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(Part I) Whole grain toxicity - Phytic acid contained in popular foods (Opinion) Saturday, November 06, 2010 by:

Rami Nagel Tags: whole grains, phytic acid, health news 56 2 [Share this Article] (NaturalNews) Phytic acid in grains, nuts, seeds and beans represents a serious problem in our diets. This problem exists because we have lost touch with our ancestral heritage of food preparation. Instead our culture, be it the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) or the health food crowd, generally promotes consumption of high-phytate foods like commercial whole wheat bread and all-bran breakfast cereals. But phytate rich foods are not healthy for us. Phytic acid is the principal storage form of phosphorus in many plant tissues, especially the bran portion of grains and other seeds. It contains the mineral phosphorus tightly bound in a snowflake-like molecule. In humans and animals with one stomach, the phosphorus is not readily bioavailable. In addition to blocking phosphorus availability, the "arms" of the phytic acid molecule readily bind with other minerals, such as calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc, making them unavailable as well. In this form, the compound is referred to as phytate. Phytic acid not only grabs on to or chelates important minerals, but also inhibits enzymes that we need to digest our food: including pepsin, (Footnote 1) needed for the breakdown of proteins in the stomach, and amylase, (F 2) needed for the breakdown of starch into sugar. Trypsin, needed for protein digestion in the small intestine, is also inhibited by phytates. (F 3) A diet high in phytate-rich grains has many powerful anti-nutritional effects. Many health problems can result: including tooth decay, nutrient deficiencies, lack of appetite and digestive problems. The presence of phytic acid in so many enjoyable foods we regularly consume makes it imperative that we know how to prepare these foods to neutralize phytic acid content as much as possible, and also to consume them in the context of a diet containing factors that mitigate the harmful effects of phytic acid. Phytic acid is present in beans, seeds, nuts, grains - especially in the bran or outer hull; phytates are also found in tubers, and trace amounts occur in certain fruits and vegetables like berries and green beans. Up to 80 percent of the phosphorus- a vital mineral for bones and health- present in grains is locked into an unusable form as phytate. (F 4) When a diet including more than small amounts of phytate is consumed, the body will bind calcium to phytic acid and form insoluble phytate complexes. The net result is you lose calcium and don't absorb phosphorus. Further, research suggests that we will absorb approximately 20 percent more zinc and 60 percent magnesium from our food when phytate is absent. (F 5) Seeds and bran are the highest sources of phytates, containing as much as two to five times more phytate than even some varieties of soybeans. They can be difficult to digest unless fermented for long periods.

Phytic Acid Levels in some foods (F 6,7) Figures are in milligrams per 100 grams of dry weight 100% Wheat bran cereal 3,290 Soy beans 1000 - 2,220 Cocoa powder 1684-1796 Oats 1370 Brown rice 1250 Oat flakes 1174 Almond 1138 - 1400 Walnut 982 Lentils 779 Peanut germinated 610 Hazel nuts 648 - 1000 Wild rice flour 634 - 752.5 Refried beans 622 Corn tortillas 448 Corn 367 White flour 258 White flour tortillas 123 Stay tuned for the next installment of "Whole grain toxicity" where we'll look more deeply into the health effects of phytic acid. Footnotes: 1. Tannenbaum and others. Vitamins and Minerals, in Food Chemistry, 2nd edition. OR Fennema, ed. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 1985, p 445. 2. Ibid. 3. Singh M and Krikorian D. Inhibition of trypsin activity in vitro by phytate. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 1982 30(4):799-800. 4. Johansen K and others. Degradation of phytate in soaked diets for pigs. Department of Animal Health, Welfare and Nutrition, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Research Centre Foulum, Tjele, Denmark. 5. Navert B and Sandstrom B. Reduction of the phytate content of bran by leavening in bread and its effect on zinc absorption in man. British Journal of Nutrition 1985 53:47-53; Phytic acid added to white-wheat bread inhibits fractional apparent magnesium absorption in humans1-3. Bohn T and others. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2004 79:418-23. 6. Figures collected from various sources. Inhibitory effect of nuts on iron absoprtion. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1988 47:270-4; J Anal At Spectrum. 2004 19,1330-1334; Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 1994, 42:2204-2209. 7. Reddy NR and others. Food Phytates, 1st edition, CRC Press, 2001, pages 30-32 About the author

Ramiel Nagel is the internationally published author of Cure Tooth Decay and Healing Our Children In "Cure Tooth Decay" Nagel, reveals how your teeth can heal naturally because they were never designed to decay in the first place! Now there is a natural way to take control of your dental health by changing the food that you eat. Receive 19 free lessons on how to stop cavities "Healing Our Children" explains the true causes of disease conditions of pregnancy and childhood so that you can avoid and prevent them. It provides essential natural health programs so that mothers and their new babies can optimize their health during the times of preconception, pregnancy, lactation and early childhood. Receive a free chapter of Healing Our Children Free health information is also available on the topics of: A Program for preconception health based on indigenous wisdom. The cause of disease and the end of suffering of humanity. Learn more: http://www.naturalnews.com/030304_whole_grains_phytic_acid.html#ixzz2W7Qwaoh C http://www.naturalnews.com/030304_whole_grains_phytic_acid.html (NaturalNews) In the last installment of this whole grain article series, we looked at phytic acid and its potentially negative health effects. Phytic acid is an indigestible form of the mineral phosphorous, which we need. High-phytate diets result in mineral deficiencies. In populations where cereal grains provide a major source of calories, rickets and osteoporosis are common. (Footnote 1) Interestingly, the body has some ability to adapt to the effects of phytates in the diet. Several studies show that subjects given high levels of whole wheat at first excrete more calcium than they take in, but after several weeks on this diet, they reach a balance and do not excrete excess calcium.(F 2) However, no studies of this phenomenon have been carried out over a long period; nor have researchers looked at whether human beings can adjust to the phytate-reducing effects of other important minerals, such as iron, magnesium and zinc. The zinc- and iron-blocking effects of phytic acid can be just as serious as the calciumblocking effects. For example, one study showed that a wheat roll containing 2 mg phytic acid inhibited zinc absorption by 18 percent; 25 mg phytic acid in the roll inhibited zinc absorption by 64 percent; and 250 mg inhibited zinc absorption by 82 percent.(F 3) Nuts have a marked inhibitory action on the absorption of iron due to their phytic acid content.(F 4) Not all foods high in phytic acid block iron absorption, like coconut. This is a sign that there are other factors at play when looking at the toxicity of grains. Over the long term, when the diet lacks minerals or contains high levels of phytates or both, the metabolism goes down, and the body goes into mineral-starvation mode. The body then sets itself up to use as little of these minerals as possible. Adults may get by for decades on a high-phytate diet, but growing children run into severe problems. In a phytate-rich diet, their bodies will suffer from the lack of calcium and phosphorus with poor bone growth, short stature, rickets, narrow jaws and tooth decay, and for the lack of zinc and iron anemia and mental retardation may result.

The figures for the amounts of phytic acid can vary somewhat because of different levels of moisture in the test food, as well as because different varieties of the same plant can yield different results. More Phytic Acid Figures. Milligrams per 100 grams / 3.5 ounces of food. (F 5) Sesame seeds dehulled 5,360 Pinto beans 600 - 2,380 Navy beans 740 - 1,780 Parboiled brown rice 1,600 Barley 1,190 Coconut meal (similar to coconut flour) 1,170 Whole corn 1,050 Rye 1,010 Wheat flour 960 In the next installment of Whole Grain Toxicity, we'll look at the surprising connection between vitamin D and grain consumption. You will also begin to learn how to block the negative effects of phytic acid in your diet. References / Footnotes 1. Wills MR and others. Phytic Acid and Nutritional Rickets in Immigrants. The Lancet, April 8, 1972, 771-773. 2. Walker ARP and others. The Effect of Bread Rich in Phytate Phosphorus on the metabolism of Certain Mineral Salts with Special Reference to Calcium. The Biochemical Journal 1948 42(1):452-461. 3. Iron absorption in man: ascorbic acid and dose-depended inhibition. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Jan 1989 49(1):140-144 4. Inhibitory effect of nuts on iron absorption. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1988 47:270-4. 5. Reddy NR and others. Food Phytates, CRC Press, 2001. Learn more: http://www.naturalnews.com/030303_whole_grains_phytic_acid.html#ixzz2W7RP2T7 5 (NaturalNews) In the previous installments, you learned how phytic acid in grains can block iron and zinc absorption, inhibit enzyme function, and lead to poor bone growth. In this article we will examine the surprising connection between whole grains and bone loss. As early as 1949, the researcher Dr. Edward Mellanby, the discoverer of vitamin D, demonstrated the demineralizing effects of phytic acid. By studying how grains with and without phytic acid affected dogs, Mellanby discovered that consumption of highphytate cereal grain interferes with bone growth and interrupts vitamin D metabolism. High levels of phytic acid in the context of a diet low in calcium and vitamin D resulted in rickets and a severe lack of bone formation. His studies showed that excessive phytate consumption uses up vitamin D. And

conversely that Vitamin D can mitigate the harmful effects of phytates. According to Mellanby, "When the diet is rich in phytate, perfect bone formation can only be procured if sufficient calcium is added to a diet containing vitamin D."[Footnote 1] Mellanby's studies showed that the rickets-producing effect of oatmeal is limited by calcium. [Footnote 2] Calcium salts such as calcium carbonate or calcium phosphate prevent oatmeal from exerting the rickets-producing effect. According to this view, the degree of active interference with calcification produced by a given cereal will depend on how much phytic acid and how little calcium it contains, or how little calcium the diet contains. Phosphorus in the diet (at least from grains) needs some type of calcium to bind to. This explains the synergistic combination of sourdough bread with cheese. Historically, the cultivation of grains usually accompanies the raising of dairy animals; high levels of calcium in the diet mitigates the mineral-depleting effects of phytic acid. In Mellanby's experiments with dogs, increasing vitamin D made stronger bones regardless of the diet, but this increase did not have a significant impact on the amount of calcium excreted. Based on Mellanby's thorough experiments, one can conclude that the growth of healthy bones requires a diet high in vitamin D, absorbable calcium and absorbable phosphorus, and a diet low in unabsorbable calcium (supplements, pasteurized dairy) and unabsorbable phosphorus (phytates). Furthermore, the book "Cure Tooth Decay," explains in detail how anti-nutrients in grains can cause tooth decay. Interestingly, his experiments showed that unbleached flour and white rice were less anti-calcifying than whole grains that contain more minerals but also are higher in phytic acid. Other experiments have shown that while whole grains contain more minerals, in the end equal or lower amounts of minerals are absorbed compared to polished rice and white flour. This outcome is primarily a result of the blocking mechanism of phytic acid, and it is likely to be the result of other anti-nutrients in grains. Thus, absorbable calcium from raw dairy products and vegetables, and vitamin D from animal fats, can reduce the adverse effects of phytic acid. Other studies show that adding vitamin C to phytic acid rich meals can significantly counteract inhibition of iron assimilation by phytic acid. [Footnote 3] Adding vitamin C significantly counteracted phytate inhibition from phytic acid in wheat. [Footnote 4] One study showed that anti-iron phytate levels in rice were disabled by vitamin C in collard greens. [Footnote 5] To summarize, phytic acid in whole grains can lead to bone loss. The anti-nutrient effect of phytic acid is limited by consuming vitamin C, calcium from leafy green vegetables or raw dairy, and fat-soluble vitamin D such as from organic egg yolk or fermented cod liver oil. In the next installment of Whole Grain Toxicity, we'll look at how to disable phytic acid with phytase. [Editor`s Note: NaturalNews is strongly against the use of all forms of animal testing. We fully support implementation of humane medical experimentation that promotes the health and wellbeing of all living creatures.]

1 Mellanby E. The Rickets-producing and anti-calcifying action of phytate. Journal of Physiology I949 I09:488-533. 2 Creese DH and Mellanby E. Phytic acid and the rickets-producing action of cereals. Field Laboratory, University of Sheffield, and the Department of Biochemistry, Queen's University, Belfast (Received 11 August 1939) 3 Iron absoprtion in man: ascrobic acid and dose-depended inhibition. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Jan 1989. 49(1):140-144. 4 Ibid. 5 Rice and iron absorption in man. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. July 1990. 44(7):489-497. * Cure Tooth Decay: Remineralize Cavities and Repair Your Teeth Naturally with Good Food Learn more: http://www.naturalnews.com/030512_whole_grains_phytic_acid.html#ixzz2W7RFBNC 3 Disable phytic acid with phytase and decrease whole grain toxicity (Opinion) Tuesday, March 15, 2011 by: Rami Nagel Tags: phytic acid, whole grains, health news 78 8 [Share this Article] (NaturalNews) A large body of evidence exists that shows that eating the entire grain rich in phytic acid may lead to losses in zinc, iron, vitamin C and fat-soluble vitamin D. Part of the solution to this plant toxin is to disable phytic acid with the enzyme phytase. Phytase is the enzyme that neutralizes phytic acid and liberates the phosphorus. This enzyme co-exists in plant foods that contain phytic acid. Ruminant animals such as cows, sheep and goats have no trouble with phytic acid because phytase is produced by rumen microorganisms. Mice produce thirty times more phytase than humans,(F-1) so they can be quite happy eating a raw whole grain diet. But data from experiments on phytic acid using mice and other rodents cannot be applied to humans. In general, humans do not produce enough phytase to safely consume large quantities of high-phytate foods on a regular basis. However, probiotic lactobacilli, and other species of digestive microflora, can produce phytase. Increased production of phytase by the gut microflora explains why some people can adjust to a high-phytate diet. Sprouting activates phytase, thus reducing phytic acid.(F-2) The use of sprouted grains will reduce the quantity of phytic acids in animal feed, with no significant reduction of nutritional value.(F-3) But that does not mean that sprouting is sufficient to make whole grains safe for human consumption. Soaking grains and flour in an acid medium at very warm temperatures (between 75-95 degrees Fahrenheit), as in the sourdough process, also activates phytase and reduces or even eliminates phytic acid. Before the advent of industrial agriculture, farmers typically soaked crushed grain in hot water before feeding it to poultry and hogs. Today, feed manufacturers add phytase to grain mixes to get better growth in animals.

