, you must manually create policies that use the PPTP-Users group name to allow specific types of traffic. For more information about how to use policies to restrict traffic, see the Mobile VPN with PPTP section.

Configure the Windows Client Computer


On the Windows client computer, you must configure the PPTP connection in the Control Panel network settings. When you configure the PPTP connection, the default PPTP configuration enables an advanced TCP/IP option that forces all the users traffic through the tunnel, even traffic that goes to the internet. The mobile user can edit the advanced TCP/IP settings for the PPTP client connection to clear the Use default gateway on remote network check box.

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If the mobile user does not clear the Use default gateway on remote network check box If the user keeps this check box selected, traffic the remote user sends to the Internet goes through your XTM device. To allow this traffic out to the Internet through your XTM device, you must modify the policies in your device configuration that are to allow outgoing traffic. Modify these policies to include the PPTP-Users group in the From list and the external network in the To list. This gives you, the administrator of the XTM device, control over what type of traffic the remote users can send to the Internet while are connected to your protected network. If the mobile user clears the Use default gateway on remote network check box If the remote user clears this check box, then it is important to select the virtual IP address pool carefully. Because of the method Windows uses to write routes to the local PPTP adapter, the computers PPTP adapter will be able to route traffic only to the classful subnet of the received virtual IP address. For example: If the virtual IP address the mobile user receives for the VPN session is from the 10.1.1.x network, the PPTP adapter will be able to route traffic to the entire 10.x.x.x/8 network. (Class A networks are from 0.0.0.1 through 127.255.255.255) If the virtual address is from the 172.16.1.x network, the PPTP adapter will route traffic only to the 172.16.0.0/16 network. (Class B networks are from 128.0.0.0 through 191.255.255.255) If the virtual IP address is from the 192.168.1.x network, the adapter will route traffic only to the 192.168.1.0/24 network. (Class C networks are from 192.0.0.0 through 223.255.255.255)

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Exercise 2:

Configure Mobile VPN with IPSec and Prepare Mobile VPN Client Configuration Files

For Mobile VPN with IPSec, the network security administrator controls Mobile VPN with IPSec configuration files. You use Policy Manager to configure a user group with Mobile VPN with IPSec access. For each user group with Mobile VPN with IPSec access, a Mobile VPN profile is saved in three Mobile VPN configuration files with the file extensions *.wgx, *.ini, and .vpn. The .wgx, .ini, and .vpn files contain the shared key, user identification, IP addresses, and settings that the VPN client uses to create a secure tunnel between the remote computer and the XTM device. In this exercise, we will use the *.vpn file. Mobile VPN with IPSec generates Mobile VPN client configuration files for two different IPSec VPN clients: Shrew Soft VPN Client WatchGuard added support for the Shrew Soft VPN client in Fireware XTM v11.3.4 and Fireware XTM v11.4. This client is not supported in earlier versions of Fireware XTM. The Shrew Soft VPN client for Windows uses the .vpn Mobile VPN client configuration file. The .vpn client configuration file is not encrypted. We recommend that you use a secure method to distribute this file. WatchGuard Mobile VPN with IPSec Client WatchGuard no longer distributes this VPN client, but Fireware XTM still supports it. The WatchGuard Mobile VPN with IPSec client uses either the .wgx or the .ini Mobile VPN client configuration file. This exercise shows you how to configure the XTM device and deploy the user profile and Shrew Soft VPN client to a new employee in the IT department of Successful Company. As a member of the Marketing team, Tim is constantly on the road. The Successful Company network administrator will use Policy Manager to create a Mobile VPN profile that Tim can use to connect securely to the Successful Company network.

1. Select VPN > Mobile VPN > IPSec.


The Mobile VPN with IPSec Configuration dialog box appears.

2. Click Add.
The Add Mobile VPN with IPSec Wizard appears.

3. Click Next.
The Select a user authentication server page appears.

4. From the Authentication Server drop-down list, select Firebox-DB.


You can use the internal Firebox database (Firebox-DB) or the RADIUS, SecurID (or Vasco), LDAP, or Active Directory servers to authenticate users. Make sure that the authentication method you select is enabled in Policy Manager (select Setup > Authentication > Authentication Servers).

