Anda di halaman 1dari 40

Layered Communications and Protocol Engineering

JJ

CDS

Chapter 2.1 Layered Communications Systems & Protocol Engineering

2.1 Layered Communication

Prof. Dr. Jrgen Jasperneite / Prof. Dr.-Ing. Stefan Witte inIT - Institut Industrial IT Ostwestfalen-Lippe University of Applied Sciences

Course Web Site: http://www.hs-owl.de/fb5/cds/


1

Content
JJ

Basic Concepts and Terminology Services Protocols Layered Architectures


OSI TCP/IP

2.1 Layered Communication

CDS

Protocol Engineering

Prof. Dr. Jrgen Jasperneite / Prof. Dr. Stefan Witte

Layered Communications and Protocol Engineering

Services
JJ

CDS

Computer networks provides services, which realizes the access to the network by a user. Def.: Service Capability of a computer network to support the communication and the cooperation between Users Example:

2.1 Layered Communication

Services
JJ

2.1 Layered Communication

Computer networks provides services, which realizes the access to the network by a user. Def.: Service Capability of a computer network to support the communication and the cooperation between Users Example: eMail WWW

CDS

Prof. Dr. Jrgen Jasperneite / Prof. Dr. Stefan Witte

Layered Communications and Protocol Engineering

Type of Services
JJ

CDS

Asymmetrical Service Request

2.1 Layered Communication

Response Symmetrical Service

Communication relationship
Source: [K2008]
5

Type of Services
JJ

Asymmetrical Services Services, which are performed by a service provider (Server) and requested by the service user (Client) Example: Remote Procedure Call Symmetrical Services provides the service at two or more access points simultaneously Example: Communication Services Hereafter symmetrical services are the main focus!

2.1 Layered Communication

CDS

Prof. Dr. Jrgen Jasperneite / Prof. Dr. Stefan Witte

Layered Communications and Protocol Engineering

Service Model of a Communication Service


JJ CDS

Service User

Service User Service Access Point (SAP)

2.1 Layered Communication

Service Interface

Service Provider

Two Service Users are mandatory, while the service provider is presented as a single unit. Example: Telephone Service: Two Service User and one Service Provider (Network)
7

Service Model of a Communication Service


JJ 2.1 Layered Communication CDS

Two Service Users are mandatory, while the service provider is presented as a single unit. Example: Telephone Service: Two Service User and one Service Provider (Network)
8

Prof. Dr. Jrgen Jasperneite / Prof. Dr. Stefan Witte

Layered Communications and Protocol Engineering

Service Access Points (SAP)


JJ

Services are offered to the Service User at well-defined Service Access Points (SAP) only. Analogy: Telephone Service SAP Phone Mail delivery SAP Postbox Every SAP must have its unique address Analogy: Phone number, zipcode

2.1 Layered Communication

CDS

Service Access Points (SAP)


JJ

Services are offered to the Service User at well-defined Service Access Points (SAP) only. Analogy: Telephone Service SAP Mail delivery SAP Every SAP must have its unique address Analogy:

10

2.1 Layered Communication

CDS

Prof. Dr. Jrgen Jasperneite / Prof. Dr. Stefan Witte

Layered Communications and Protocol Engineering

Service Primitives (SP)


JJ

11

2.1 Layered Communication

A Service is realized by service primitives (SP) Abstract Representation of the interaction between Service User and Service Provider SPs doesnt say anything about the implementation of the service. The order of SPs at a SAP is not random. The Syntax of SPs is well defined.

CDS

Service Primitives (SP)


JJ

12

2.1 Layered Communication

A Service is realized by Abstract Representation of the interaction between Service User and Service Provider SPs do not say anything about the implementation of the service. The order of SPs at a SAP is not random. The Syntax of SPs is well defined.