Not all grains contain enough phytase to eliminate the phytic acid, even when properly prepared. For example, corn, millet, oats and brown rice do not contain sufficient phytase to eliminate all the phytic acid they contain even when you soak, sour or sprout them. On the other hand, wheat and rye contain high levels of phytase. Wheat contains fourteen times more phytase than rice, and rye contains over twice as much phytase as wheat.(F-4) Soaking or souring these grains, when freshly ground, in a warm environment will destroy all of the phytic acid. The high levels of phytase in rye explain why this grain is preferred as a starter for sourdough breads. Phytase is destroyed by steam heat at about 176 degrees Fahrenheit in ten minutes or less. In a wet solution, phytase is destroyed at 131-149 degrees Fahrenheit. (F-5) Thus heat processing, as in extrusion, will completely destroy phytase - think of extruded all-bran cereal, very high in phytic acid and all of its phytase destroyed by processing. Extruded cereals made of bran and whole grains are a recipe for digestive problems and mineral deficiencies! Phytase is present in small amounts in oats, but heat treating to produce commercial oatmeal renders it inactive. Even grinding a grain too quickly or at too high a temperature could destroy phytase, as will freezing and long storage times. Fresh flour has a higher content of phytase than does flour that has been stored.(F-6) Traditional cultures generally grind their grain fresh before preparation. Weston Price found that mice fed whole grain flours that were not freshly ground did not grow properly.(F-7) [Editor`s Note: NaturalNews is strongly against the use of all forms of animal testing. We fully support implementation of humane medical experimentation that promotes the health and wellbeing of all living creatures.] References 1. Iqbal TH and others. Phytase activity in the human and rat small intestine. Gut. 1994 September 35(9):1233-1236. . 2 Malleshi NG. Nutritive value of malted millet flours. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 1986 3. Whole Grains and Tooth Decay 4. Egli I and others. The Influence of Soaking and Germination on the Phytase Activity and Phytic Acid Content of Grains and Seeds Potentially Useful for Complementary Feeding. Journal of Food Science 2002 Vol. 67, Nr. 9. 5. Peers FG. Phytase of Wheat. The Biochemical Journal 1953 53(1):102-110. 6. Campbell J and others. Nutritional Characteristics of Organic, Freshly stone-ground sourdough and conventional breads. http://eap.mcgill.ca/publications/EAP35.htm. 7. Weston Price Nutrition and Physical Degeneration. Price-Pottenger Nutrition Foundation. 8th edition, page 249 About the author Ramiel Nagel is the internationally published author of Cure Tooth Decay and Healing Our Children In "Cure Tooth Decay" Nagel, reveals how your teeth can heal naturally because they were never designed to decay in the first place! Now there is a natural way

to take control of your dental health by changing the food that you eat. Receive 19 free lessons on how to stop cavities "Healing Our Children" explains the true causes of disease conditions of pregnancy and childhood so that you can avoid and prevent them. It provides essential natural health programs so that mothers and their new babies can optimize their health during the times of preconception, pregnancy, lactation and early childhood. Receive a free chapter of Healing Our Children Free health information is also available on the topics of: A Program for preconception health based on indigenous wisdom. The cause of disease and the end of suffering of humanity. Learn more: http://www.naturalnews.com/031696_phytic_acid_whole_grains.html#ixzz2W7RcQYk 6 http://www.naturalnews.com/031696_phytic_acid_whole_grains.html

Caveman Doctor Grains Part I


Posted by cavemandoctor on Monday, December 5, 2011 8 Comments

Part I: Are Grains Healthy for You?


Caveman Doctor recently received several questions regarding grains and if they were healthy. One person even referred to quinoa as a superfood. Caveman doctor was really confused as to what a grain was since he never ate them during his time on Earth. He was also really confused by the term superfood and remembered that the last time he ate a superfood, he got supersick and was in his cave bathroom for an entire day. After he asked around, he got his hands on some oats and wheat and figured he would give them a try. At first, he didnt believe they were food as they were lacking the bold color, smell, and feel of foods he was used to eating. He tasted the oats and wheat, but immediately spit them out due to their bland taste. Caveman Doctor is used to colorful, flavorful foods and was very confused as to why anyone would eat these things known as grains.

What led to Caveman Doctors confusion? The answer to this question lies in the time period that Caveman Doctor existed. The earliest fossil remains of humans put us at over 2 million years old, and its likely we are older, perhaps even 3 million years old1. Agriculture, or the domestication of plants that were previously gathered in the wild, only started over 10,000 years ago2. At the end of the ice age the glaciers receded, exposing more land for grazing animals and plant life3. This allowed the spread and increase of both wild vegetation and plants that previously existed in only small amounts. Wild animals migrated from their homes to new areas, leaving the human inhabitants searching for new types of food. The domestication of grains was the solution in the Middle East. Prior to this time period, grains were rarely eaten in large amounts, if at all. Therefore, humans have only been exposed to eating grains for a fraction of our history. The harvesting of crops first started around Western Asia in the Fertile Crescent, and spread accordingly. Prior to the development of agriculture, or for roughly 2 million years, humans only ate foods that were hunted and gathered4. Of note, our ancestors did not eat cereal grains, wheat, bread, pasta, etc. Caveman Doctor and his people only ate animal and wild plant sources of food. These plant sources included bold-colored fruits and vegetables picked in nature (which caught the eye of cavemen as delicious, nutritious, and tasty). The lack of such characteristics in oats and grains left Caveman Doctor confused, and he doubted them to be food at all.

A common reason people often eat oats and other grains is because they have been told their entire life of grains health benefits. Its worth examining whether grains are healthy, unhealthy, or somewhat neutral and can be consumed in moderation without detriment. I have always been told they are extremely healthy (including during my medical training). Unfortunately, I also believed it for most of my life, often eating them by the bowl-full and suggesting them to others. Grains have also been heavily subsidized by the government, resulting in astronomical production levels. However, this is a different can of worms and is much too large for a post on this site (many books are written on this topic if youre interested). The other reason people often consume large amounts of grains is the physiologic response within our body. When we start eating wheat, bread, and other grains, it is no different to our body than consuming pure white sugar, as these simple carbohydrates get quickly digested and cause insulin levels to shoot through the roof. This causes severe drops in our blood sugar levels (as insulin pulls sugar out of our blood and into our cells), causing us to crave and eat more sources of sugar to bring our glucose level back up. How many times have you sworn (either to yourself or your loved one) Ill only have one more piece of bread, or one more cookie, only to eat five more? Again, this happens because those simple carbs spike your insulin levels (which over time can cause weight gain5 and many chronic diseases including diabetes and cancer6, 7 ). This rise in insulin eventually bottoms out your glucose level, which makes you crave more glucose (i.e., bread, pasta, and cookies). This also makes you tired, cranky, and depressed. Is that really what food is supposed to do to us? Are these grains truly then food in the sense that they provide us with health and nutrition? Well first and foremost, grains have a small amount of antioxidants and fiber, both paramount to nutrition. The amount of protein in grains is minimal, so Caveman Doctor doesnt even consider them as a meaningful source of protein. According to the USDA, grains may reduce heart disease, may help with weight management, and are part of a healthy diet. Unlike Caveman Doctors website, though, the USDA doesnt cite a single source to back up these big claims. While the reduction in heart disease comment is tough to prove or disprove, I have yet to meet someone who cuts grains out of their diet and doesnt lose weight. In fact, cutting grains is an easy way to shed pounds for many people (if you dont believe me try it!). Grains also contain enormous amounts of insulin-raising carbohydrates, and in fact, they have much less vitamins, nutrients, and antioxidants than vegetables and most fruits (which also have fewer amounts of carbohydrates than grains). Also, the carbohydrate content of fruits and vegetables is often accompanied with a high content of fiber, which helps slow their digestion and results in fewer insulin spikes. Besides lacking the health benefits of the increased fiber and antioxidants found in vegetables and fruits, there are several chemicals in grains that can potentially wreck havoc on your health and most grain adversaries quote these substances incessantly. Knowledge of these compounds alone should make you question the health benefits of grains (and also second guess any diet that promotes them) and seriously consider their possible detrimental effects on your health.

That being said, the topic of grains is enormous, and Caveman Doctor can only concentrate for about a page and a half, so he will address further grain topics in the future. This will be the first of several posts on grains that will be posted over the coming days. Tune into my next post, Grains Part Deux, which will continue our discussion

In Conclusion: 1. Grains were not around for most of human history, and our bodies were not built (or evolved) to use them as food. 2. When you eat grains, it spikes your insulin, which can lead to obesity, diabetes, and cancer. 3. This insulin spike also causes your blood sugar to plummet, making you hungry and crave more carbohydrates and grains, resulting in a vicious cycle of excessive caloric intake. Not to mention mood swings and fatigue. 4. We have all been told by our government and the grain industry how healthy grains are for us, yet there are a lack of conclusive studies to support these claims. Stay healthy and stay informed! References: 1. Asfaw B, White T, Lovejoy O, Latimer B, Simpson S, Suwa G. Australopithecus garhi: a new species of early hominid from Ethiopia. Science 1999;284(5414): 629-35. 2. Rindos D. The Origins of Agriculture: An Evolutionary Perspective. Academic Press, 1987. 3. Pielou EC. After the Ice Age: The Return of Life to Glaciated North America. The University of Chicago Press, 1991. 4. Eaton SB. The ancestral human diet: what was it and should it be a paradigm for contemporary nutrition? The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 2006;65(1): 1-6. 5. Bianchini F, Kaaks R, Vainio H. Overweight, obesity, and cancer risk. The lancet oncology 2002;3(9): 565-74. 6. Macaulay VM. Insulin-like growth factors and cancer. British journal of cancer 1992;65(3): 311-20. 7. Rubin R, Baserga R. Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor. Its role in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and tumorigenicity. Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology 1995;73(3): 311-31.

Grains Part II Phytates

Posted by cavemandoctor on Wednesday, December 7, 2011 6 Comments

Part II: Are Grains Healthy for You?


Caveman Doctor recently received several questions regarding grains and if they were healthy. One person even referred to quinoa as a superfood. Caveman doctor was really confused as to what a grain was since he never ate them during his time on Earth. He was also really confused by the term superfood and remembered that the last time he ate a superfood, he got supersick and was in his cave bathroom for an entire day. After he asked around, he got his hands on some oats and wheat and figured he would give them a try. At first, he didnt believe they were food as they were lacking the bold color, smell, and feel of foods he was used to eating. He tasted the oats and wheat, but immediately spit them out due to their bland taste. Caveman Doctor is used to colorful, flavorful foods and was very confused as to why anyone would eat these things known as grains. In the next three parts of the Grains Series, I will review several health issues with grains before the final post.

Chemicals Found in Grains that question their health benefits: 1. Phytic Acid Number one on the list is phytic acid. This substance is the storage form of phosphorus in many plants, especially legumes, nuts, seeds, and grains. It is also found in green leafy vegetables, but grains contain considerably higher levels. It does have some antioxidant effects like many fruits and vegetables, however, it has many negatives that fruits and vegetables do not. Firstly, it is indigestible when consumed by humans. It chelates certain nutrients (binds to them and prohibits their absorption into our bodies), including calcium, magnesium, zinc, vitamin B3 (niacin), and iron. Deficiency of niacin is called pellagra, a disease that is severely debilitating and has plagued cornbased societies for centuries. Interestingly, the USDA website discussed at length how grains are great sources of iron, niacin, and magnesium, but never mentions that the chemicals in the grains impede your bodys ability to absorb these minerals. Do you have low calcium or magnesium? Are you at risk for osteoporosis? Is your doctor telling you to take a calcium pill? Maybe you should consider the phytic acids from grains in your diet and other food sources as they may be inhibiting your ability to absorb calcium. We often hear that most of us dont have enough calcium in our diet. Maybe the real problem is that the grains we are eating are stopping our body from absorbing calcium. There are many people that questions input factors causing osteoporosis and instead looks at output factors, i.e. its not that people with low calcium levels dont get enough, they just dont absorb enough or lose too much in the GI tract1. Finally, phytates inhibit and may even shut off several enzymes that help us digest proteins, carbohydrates, and even fats, further impairing the absorption of nutrients2. Protein supplements, from bodybuilders to patients with cancer-induced weight loss (cachexia), are a billion dollar industry in the United States as people are

often trying to maximize their intake of high quality proteins. Yet, grains contain a chemical that decreases our bodys ability to digest protein (not to mention carbohydrates and fat as well). Have you ever eaten a huge amount of carbohydrates, and afterwards experienced GI upset and bloating? This is likely because of undigested sugar in your large bowel that was eventually digested. However your body did not do the hard work of digestion, the bacteria that live in your GI tract did the job instead. To say thanks for the free meal, these bacteria tend to give off noxious gases and cause GI discomfort and bloating. This is what happens to the sugar lactose (found in milk and dairy) when consumed by lactose intolerant individuals they dont have the enzyme to break down lactose, leaving it as a feast for the GI bacteria. What do you think happens to all the foods in your gut when you cant digest them? To add insult to injury, these indigestible phytates, when passing through your GI tract unabsorbed and binding other elements, cause severe environmental damage when they leave your body upon entering the soil and water supply. Consequently, when grains are fed to animals, this happens to a much larger degree. When vegetarian groups quote the environmental effects of raising animals, they should also consider what the animals are eating. Several nutritionists suggest methods of offsetting the harmful effects of phytates, such as consuming them in the presence of vitamin C. Call me crazy, but I like to consider another method: minimizing or avoiding the substance that causes the damage in the first place. Some people even regard the binding properties of phytates as potentially beneficial, for instance, in cases of iron toxicity as this causes some problems after long periods of accumulation. Consuming phytates is a way of leaching out this iron. Remember, cavemen often experienced daily trauma and also got attacked by sabertooth tigers, both resulting in bleeding. This is the easiest method of lowering your iron (and some cavemen lifestyle followers even give blood periodically to mimic this). However, iron is continuously lost in your sweat, GI tract, and during menstruation and rates of iron overload in the general population is limited mostly to those with genetic diseases that cause high levels3. Our intestines have a remarkable ability to store and release iron to help keep our levels normal4. Better yet, iron loss increases markedly in your sweat during exercise, giving you a much healthier means of dropping some iron (while you pump some iron) and increasing our health in dozens of other ways5. Overall, touting the health benefits of a substance as interfering with the digestion of nutrients is a tough sells and smells fishy (or grainy in this sense) of involvement by the grain industry. Furthermore, most people are iron deficient and so phytates would only exacerbate the problem. It seems as though the verdict is still out on the overall viewpoint of phytates, though the harmful aspects to both the human body and the environment are well established and likely overwhelm any benefits. In Conclusion: 1. Phytates are found in high amounts in grains. 2. They have many documented negative influences on health, including losses of many important nutrients, including calcium, magnesium, zinc, vitamin B3, and iron.