The SecurID authentication method is not supported with the Shrew Soft VPN client. The Shrew Soft client does not support 2factor authentication.

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5. In the Group Name text box, type Mobile Users.


If you use an external authentication server (not the Firebox internal user database), the group name must be identical to the group name on the external authentication server. With RADIUS authentication, the RADIUS server must return a Filter-Id attribute where the value of the attribute matches the name of the group. If you use the XTM device as the authentication server, Policy Manager automatically creates a group with the correct name.

The Group Name can be an existing group or a new group. Make sure the name you choose is unique among VPN group names, as well as all interface and tunnel names.

6. Click Next.
The Select a tunnel authentication method page appears.

7. Select Use this passphrase. 8. In the Tunnel Passphrase and Retype Passphrase text boxes, type successfulremote.

9. Click Next.
The Direct the flow of internet traffic page appears.

10. Click Next to accept the default, more flexible setting that configures the VPN client to send traffic through the VPN tunnel only when the traffic destination matches a resource you specify.
The Identify the resources accessible through the tunnel page appears.

11. Click Add.


The Add Address dialog box appears.

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12. In the Choose Type drop-down list, select Network IP. 13. In the Value text box, type 10.0.1.0/24.
This will enable members of the Mobile Users group to access the Successful Company trusted network, 10.0.1.0/24.

14. Click OK.


The Network IP address appears in the wizard.

15. Click Next.


The Create the Virtual IP address pool page appears.

16. To specify the IP addresses that will be assigned to the mobile user connections, click Add.
The Add Address dialog box appears.

17. From the Choose Type drop-down list, select Host IP. 18. In the Value text box, type 10.0.1.200.
This IP address will be assigned to the Mobile VPN user when the user connects to your network. The number of IP addresses should be the same as the number of Mobile VPN users. The IP addresses cannot be used by more than one Mobile VPN user at a time, or any device behind the XTM device.
To assign a group of IP addresses to use for Mobile VPN with IPSec tunnels, select Host Range, and select the range of addresses to use.

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19. Click OK.


The IP address appears in the wizard.

20. Click Next.


The wizard completion page appears. This page shows the location where the Mobile VPN client configuration files were created.

21. To add Tim to the Mobile Users group, select the Add users to Mobile Users check box. 22. Click Finish.
The Authentication Servers dialog box appears.

23. Select the Firebox tab.


To add or remove users later, select Setup > Authentication > Authentication Servers.

24. In the Users section, click Add.


The Setup Firebox User dialog box appears.

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25. In the User Information section, type the Name, Description, and Passphrase for Tim.

26. In the Available list, double-click Mobile Users.


Mobile Users is moved to the Members list.

27. Click OK.


Tim is now a member of the Mobile Users group.

28. Click OK to close the Authentication Servers dialog box.

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Exercise 3:

Restrict Mobile VPN with IPSec Users by Policy

In a default configuration, Mobile VPN with IPSec users have full access to XTM device resources with the Any policy. The Any policy allows traffic on all ports and protocols between the Mobile VPN user and the network resources available through the Mobile VPN tunnel. To restrict VPN user traffic by port and protocol, you can delete the Any policy on the Mobile VPN with IPSec tab and replace it with policies that restrict access.

1. In Policy Manager, select the Mobile VPN with IPSec tab.

2. Select the Any policy and delete it. 3. Click . Or, select Edit > Add Policy.
The Select Mobile VPN with IPSec Group dialog box appears..

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4. Select the Mobile VPN with IPSec group for this policy and click OK.
The Add Policies dialog box appears.

5. Add a policy for the traffic that you want to allow from the Mobile VPN user.
For example, expand the Packet Filters list, select the HTTP policy and click Add to add a policy that lets the Mobile VPN users connect to resources over port 80.

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6. You can edit this policy to limit the Mobile VPN users to only a subset of the resources in the Allowed Resources list. - In the Allowed Resources list, select a resource and click Remove. - To add a more limited set of resources, such as an individual Host IP address, or a smaller subnet than the subnet in the listed resource, click Add.
Any resource you add to the Allowed Resources list must be a subset of the original allowed resource.

7. You can also limit the users allowed to use this policy. To select which members of the Mobile VPN with IPSec group are allowed to use this policy, click Specify Users.