CDS

Prof. Dr. Jrgen Jasperneite / Prof. Dr. Stefan Witte

Layered Communications and Protocol Engineering

Example: Telephone Service


JJ 2.1 Layered Communication CDS

(Phone Network)

13

Example: Telephone Service


JJ CDS

Service User

Service User Service Primitive

2.1 Layered Communication

Service Primitive SAP


Service Provider (Phone Network)

14

Prof. Dr. Jrgen Jasperneite / Prof. Dr. Stefan Witte

Layered Communications and Protocol Engineering

SPs and Sequence Diagram


JJ

SAP Instance A Service

SAP Instance B

CDS

CONNECT.req() CONNECT.ind()

2.1 Layered Communication

time unconfirmed Service SAP Instance A xx.req() xx.conf(+/-) time Service PDU PDU SAP Instance B xx.ind() xx.resp(+/-)

15

Confirmed Service

SPs and Sequence Diagram


JJ
16

2.1 Layered Communication

CDS

Prof. Dr. Jrgen Jasperneite / Prof. Dr. Stefan Witte

Layered Communications and Protocol Engineering

Entity (Instance)
JJ CDS

Service User

Service User Service Access Poin

2.1 Layered Communication

Service Interface

Entity Service Provider

Entity

17

Entity (Instance)
JJ CDS

Service User

Service User

2.1 Layered Communication

Service Provider
18

Prof. Dr. Jrgen Jasperneite / Prof. Dr. Stefan Witte

Layered Communications and Protocol Engineering

Entity (Instance)
JJ

2.1 Layered Communication

A service of the service provider is performed by Entities (instances) Entity: Active Object of the service provider, which exchanges messages with its environment. Entities are related to specific SAPs. Analogy: telephone exchange center, Mail center SAP

CDS

Entity
19

valid

invalid

Entity (Instance)
JJ

20

2.1 Layered Communication

A service of the service provider is performed by Entities (instances) Entity: Active Object of the service provider, which exchanges messages with its environment. Entities are related to specific SAPs. Analogy: telephone exchange center, Mail center

CDS

Prof. Dr. Jrgen Jasperneite / Prof. Dr. Stefan Witte

10

Layered Communications and Protocol Engineering

Service and Protocol


JJ CDS

Service User

Service User Service Access Poin

2.1 Layered Communication

Service Interface

Protocol Entity Service Provider Entity

21

Service and Protocol


JJ CDS

Service User

Service User Service Access Poin

2.1 Layered Communication

Service Interface

Entity Service Provider

Entity

22

Prof. Dr. Jrgen Jasperneite / Prof. Dr. Stefan Witte

11

Layered Communications and Protocol Engineering

Peer-Entity
JJ

A entity interacts with another entity, which is assigned to the SAP of the communication partner Peer Entity The interaction between the entities is based on Messages. The procedure of the message exchange is based on rules. defined by a Communication Protocol This messages are called Protocol Data Units (PDU)

23

2.1 Layered Communication

CDS

What is a Protocol?
JJ

Term Protocol in our daily life: Meeting Minutes / Dialog Convention/Ritual Diplomatic Protocol A Communication Protocol matches the 2nd meaning Convention of the behavior Defined Procedure between two entities, which repeats forever No dialog Dialog is not predictable not repeatable

24

2.1 Layered Communication

CDS

Prof. Dr. Jrgen Jasperneite / Prof. Dr. Stefan Witte

12

Layered Communications and Protocol Engineering

Communication Protocol
JJ

A Communication Protocol is a convention on behavior, which defines the temporal sequence of the interactions between the corresponding entities and the format (Syntax and Semantic) of the exchanged messages. .. A protocol is a set of conventions and rules governing their use that regulates the communication of an entity under observation with its environment. [Pop2006] Consists of two parts:

25

JJ

2.1 Layered Communication

CDS

WEEK 2

26

2.1 Layered Communication

CDS

Prof. Dr. Jrgen Jasperneite / Prof. Dr. Stefan Witte

13

Layered Communications and Protocol Engineering

Communication Protocol
JJ

A Communication Protocol is a convention on behavior, which defines the temporal sequence of the interactions between the corresponding entities and the format (Syntax and Semantic) of the exchanged messages. .. A protocol is a set of conventions and rules governing their use that regulates the communication of an entity under observation with its environment. [Pop2006] Consists of two parts: Specification of the Sequences Specification of the PDUs

27

2.1 Layered Communication

CDS

Protocol Flow in a Sequence Diagram


JJ

Succesful Connection Setup


(N-1)-SAP (N)-Entity A (N-1)-SAP (N)-Entity B

CDS

2.1 Layered Communication

(N-1)-CONNECT.req()

