Anda di halaman 1dari 8

Biology Exam Review

Chapters 1-3: Diversity Identifying Species A species is a group of organisms that can interbreed naturally and produce fertile offspring There are 3 species concepts: Morphological - based on morphology (body shape, size and other structural features); compare measurements and descriptions of similar organisms - simple, but how much variation is too much? Biological - similar characteristics and ability to produce fertile offspring; if they can a) mate and b) produce fertile kids, then theyre the same species - widely accepted, cannot be applied to a) separated populations, b) asexual organisms and c) fossil species (no longer reproducing) Phylogenetic - based on phylogeny (evolutionary history of a species); clusters of organisms are distinct from another cluster of organisms - DNA analysis allows scientists to learn about species how they are related

Naming Using binomial nomenclature, a system of giving two part Latin words to a name: first the genus, the second the species. Classification System Species classified through hierarchal system, a method where items are below, above, or on the same level when compared to each other. Usually general to specific. In taxonomic categories, a species is assigned membership in eight nested categories. A level in the classification is called a rank, and each rank can be called a taxon. Two Main Cell Types: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic (2 Domains) Prokaryotic Cells - have no membrane-bound nucleus, hence the pro- (meaning before, as in before a nucleus). They are simple, ancient, and still abundant today. Eukaryotic Cells - larger, having a true membrane-bound nucleus (along with other organelles such as ribosomes) Detailed comparison between prokaryotes and eukaryotes... In size, prokaryotes (1-10m) are smaller than eukaryotes (100-1000m)

Biology Exam Review

In genetic material, prokaryotes have circular, unbound DNA, with a genome made of one chromosome. Versus eukaryotes, which have DNA bound in a membrane, and a genome made of several chromosomes. Prokaryotes divide NOT by mitosis or meiosis, while eukaryotes divide by mitosis and meiosis. Prokaryotes reproduce asexually usually, while eukaryotes reproduce sexually usually. Prokaryotes are unicellular, while most forms of eukaryotes are multicellular. Prokaryotes lack mitochondria and other membrane-bound organelles, while eukaryotes have these mitochondria and other membrane-bound organelles present. Prokaryotic metabolism does not require oxygen, so theyre anaerobic. Many eukaryotes do require oxygen, and are aerobic. Single Cell Organisms Bacteria, archaea and protists (some) are unicellular organisms. Bacteria and archaea are found in two shapes commonly. Coccus is an organisms that is spherical, round, while bacillus is more rod shaped. There is a third shape, which is spiral shaped. Some forms do not fit these descriptions. Streptococcus and streptobacillus are individual cells, linked together. Nutrition varies in Archaea and Bacteria: some consume other organisms, some carry out photosynthesis, some get food from other inorganic compounds e.g. hydrogen sulfide or iron. There are some differences: Archaea have methanogenesis which produces methane as a byproduct, usually found in oxygenless environments e.g. digestive tracts Some bacteria can carry out photosynthesis e.g. cyanobacteria, while it has not been proven that archaea rely on it as a food source Habitat wise, bacteria and archaea can be aerobic or anaerobic. Most archaea are extremophiles, so they can live in extreme conditions, though some are mesophiles, which live in more moderate conditions. Bacteria are usually mesophiles but there are extremophiles as well. Bacteria and archaea can reproduce through binary fission which involves: duplicating the chromosome, growing to a certain size, forming a septum then separating into two. Also, bacteria and archaea are capable of conjugation to share genetic material between two cells. Sometimes plasmids, small loops of detachable DNA can be transferred. Lastly, as protection, some bacteria can form into endospores which will protect them in the long term during extreme conditions. To classify archaea and bacteria, a gram stain can be used which will make gram-positive bacteria purple, and gram-negative bacteria pink Protists Protists are mostly unicellular, and are grouped since they dont fit into other groups (other). There are animal-like, plant-like, and fungus-like protists.

Biology Exam Review

Animal-like protists include amoebas (use pseudopods to eat), ciliates (cilia are hair like projections for movement and particle manipulation), and flagellates (flagella are long hair-like projections that propel the cell in a whip-like motion). There are sporozoans, which are parasites. Fungus-like protists are plasmodial slime moulds (slug-like, streaming blobs over decaying plant material), cellular slime moulds (individual amoeboid cell cells with one nucleus, ingesting tiny bacteria or yeast cells), and water moulds (filamentous organisms like fungi). Plant-like protists include diatoms (chrysophyta, which are diverse and abundant with rigid cell walls filled with silica), dinoflagellates (pyrrophyta, which have two flagella that spin allowing the protist to twirl through water; quickly reproduce), and euglenoids (chloroplasts, flagella, and can absorb nutrients e.g. autotroph in daylight, heterotroph at night). Main Characteristics of Each Kingdom
Domain Kingdom Example Bacteria Bacteria Staphyloccus Archaea Archaea Sulfolobus archaea Prokaryote Unicellular Protista Amoeba Plantae Maple tree Eukarya Fungi Mushroom Animalia Rabbit