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Exercise 4:

Use the Shrew Soft IPSec Client

The Successful Company administrator wants to use the Shrew Soft VPN client to enable remote users to establish a secure, encrypted connection to their protected network over IPSec. To do this, remote users must first connect their computers to the Internet and then use the Mobile VPN with IPSec client to connect to the protected network. Before you install the client software on your users computers, make sure the remote computer does not have any other IPSec mobile user VPN client software installed. You should also disable or uninstall any desktop firewall software (other than Microsoft firewall software) from each remote computer. To ensure the installation is successful, you must log into the remote computer with local administrator rights.

Install the Shrew Soft VPN Client


The installation process consists of two parts: installing the client software on the remote computer and importing the Mobile VPN client configuration file into the client. Before you start the installation, make sure you have these installation components: The Shrew Soft VPN client installation file A Mobile VPN client configuration file, with a .vpn file extension The end-user also needs to know the username and password to use to connect

Install the Mobile VPN client software


1. Copy the Shrew Soft VPN installation file to the remote computer. 2. To start the Mobile VPN installation, double-click the .exe file.
The Shrew Soft VPN Client Setup Wizard starts.

3. In the setup wizard, select the destination folder.


Complete the setup wizard.

Import the Mobile VPN client configuration file


1. Copy the .vpn Mobile VPN client configuration file to the desktop on the remote (client or user) computer. 2. From the Windows Start Menu, start Shrew Soft VPN Access Manager.
The Shrew Soft VPN Access Manager appears.

3. Select File > Import. 4. Browse to select the location of the .vpn file. 5. Click Open.
The VPN client configuration is imported and a new site configuration appears in the Shrew Soft VPN Access Manager window.

You can use certificates to authenticate the Mobile VPN users if your XTM device is managed by a WatchGuard Management Server. If you use Policy Manager to generate the Mobile VPN client configuration file, the certificates are embedded in the .vpn file and are automatically imported to the Shrew Soft VPN client when you import the .vpn configuration file.

If you use the Fireware XTM Web UI to generate the .vpn file, the certificates are not included in the .vpn file and must be imported to the Shrew Soft client as a separate step.

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Connect and Disconnect the Shrew Soft VPN Client


Now that the client is configured, you can use it to make a connection to the XTM device.

1. Connect to the Internet through a local area network (LAN) or wide area network (WAN). 2. From the Windows Start menu, start the Shrew Soft VPN Access Manager.

3. Click the Mobile Users.vpn profile icon to select it. Then click Connect.
The Shrew Soft VPN Connect dialog box appears.

If you use certificates for authentication, the user must type the username and password a second time. This password is used to open the private key for the client certificate.

4. Type the Username and Password of the Mobile VPN user.

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5. Click Connect.
Connection progress appears in the Connect tab.

It can take several seconds for the Shrew Soft VPN client to connect. When the VPN client has connected, the message Tunnel Enabled appears in the Connect tab. After the VPN client has connected, you can minimize the Shrew Soft VPN Connect dialog box, but do not close it. To keep your VPN connection, you must keep the Shrew Soft VPN Connect dialog box open. You can close the Shrew Soft Access Manager window. To end the Shrew Soft VPN connection, you can click Disconnect in the Shrew Soft VPN Connect dialog box, or simply close the Shrew Soft VPN Connect application.

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Exercise 5:

Configure the XTM device for SSL VPN

For security and ease of use, many organizations use Mobile VPN with SSL. With Mobile VPN with SSL, remote users connect to the XTM device on TCP port 443 where users can download client software and a client profile to their computers. The client software is also available on the WatchGuard web site. A XTM device administrator can also download the client software and make it available at other locations. In this exercise, we use Policy Manager to activate the XTM device for Mobile VPN with SSL and create a policy to restrict SSL VPN user access.

Activate the XTM Device for SSL VPN


1. Select VPN > Mobile VPN > SSL.
The Mobile VPN with SSL Configuration dialog box appears.

2. Select the Activate Mobile VPN with SSL check box. 3. Select the Force all client traffic through the tunnel check box.
This ensures that all traffic both to and from the remote user computers must pass through the XTM device. This method is more secure, however, it uses more processing power and bandwidth on the XTM device.

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4. Click the Authentication tab.


The list of configured authentication methods appears.