3. They potentially decrease the function of our digestive enzymes, resulting in undigested protein, fat, and carbohydrates. 4. They possibly have some positive influences on health such as antioxidant activity and iron loss, though the iron-decreasing theories are likely overrated and applicable only to very few people with genetic diseases that cause iron overload. 5. The positive influences can likely be achieved through other foods without the cost of the negatives. 6. They have documented harmful effects on soil and the environment.

References: 1. Basha B, Rao DS, Han Z-H, Parfitt AM. Osteomalacia due to vitamin D depletion: a neglected consequence of intestinal malabsorption. The American journal of medicine 2000;108(4): 296-300. 2. Singh M, Krikorian AD. Inhibition of trypsin activity in vitro by phytate. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 1982;30(4): 799-800. 3. Andrews NC. Disorders of Iron Metabolism. New England Journal of Medicine 1999;341(26): 1986-95. 4. Conrad ME, Weintraub LR, Crosby WH. The Role of the Intestine in Iron Kinetics. The Journal of clinical investigation 1964;43: 963-74. 5. Waller MF, Haymes EM. The effects of heat and exercise on sweat iron loss. Medicine and science in sports and exercise 1996;28(2): 197-203.

Grains Part III Lectin


Posted by cavemandoctor on Friday, December 9, 2011 4 Comments

Part III: Are Grains Healthy for You?


Caveman Doctor recently received several questions regarding grains and if they were healthy. One person even referred to quinoa as a superfood. Caveman doctor was really confused as to what a grain was since he never ate them during his time on Earth. He was also really confused by the term superfood and remembered that the last time he ate a superfood, he got supersick and was in his cave bathroom for an entire day. After he asked around, he got his hands on some oats and wheat and figured he would give them a try. At first, he didnt believe they were food as they were lacking the bold color, smell, and feel of foods he was used to eating. He tasted the oats and wheat, but immediately spit them out due to their bland taste. Caveman Doctor is used to colorful, flavorful foods and was very confused as to why anyone would eat these things known as grains.

Does Caveman Doctor even recognize this as food? In the last post we discussed phytic acid. This week we move along to lectins and discuss their health effects, and how they may potentially lead to cancer, weight gain, and several other major health issues.

2. Lectins We should think twice about consuming foods that contain a large amount of lectins, especially on a routine basis. We already discussed the potential reasons why people eat grains. When you are told your entire life by the media, your doctors, and everyone else under the sun how healthy something is, you assume it is actually healthy. Unfortunately, grains are not the only unhealthy health food that has been recommended to us for years by our health professionals. While we talked extensively about phytic acid in the last post, this one is shifting gears to the other dangerous player in grains lectin. Beans, seeds, some nuts, and of course, grains, are foods that contain large amounts of lectin, a complex protein that causes many physiologic reactions when eaten. First off, lectins cause immune and antigenic reactions (much like pollens or other allergens). The immune response triggered by lectins can lead to autoimmune diseases, which are basically the immune system on overdrive, as seen in diseases like rheumatoid arthritis or lupus1. Lectins have been also shown to interact with our GI cells, damage them, and then inhibit their ability to repair themselves2. This triple threat causes a leaky gut and allows bacteria, infectious elements, and toxins easy access to our system through our gut, which is normally our bodys fortress wall. Plan and simple, any food that causes distress to our cells (GI in this case) and then does not allow them to fix themselves should not be considered a healthy food, but rather a quite harmful one. Interestingly, these lectins were likely a defense mechanism for the plants that contained them, as they deterred predators from eating those plants. Much like a toxin from poisonous mushrooms, lectins are unhealthy toxins to humans, insects, and other

predators causing unhealthy reactions when eaten. We should think twice about consuming foods that contain a large amount of lectins, especially on a routine basis. Just as when we consume large amounts of the sugar fructose, lectins have been shown to cause leptin resistance. Leptin (deceivingly similar word to lectin) is the chemical within our body that affects many physiologic functions, including suppressing appetite. Leptin resistance results in increased appetite, and has been shown to lead to obesity as well3. Lectins (again, the bad chemical found in plants like grains and legumes, not the hormone within our body) can bind to our kidney cells and have been responsible for kidney damage, which results in excess protein in the urine4. They act as antigens and bind to receptors on pancreatic cells and may induce diabetes5. Finally and most importantly, lectins have been shown to travel throughout the body, bind to receptors on cells that are potentially harmful, and activate them. These receptors include the insulin receptor and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)6, both of which have been heavily implicated in cancer and are a recent target of many novel therapeutic cancer drugs7, 8. They have also been shown to initiate mitogenesis9, which is basically the process when our cells divide. Overstimulation of mitogenesis is a potential cause of cancer. To add insult to injury, lectins are actually used in biochemical warfare. Now I may be a doctor and not a rocket scientist, but when something is used in biochemical warfare, its usually not on my healthy food list. A part of ricin (a highly toxic poison) is a lectin, which binds to our cell surfaces and allows it to enter our cells, inhibiting function and causing death, similar to when it binds to the receptors discussed above. Also, please keep in mind lectins are in beans, peanuts, and other legumes, not just cereals and grains. Dairy from cows fed grains (the lectins are passed from their feed) also has higher amounts. For more questions on legumes, search my website for other posts.

In review, lectins are plentiful in grains, are toxic and inflammatory to the human body5, and can potentially lead to: 1. Autoimmune diseases 2. GI distress 3. Inability of GI cells to heal, thereby allowing toxins and infections to seep into our bodies 4. Induction of the cancer-promoting pathways EGFR and Insulin 5. Mitogenesis (cells dividing, which can lead to cancer) 6. Obesity 7. Diabetes Be informed and be healthy!

References: 1. Cordain L, Toohey L, Smith MJ, Hickey MS. Modulation of immune function by dietary lectins in rheumatoid arthritis. The British journal of nutrition 2000;83(3): 20717. 2. Miyake K, Tanaka T, McNeil PL. Lectin-based food poisoning: a new mechanism of protein toxicity. PloS one 2007;2(8): e687. 3. Friedman JM, Halaas JL. Leptin and the regulation of body weight in mammals. Nature 1998;395(6704): 763-70. 4. Coppo R, Amore A, Roccatello D. Dietary antigens and primary immunoglobulin A nephropathy. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN 1992;2(10 Suppl): S173-80. 5. Freed DL. Do dietary lectins cause disease? BMJ 1999;318(7190): 1023-4. 6. Jonsson T, Olsson S, Ahren B, Bog-Hansen TC, Dole A, Lindeberg S. Agrarian diet and diseases of affluencedo evolutionary novel dietary lectins cause leptin resistance? BMC endocrine disorders 2005;5: 10. 7. Ciardiello F, Tortora G. EGFR Antagonists in Cancer Treatment. New England Journal of Medicine 2008;358(11): 1160-74. 8. Rubin R, Baserga R. Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor. Its role in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and tumorigenicity. Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology 1995;73(3): 311-31. 9. Kilpatrick DC. Mechanisms and assessment of lectin-mediated mitogenesis. Molecular biotechnology 1999;11(1): 55-65.

Grains Part IV Gluten


Posted by cavemandoctor on Monday, December 12, 2011 7 Comments

Part IV: Are Grains Healthy for You?


Caveman Doctor recently received several questions regarding grains and if they were healthy. One person even referred to quinoa as a superfood. Caveman doctor was really confused as to what a grain was since he never ate them during his time on Earth. He was also really confused by the term superfood and remembered that the last time he ate a superfood, he got supersick and was in his cave bathroom for an entire day. After he asked around, he got his hands on some oats and wheat and figured he would give

them a try. At first, he didnt believe they were food as they were lacking the bold color, smell, and feel of foods he was used to eating. He tasted the oats and wheat, but immediately spit them out due to their bland taste. Caveman Doctor is used to colorful, flavorful foods and was very confused as to why anyone would eat these things known as grains.

Caveman Doctor recognizes this as food From the data on the many chemicals and toxic substances in grains the message is clear: foods that cause inflammation and an immune system response when eaten can cause short and long-term damage to our bodies. This is the fourth and final posts on grains. So far, we have discussed the relatively recent introduction of grains into the human diet, and how our bodies have not adjusted to grains. We also discussed lectins and phytates, and the damage they exert on us.

3. Gluten Gluten seems to take the biggest shots when it comes to grain adversaries criticizing grains ill effects. Is this justified? What is Gluten? Gluten is a protein composed of gliaden and glutelin that is found in grains, including barley, rye and wheat. Wheat in particular contains a hefty amount of gluten. Gluten is frequently added to imitation meats and is in random foods like ice cream and ketchup, used as a stabilizing agent. It is what makes dough feel rubbery and also helps it to rise when forming bread, resulting in its spongy texture.

Like lectins, which you read about in Part III of my grains posts, gluten causes an immune reaction within the body. As Ive pointed out before in previous posts, foods that cause an immune reaction are not good for the body. Also, like lectins, glutens cause severe damage to your GI tract1 by causing leaky gut and damage to the cells along the GI tract. There are many studies that removed gluten from patients diets, resulting in resolution of a wide range of symptoms. Patients with dermatitis herpetiformis (DH), a disease that causes red and painful lesions to form on the skin, were placed on a gluten-free diet and their skin lesions resolved2. DH is one of the many diseases where the body turns on itself after repeated immune system stimulation by the toxins in grains. Celiac disease occurs in around 1% of the population, and results from intolerance to gluten with resulting gastrointestinal and other side effects. Like lectins, gluten ingestion causes severe inflammatory reactions and autoimmune disease, where the body starts to attack itself3, 4. However, you dont have to suffer from full blown celiac disease to suffer from consumption of gluten. Individuals with gluten sensitivity can also experience immunologic attacks on their nervous system, resulting in cerebellar ataxia (balance and walking issues) and peripheral neuropathy5. These are basically difficulty walking and pain, numbness, tingling, and decreased ability to perform fine motor function in your extremities6. Gluten sensitivity has even been shown to cause seizures, epilepsy7, and even schizophrenia8. Just as gluten causes the neurological disorders listed above, there has recently been in increase in information that gluten may be partly responsible for the rise in autism. In fact, removing gluten form the diet has been shown to be a treatment for autism in randomized controlled trials9, the gold standard in medicine. By ingesting grains, gluten sparks an autoimmune reaction that could be aimed at brain cells as well, potentially leading to disorders like autism. It is interesting, though certainly not conclusive, that autism diagnosis has continued to rise alongside rates of simple carbohydrate (and likely grain) consumption. This is especially crucial for young children, as their brains are developing at this life stage. I am typing this well aware of the fact that diagnosis criteria for autism has changed in the past couple years as well10. However, the proof is in the pudding (gluten-free pudding in this case). Children who were already diagnosed with autism had gluten removed from their diet in a study, and the results showed a significant improvement in a number of behavioral measures11. In fact, physiologic changes were even seen on SPECT scans, which measure metabolic activity of cells and tissues within the body. One study followed a patient with undiagnosed and untreated gluten intolerance and psychiatric symptoms. SPECT scan was performed, showing decreased activity in the frontal lobe of the brain. All gluten was removed from the diet and not only did the symptoms resolve, but repeat SPECT scan showed disappearance of the brain dysfunction12. While gluten has been shown in many ways to directly damage the body,

there are also indirect negative effects, including causing deficiencies in other vitamins and minerals (as often happens when we consume foods that are unnatural and indigestible in our system). Gluten consumption has been shown to potentially cause selenium deficiency, resulting in thyroid damage. Coincidently, gluten causes immune reactions that release harmful inflammatory chemicals that also damage the thyroid, resulting in a double whammy for your poor thyroid13. From the data on the many chemicals and toxic substances in grains the message is clear: foods that cause inflammation and an immune system response when eaten can cause short and long-term damage to our bodies. Gluten is no exception to this rule. Its damage to the GI tract and nervous system is well documented, and its association with autism certainly deserves a closer look. On a side note, compounds similar to gluten, called saponins, are found in some grains. Similar to lectins, they are a protective chemical for the plants that contain them as they cause adverse reactions in their plants predators when consumed14. They dont bind to receptors in your GI tract, but rather directly promote leaky gut syndrome, allowing pathogens to directly enter the blood stream and promoting a state of inflammation15. They have even been used with vaccines to allow modified viruses to enter our system much easier through the gut16. Interestingly, while gluten has received much attention in the media for all of the problems it causes, lectins and phytic acids are possibly even more harmful. Regardless of which feature of grains is the most harmful, in reviewing all four posts on grains, it is difficult to consider them a health food. While we often encounter foods that ride the line between healthy and unhealthy, grains are clearly on the unhealthy side, are damaging to the body, and as best as possible, should be avoided. The even bigger issue here is the large insulin spike and hunger response grains create (including quinoa).

Grains in Summary: Grains are substances that are relatively new in the history of humans, and as a result, the human body has not adjusted to them. Grains contain harmful substances, as discussed in all 4 posts. Some grains have fewer amounts of some toxic substances and more of others. Quinoa, although technically not a grain (as astutely pointed out by Dwayne, in Chicago), but often classified in the same group, doesnt have gluten, but is full of phytates and saponins and the body likely responds to it similarly as with other grains. The even bigger issue here is the large insulin spike and hunger response

grains create (including quinoa). We avoid eating sweets and sugary candies for the same reason. This phenomenon, combined with the amount of harmful substances in grains, with only a scant amount of nutritional benefit through protein, fiber, antioxidants, and nutrients leaves grains on the consume infrequently, if ever list. If you eat a piece of bread infrequently, you wont shrivel up and die. However, eating a piece of bread every once in a while is much different than purposely adding grains to your diet. Anything that blocks the absorption of several important nutrients, including protein, and causes inflammation and damage to my immune system will be avoided as much as possible in my diet. As for the so-called health benefits of grains (mostly cited because of the fiber content in grain), I can get these in much higher doses from fruits and vegetables with much less detriment to my health. Once again, in terms of getting that bang for your buck from food, grains end up on the short end of things. Avoid the detrimental effects of grains and stick with fruits and vegetables, and if you really need to get your carbohydrate levels up (for athletics, etc.), eat yams or up your fruit content. Also, as a side note, remember that the same institutions and people who have drilled into our heads that grains are healthy are often the same institutions and people who benefit from the production and trade of grains. With all the evidence, it seems that the question would be more appropriate as How Unhealthy Are Grains?

References: 1. Frazer AC, Fletcher RF, Ross CA, Shaw B, Sammons HG, Schneider R. Gluten-induced enteropathy: the effect of partially digested gluten. Lancet 1959;2(7097): 252-5. 2. Fry L, Riches DJ, Seah PP, Hoffbrand AV. CLEARANCE OF SKIN LESIONS IN DERMATITIS HERPETIFORMIS AFTER GLUTEN WITHDRAWAL. The Lancet 1973;301(7798): 288-91. 3. Detlef S. Current Concepts of Celiac Disease Pathogenesis. Gastroenterology 2000;119(1): 234-42.