Cell type Number of cells

Prokaryote Unicellular

Eukaryote Both uni and multi Cellulose in some; occasionally no cell wall Autotrophs and heterotrophs Asexual and sexual

Eukaryote Multicellular

Eukaryote Mostly multicellular Chitin

Eukaryote Multicellular

Cell wall material

Peptidoglycan

Not peptidoglycan; occasionally no cell wall Autotrophs and heterotrophs

Cellulose

No cell wall

Nutrition

Autotroph and heterotroph

Autotrophs

Heterotrophs

Heterotrophs

Primary means of reproduction

Asexual

Asexual

Sexual

Sexual

Sexual

Autotrophs capture energy from sunlight or non-living substances to produce its own food. In comparison, there are heterotrophs, which cannot make food and must consume other organisms.

Biology Exam Review

Chapters 4-6: Genetics Cell Cycle It is how somatic (body cells, minus reproductive cells) cells reproduce by controlled growth and division. It serves three functions: a) growth for the organism, b) repairing damaged tissues and organs and c) replacing damaged or dead/dying cells. There a three stages to the cell cycle: Interphase Growth phase for a cell, where it matures, then copies DNA, then prepares for division. There are three parts to interphase: G1 (growth; synthesizing molecules for next phase), S (synthesis; DNA as chromatin replicated), G2 (growth; prepares for mitosis and cell division) Mitosis The phase where the copied genetic material splits, and prepares for the cell to split into two. There are four phases to mitosis: - Prophase: chromatin condenses into chromosomes (sister chromatids, joined at centromere) while the nucleolus disappears and spindle fibres form from centrosomes - Metaphase: chromosomes line in the middle of the nucleus equator through spindle fibres - Anaphase: the chromosome splits in the centromere, becoming two chromosomes and theyre pulled to separate poles of the nucleus - Telophase: the chromosomes in their poles unwind into chromatin, nuclear membranes form and a nucleolus forms in each nucleus Cytokinesis *cyto (cytoplasm), -kinesis(movement) In animals, to separate the cell or move the cytoplasm, an indentation forms (pinch) through microfilaments and they split into two cells. Two daughter cells form, which are in G1 phase. In plants, a cell plate between nuclei forms, and then cell walls form which separate the two. Prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus, so they undergo binary fission. Meiosis Meiosis produces cells containing half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. Only sex cells undergo meiosis. Genetic variation (different allele combinations) and genetic reduction (half number of chromosomes) are results of meiosis. Similar to mitosis, the first 4 phases are prophase I, metaphases I, anaphase I and telophase I, all of which are part of meiosis I. In prophase I, the chromosomes condense, and homologous chromosomes (paired) line up, known as synapsis. During this phase, they are lined lengthwise tightly, and genetic info may be exchanged thus bringing genetic diversity. Similar to prophase in mitosis, centrosomes go to poles and form spindle fibres. In metaphase I, the pairs of homologous chromosomes line up at the equator. In anaphase I, the homologous chromosomes separate as they are pulled to poles of the cell. However, the centromere doesnt split, and thus a single chromosome (made up of two sister chromatids; rather than 2) is pulled and the chromosome number is haploid n and not diploid 2n.

Biology Exam Review

In telophase I, the nuclear membrane forms, nucleolus appears, cytokinesis takes place and two cells form with haploid number of chromosomes. After meiosis I, the second phase of meiosis, meiosis II begins, which is similar to mitosis only that the chromosomes start as haploid numbers, which forms two haploid cells. At the end of meiosis, four haploid cells with n number of chromosomes result.

Genetic Crosses A cross is a fertilization of a female gamete of specific origin with a male gamete of specific original. In genetics, there are dominant and recessive alleles. Dominant alleles are always expressed if present i.e. Dd or DD, while recessive traits are only expressed when they are the only ones present i.e. dd. A genotype is the combination of alleles for a given trait, or the organisms genetic makeup, i.e. the letters. The phenotype is the physical trait and physiological traits i.e. yellow, green. Heterozygous is Dd, while homozygous is DD or dd. The law of segregation states that traits are determined by pairs of alleles that segregate during meiosis so each gamete receives one allele. After fertilization, the pairs are back together. A Punnett square can be used to illustrate all possible genotypes and phenotypes of an organism. While, a pedigree uses symbols to show inheritance patterns of traits in a family over many generations. Genetic Disorders There are autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive disorders, in that the disorder appears on either a recessive or dominant allele on an autosome (chromosome from 1-22, not sex). List of diseases:
Chromosome Number 4 Condition Huntington disease Inheritance Pattern autosomal dominant Description - neurological disease causing loss of muscle control and decline in mental ability - decreased life expectancy - dicult breathing and infection from mucus buildup in lungs - blocks pancreatic enzymes from reaching intestines - decreased life expectancy - sickle shaped RBC, due to abnormal hemoglobin - decreased life expectancy - prevents breakdown of phenylalanine leading to cognitive function delays - must be treated immediately - tumours in retina of children - fatal of not treated - connective tissue aected making heart, blood vessels and skeleton weak - long limbs - susceptible to heart and blood vessel conditions