5. Make sure the check box next to Firebox-DB is selected. This is selected by default.
The group SSLVPN-Users is also added to the configuration by default.

6. Click OK.
Note
In this exercise, we use Firebox-DB as the authentication server. You can optionally select multiple authentication servers. If you select more than one authentication server, the server at the top of the list is the default server. The default server is used for authentication unless a user specifies a different server. To authenticate with a non-default authentication server, the user must include the server as part of the Username when they log in from the Mobile VPN with SSL client. For example, if you enable LDAP as a secondary authentication server, LDAP user mbrown must log in as ldap\mbrown.
If you select other authentication servers, such as LDAP, or Active Directory, make sure that you add the users and groups that exist on those servers to the Users and Groups list.

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Add Users to the SSLVPN-Users Group


Because we selected Firebox-DB as the authentication server, we must add a user to the SSLVPN-Users group.

1. Select Setup > Authentication > Authentication Servers.


The Authentication Servers dialog box appears.

2. Select the Firebox tab. 3. In the Users section, click Add.


The Setup Firebox User dialog box appears.

4. Type the Name and (optional) a Description of the new user. 5. Type and confirm the Passphrase you want the user to use to authenticate. 6. In the Firebox Authentication Groups section, in the Available list, select SSLVPN-Users and click .
The SSLVPN-Users group appears in the Member list.

7. Click OK.
The user is added to the SSLVPN-Users group. The configured username and passphrase can now be used to authenticate.

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Restrict SSL VPN Users by Policy


When we activated Mobile VPN with SSL, Policy Manager automatically created a policy to allow all traffic to resources on the Trusted and Optional networks. In this exercise, the Successful Company administrator decides to restrict this policy to allow traffic only to their internal HTTP server. In a realworld environment, the administrator might also want to open FTP and SMTP to internal servers.
You can use a similar process for IPSec and PPTP users.

1. Select the Allow SSLVPN-Users policy.


This policy was automatically created when we activated Mobile VPN with SSL. This is an Any policy that allows all traffic from Mobile VPN with SSL users to all resources on the Trusted and Optional networks.

2. Click . Or, select Edit > Delete Policy.


A confirmation message appears.

3. Click Yes. 4. Click . Or, select Edit > Add Policy.


The Add Policies dialog box appears.

5. Expand the Proxies list and select HTTP Proxy. Click Add.
The New Policy Properties dialog box appears. You can use this policy to control access to the Successful Company web server on the trusted network, or to control access from SSLVPN-Users to the Internet.

6. In the From section, click Add.


The Add Address dialog box appears.

7. Click Add User.


The Add Authorized Users or Groups dialog box appears.

8. In the Type drop-down lists, select Firewall and Group.


A list of Firebox authentication groups appears..

If you configured Mobile VPN with SSL to use an external authentication server, and you added authentication groups and users, you must still select the SSLVPN Users group when you configure a policy. In a policy configuration, the group name SSLVPN Users refers to all groups defined in the Mobile VPN with SSL configuration.

9. Select SSL VPN-Users and click Select.


The Add Authorized Users or Groups dialog box closes. The Add Address dialog box appears.

10. In the Selected Members and Addresses list, select Any-External and click Remove. 11. Click OK to close the Add Address dialog box.
The SSLVPN-Users group appears in the New Policy Properties dialog box in the From list.

12. In the To section, click Add.


The Add Address dialog box appears.

13. Click Add Other.


The Add Member dialog box appears.

14. In the Choose Type drop-down list, select Host IP. 15. In the Value text box, type the IP address of the web server: 10.0.2.80. Click OK.
In the Add Address dialog box, 10.0.2.80 appears in the Selected Members and Addresses list.

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16. Click OK.


In the New Policy Properties dialog box, 10.0.2.80 appears in the To list.