CR

(N-1)-CONNECT.ind() (N-1)-CONNECT.res()

time

CC
(N-1)-CONNECT.conf()

CR: Connect Request PDU CC: Connect Confirm PDU


28

Prof. Dr. Jrgen Jasperneite / Prof. Dr. Stefan Witte

14

Layered Communications and Protocol Engineering

Types of Protocols
JJ

Symmetrical Protocols Same behavior/functionality of both entities E.g. Protocols with duplex Data Exchange Most Protocols are symmetrical Asymmetric Protocols Entities with different behavior E.g. Protocols with unicast Data Exchange

29

2.1 Layered Communication

CDS

Principle of Transparency
JJ

The principle of Transparency states, that the content of a PDU is not accessible by the service provider. The Data Unit must be delivered unmodified at the SAP. Analogy: privacy of letters Realization of Transparency The delivered Data Unit (SDU: Service Data Unit) will be extended by control informations (PCI: Protocol Control Informations), which are put in front and/or back to the SDU. (N)-PDU = (N)-PCI + (N)-SDU Most Protocols are using only a prefixed PCI (Header). In the lower Layer (DL) sometimes also a Suffix (Trailer)

30

2.1 Layered Communication

CDS

Prof. Dr. Jrgen Jasperneite / Prof. Dr. Stefan Witte

15

Layered Communications and Protocol Engineering

Principle of Transparency
JJ

2.1 Layered Communication

The principle of Transparency states, that the content of a PDU is not accessible by the service provider. The Data Unit must be delivered unmodified at the SAP. Analogy: privacy of letters Realization of Transparency The delivered Data Unit (SDU: Service Data Unit) will be extended by control informations (PCI: Protocol Control Informations), which are put in front and/or back to the SDU.

CDS

31

Most Protocols are using only a prefixed PCI (Header). In the lower Layer (DL) sometimes also a Suffix (Trailer)

Principle of Transparency
JJ

CDS

User Data SDU

User Data SDU

Service User

2.1 Layered Communication

PCI Service Provider

H PDU

H PDU

PCI: Protocol Control Information SDU: Service Data Unit PDU: Protocol Data Unit
32

Prof. Dr. Jrgen Jasperneite / Prof. Dr. Stefan Witte

16

Layered Communications and Protocol Engineering

Principle of Transparency
JJ 2.1 Layered Communication CDS

PCI: Protocol Control Information SDU: Service Data Unit PDU: Protocol Data Unit
33

CDS

JJ

Layered Communication
2.1 Layered Communication
34

Prof. Dr. Jrgen Jasperneite / Prof. Dr. Stefan Witte

17

Layered Communications and Protocol Engineering

Why Layered Communication?


JJ

Q:How can we tackle complexity? A: Divide the total problem into smaller pieces Layering (Modularization) as a technique for structuring similar to structured programming techniques Only the functions performed by a module (and not its internal functioning) are known by its users. The basic idea: each layer adds a value to services provided by the set of lower layers the highest layer offers the set of services needed to run distributed applications.

35

2.1 Layered Communication

CDS

A daily life example: Taking an airplane trip


JJ

Someone ask you to describe a airline system Ticket (purchase)

CDS

Ticket (complain) Baggage (claim) Gates (unload) Runway landing Airplane routing

2.1 Layered Communication

Baggage (check) Gates (load) Runway takeoff Airplane routing

Airplane routing
36

Source: [Ku2008]

Prof. Dr. Jrgen Jasperneite / Prof. Dr. Stefan Witte

18

Layered Communications and Protocol Engineering

A daily life example: Taking an airplane trip


JJ
37

2.1 Layered Communication

CDS

A daily life example: Taking an airplane trip


JJ

CDS

Ticket (purchase)

Ticket (complain)

Baggage (check)
2.1 Layered Communication

Baggage (claim)

Gates (load)

Gates (unload)

Runway takeoff

Runway landing

Airplane Routing Departure Airport


38

Airplane Routing Airplane Routing Airplane Routing Intermediate Air-traffic Control center Arrival Airport