4. Fasano A. Systemic autoimmune disorders in celiac disease. Current Opinion in Gastroenterology 2006;22(6): 674-79 10.1097/01.mog.0000245543.72537.9e. 5. Hadjivassiliou M, Grnewald RA, Chattopadhyay AK, et al. Clinical, radiological, neurophysiological, and neuropathological characteristics of gluten ataxia. The Lancet 1998;352(9140): 1582-85. 6. Hernandez-Lahoz C, Mauri-Capdevila G, Vega-Villar J, Rodrigo L. [Neurological disorders associated with gluten sensitivity]. Revista de neurologia 2011;53(5): 287-300. 7. Briani C, Zara G, Alaedini A, et al. Neurological complications of celiac disease and autoimmune mechanisms: a prospective study. Journal of neuroimmunology 2008;195(1-2): 171-5. 8. Singh M, Kay. Wheat gluten as a pathogenic factor in schizophrenia. Science 1976;191(4225): 401-02. 9. Knivsberg AM, Reichelt KL, Hoien T, Nodland M. A randomised, controlled study of dietary intervention in autistic syndromes. Nutritional neuroscience 2002;5(4): 251-61. 10. King M, Bearman P. Diagnostic change and the increased prevalence of autism. International Journal of Epidemiology 2009;38(5): 1224-34. 11. Millward C, Ferriter M, Calver S, Connell-Jones G. Gluten- and casein-free diets for autistic spectrum disorder. Cochrane database of systematic reviews 2004(2): CD003498. 12. De Santis A, Addolorato G, Romito A, et al. Schizophrenic symptoms and SPECT abnormalities in a coeliac patient: regression after a gluten-free diet. Journal of internal medicine 1997;242(5): 421-3. 13. Stazi AV, Trinti B. Selenium status and over-expression of interleukin-15 in celiac disease and autoimmune thyroid diseases. Annali dellIstituto Superiore di Sanit 2010;46: 389-99. 14. Price KR, Johnson IT, Fenwick GR. The chemistry and biological significance of saponins in foods and feedingstuffs. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition 1987;26(1): 27-135. 15. Johnson IT, Gee JM, Price K, Curl C, Fenwick GR. Influence of saponins on gut permeability and active nutrient transport in vitro. The Journal of nutrition 1986;116(11): 2270-7. 16. Maharaj I, Froh KJ, Campbell JB. Immune responses of mice to inactivated rabies vaccine administered orally: potentiation by Quillaja saponin. Canadian journal of microbiology 1986;32(5): 414-20.

Can We Eat Too Much Fruit?


Posted by cavemandoctor on Wednesday, November 30, 2011 3 Comments

Can We Eat Too Much Fruit?


Caveman Doctor recently received an email (whatever an email is) from a cavemandoctor.com member explaining that recently his doctor told him you can never eat too much fruit. In fact, Caveman Doc has heard this from several members and has even seen similar comments in diets labeled as resembling those followed in Caveman Doctors time. This made Caveman Doctor angry.

Fruit and Sugar We all know of the benefits of eating fruit, including vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and fiber. However, rarely do we discuss if too much fruit may work against us. Besides all the vitamins and nutrients, fruit contains glucose, fructose, and sucrose (all forms of sugar). Sugar raises blood insulin (the hormone that lowers your blood sugar) and leads to obesity and a potential increased risk of cancer on many fronts (both from the obesity and the elevated insulin)1-4. Sugar is a large reason why many grains and carbohydrate foods should rarely be consumed. That being said, glucose is present in fruits, vegetables, and even a tiny amount is in meat, so we are not going to totally demonize it. In your daily intake of carbohydrates from fruits and vegetables, a portion is going to be sugar. However, if you binge on fruit and end up eating much more glucose through fruit, rather than vegetables or protein/fat sources, before you know it, your daily carbohydrate and sugar intake can go through the roof. While fruit contains glucose, it also contains antioxidants, vitamins, nutrients, and fiber, which slows the digestion of sugar and therefore helps blunt insulin spikes . Unlike sweets, candy, breads, and pasta, which are basically sources of pure sugar with minimal nutrient value, fruit contains many other nutrients and fiber, so comparing the sugar in fruits to sweets is unfair.

Are Modern Fruits Different? For all intents and purposes, when your body digests white bread, it is no different than eating a cup of pure sugar. In fact, wheat bread isnt much different from a cup of sugar, either. Fruit, however, is. Fruit contains an ample amount of vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and fiber at the cost of a little sugar. However, not all fruit is the same; some fruits contain more sugar, some less. Also, wild fruit, the same kind that Caveman Doctor ate in his day, has a much higher content of vitamins, minerals, and protein and therefore much lower carbohydrate content. Wild fruits contain more seeds and fibrous pulp, and therefore more fiber and less sugar. A simple way of looking at it is the proportion of fiber to sugar always aim for higher fiber and less sugar. Also, wild fruits contained more glucose and some fructose as compared to

modern day farmed fruits which contain much more of the sweeter sucrose5. This makes present day fruits much sweeter than they should be, with higher amounts of sugar, resulting in higher amounts of blood sugar increases when consumed. As a result, your body must release a larger amount of insulin to bring your blood sugar back down to normal levels. The increased sucrose makes you crave more fruit (or worseoff, more sucrose-containing foods like sweets). This is the same mechanism that occurs when you eat sweets you end up craving more, and that one cookie turns into a dozen. Those small apples that fall off of your grandfathers tree and get picked by the birds were the apples that cavemen ate, not those giant Fuji apples at your local grocery store.

Which Fruits Have More Fiber? One great way to mimic fiber, protein, and nutrient content of wild fruits is to generally eat fruits that can be consumed with the skin on. The skin most often contain the bulk of the nutrients and fiber, while the pulp has the bulk of the sugar . This is why apple juice has loads of sugar (often over 30 grams! per serving with little to no fiber). Eat an apple with the skin on and its a different story. In this regard, berries are superfruits. They have a lot of fiber in proportion to sugar content, mostly because you eat them with the skin on, seeds inside, and the pulp is relatively small compared to the skin. This leaves raspberries, blueberries, strawberries, and blackberries as great fruit options.

Sensitize Your Insulin Response One final note, for those of you who exercise (hopefully all of you), a quick and easy way to get your daily fruit in without causing huge spikes in your insulin and potential weight gain is to consume fruit around workout time. Glucose (sugar) in your blood stream is extracted into your cells much faster and more efficiently within 2 hours of your workout, leaving you with less of a need to secrete large amounts of insulin6. Also, after a workout, your muscle cells are more likely to use the glucose from the fruit for energy, as opposed to it getting stored in your fat cells. That being said, I still suggest eating the fruit directly after your workout as opposed to 2 hours later. If you eat two servings of fruits before and after a workout, combined with your vegetable intake with other meals throughout the day, you are likely consuming more than enough sources of fruits and vegetables. A quick, easy, and delicious method to accomplish this is 30 grams of a whey protein powder (using stevia and no artificial sweetener or even unsweetened) with 2-3 servings of blueberries, strawberries, raspberries, and/or blackberries mixed up in a smoothie. If you want to get real crazy, throw in some cranberries too, which are one of the highest sources of antioxidants. You can add ice or use frozen berries to kill two birds with one stone.

In conclusion:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Fruit is good for you with its antioxidants, fiber, nutrients, and vitamins Wild fruit is better for you, but if you cant get it, eat fruits with the skin on Berries are the biggest bang for your buck You can overeat fruit, so be careful Some fruits contain high amounts of sucrose, which can make you crave sweets 6. Eating fruit around workout time is a good strategy to optimize fruit consumption

Reference: 1. Bianchini F, Kaaks R, Vainio H. Overweight, obesity, and cancer risk. The lancet oncology 2002;3(9): 565-74. 2. Brown KA, Simpson ER. Obesity and breast cancer: progress to understanding the relationship. Cancer research 2010;70(1): 4-7. 3. Kong CY, Nattinger KJ, Hayeck TJ, et al. The Impact of Obesity on the Rise in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Incidence: Estimates from a Disease Simulation Model. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology 2011. 4. Macaulay VM. Insulin-like growth factors and cancer. British journal of cancer 1992;65(3): 311-20. 5. Milton K. Nutritional characteristics of wild primate foods: do the diets of our closest living relatives have lessons for us? Nutrition 1999;15(6): 488-98. 6. Borghouts LB, Keizer HA. Exercise and insulin sensitivity: a review. International journal of sports medicine 2000;21(1): 1-12. Caveman Doctor 2011. All Rights Reserved.

Omega-3 Fats and Your Health


Posted by cavemandoctor on Monday, May 14, 2012 9 Comments The benefits of consuming foods high in omega-3s and limiting those with omega-6s is a hot topic these days. A lot of this talk is focused on how the good fat, omega-3, is beneficial. However, this has been indirectly known for quite some time, as nearly 2,000 years ago Galen used fish for both nutrition and medicinally. Galen is one of the most famous physicians ever, and he treated some of the most influential people in the history of the world, including my favorite, Marcus Aurelius. While Caveman Doctor doesnt watch much TV, except for mostly the nature channel to remind him of the good old days, when the series Rome came out, you couldnt tear him away from the TV. However, why have fish been recommended for good health for thousands of

years, from Ancient Rome to present day?

Maximizing Your Omega-3 Intake: Tipping the Ratio Back to Health


Essential fatty acids are those that the body cannot make from other fats, proteins, or carbohydrates, thus they are essential in our diet. Omega-3 and omega-6 are two the main essential fatty acids. Omega-3s are made from the precursor alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), and consist of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), while omega-6s are composed of linoleic acid. ALA is found in green leafy vegetables and even vegetable oils have a little, (which may be the only thing going for them), but a large amount can be found in the meat of free-ranging animals and wild cold-water fish. Linoleic acid is found in much larger amounts in vegetable oils, seeds, and grains, which is often why vegetarian diets are very high in linoleic acid and deficient in ALA (i.e. high in omega-6 and low in omega3). Just as we explored in cooking oils, the addition of a double bond in a saturated fat can reduce its stability, and greatly affects how our body deals with them. You have likely heard the term omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids. This number refers to the distance of the double bond from the end of the fatty acids, with omega-3 being three carbon atoms away and omega-6 is six away. While omega-6s have the double bond only 3 small places away at the 6 location, the changes on our body appear to be very important.

Our modern diet has swayed from the proportions of omega-3 and 6 fatty acids that our bodies are programed to process. For millions of years, as we wandered the earth hunting and gathering foods, we consumed a near 1:1 ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fats1. However, in less than .00008% of this time, our ratio has increased to an astonishing 30:12!!!, as modern unhealthy foods contain a large amount of omega6s. At the same time, chronic disease, obesity, and inflammation have vastly increased.

Omega-3 and Omega-6 in the Diet: Eating a higher amount of omega-6 relative to omega-3 leads to many health issues, and most are likely related to increased inflammation. Linoleic acid (omega-6) leads to inflammation and cancer, and is even used to promote cancer in laboratory experiments, as described in several posts including one on CLA and vegetable oil. Population studies have shown that omega-3s appear to counteract the negative effects of omega-6s by lowering inflammatory markers like IL-63 and may even reduce the

risk of prostate cancer4,5. On the other hand, DHA and EPA from omega-3s contain anti-inflammatory elements that quiet inflammation (aptly called resolvins and protectins)6. The scientists who discovered these healing properties of DHA and EPA obviously wanted the world to recognize their ability to resolve inflammation. Omega-3 and even omega-6 fats are extremely important for many physiologic functions, including our immune system, inflammatory response, and blood clotting. As fats, they are both incorporated into our cell membranes as part of the cell wall. However, the body has a preference: omega-6 fatty acids in our cell membranes are actually replaced by DHA and EPA (made from omega-3) when available from your diet7. So, when given the choice, your body kicks out omega-6 in favor of omega-3. That says a lot to me, as I believe our bodies are smarter than we are in knowing what it needs. After an insult to the body, both omega fats produce inflammatory mediators. However, arachidonic acid (from omega-6s) is significantly more inflammatory than EPA (from omega-3s), resulting in increased swelling, temperature rise, inflammation, and damage after trauma. For example, if you sprain your ankle, arachidonic acid is one of the main chemicals responsible for the swelling that occurs afterwards. Of note, aspirin blocks this pathway, which Hippocrates was using even before Galen, some 2,400 years ago. A key theme of this website is avoiding inflammation; therefore I try to minimize my intake of omega-6 food sources. Omega-6 Quick Facts: 1. Omega-6 sources are found heavily in the western diet (grains, grain-fed animals, vegetable oils). 2. Omega-6 is composed of linoleic acid. 3. Linoleic acid is converted to arachidonic acid. 4. Arachidonic acid is a potent mediator of inflammation. 5. High omega-6 foods should be limited in an effort to keep your omega6/omega-3 ratio under 4, and to reduce inflammation in your body. 6. Omega-6s increase blood vessel constriction and spasms (vasospasms), blood viscosity, and are prothrombotic and proaggretory, i.e. pro blood clots. 7. A high ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 is associated with an increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer8.

Omega-3 Quick Facts: 1. Grass-fed beef, free-roaming animals, and those fed non-grain diets have markedly higher ratios of omega-3 to omega-6. 2. Omega-3 fatty acids exhibit anti-tumorigenic effects (likely via their antiinflammatory effects). 3. They decrease potent inflammatory factors like TNF and arachidonic acid (increased from stress and chronic inflammation which may lead to cancer)

4. Unlike omega-6, omega-3 is antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory. 5. Omega-3s are important in the prevention and treatment of high blood pressure, diabetes, heart disease, arthritis, autoimmune disease, cancer2, and even in macular degeneration. 6. Again, aim for a 1:1 ratio of omega-6 to omega-3, but be happy with anything less than 4:1. 7. Omega-3s may fight inflammation and cancer merely by counter-acting arachidonic acid.