17. Click OK to close the New Policy Properties dialog box.

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Exercise 6:

Change the Port Used for Mobile VPN with SSL

One of the major advantages of Mobile VPN with SSL is that it uses a port that is commonly open everywhere. The default port is TCP port 443, the same port used for HTTPS-encrypted web sites such as online banking and shopping web sites. It is possible that you might need to change this port if: Your XTM device is previously configured to allow connections to the devices external interface IP address over TCP port 443. The most common reason for this is that you have an HTTPS or SSL web server protected by the XTM device and you have an HTTPS policy that allows incoming TCP port 443 connections with the external interface IP address. AND You do not have another IP address you can assign to the external interface of your XTM device. If your XTM device already allows connections to one external IP address over port 443, you cannot use that same IP address to enable the device to host Mobile VPN with SSL sessions over TCP port 443 at the same time. You can change the port that your XTM device uses to host Mobile VPN with SSL sessions:

1. In the Mobile VPN with SSL Configuration dialog box, select the Advanced tab. 2. In the Data channel text box, type or select a new port.

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If you change the Data channel value, users must manually type this port in the Mobile VPN with SSL connection dialog box. For example, if you change the data channel to 444, and the XTM device IP address is 203.0.113.2, the user types 203.0.113.2:444 instead of 203.0.113.2. If you keep the Data channel port value at the default setting of port 443, the user types only the XTM devices IP address (it is not necessary to type :443 after the IP address). To learn more about how to use the Mobile VPN with SSL client software to connect to the XTM device, see Exercise 7:.

Exercise 7:

Use the Mobile VPN with SSL Client

In this exercise we authenticate with the SSLVPN User credentials to download and install the SSLVPN client for Windows. Then we use the client to authenticate to the XTM device.

Install the Mobile VPN with SSL Client


1. Establish an Internet connection.
If you change the data channel for SSL VPN, the URL in Step 2 changes. After the IP address or host name, type a colon, followed by the new Data channel port value. For example, if you change the data channel to port 444, type https:// 203.0.113.2:444 /sslvpn.html.

2. Open a web browser and go to:


https://[IP address or host name of the device interface]/sslvpn.html For example: https://203.0.113.2/sslvpn.html

3. Type the Username and Password to authenticate to the XTM device.


The client software download page appears.

4. Click Download for the client version you want to install. 5. Save the file to the Desktop. 6. Run the WG-MVPN-SSL.exe installation file.
Accept the default settings on each page of the installation wizard.

7. Select the check box to create a desktop icon.

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Connect with the Mobile VPN with SSL Client


Each time the Mobile VPN with SSL client connects, it checks for updates to the client configuration. To start the Mobile VPN with SSL client:
If you change the data channel for SSL VPN, for example to port 444, the user must type
203.0.113.2:444

1. Double-click the Mobile VPN with SSL client desktop icon. Or, in the Windows Start menu, select All Programs > WatchGuard > Mobile VPN with SSL Client > Mobile VPN with SSL Client.
The WatchGuard Mobile VPN with SSL authentication dialog box appears.

instead of
203.0.113.2 in

the Server text box. If Firebox-DB is not the default SSL VPN authentication server, the user must type FireboxDB\j_smith instead of j_smith in the Username text box.

2. Verify the Server and Username. 3. Type the Password. 4. Click Connect.

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Test Your Knowledge


Use these questions to practice what you have learned and exercise new skills.

1. True or false? When you force all Internet traffic through a Mobile VPN tunnel, more processing power and bandwidth is consumed, but the configuration is also more secure. 2. True or false? You can use the Mobile VPN with SSL client as soon as it is installed. There is no need to configure it. 3. What items does the user need to connect with the Shrew Soft Mobile VPN client? (Select all that apply.)
A) B) C) D) E) F) G) H) A shared key User name and password IP addresses of the allowed resources A .vpn client configuration file Administrator ID WatchGuard Mobile VPN with IPSec client software Shrew Soft VPN client software All of the above

4. True or false? You can create policies that control Mobile VPN access. 5. True or false? The .vpn client configuration file is not encrypted. 6. Which of these forms of Mobile User VPN are supported by WatchGuard System Manager? (Select all that apply.)
A) B) C) D) E) F) G) H) Active Directory IPSec LDAP PGP PPTP SCP IRC SSH SSL VPN

TRAINING www.watchguard.com/training training@watchguard.com

COPYRIGHT 2012 WatchGuard Technologies, Inc. All rights reserved. WatchGuard, the WatchGuard logo, Firebox, and Core are registered trademarks or trademarks of WatchGuard Technologies, Inc. in the United States and/or other countries.

ANSWERS 1. True 2. True 3. B, D, G 4. True 5. True 6. B, E, H

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