Source: [Ku2008]

Prof. Dr. Jrgen Jasperneite / Prof. Dr. Stefan Witte

19

Layered Communications and Protocol Engineering

Hierarchical Service Structure in a Layered Architecture


JJ

System A
User of Service (N)

System B
User of Service (N)

CDS

Matryoshka: A russian nested doll

Service Provider (N)


2.1 Layered Communication

User (N-1)

User (N-1)

Service Provider (N-1)


User (N-2) User (N-2)

Service Provider (N-2)

[Source: Wikipedia]

39

Generation of PDUs within a Layered Architecture


JJ CDS

N+1
2.1 Layered Communication

N+1
(N+1) PDU
(N) PCI

N N-1
(N-1) PCI

N
(N) PDU

N-1
(N-1) PDU

40

Prof. Dr. Jrgen Jasperneite / Prof. Dr. Stefan Witte

20

Layered Communications and Protocol Engineering

Generation of PDUs within a Layered Architecture


JJ CDS

N+1
2.1 Layered Communication

N+1 N N-1

N N-1

41

Mapping to (N-1) Layer


JJ

The virtual communication (peer-to-peer) must be mapped to the services of the (N-1) Layer. Mapping of the (N)-PDUs to (N-1) Service Primitives Assignment of the (N)-Entity to (N-1)-SAPs (N)-Entity

2.1 Layered Communication

CDS

(N-1)-SAP
42

valid

invalid

Prof. Dr. Jrgen Jasperneite / Prof. Dr. Stefan Witte

21

Layered Communications and Protocol Engineering

Mapping to (N-1) Layer


JJ

The virtual communication (peer-to-peer) must be mapped to the services of the (N-1) Layer. Mapping of the (N)-PDUs to (N-1) Service Primitives Assignment of the (N)-Entity to (N-1)-SAPs

43

2.1 Layered Communication

CDS

Protocol Flow in a Sequence Diagram (Again)


JJ

Succesful Connection Setup


(N-1)-SAP (N)-Entity A (N-1)-SAP (N)-Entity B

CDS

2.1 Layered Communication

(N-1)-CONNECT.req()

CR

(N-1)-CONNECT.ind() (N-1)-CONNECT.res()

time

CC
(N-1)-CONNECT.conf()

CR: Connect Request PDU CC: Connect Confirm PDU


44

Prof. Dr. Jrgen Jasperneite / Prof. Dr. Stefan Witte

22

Layered Communications and Protocol Engineering

Structure of a (N)-Layer
JJ

(N)-SAP [(N)-SPs] (N)-COM

CDS

2.1 Layered Communication

(N)-C-SAP

(N)-Config

(N)-PDU

(N)-CODEX

[(N-1) SPs]
45

(N-1)-SAP

Structure of a (N)-Layer
JJ
46

2.1 Layered Communication

CDS

Prof. Dr. Jrgen Jasperneite / Prof. Dr. Stefan Witte

23

Layered Communications and Protocol Engineering

OSI-Reference Model
JJ

The early development of LANs, MANs, WANs was not well structured and coordinated. Result: Proprietary Systems 1977 OSI recognized the special and urgent need for standards for heterogeneous networks and create a new subcommittee (SC16) for Open Systems Interconnection. ISO investigated DECnet, SNA, und TCP/IP to find uniform protocol rules. Result: Architecture (1984) for the development of compatible devices Reference model for Communication Networks Describes Layers and Principles of Interaction

2.1 Layered Communication

CDS

ISO-7498, 1984
47

Principles
JJ

CDS

ISO determined a number of principles to be considered for defining the specific set of layers in the OSI architecture [Zim1980] 1. Not so much layer 2. Boundaries with small interactions 3. Seperate layers for different functions 4. Similiar functions into the same layer 5. Redesign a layer without changing the interfaces

48

2.1 Layered Communication

Prof. Dr. Jrgen Jasperneite / Prof. Dr. Stefan Witte

24

Layered Communications and Protocol Engineering

Principles
JJ

49

2.1 Layered Communication

CDS

ISO determined a number of principles to be considered for defining the specific set of layers in the OSI architecture [Zim1980]

Principles
JJ

ISO determined a number of principles to be considered for defining the specific set of layers in the OSI architecture [Zim1980] Do not create so many layers as to make difficult the system engineering task describing and integrating these layers Create a boundary at a point where the services description can be small and the number of interactions across the boundary is minimized. Create separate layers to handle functions which are manifestly different in the process performed or the technology involved. Collect similar functions into the same layer. Create a layer of easily localized functions so that the layer could be totaly redesigned in a major way to take advantages of new advances in technology without changing the services and interfaces with the adjacent layers.