OK, so I want more omega-3s over 6s. Where can I get them?!
As is often the case, Nature paved the way for us to health by providing delicious sources of omega-3s. Natural sources include most of the food that modern cavemen are already eating: eggs, grass-fed beef, vegetables, and wild-caught fish. Like Ive said before, not all meat is created equal. Grass-fed beef has 4-times the omega-3s than confined/grain-fed/unethically-raised cattle, and cream and cheese from these ruminants have more as well9. However, what most people dont realize is that the same is true for fish10 and eggs11. Wild salmon is full of omega-3s, while farmed salmon has nearly none. Nearly none! Its ironic that many people pass up red meat for the health benefits of fish, but if you are eating farmed fish it is less nutrientdense than red meat. Make sure the salmon you buy at the store is wild and look for the country in which it is from, as much of the worlds farmed fish supply comes from Southeast Asia. Unlike farm-raised and hence less healthy salmon, DHA is increased in the cell membranes of cold-water fish (nature has to keep them warm with good fats), so aiming for them may be your best bet. Unfortunately, it doesnt end there, as cultured vegetable are no different and contain significantly less omega-3s than wild plants2. In general, if the food you eat is healthier, hardier, and happier, you will be too!

Confused About Soy?--Soy Dangers Summarized

High levels of phytic acid in soy reduce assimilation of calcium, magnesium, copper, iron and zinc. Phytic acid in soy is not neutralized by ordinary preparation methods such as soaking, sprouting and long, slow cooking. High phytate diets have caused growth problems in children. Trypsin inhibitors in soy interfere with protein digestion and may cause pancreatic disorders. In test animals soy containing trypsin inhibitors caused stunted growth. Soy phytoestrogens disrupt endocrine function and have the potential to cause infertility and to promote breast cancer in adult women. Soy phytoestrogens are potent antithyroid agents that cause hypothyroidism and may cause thyroid cancer. In infants, consumption of soy formula has been linked to autoimmune thyroid disease. Vitamin B12 analogs in soy are not absorbed and actually increase the body's requirement for B12. Soy foods increase the body's requirement for vitamin D. Fragile proteins are denatured during high temperature processing to make soy protein isolate and textured vegetable protein. Processing of soy protein results in the formation of toxic lysinoalanine and highly carcinogenic nitrosamines. Free glutamic acid or MSG, a potent neurotoxin, is formed during soy food processing and additional amounts are added to many soy foods. Soy foods contain high levels of aluminum which is toxic to the nervous system and the kidneys.

The above soy dangers and our Myths & Truths About Soy are available in our Soy Alert! trifold brochure for mass distribution.

Studies Showing Adverse Effects of Soy


1. Studies Showing the Toxicity of Soy in the US Food & Drug Administration's Poisonous Plant Database (7.5M PDF) 2. Studies Showing Adverse Effects of Dietary Soy, 1939-2008 3. Studies Showing Adverse Effects of Isoflavones, 1950-2010 Display # Title Filter # Article Title Date Author Tuesday, 17 February 1 Advertising and Monkey Business Valerie James 2004 Atlas Soy-led: Ayn Rand's Take on the Tuesday, 12 July Kaayla Daniel, 2 Soybean 2011 PhD, CCN Linda Joyce Babes in Soyland: Natural Products Expo Sunday, 07 3 Forristal, CTA, East December 2003 MTA Kaayla T. Friday, 27 February 4 Bad News for the Soy Industry Daniel, PhD, 2009 CCN 5 Charlie's Story Tuesday, 17 February George Glasser

2004 and Anita Knight Friday, 15 February Kaayla Daniel, 2008 PhD, CCN Sunday, 23 March Valerie James 2003 Tuesday, 17 February Weston A. Price 8 Complaints About Soy 2004 Foundation Cruel and Unusual Punishment: Soy Diet Weston A Price 9 Friday, 01 May 2009 for Illinois Prisoners Foundation Dangers of Dietary Isoflavones At Levels Monday, 02 March 10 Sally Fallon Above Those Found In Traditional Diets 2009 Kaayla T. Thursday, 24 August 11 Daniel Back from the Lion's Den Daniel, PhD, 2006 CCN Effects of Antenatal Exposure to Wednesday, 16 12 Phytoestrogens on Human Male Bernard Poggi November 2005 Reproductive and Urogenital Development Heart of the Matter : Sulfur Deficits in Thursday, 02 Kaayla Daniel, 13 Plant-Based Diets February 2012 PhD, CCN Friday, 27 February David Goodman, 14 Manganese Madness 2009 PhD More Government Promotion of Soy-Based Tuesday, 12 February Sylvia Onusic, 15 Infant Formulas 2013 PhD Monday, 18 Kaayla Daniel, 16 Mr. Tofu! December 2006 PhD Saturday, 01 January Weston A. Price 17 Myths & Truths About Soy 2000 Foundation Kaayla T. Not Milk and Uncheese: The Udder Monday, 04 October 18 Daniel, PhD, Alternatives 2004 CCN Kaayla T. Friday, 13 March 19 Not So Soy Healthy For The Heart Daniel, PhD, 2009 CCN Monday, 10 October Kaayla Daniel, 20 Not Taking the EWG Pledge 2011 PhD, CCN Friday, 27 February 21 One Woman's Story Tera 2009 Phytoestrogens in Soy Depress Immune Friday, 05 December 22 Sally Fallon Function 2003 Kaayla T. Recovery from Soy Part I: A Strategy for Thursday, 14 23 Daniel, PhD, Dealing with Soy Allergies February 2008 CCN Sally Fallon and Tuesday, 27 February 24 Reply to Bill Sardi Mary G. Enig, 2001 PhD Sunday, 09 February 25 Reply to Robert Cohen, the Not Milk Man Andreas Schuld 2003 Wednesday, 29 Kaayla Daniel, 26 Response to Dr. Mark Hyman September 2010 PhD, CCN 27 Soy Alert! Brochure Monday, 09 March Weston A. Price Colony Collapse Disorder: Soy Tie to Bee 6 Die-Off? Committee on Toxicity in Foods and the 7 Environment

2009 Saturday, 15 June 28 Soy Alert! Campaign Letter 2002 2002 Saturday, 06 29 Soy Alert! Update, Fall 2003 December 2003 Wednesday, 02 July 30 Soy Alert! Update, Spring 2003 2003 Sunday, 04 February 31 Soy Alert! Update, Spring 2004 2007 Saturday, 13 32 Soy Alert! Update, Summer 2003 December 2003 Sunday, 15 March 33 Soy Alert! Update, Summer 2004 2009 Saturday, 14 March 34 Soy Alert! Update, Winter 2003 2009 Monday, 24 May 35 Soy Alert! Update, Winter 2004 2004 Soy and Corn Blends Stop Hunger but not Thursday, 26 March 36 Malnutrition 2009

Foundation Weston A. Price Foundation Weston A. Price Foundation Weston A. Price Foundation Weston A. Price Foundation Weston A. Price Foundation Weston A. Price Foundation Weston A. Price Foundation Weston A. Price Foundation Kaayla Daniel, PhD, CCN Kaayla T. Soy and Osteoporosis: Not a Leg to Stand Monday, 18 37 Daniel, PhD, On December 2006 CCN Friday, 21 January Kaayla Daniel, 38 Soy and Sanitation 2011 PhD, CCN Soy and Seizures: Bad News for the Soy Wednesday, 24 April Kaayla Daniel, 39 Industry 2013 PhD, CCN Wednesday, 28 April 40 Soy and the Brain John MacArthur 2004 Monday, 02 Maria Van 41 Soy Bioterrorism November 2009 Heemstra Kaayla T. Saturday, 06 42 Soy Carbohydrates: The Flatulence Factor Daniel, PhD, December 2003 CCN Soy Formula Panel Caves to Industry Wednesday, 30 Sally Fallon 43 Pressure December 2009 Morell Sunday, 22 March Kaayla Daniel, 44 Soy in the News 2009 PhD, CCN Kaayla T. 45 Soy Industry on the Attack Sunday, 16 July 2006 Daniel, PhD, CCN Soy Infant Formula: Birth Control Pills for Saturday, 19 October 46 Sally Fallon Babies 2002 Soy Infant Formula: Concerns and Tuesday, 17 February 47 Suha Khoury Recommendations 2004 Friday, 27 February Mike Fitzpatrick, 48 Soy Isoflavones: Panacea or Poison? 2009 PhD, MNZIC Kaayla T. Wednesday, 25 49 Soy Lecithin: From Sludge to Profit Daniel, PhD, February 2004 CCN 50 Soy Recovery: The Toxic Metal Friday, 01 May 2009 Kaayla T.

Daniel, PhD and Galen D. Knight, PhD Wednesday, 06 April Kaayla Daniel, 51 Soy to the World 2011 PhD, CCN SOY-LING Bacon: Sickening Science Tuesday, 11 Kaayla Daniel, 52 Experiment December 2012 PhD, CCN Sunday, 04 March Kaayla Daniel, 53 Soy: Singing the Low-Carb Blues 2007 PhD Sally Fallon and Soy: The Dark Side of America's Favorite Tuesday, 17 February 54 Mary G. Enig, "Health" Food 2004 PhD Friday, 27 February Ilse Oeschlager55 Soy: The Quiet Conquest 2009 Demarest Wednesday, 31 Kaayla Daniel, 56 Soyful Tales March 2010 PhD, CCN Monday, 30 March 57 Striking at the Soy Heart Health Claim Kaayla Daniel 2009 Studies Showing Adverse Effects of Tuesday, 26 August Weston A. Price 58 Dietary Soy, 1939-2008 2003 Foundation Studies Showing Adverse Effects of Tuesday, 26 August Weston A. Price 59 Isoflavones, 1950-2010 2003 Foundation Sally Fallon and Sunday, 08 60 Teens Before Their Time Mary G. Enig, September 2002 PhD Monday, 28 June Kaayla Daniel, 61 The Little Known Soy-Gluten Connection 2010 PhD, CCN Sally Fallon and Wednesday, 27 62 The Ploy of Soy Mary G. Enig, September 1995 PhD Tuesday, 09 August 63 The Promotion of Soy Sally Fallon 2005 Wednesday, 26 May Mary G. Enig, 64 The Soy Controversy 2004 PhD The Soy-ling of America: Second-Hand Kaayla Daniel, 65 Friday, 20 July 2012 Soy from Animal Feeds PhD, CCN Saturday, 01 January 66 The Tragedy of Soy Infant Formula Sally Fallon 2000 Monday, 15 March 67 Third International Soy Symposium Sally Fallon 2004 Sally Fallon and Tragedy and Hype: Third International Soy Sunday, 26 March 68 Mary G. Enig, Symposium 2000 PhD Kaayla T. Trumped Up Success, Trumped Up 69 Friday, 26 June 2009 Daniel, PhD, Benefits CCN Tuesday, 15 February 70 Twelfth International Soy Symposium Bill Sanda 2005 Wednesday, 10 71 Why Babies Should Not be Fed Soy Gail Elbek February 2010 Component

72 Wise Thyroid WISHH-Ful Thinking: New Markets for Soy Products http://www.westonaprice.org/soy-alert 73

Tuesday, 27 March 2012 Sunday, 04 March 2007

Kaayla Daniel, PhD, CCN & Sylvia Onusic, PhD Kaayla T. Daniel,

Dietary Phytic Acid (Phytate) Compromising Mineral Bioavailability

1987 Dr. L. Hallberg, University of Gteborg, Sweden

Wheat Fiber, Phytates and Iron Absorption


The marked inhibitory effect of bran on iron absorption can almost completely be explained by its content of phytate. As little as 5-10 mg of phytate phosphorus added to a wheat roll containing 3 mg of iron inhibited iron absorption by 50 percent. Ascorbic acid as well as meat strongly counteracted this inhibition. Enzymatic dephytinization of bran almost fully removed its inhibiting effect.

JAN 1989 University of Gteborg, Sweden

Iron Absorption in Man: Ascorbic Acid and Dose-dependent Inhibition by Phytate


The inhibition of Fe absorption was strongly related to the amount of phytate added; 2 mg inhibited absorption by 18%, 25 mg by 64%, and 250 mg by 82%. Summary statement: The marked inhibition of Fe absorption by phytates and the significant counteracting effect of ascorbic acid have wide nutritional implications.

MAR 1989 University of Gteborg, Sweden

Iron Absorption: No Intestinal Adaptation to a High-Phytate Diet


The present study examined the possibility that a high bran and phytate intake over a long period would induce changes in the intestines or its microflora leading to a reduction of the inhibitory effect of dietary phytates on iron absorption. Summary statement: No intestinal adaptation to a high phytate intake could be observed. This finding has wide nutritional implications.

SEP 1992 American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Soy Protein, Phytate, and Iron Absorption in Humans

The effect of reducing the phytate in soy-protein isolates on non-heme iron absorption was examined in 32 human subjects. Summary statement: even after removal of virtually all the phytic acid, iron absorption from the soy-protein meal was still only half that of the egg white control. It is concluded that phytic acid is a major inhibitory factor of iron absorption in soyprotein isolates, but that other factors also contribute to the poor bioavailability of iron from these [soy] products.

DEC 2002 Chalmers University of Technology, Gteborg, Sweden

Bioavailability of Minerals in Legumes


The mineral content of legumes is generally high, but the bioavailability is poor due to the presence of phytate, which is a main inhibitor of Fe and Zn absorption. Furthermore, soy protein per se, has an inhibiting effect on Fe absorption. Summary statement: Fe and Zn absorption have been shown to be low from legume-based diets. It has also been demonstrated that nutritional Fe deficiency reaches its greatest prevalence in populations subsisting on cereal and legume-based diets. However, in a balanced diet containing animal protein, a high intake of legumes is not considered a risk in terms of mineral supply.

MAY 2003 Nestle Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland & Kansas University Medical Center, Kansas City, MO

Degradation of Phytic Acid in Cereal Porridges Improves Iron Absorption by Human Subjects
Iron nutrition is particularly important during the weaning period, when the infant is growing rapidly and has a high demand for iron. In developing countries, the intake of absorbable iron by infants is often low, and iron deficiency anemia is common. A major consequence is retarded psychomotor and mental development, with possible long-term negative effects on school performance. [T]he findings of the current studies confirm the very low iron absorption from cereal porridges and indicate that phytate degradation would be a useful means for improving iron absorption from cereal-based foods Summary statement: In conclusion, the magnitude of iron absorption from cerealbased porridges depends on the contents of the different components that enhance or inhibit iron uptake. Phytic acid, polyphenolic compounds, and milk are the major inhibitors, whereas ascorbic acid enhances iron absorption. In the absence of milk and polyphenols, phytic acid degradation greatly improves iron absorption from

cereal-based foods and, in developing countries, dephytinization should be considered as a major strategy to improve iron nutrition during the weaning period.