cystic brosis

autosomal recessive

11

sickle cell anemia

autosomal recessive autosomal recessive

12

phenylketoneuria (PKU)

13

retinoblastoma

autosomal dominant autosomal dominant

15

Marfan syndrome

Biology Exam Review


Chromosome Number 15 Condition Inheritance Pattern autosomal recessive Description

Tay-Sachs disease

- progressive destruction of nervous system due to a lack of the enzyme hexosaminidase A, leading to an accumulation of lipids in the cells - fatal in early childhood - impairment of the brain and nervous system because lipids accumulate in cells - decreased life span, while Type A is fatal in childhood - unable to break down three amino acid, leading to nerve degeneration - fatal if not treated - deciency in the enzyme adenosine deaminase causing minimal immune system response leading to vulnerability to diseases - fatal if not treated with bone marrow transplant

18

Niemann-Pick disease

autosomal recessive

19

maple syrup urine disease

autosomal recessive

20

adenosine deaminase deciency causing severe combined immunodeciency disease (ADA-SCID)

autosomal recessive

Incomplete Dominance Sometimes alleles cannot completely conceal the presence of the other, thus resulting in an intermediary, or middle ground, trait that represents both alleles. This is known as incomplete dominance. For example (R = red, W = white) RR x WW = RW, RW, RW, RW (offspring) RW x RW = RR, RW, RW, WW There intermediary, RW, is actually pink. Codominance In comparison, codominance has both traits expressed equally with no intermediary. Both alleles are dominant in a heterozygote. For example, a roan animal e.g. cows, there are both red and white hairs when both the alleles are present. Although the traits mentioned have two alleles, many have more than two, known as having multiple alleles. In blood types, ABO, the allele (any letter) determines which antigen is attached to the gene (if any). The gene is expressed as I, and alleles from gametes that can be produced are expressed as IA, IB, and i. You can be either blood type A (IAIA or IAi), blood type B (IBIB or IBi), blood type AB (IAIB heterozygotes) or blood type O (ii). Sex-Linked Inheritance When a trait is on either the X or Y chromosome, it is considered sex linked. Most traits that are sex-linked are X-linked, since most traits (about 2000) are on the X, while fewer than 100 on are the Y. So, for females, two X chromosomes mean traits are expressed it the typical dominant vs recessive method. However, for males: since they have one X, whatever trait it attached, either recessive or dominant, it is expressed. For X linked diseases, males are more likely to get them since they have only 1 X chromosome.

Biology Exam Review

Sex Linked Traits in Humans


Condition Red-green colour vision deciency (CVD) Duchenne muscular dystrophy Inheritance Pattern X-linked recessive Description Cannot distinguish between shades of red and green Progressive weakening of muscles and loss of coordination Cannot produce a necessary blood clotting factor A buildup of fatty acids that cause progressive damage to the brain and death Decreased immune response due to low white blood cell counts Softening of bone, which leads to bone deformity Hair grows outside ears

X-linked recessive

Hemophilia

X-linked recessive

Adrenoleukodystrophy

X-linked recessive

X-linked severe combined immunodeciency (SCID) X-linked hypophosphatemia

X-linked recessive

X-linked dominant

Hairy ears

Y-linked

Biology Exam Review

Chapters 7-9: Evolution The English Peppered Moth: Adaptation to Variation Observe how human influence to the environment turned a once variation of the moth into an adaptation. The moths have three colour variants: greyish-white flecked w/ black dots, black and an intermediary. Only the first two are the focus. Black was rare, about 2%, which made sense because they were the ones eaten the most. This is because during the day, they did not camouflage with the light-coloured lichen that moths sleep on. On the other hand, the flecked moths did camouflage. However, once the Industrial Revolution began, smoke killed the lichen covered trees and dark soot replaced it, allowing the black moths to camouflage while the specked moths were getting eaten. It makes sense that the black moths therefore had the adaptation, reproduced more, and became more abundant while flecked moths slowly disappeared. England implemented a clear air legislation, which brought back the flecked moths and dropped the number of black moths.