50

2.1 Layered Communication

CDS

Prof. Dr. Jrgen Jasperneite / Prof. Dr. Stefan Witte

25

Layered Communications and Protocol Engineering

The Result
JJ CDS

7Application Layer

End-to-End
2.1 Layered Communication

Presentation Layer 6

5 Session Layer 4 Transport Layer 3 Network Layer

Network
2 Data Link Layer 1 Physical Layer

51

CDS

JJ

7Application Layer
Presentation Layer 6

2.1 Layered Communication

Physical Medium
5 Session Layer 4 Transport Layer 3 Network Layer 2 Data Link Layer 1 Physical Layer

Line Coding Synchronization voltage level Baud Rate Connectors (Pin Assignments)

52

Prof. Dr. Jrgen Jasperneite / Prof. Dr. Stefan Witte

26

Layered Communications and Protocol Engineering

CDS

JJ

7Application Layer
Presentation Layer 6

2.1 Layered Communication

5 Session Layer 4 Transport Layer

Physical Addressing
3 Network Layer 2 Data Link Layer 1 Physical Layer

Medium Access Control Error Protection Framing

53

CDS

JJ

7Application Layer
Presentation Layer 6

2.1 Layered Communication

5 Session Layer 4 Transport Layer 3 Network Layer 2 Data Link Layer 1 Physical Layer

Logical Addressing between Hosts Routing

54

Prof. Dr. Jrgen Jasperneite / Prof. Dr. Stefan Witte

27

Layered Communications and Protocol Engineering

CDS

JJ

7Application Layer
Presentation Layer 6

2.1 Layered Communication

5 Session Layer 4 Transport Layer 3 Network Layer 2 Data Link Layer 1 Physical Layer

Segmentation Reliable Data Transport Service Connect, Disconnect and Maintaining of Connections Flow Control

55

CDS

JJ

7Application Layer
Presentation Layer 6

Session Management Negotiation of Data Transfer (Duplex, Half-Duplex) Introduction of Synchronization and Recovery Flags for long sessions.

2.1 Layered Communication

5 Session Layer 4 Transport Layer 3 Network Layer 2 Data Link Layer 1 Physical Layer

56

Prof. Dr. Jrgen Jasperneite / Prof. Dr. Stefan Witte

28

Layered Communications and Protocol Engineering

1 2 3
7Application Layer
Presentation Layer 6

2.1 Layered Communication

CDS

JJ

5 Session Layer 4 Transport Layer 3 Network Layer 2 Data Link Layer 1 Physical Layer

Agreement of the used character set (e.g. ASCII for Text) Encryption

57

CDS

JJ

7Application Layer
Presentation Layer 6

Source and Destination of Application Data Offering Services, e.g. File transfer, Web, for the End user

2.1 Layered Communication

5 Session Layer 4 Transport Layer 3 Network Layer 2 Data Link Layer 1 Physical Layer

58

Prof. Dr. Jrgen Jasperneite / Prof. Dr. Stefan Witte

29

Layered Communications and Protocol Engineering

Protocols
TX Process Data RX Process
JJ CDS

7Application Layer
Presentation Layer 6

Application Protocol
1 2 3

7Application Layer
Presentation Layer 6

Presentation-Protocol Session Protocol Transport Protocol Network Protocol Data Link Protocol Physical Layer Protocol

2.1 Layered Communication

5 Session Layer 4 Transport Layer 3 Network Layer 2 Data Link Layer 1 Physical Layer

5 Session Layer 4 Transport Layer 3 Network Layer 2 Data Link Layer 1 Physical Layer

59

Peer-to-Peer Communication

Protocols
TX Process Data Application Protocol
1 2 3

RX Process

CDS

JJ

7Application Layer
Presentation Layer 6

7Application Layer
Presentation Layer 6

Presentation-Protocol Session Protocol Transport Protocol Network Protocol Data Link Protocol Physical Layer Protocol