SEP 2003 Institute of Food Science, Ruschlikon, Switzerland

Influence of Vegetable Protein Sources on Trace Element and Mineral Bioavailability


Vegetable protein sources are often mixed with cereals for complimentary feeding. Both contain high levels of phytic acid, which can inhibit trace element and mineral absorption (in adults). There are far fewer studies in infants. Because iron and zinc deficiencies are widespread in infants and young children in developing countries, the bioavailability of iron and zinc from complementary food is a major concern. Iron absorption may be as low as 2-3% from porridge based on whole-grain cereals and legumes, even in iron-deficient subjects. Decreasing phytic acid by 90% would be expected to increase absorption about twofold and complete degradation perhaps fivefold or more. Summary statement: More modest reductions in phytic acid content may not usefully improve iron absorption. Complete enzymatic degradation of phytic acid is recommended.

FEB 2004 Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Switzerland

Dephytinization of a Complementary Food Based on Wheat and Soy Increases Zinc, but not Copper, Apparent Absorption in Adults
These results clearly demonstrate the beneficial effect of dephytinization of a complementary food on fractional absorption of zinc, but not copper in adults. The long-term nutritional benefits of dephytinization of complementary foods should be evaluated in young children. Summary statement: The usefulness of the newly developed technique to dephytinize cereal-based complementary foods by using phytase naturally occurring in whole-grain cereals should be explored in large-scale production, and the longterm nutritional benefits of dephytinization of foods consumed during early life should be evaluated in infants and young children.

MAR 2007 National Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety, Beijing, China

Phytate Intake and Molar Ratios of Phytate to Zinc, Iron and Calcium in the Diets of People in China
Study estimates the median daily intake of phytate in China at 1186 mg. [higher than in U.S.] Summary statement: The dietary phytate intake of people in China was higher than those in Western developed countries and lower than those in developing countries. Phytate may impair the bioavailability of iron, calcium and zinc in the diets of people in China. http://www.noharmfoundation.org/?page_id=375

What Are Phytochemicals?


Phytochemicals polyphenols antioxidants what do all of these terms mean?

The term phytochemicals is a broad name for a wide variety of compounds produced by plants. Theyre found in fruits, vegetables, beans, grains, and other plants. Each phytochemical comes from a variety of different plant sources and has different proposed effects on, and benefits for, the body. Some researchers estimate there are up to 4,000 phytochemicals! Scientists have identified thousands of them, although only a small fraction of phytochemicals have been studied closely.

Common Names for Phytochemicals: antioxidants, flavonoids, phytonutrients, flavones, isoflavones, catechins, anthocyanidins, isothiocyanates, carotenoids, allyl sulfides, polyphenols

How Do You Get Phytochemicals? Phytochemicals are found in plant foods (fruits, vegetables, beans, grains). By maintaining a balanced eating pattern that includes different forms and colors of fruits and vegetables, youll provide your body with a wide variety of all beneficial compounds, including phytochemicals! So, enjoy your fruits and veggies during every eating occasion just fill half your plate with them and leave the rest for grains and protein.

The Health Benefits of Phytochemicals New experimental studies are emerging that demonstrate multiple effects of fruits and vegetables (and their phytochemicals), suggesting that they may have an even greater role to play in human health than the already positive results seen to date.

Top 6 Phytochemicals You May Know About

Phytochemical Beta-Carotene

Proposed Benefits Immune System Vision Skin Health Bone Health

Food Sources Pumpkin Sweet Potato Carrots Winter Squash Cantaloupe

Fun Facts Think orange and dark, leafy green veggies

Lycopene

Cancer (Prostate) Heart Health

Lutein

Eye Health Cancer Heart Health

Resveratrol

Anthocyanidins

Heart Health Cancer Lung Health Inflammation Blood Vessel Health

Apricots Spinach Collard Greens Kale Broccoli Tomatoes Pink Grapefruit Red Peppers Watermelon Tomato Products Collard Greens Kale Spinach Broccoli Brussels Sprouts Lettuces Artichokes Red Wine Peanuts Grapes Blueberries Blackberries Plums Cranberries Raspberries Red Onions Red Potatoes Red Radishes Strawberries Soybeans

The heating process makes lycopene easier for the body to absorb

This phytochemical is found in the macula of the eye

1 cup of red grapes can have up to 1.25 mg of resveratrol Think red and purple berries

Isoflavones

Menopause Cancer (Breast) Bone Health Joint Inflammation Lower Cholesterol

cup of boiled soybeans offers 47 mg of isoflavones

See More Phytochemicals & Scientific Detail


Caution about Supplements: Phytochemicals, in the amounts consumed in a healthy diet, are likely to be helpful and are unlikely to cause any major problems. Some people assume that because phytochemical supplements come from natural sources, they must be safe and free from side effects, but this is not always true. Check with your doctor and pharmacists before consuming any phytochemical.

Linus Pauling Institute. Macronutrient Information Center, Oregon State University, Accessed March 19, 2012 from http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/phytochemicals/resveratrol/ 2Linus Pauling Institute. Macronutrient Information Center, Oregon State University, Accessed March 19, 2012 from http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/phytochemicals/soyiso/ http://www.fruitsandveggiesmorematters.org/what-are-phytochemicals

Synsepalum dulcificum
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search "Miracle fruit" redirects here. It is not to be confused with two other plants sometimes referred to as miracle fruit which also affect perception of taste, Gymnema sylvestre and Thaumatococcus daniellii. Synsepalum dulcificum

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Asterids Order: Ericales Family: Sapotaceae Genus: Synsepalum Species: S. dulcificum Binomial name Synsepalum dulcificum
(Schumach. & Thonn.) Daniell

Synonyms Bakeriella dulcifica (Schumach. &


Thonn.) Dubard

Bumelia dulcifica Schumach. &


Thonn.

Pouteria dulcifica (Schumach. &


Thonn.) Baehni

Richardella dulcifica (Schumach. &


Thonn.) Baehni

Sideroxylon dulcificum (Schumach.


& Thonn.) A.DC.[1]

Synsepalum dulcificum, also known as the miracle fruit, is a plant with a berry that, when eaten, causes sour foods (such as lemons and limes) subsequently consumed to taste sweet. This effect is due to miraculin, which is used commercially as a sugar substitute. Common names for this species and its berry include miracle fruit,[2] miracle berry, miraculous berry,[2] sweet berry,[3][4][5] and in West Africa, where the species originates, agbayun,[6] taami, asaa, and ledidi. The berry itself has a low sugar content[7] and a mildly sweet tang. It contains a glycoprotein molecule, with some trailing carbohydrate chains, called miraculin.[8][9] When the fleshy part of the fruit is eaten, this molecule binds to the tongue's taste buds, causing sour foods to taste sweet. At neutral pH, miraculin binds and blocks the receptors, but at low pH (resulting from ingestion of sour foods) miraculin binds protons and becomes able to activate the sweet receptors, resulting in the perception of sweet taste.[10] This effect lasts until the protein is washed away by saliva (up to about 60 minutes).[11]

The names miracle fruit and miracle berry are shared by Gymnema sylvestre and Thaumatococcus daniellii,[2] which are two other species of plant used to alter the perceived sweetness of foods.

Contents

1 History 2 Characteristics 3 Cultivation 4 Uses 5 References 6 External links

History
The berry has been used in West Africa since at least the 18th century, when European explorer Chevalier des Marchais,[12] who searched for many different fruits during a 1725 excursion to its native West Africa, provided an account of its use there. Marchais noticed that local people picked the berry from shrubs and chewed it before meals. The examples and perspective in this section deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. Please improve this article and discuss the issue on the talk page. (August 2012) An attempt was made in the 1970s to commercialize the ability of the fruit to turn unsweet foods into sweet foods without a caloric penalty, but ended in failure when the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) classified the berry as a food additive.[7] There were controversial circumstances with accusations that the project was sabotaged and the research burgled by the sugar industry to prevent loss of business caused by a drop in the need for sugar.[13] The FDA has always denied that pressure was put on it by the sugar industry, but refused to release any files on the subject.[14] Similar arguments are noted for the FDA's regulation on stevia now labeled as a "dietary supplement" instead of a "sweetener". For a time in the 1970s, US dieters could purchase a pill form of miraculin.[15] The idea of the "miraculin party"[15] was conceived then. Recently, this phenomenon has enjoyed some revival in food-tasting events, referred to as "flavor-tripping parties" by some.[16] The tasters consume sour and bitter foods, such as lemons, radishes, pickles, hot sauce, and beer, to experience the taste changes.

Characteristics
The plant is a shrub that grows up to 20 feet (6.1 m) high in its native habitat, but does not usually grow higher than ten feet in cultivation[citation needed]. Its leaves are 510 cm long, 2-3.7 cm wide and glabrous below. They are clustered at the ends of the branchlets. The flowers are brown. It carries red, 2 cm long fruits. Each fruit contains one seed.[4]

Cultivation

Small specimen in a botanic garden The plant grows best in soils with a pH as low as 4.5 to 5.8, in an environment free from frost and in partial shade with high humidity. It is tolerable to drought, full sunshine and slopes.[4] The seeds need 14 to 21 days to germinate. A spacing of 4 m between plants is suggested.[4] The plants first bear fruit after growing for approximately 34 years,[4] and produce two crops per year, after the end of the rainy season. This evergreen plant produces small, red berries, while white flowers are produced for many months of the year. The seeds are about the size of coffee beans. Without the use of plant hormones, the seeds have a 24% sprouting success rate.[citation needed] In Africa, leaves are attacked by lepidopterous larvae, and fruits are infested with larvae of fruit-flies. The fungus Rigidoporus microporus has been found on this plant.[4] Today, it is being cultivated in Ghana, Puerto Rico, Taiwan, and South Florida.[4] Miraculin is now being produced by transgenic tomato plants.[17][18]

Uses
In tropical West Africa, where this species originates, the fruit pulp is used to sweeten palm wine.[19] Historically, it was also used to improve the flavor of maize bread gone sour.[6] Attempts have been made to create a commercial sweetener from the fruit, with an idea of developing this for patients with diabetes.[12] Fruit cultivators also report a small demand from cancer patients, because the fruit allegedly counteracts a metallic taste in the mouth that may be one of the many side effects of chemotherapy.[12] This claim has not been researched scientifically,[12] though in late 2008, an oncologist at Mount Sinai Medical Center in Miami, Florida, began a study, and by March 2009, had filed an investigational new drug application with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.[11] In Japan, miracle fruit is popular among patients with diabetes and dieters.[8][9]

The shelf life of the fresh fruit is only 23 days.[citation needed] Because miraculin is denatured by heating, the pulp must be preserved without heating for commercial use. [citation needed] Freeze-dried pulp is available in granules or in tablets, and has a shelf life of 10 to 18 months.[citation needed]

References
1. ^ "Synsepalum dulcificum (Schumach. & Thonn.) Daniell". African Flowering Plants Database. Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques de la Ville Genve - South African Biodiversity Institute. Retrieved 2008-08-11. 2. ^ a b c Wiersema, John Harry; Len, Blanca (1999). World Economic Plants: A Standard Reference. CRC Press. p. 661. ISBN 0-8493-2119-0. 3. ^ Peter Hanelt, ed. (2001). Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops 2. Springer. p. 1660. ISBN 3-540-41017-1. 4. ^ a b c d e f g James A. Duke, Judith L. DuCellier, ed. (1993). CRC handbook of alternative cash crops. CRC Press. pp. 433434. ISBN 0-84933620-1. 5. ^ John C. Roecklein, PingSun Leung, ed. (1987). A Profile of economic plants. Transaction Publishers. p. 412. ISBN 0-88738-167-7. 6. ^ a b Plant inventory. 58: Seeds and plants imported. United States Department of Agriculture. 1919. p. 42. 7. ^ a b Levin, Rachel B. (June 23, 2009). "Ancient Berry, Modern Miracle: The Sweet Benefits of Miracle Fruit". thefoodpaper.com. Retrieved 2009-08-20. 8. ^ a b McCurry, Justin (2005-11-25). "Miracle berry lets Japanese dieters get sweet from sour". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2008-05-28. "The berries contain miraculin, a rogue glycoprotein that tricks the tongue's taste-bud receptors into believing a sour food is actually sweet. People in parts of west Africa have been using the berries to sweeten sour food and drink for centuries, but it is only recently that the global food industry has cottoned on." 9. ^ a b Balko, Radley (2007-02-08). "Free the Miracle Fruit!". Reason Magazine. Retrieved 2008-07-22. 10. ^ Koizumi, Ayako. "Human Sweet Taste Receptor Mediates Acidinduced Sweetness of Miraculin". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 17 August 2012. 11. ^ a b Park, Madison (March 25, 2009). "Miracle fruit turns sour things sweet". CNN. Retrieved 2009-03-25. 12. ^ a b c d Slater, Joanna (2007-03-30). "To Make Lemons Into Lemonade, Try 'Miracle Fruit'". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2008-05-28. "Two American entrepreneurs, Robert Harvey and Don Emery, tried this route back in the 1970s, but the venture failed.[specify] They initially focused products for diabetics, but some of their financial backers, who included Reynolds Metals Company and Barclays Bank PLC, had a loftier goal." 13. ^ Mangold, Tom (2008-04-28). "Sweet and sour tale of the miracle berry". The Week. Retrieved 2011-10-31. 14. ^ "The miracle berry". BBC. 2008-04-28. Retrieved 2008-05-28. "I honestly believe that we were done in by some industrial interest that did not want to see us survive because we were a threat. Somebody influenced somebody in the FDA to cause the regulatory action that was taken against us." 15. ^ a b Rowe, Aaron (2006-12-07). "Super Lettuce Turns Sour Sweet". Wired Magazine. Retrieved 2008-07-22.

16.

^ Farrell, Patrick; Kassie Bracken (2008-05-28). "A Tiny Fruit That Tricks the Tongue". The New York Time. Retrieved 2008-05-28. 17. ^ Hirai T., Fukukawa G., Kakuta H., Fukuda N., Ezura H. "Production of recombinant miraculin using transgenic tomatoes in a closed cultivation system" Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2010 58:10 (6096-6101) 18. ^ Sun H.-J., Kataoka H., Yano M., Ezura H."Genetically stable expression of functional miraculin, a new type of alternative sweetener, in transgenic tomato plants." Plant Biotechnology Journal 2007 5:6 (768-777) 19. ^ Oliver-Bever, Bep (1986). Medicinal plants in tropical West Africa. Cambridge University Press. p. 266. ISBN 0-521-26815-X.

External links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Synsepalum dulcificum

"Miracle fruit facts". Archived from the original on 2007-12-03. from the California Rare Fruit Growers "The Fruit Hunters: Author Adam Leith Gollner on the Politics of Fruit and the Secret History of the "Miracle Berry"". Democracy Now!. July 9, 2008. Retrieved 2009-03-25. Riding a Flavor Trip: Tasting a Berry That Rewires Taste Buds. The New York Times. Video. May 27, 2008. "Human Sweet Taste Receptor Mediates Acid-Induced Sweetness of Miraculin." Koizumi A. et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2011 Oct 4;108(40):16819-24. Epub 2011 Sep 26. "Cortical Representation of Taste-Modifying Action of Miracle Fruit in Humans." Yamamoto C et al. Neuroimage. 2006 Dec;33(4):1145-51. Epub 2006 Oct 3.