2.1 Layered Communication

5 Session Layer 4 Transport Layer 3 Network Layer 2 Data Link Layer 1 Physical Layer

5 Session Layer 4 Transport Layer 3 Network Layer 2 Data Link Layer 1 Physical Layer

60

Prof. Dr. Jrgen Jasperneite / Prof. Dr. Stefan Witte

30

Layered Communications and Protocol Engineering

Services
JJ

TX process

Data

RX process

CDS

7Application Layer
Services

AH PH SH TH

Data Data Data

7Application Layer
Presentation Layer 6

Presentation Layer 6
2.1 Layered Communication

5 Session Layer 4 Transport Layer 3 Network Layer 2 Data Link Layer 1 Physical Layer
DH NH

5 Session Layer 4 Transport Layer 3 Network Layer


DT

Data

Data Data Bits

2 Data Link Layer 1 Physical Layer

61

Vertical communication using encapsulation

Services
JJ

TX process

Data

RX process

CDS

7Application Layer
Services

AH PH SH TH

Data Data Data

7Application Layer
Presentation Layer 6

Presentation Layer 6
2.1 Layered Communication

5 Session Layer 4 Transport Layer 3 Network Layer 2 Data Link Layer 1 Physical Layer
DH NH

5 Session Layer 4 Transport Layer 3 Network Layer


DT

Data

Data Data Bits

2 Data Link Layer 1 Physical Layer

62

Vertical communication using encapsulation

Prof. Dr. Jrgen Jasperneite / Prof. Dr. Stefan Witte

31

Layered Communications and Protocol Engineering

Extended OSI Model


Host A
7 6
2.1 Layered Communication

Intermediate System

Host B
7 6 5 4 3 2

CDS

JJ

5 4 3 2 1 1

Repeater 1

Network1
63

Network 2

Host A
7 6

Intermediate System

Host B
7 6 5 4

CDS

JJ

2.1 Layered Communication

5 4 3 2 1 2 1 Bridge 2 1

3 2 1

Network1
64

Network 2

Prof. Dr. Jrgen Jasperneite / Prof. Dr. Stefan Witte

32

Layered Communications and Protocol Engineering

Host A
7 6

Intermediate System

Host B
7 6 5

CDS

JJ

2.1 Layered Communication

5 4 3 2 1 3 2 1 Router 3 2 1

4 3 2 1

Network1
65

Network 2

Intermediate System Host A


7 6
2.1 Layered Communication

Gateway 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Host B
7 6 5 4 3 2 1

CDS

JJ

5 4 3 2 1

Network1
66

Network 2

Prof. Dr. Jrgen Jasperneite / Prof. Dr. Stefan Witte

33

Layered Communications and Protocol Engineering

TCP/IP Model
JJ

OSI

TCP/IP

CDS

7Application Layer
Presentation Layer 6
2.1 Layered Communication

Application

5 Session Layer 4 Transport Layer 3 Network Layer 2 Data Link Layer


Network Access Transport Internet

1 Physical Layer
67

Network Access
JJ CDS

Application

2.1 Layered Communication

Transport Internet

Network Access

All Definitions to transport IP Datagrams via physical channels (Framing) Physical Addressing Error Detection phy. Connection to the Network

68

Prof. Dr. Jrgen Jasperneite / Prof. Dr. Stefan Witte

34

Layered Communications and Protocol Engineering

Internet Protocol (IP)


JJ CDS

Application Anwendungsschicht
2.1 Layered Communication

Transport Transportschicht Internet Internetschicht Network Access

unreliable Datagramm Service (packets) Fragmentation of Packets Logical Addressing Routing

69

Transport Layer
JJ CDS

Application Anwendungsschicht
2.1 Layered Communication

Transport Transportschicht Internet Internetschicht Network Access

Reliable Transport of Byte streams Segmentation Flow Control Multiplexing of simultaneous Connections using Ports