Categories: Synsepalum Flora of Africa Sweeteners

What is Miracle Fruit?


Miracle Fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum), sometimes known as the Miracle Berry, is a plant native to West Africa. The berry has a mildly sweet flavor; however, the fruit is treasured not for its own taste, but for the fruits unique effect on the taste buds. Miracle Fruit contains a glycoprotein called miraculin, which binds to the tongues taste buds when the fruit is consumed. Miraculin acts as a sweetness inducer when it comes in contact with acids, causing bitter and sour foods to taste sweet, temporarily. This effect usually lasts between 30 minutes and 2 hours. The plant was first documented in 1725, when explorers in West Africa observed the local tribes picking the berries and chewing them before meals.

Recently, the fruit has become popular in food tasting events, sometimes referred to as "Miracle Fruit Parties." Partygoers consume sour and bitter foods -- such as lemons, radishes, and beer -- to experience the dramatic change in taste. Miracle Fruit is available in three forms: The actual berries (which are usually frozen due to their high perishability), freeze-dried fruit granules, and miracle fruit tablets.

Experiencing Miracle Fruit


Berries : Put one berry in your mouth and gently scrape the fleshy part off the seed. Swirl this around your mouth for 2 minutes before swallowing. Freeze-Dried Granules : Place approximately 1 gram of the granules in your mouth and let them slowly dissolve on and around your tongue. Wait at least one minute before swallowing. Tablets : Place one tablet in your mouth and gently swirl it around with your tongue until dissolved.

Once you have consumed your Miracle Fruit, the tasting can begin! http://www.miraclefruitusa.com/ Miracle Fruit Seeds (20 seeds)
Reg Price: $49.99 You Pay: $39.99 Savings: $10.00 (20.0%) Status: In Stock

Miracle Fruit Seeds

A Miracle Fruit plant is a slow growing shrub, native to tropical Africa, that reaches approximately 5ft in height after 3-4 years. The plant requires acidic soil and is intolerant to alkaline conditions. The Miracle Fruit plant does best outdoors in warm climates, or as a potted house plant with access to strong sunlight. Berries are produced throughout the year and hundreds can be harvested from a single shrub. The Miracle Fruit seeds are about the size of small coffee beans. The seeds you order will be picked from the plant the same day, to ensure the highest germination rate possible. All of the seeds are de-pulped prior to shipment, and you will receive germination and care instructions with every order.

Miracle Fruit Seeds Germinating

Seed visible inside a cut-open Miracle Fruit berry

A mature Miracle Fruit shrub

Freeze-Dried Miracle Fruit Granules (5 servings) Freeze-dried Miracle Fruit granules keep for up to 4 months refrigerated. Approximately 1 serving per gram.
Reg Price: $24.99 You Pay: $19.99 Status: Out of Stock Sign up for Restock Alert!

Freeze-Dried Miracle Fruit Granules (10 servings) Freeze-dried Miracle Fruit granules keep for up to 4 months refrigerated. Approximately 1 serving per gram.
Reg Price: $34.99 You Pay: $29.99 Status: Out of Stock Sign up for Restock Alert!

Miracle Fruit An Introduction

Miracle fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum), which is also sometimes called the miracle berry, is a fruit that causes acidic foods (such as lemons and limes) to taste sweet. Miracle fruit contains an active glycoprotein molecule called miraculin. When one eats the fleshy part of the fruit, the miraculin binds to the tongues taste buds to produce the taste-modifying effect. This effect lasts between 15 minutes and one hour. Although the exact cause of miracle fruits taste-modifying effect is not well understood, one hypothesis is that miraculin works by distorting the sweetness receptor so that it reacts to acidic foods, instead of sugar and other sweet substances. The berry was first documented by explorer Chevalier des Marchais in a 1725 trip to West Africa. Marchais noticed that local tribes chewed the berry before meals. The plant grows in bushes up to 20 feet (6.1 meters) in its native habitat and produces two crops a year after the end of the rainy season. http://www.miraclefruit.org/

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Toxins in Raw Food - via xZerglingx -vegan-central xZerglingx;55627 Wrote:Ist jetzt zwar weniger auf Bltter bezogen, aber trotzdem sehr informativ: "Toxins in Raw Food 1.1 Introduction 1.1 - 1 Plant defense against herbivores Plants use several strategies to defend against damage caused by herbivores. Many plants produce allelochemicals, that influence the behavior, growth, or survival of herbivores. These chemical defenses can act as repellents or toxins to herbivores, or reduce plant digestibility. While most plant defenses are directed against insects, the most significant herbivores, other defenses have evolved that are aimed at vertebrate herbivores, such as birds and mammals. Address: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plant_defen..._herbivory Antiherbivory compounds and can be classified into three sub-groups: nitrogen compounds (including alkaloids, cyanogenic glycosides and glucosinolates), terpenoids, and phenolics. Alkaloids are derived from various amino acids. Over 3000 known alkaloids exist, examples include nicotine, caffeine, morphine, colchicine, ergolines, strychnine, and quinine. Alkaloids have pharmacological effects on humans and other animals. Cyanogenic glycosides are stored in inactive forms in plant vacuoles. They become toxic when herbivores eat the plant and break cell membranes allowing the glycosides to come into contact with enzymes in the cytoplasm releasing hydrogen cyanide which blocks cellular respiration. The products can cause gastroenteritis, salivation, diarrhea, and irritation of the mouth.

The terpenoids, sometimes referred to as isoprenoids, are organic chemicals similar to terpenes. There are over 10,000 known types of terpenoids. Monoterpenoids are volatile essential oils such as citronella, limonene, menthol, camphor, and pinene. Diterpenoids are widely distributed in latex and resins, and can be quite toxic. Plant steroids and sterols are also produced from terpenoid precursors, including vitamin D, glycosides (such as digitalis) and saponins (which lyse red blood cells of herbivores). Phenolics, sometimes called phenols. Some phenols have antiseptic properties, while others disrupt endocrine activity. Phenolics range from simple tannins to the more complex flavonoids that give plants much of their red, blue, yellow, and white pigments. Complex phenolics called polyphenols are capable of producing many different types of effects on humans, including antioxidant properties. Condensed tannins inhibit herbivore digestion by binding to consumed plant proteins and making them more difficult for animals to digest, and by interfering with protein absorption and digestive enzymes. Silica and lignins, which are completely indigestible to animals, grind down insect mandibles. In addition to the three larger groups, fatty acid derivates, amino acids and even peptides are used as defence. Address: http://www2.mcdaniel.edu/Biology/botf99/...aloids.htm 1.1 - 2 Plant regulation of fruit consumption Plants invest energy into the production of fruits. Plants have evolved to encourage mutualist frugivores to consume their fruit for seed dispersal but also evolved mechanisms to decrease consumption of fruits when unripe and from non-seed dispersing predators. Plants have chemical and physical adaptations. Chemical deterrents in plants are called secondary metabolites. Secondary metabolites are compounds produced by the plant that are not essential for the primary processes such as growth and reproduction. Toxins might have evolved to prevent consumption by animals that disperse seeds into unsuitable habitats, to prevent too many fruits from being eaten per feeding bout by preventing too many seeds being deposited in one site, or to prevent digestion of the seeds in the gut of the animal. Physical deterrents: Cryptic coloration (e.g. green fruits blend in with the plant leaves) Unpalatable textures (e.g. thick skins made of anti-nutritive substances) Resins and saps (e.g. prevent animals from swallowing) Repellent substances, hard outer coats, spines, thorns. Address: Levey DJ, Tewksbury JJ, Izhaki I, Tsahar E, Haak DC. 2007. Evolutionary ecology of secondary compounds in ripe fruit Address: Smith, R. L. Ecology and Field Biology. 5th ed. New York: Harper Collins, 1996. 1.2 Common toxins

1.2 - 1 Goitrogens Goitrogens are substances that suppress the function of the thyroid gland by interfering with iodine uptake, which can, as a result, cause an enlargement of the thyroid. Certain raw foods have been identified as lightly goitrogenic (cooking inactivates the goitrogens). These foods include: soybeans, pine nuts, peanuts, strawberries, pears, peaches, spinach, bamboo shoots, , bok choy, broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage, canola, cauliflower, collard greens, horseradish, kale, kohlrabi, mustard greens, sweet potatoes, radishes, turnips, millet. Address: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goitrogen 1.3 Fruit 1.3 - 1 Nightshades Address: http://www.nightshadefree.com/

Address: http://www.craigsams.com/pages/tobac.html 1.3 - 2 Tomato The leaves, stems, and green unripe fruit of the tomato plant contain small amounts of the poisonous alkaloid tomatine. Address: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?......94eec98a4d 1.4 Greens 1.4 - 1 Celery Address: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/81573...t=abstract Address: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29602...t=abstract 1.4 - 2 Parsnip Address: http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1614/WT-05-186.1 1.5 Roots 1.5 - 1 Sweet potato

1.5 - 2 Potato

Potato also contains proteinase inhibitors which act as an effective defense against insects and micro-organisms but are no problem to humans because they are destroyed by heat. Address: http://www.fao.org/docrep/T0207E/T0207E08.htm

Address: http://www.craigsams.com/pages/tobac.html Solanine and chaconine in potatoes are not very dangerous unless big quantities are eaten. They don't accumulate in the body, but they are not destroyed by heat. 1.5 - 3 Cassava Address: http://www.toptenz.net/top-10-toxic-food...to-eat.php 1.6 Mushrooms Address: http://academic.evergreen.edu/projects/m...hm/s49.htm Address: http://fungi-zette.com/mush12.htm#raw Samples of Shiitake, verified as being produced without any formaldehyde treatments, were found to produce similar levels of formaldehyde. In humans, it is known to have a number of damaging effects and there is limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect. Address: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15764...t=Abstract Address: Formaldehyde, 2-Butoxyethanol and 1-tert-Butoxypropan-2-ol, IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans 88, Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2006 Flagellate skin lesions occur in some patients after eating the mushroom Lentinus edodes, and they are called shiitake dermatitis in Japan. Address: http://content.karger.com/produktedb/pro...e=drm97255 1.1 Seeds and sprouts Seeds are generally made to be indigestible. Plants "want" that animals swallow the fruit

and "deposit" the seeds in the midst of some "fertilizer" on a new territory. The seed have more chances then to sprout into a new plant. Sprouts are normally protected from been eaten by toxins in them. 1.1 - 1 Alfalfa Address: http://www.saferfoods.co.nz/alfalfa.shtml Address: http://sproutnet.com/Research/simplified...vanine.htm 1.1 - 2 Cashews Address: http://www.wisegeek.com/are-raw-cashews-...sonous.htm 1.1 - 3 Buckwheat sprouts

Address: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0..._n7638045/ 1.1 - 4 Grains Loren Cordain, an anthropologist at Colorado State University:

Lectins are toxic protein compounds found in heavy amounts in many seeds, grains and legumes. Large amounts of lectins can damage the heart, kidneys and liver, lower blood clotting ability, destroy the lining of the intestines, and inhibit cell division. The antinutrients in grains anti-amylases and phytates are affected by heating, but phytates require fermentation for further neutralization, which is only partial. Soaking and sprouting reduces phytates. Address: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science Wheat Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) perturbes the integrity of the gastrointestinal epithelium and increased the permeability of the tissue in a dose- and time-dependent manner. WGA did not induce cell death but increased the permeability of individual cells to 7AAD (a fluorescent chemical compound) which is normally not uptaken by viable cells. These data allows to define a toxicity threshold for WGA on epithelial cells.

Address: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/ WGA induced extensive hyperplastic and hypertrophic growth of the small bowel by increasing its content of proteins, RNA and DNA. An appreciable portion of the endocytosed WGA was transported across the gut wall into the systemic circulation, where it was deposited in the walls of the blood and lymphatic vessels. WGA also induced the hypertrophic growth of the pancreas and caused thymus atrophy. Address: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/

Address: http://towncenterwellness.com/announceme...tinin-wga/ Dr. Paul L. McNeil, cell biologist at the Medical College of Georgia: Cooking destroys most but not all lectin. Lectin is among the top-10 causes of food poisoning. Address: http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/78478.php " Quelle LG (= Herzlichen Dank fr Deinen Spitzenbeitrag! 1.1 - 2 Plant regulation of fruit consumption Plants invest energy into the production of fruits. Plants have evolved to encourage mutualist frugivores to consume their fruit for seed dispersal but also evolved mechanisms to decrease consumption of fruits when unripe and from non-seed dispersing predators. .3 - 2 Tomato The leaves, stems, and green unripe fruit of the tomato plant contain small amounts of the poisonous alkaloid tomatine. (wie etwa Solanin) Address: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?......94eec98a4d Also ich mal rohen Mangold ass, bekam ich sofort einen schaumigen und pelzigen Mund und mir wurde sogleich klar, dass das im Mangold irgendwelche Giftstoffe sein mssen, die mir den Appetit verdarben. Es wird viel zuviel Unsinn ber Frchte geredet.

Lassen wir mal die Frchte zu Wort kommen

J. Oldfield erffnete um 1900 das erste fructarische Hospital weil Frugivorismus zu gesund fr Kranke ist.. http://www.fruchtesser.de/frugiforum/sho...hp?tid=325 http://www.vegan-central.info/showthread...0ab%201800 http://www.fruchtesser.de/frugiforum/showthread.php?tid=389

How to Soak Grains for Optimal Nutrition


March 15, 2012 by Kelly 83 Comments

At first glance, soaking may seem intimidating, time-consuming and even risky after all, who would actually leave prepared food out on the counter for 12-24 hours before cooking it? Well, the truth is your ancestors did! So before we explore the joys of soaking, first allow me to assure you that soaking is

quick, easy and best of all, its significantly beneficial to your health! In fact, soaking and sprouting grains is a key component in adopting a Real Food Lifestyle. Why Soak Your Grains? In a nutshell, the centuries-old process of soaking grains, also known as culturing, helps to breakdown the antinutrients and hard-to-digest components of the grain and at the same time, helps to release highly beneficial nutrients. Soaking grains really is very easy! It just takes a little planning ahead. The result is a highly nutritious and easy-to-digest whole-grain food with wonderful robust flavor.