70

Prof. Dr. Jrgen Jasperneite / Prof. Dr. Stefan Witte

35

Layered Communications and Protocol Engineering

Application Layer - Properties JJ

Application Anwendungsschicht
2.1 Layered Communication

Connection with the Network Provides frequently used Services Covering OSI -Layer 5 and 6

CDS

Transport Transportschicht Internet Internetschicht Network Access

71

CDS

JJ

Communication Protocol Engineering


2.1 Layered Communication
72

Prof. Dr. Jrgen Jasperneite / Prof. Dr. Stefan Witte

36

Layered Communications and Protocol Engineering

Protocol Engineering
JJ

Protocol Engineering deals with all issues about the Design, Implementation and Testing of Communication protocols. Developing Communication Protocols with engineerlike Thinking and Computer Science Methods Combines Aspects of Computer Networks, Operating Systems, Software Development and Computer Science Becomes more and more a independent field of interest.

73

2.1 Layered Communication

CDS

Communication Systems
JJ

2.1 Layered Communication

Service Specification (What?) How can the Service User (Client) use the Service offered by the Service Provider at a SAP? Describes the dynamic behavior at the SAPs Service Specification is used by the Client Protocol Specification (How?) How is the specified service made available by the service provider? How is the procedure between the service-providing entities and how is the format of the exchanged PDUs?

74

CDS

Prof. Dr. Jrgen Jasperneite / Prof. Dr. Stefan Witte

37

Layered Communications and Protocol Engineering

Subjects of Protocol Engineering


JJ

Requirement Analysis

Requirement Specification Service- and Protocol Specification Optimized Design Protocol Verification

CDS

Service- and Protocol Design

2.1 Layered Communication

Performance Evaluation

verified Specification Implementation Code

Test Tested Communication Software Installation/ Integration

75

Source: [K2008]

Informal Description (todays practise)


JJ

Elements of informal descriptions are: Textual Description Descriptions of Sequence Diagrams State machines Tables Problem: Only representation of singular aspects For a complete Protocol a lot of pieces of a puzzle are needed! Not suitable for large complex protocols. Often leads unclear and ambiguous specifications. The complexity of protocols make them very hard to analyze in an informal way.

76

2.1 Layered Communication

CDS

Prof. Dr. Jrgen Jasperneite / Prof. Dr. Stefan Witte

38

Layered Communications and Protocol Engineering

Formal Methods
JJ

2.1 Layered Communication

Fundament of modern Protocol Engineering is the usage of Formal Description Techniques (FDT) for Protocol Specification Properties of FDTs formal defined Syntax and Semantic unambiguous interpretation Examples: Petri Nets, SDL, UML2.0 UML2.0 will be introduced in the lab

77

CDS

Our Flow for Protocol Engineering in this Course


JJ

1.Requirements

Use Case Diagrams Sequence Diagrams

CDS

2.1 Layered Communication

2. Service and Protocol Design

Class Diagrams State Charts Composite Structure Code generation

Performance Evaluation DES

Implementation

4.Test & Validation


78

Simulation using Sequence Diagrams

Prof. Dr. Jrgen Jasperneite / Prof. Dr. Stefan Witte

39

Layered Communications and Protocol Engineering

Our Flow for Protocol Engineering in this Course


JJ

1.Requirements

Use Case Diagrams Sequence Diagrams

CDS

2.1 Layered Communication

2. Service and Protocol Design

Class Diagrams State Charts Composite Structure

Implementation

Code generation

4.Test & Validation


79

Simulation using Sequence Diagrams

References
JJ

80

2.1 Layered Communication

[Pop2006] : M. Popovic, Communication Protocol Engineering, CRC Press, 2006 [Zim1980]: H. Zimmermann, OSI Reference Model- The ISO Model of Architecture for Open Systems, Interconnection, IEEE Transactions on Commications, Vol. Com-28, No. 4,1980 [Ku2008]: J.F. Kurose, K.W. Ross, Computer Networking, Pearson International, 2008 [K2008]: H. Knig, Lecture Computer Networks and Communication Systems I (german), BTU Cottbus, 2008

CDS

Prof. Dr. Jrgen Jasperneite / Prof. Dr. Stefan Witte

40