So lets get started! Below are some simple tips to help you discover the joys of soaking. Why is it so important to remove/reduce phytic acid (phytates)? Phytic acid is an antinutrient found in grains and legumes which binds important minerals preventing your body from fully absorbing them. Consumption of high levels of phytates: results in mineral deficiencies, leading to poor bone health and tooth decay blocks absorption of zinc, iron, phosphorous and magnesium causes body to leech calcium lowers metabolism contributes to anemia Phytase to the Rescue! Phytase is a natural enzyme that is present in varying degrees within grains, seeds and nuts. This helpful enzyme, when properly activated, works to break down the phytic acid (phytates), and also helps to release beneficial nutrients, making them more bioavailable (more easily digested). Unfortunately, cooking is not enough to adequately release phytase and reduce phytic acid. Instead, there are three basic methods for utilizing phytase to help reduce phytic acid: Sprouting activates phytase which helps to release important vitamins, as well as makes grains, seeds and beans more digestible. However, according to a recent update by the WAPF sprouting is a pre-fermentation step, not a complete process for neutralizing phytic acid. Consuming grains regularly that are only sprouted will lead to excess intake of phytic acid. Soaking grains/flour in an acid medium at a warm temperature also activates phytase thereby helping to release important vitamins, as well as making grains, seeds and beans more digestible. In addition, soaking helps to reduce, or even eliminate phytic acid. Souring another option to reduce/eliminate phytic acid think sourdough bread,. Sourdough fermentation is by far the preferred method for reducing phytic acid in breads and bread-products. In general, the best means of significantly reducing phytic acid in grains and legumes is a combination of acidic soaking for considerable time, followed by cooking. Its important to note that not all grains contain enough phytase to eliminate phytic acid even when soaked, such as oats and corn. However, wheat flours (such as whole wheat, spelt and kamut) and rye flour contain high levels of phytase. Therefore, adding a small amount of rye flour (or rolled rye flakes) to your oat or corn acid-soak will help to reduce the high levels of phytic acid found in these grains. Phytate FUNdamental: Did you know that you can help mitigate phytic acid in your diet with complementary foods rich in vitamin C, vitamin D and calcium. In fact, the absorbable calcium from bone broths and raw dairy products, as well as vitamin D from certain animal fats can help to reduce the adverse effects of phytic acid.

A Practical Approach to Phytates Its important to note that it is not necessary (or practical) to completely eliminate all phytic acid from the diet, its simply best to keep it within reasonable levels. In practical terms, this means properly preparing phytate-rich foods to reduce at least a portion of the phytic acid, and its also recommended to limit consumption of phytaterich foods to two or three servings per day. However, many experts do recommend that for some individuals, such as children under age six, pregnant women or those with certain medical issues, it is best to consume a diet as low in phytic acid as possible. Keeping in mind that each person is an individual, and that this article is not intended to diagnose or treat illness (please see your physician for that), research indicates that most problems arise when whole grains, nuts and beans become the major dietary sources of calories. So the key is to follow traditional food preparation methods (such as soaking), and to seek to maintain a well-balanced diet with an emphasis on low-phytate, nutrient-dense foods making up the majority of your daily caloric intake. The Key to Effective Soaking As mentioned above, soaking is an effective method used to help breakdown the difficult to digest components of grains, called phytates. When it comes to soaking, acid mediums are a vital part of the process. Thats because the acid medium serves as a catalyst to initiate the culturing/fermenting process that enables phytase be released. There are several acid mediums used in soaking. They include dairy based acidmediums, such as whey, whole milk kefir, cultured buttermilk and whole milk yogurt. Although there is some newer conflicting research suggesting cultured dairy products such as milk kefir, buttermilk and yogurt may result in less phytic acid reduction than previously reported, which has led many to use whey as their primary acid medium of choice. However, there are several non-dairy acid mediums that can also be used in a soak to effectively reduce phytates. These include: Lemon juice, raw apple cider vinegar and coconut milk kefir or water kefir. So, for those who are dairy sensitive, or simply wish to avoid using dairy, these make great options for soaking. My personal preference is to use lemon juice or apple cider vinegar as they are very easy to keep on hand. The basic rule of thumb is to use approximately one teaspoon of lemon juice, or apple cider vinegar, mixed with one cup of warm filtered water. Simply use this mixture to replace the liquids in the recipe (so, for example, two cups of milk kefir could be replaced with two cups of water mixed with two teaspoons of lemon juice or apple cider vinegar). How to properly use acid mediums to achieve an easier to digest, more nutritionally robust grain-based food, is discussed in detail below. Kefir FUNdamental: Did you know you can make your own kefir? Kefir grains can be purchased to make milk-based kefir, coconut kefir, and kefir water. A great resource for all things cultured is Cultures for Health.

Getting Started 1. Soaking Whole Grain Flour Generally, when it comes to soaking flour, its as simple as a 12-24 hour soak. Most flour is high in phytase, the enzyme that helps to break down the phytates, so a simple soak is all that is needed to get the most nutritional bang out of your grains! Remember, your soak should contain some form of an acid medium whether you choose to use a dairy option (such as whey, kefir or cultured buttermilk), or a dairy-free option (such as coconut milk kefir, raw apple cider vinegar), its up to you! If you are new to soaking your whole grain flour, start out by following a simple recipe, such as my 24-hour Power Muffins. Following this easy recipe will enable you to see how simple soaking is, and experience how delicious and nutritious it is too! Then, start exploring more recipes by visiting real food based websites. I also highly recommend Sally Fallons book Nourishing Traditions , which is the book that has inspired me and so many other real food advocates out there. 2. Whole Grains Soaking whole grains (like brown rice for example) is as simple as some *warm filtered water mixed with a small amount of an acid medium. The result of this process is that it helps to break down the hard to digest components of the grain, while releasing the highly beneficial nutrients. (*I use a tea kettle to warm my water until its hot to the touch, but not scalding.) The general rule is to add enough warm water to cover the grain, and then add a small amount of an acid medium to every one cup of grain. As noted above, you can choose a dairy-based acid medium (such as whey), or a dairy-free option (such as lemon juice or apple cider vinegar). Then tightly cover and soak overnight or up to 24-hours. Note: If you place your soaking rice in the oven with the oven light only on, the rice will stay warm since the oven light will produce some heat to create a nice warm soaking environment. Then be sure to drain, rinse and cook the rice, perferrably in bone broth and butter. For details on soaking brown rice, check out my Simple Soaked Brown Rice recipe. Please note: A recent study showed that you can greatly reduce the phytic acid (up to 96%)in brown rice by using a method called accelerated fermentation. For more information, I recommend reading Kitchen Stewardships post with details on the process. Oats: The one exception to the above soaking rule is oats. Oats contain a large amount of hard-to-digest phytates and other anti-nutrients. Unfortunately oats are so low in phytase (the enzyme that helps to break down phytates), that soaking them in warm water mixed with an acid medium is not enough to adequately break down the large amount of anti-nutrients that naturally occur.

However, with the help of some additional phytase added to the soak (in the form of rolled rye flakes , or if youre GF use ground buckwheat groats both are high in phytase) along with a full 24-hour soak time a fairly decent amount of the antinutrients can be removed, making the oats more digestible and nutritionally sound. This is accomplished by using the following formula: For every one cup of *oats, add enough warm water to cover the oats, and then add one tablespoon of whey, or one to two teaspoons of a dairy-free acid medium (see note below) and one tablespoon of either rolled rye flakes (or rye flour or spelt flour) or if youre Gf, use ground buckwheat groats. Then soak at least 24-hours at room temp. Once soaking time is completed, drain oats in a fine-mesh strainer and gently rinse. Please note: I have found the taste of soaked oats using a dairy-based acid medium (whey or kefir) to be a bit too sour for our liking. So, we use raw apple cider vinegar instead. Give it a try in this delicious Soaked Oatmeal Breakfast Porridge recipe. *If youre GF and can tolerate oats, be sure to look for certified GF Rolled Oats . Buckwheat Groats: Buckwheat cereal (also called ground buckwheat groats) is a delicious grainfree (gluten-free) alternative to oatmeal. Its creamy texture is similar to farina. Buckwheat has a relatively high phytase content (the good enzyme that breaks down phytic acid), so if you opt to soak it, be sure to keep the soak time to 7 hours max, or it will become to pasty/mushy. 3. Nuts/Seeds According to the WAPFs extensive white paper Living With Phytic Acid, there is still not enough adequate research on nut/seed preparation to say with any certainty how much phytic acid is reduced by various preparation techniques. However, it is known that soaking nuts/seeds in warm salt water for approximately seven hours and then dehydrating them to make crispy nuts helps to make the nuts more digestible and less likely to cause intestinal discomfort. Additionally, roasting most likely helps to further remove phytic acid, based on research conducted with chickpeas. An update to the WAPF white paper suggests (although its important to note that there are no conclusive research studies specifically sited) that individuals should use caution when it comes to consuming lots of almonds and other nuts as a replacement for bread products. In these circumstances, an eighteen-hour soak is highly recommended. My personal approach is to consume limited amounts of blanched almond flour and coconut flour as grain-free replacements to gluten-based baked goods. Again, following the principles listed above in the section titled A Practical Approach to Phytates. 4. Beans/Legumes

The traditional method for preparing beans is to soak them in hot water (hot to the touch, but not boiling) for at least 12-24 hours, changing the soaking water at least once during this time, followed by a thorough rinsing and then long cooking process. In general, soaking beans and then cooking helps to eliminate approximately 2050% of the phytic acid depending upon the length of the soak time. There are conflicting opinions about whether an acid medium is necessary. My personal experience has led me to side, in this case, with the no acid medium option, as I find (as do many others) that the addition of the acid medium reduces the flavor and texture of the bean. WAPF recommends a very lengthy bean-soaking process of up to 36 hours with the soaking water being changed out and the beans being thoroughly rinsed at least every 12 hours. In addition, WAPF recommends adding a phytase-rich medium to the bean soak to help further improve phytic acid reduction. For those who are eating beans more than once or twice a week, it may be best to heed these instructions in order to keep phytate consumption levels in balance. For more information about soaking grains, nuts and beans, I highly recommend reading Sally Fallons book Nourishing Traditions . Happy soaking! Joyfully Serving Him, Kelly
Disclosure: Some of the links in this post include affiliate links, providing The Nourishing Home a small percentage of the sale at no additional cost to you. Of course, you are not obligated to use these links to make a purchase, but if you do, it helps to support this site and ministry.

http://thenourishinghome.com/2012/03/how-to-soak-grains-for-optimal-nutrition/

Living vs. Cooked Food


2012 Filled under Raw Food Lifestyle No Comments 2 So what exactly is living food? This is food that is alive, raw and fresh like salads, vegetables and fruits.

Here are some positives of eating this way: 1. There are no preservatives or add colors. 2. Provide a lot of fiber, antioxidants, vitamins and trace elements. 3. There is a very high water content so you keep very well hydrated. 4. Very appetizing to look at. 5. Because of the firm textures you have to chew them very well so we eat more slowly and feel fuller. 6. The body can easily and quickly process and absorb living food. It would be less work for your digestive system. 7. These foods are much safer and have less man made chemicals in them 8. Are just what nature had intended 9. Are a pure energy A living food diet along with exercise is also a great way to lose weight. Maybe you have been feeling a little off or you just really need a pick me up and some more energy. If this is you then you need to start eating this way. You will see a huge difference in how you look and feel. Many foods benefit from cooking: 1. Some native legume proteins resist proteolysis (breakdown of proteins into smaller components), but are degraded after heating. 2. But perhaps the major reason for the improved digestibility that can result from cooking is the destruction of antinutrients, such as protease inhibitors, polyphenols (including tannins and saponins), hemagglutinins, phytates, and dietary fiber. Polyphenols and phytates are, however, not reduced by heat alone. (For instance, soaking, sprouting, and fermentation also reduce phytates.) How cooking impacts nutritional value: 1. Heat will destroy the nutrients in living food. Sometimes it takes out so much that you might as well be chewing on cardboard as the cardboard has just about as much nutrients as what you eating. 2. When you cook vegetables you tend to turn them soft so that it doesnt require as

much chewing and that means you eat quicker and are less satisfied. 3. If you do cook your veggies, steam them lightly so that they will still keep their crunch. 4. Heat will also destroy the enzymes in living food, and these are essential for your digestion. If you dont get these enzymes then your body has to get it from its own supply and this isnt good for your body. 5. When you cook food the effectiveness of the fiber is reduced. Veggies that flop and are overcooked will pass right through your body with a much reduced cleaning action. Interesting three-part experiment comparing the effects of raw foods versus cooked foods in rats. Raw Food It has been found that a group of rats who were fed diets of raw vegetables, fruits, nuts and grains from birth grew into completely healthy specimens and never suffered from any disease. They were never ill. They grew rapidly, but never became fat, mated with enthusiasm, and had healthy offspring. They were always gently affectionate and playful and lived in perfect harmony with each other. Upon reaching an old age, equivalent to 80 years in humans, these rats were put to death and autopsied. At that advanced age, their organs, glands, tissues and all body processes appeared to be in perfect condition without any sign of aging or deterioration. Cooked Food A companion group of rats were fed a diet comparable to that of the average American and included white bread, cooked foods, meats, milk, salt, soft drinks, candies, cakes, vitamins and other supplements, medicines for their ailments, etc. During their lifetime, these rats became fat and from the earliest age, contracted most of the diseases of modern American society including colds, fever, pneumonia, poor vision, cataracts, heart disease, arthritis, cancer, and many more. Most of this group died prematurely at early ages, but during their lifetime, most of them were vicious, snarling beasts, fighting with one another, stealing one anothers food and attempting to kill each other. They had to be kept apart to prevent total destruction of the entire group. Their offspring were all sick and exhibited the same general characteristics as the parents. Should we consider changing to a raw food diet? A third companion group of rats was fed the same diet as the second group to an age equivalent to about forty years in humans. They displayed the same general symptoms as the second group. They were sick and vicious so that they had to be separated to prevent them from killing each other and stealing one anothers food. At the end of this initial period, all rats in this group then received the natural (raw) diet of the first group of rats. Within one month, the behavioral pattern had changed completely so that the now docile, affectionate, playful creatures were once again able to live together in a harmonious society and from this point on never suffered any illness. We conclude that cooking does not represent huge nutritional losses, but of course, when the choice is given, it is best to eat raw whatever is palatable in that form, and to

cook as little as possible when heating is necessary to improve digestibility or to improve taste. http://eatingrawfood.org/raw-vs-cookedfood

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Tummy Thieves: How Lectins and Phytates Are Robbing You of Nutrient Goodies
August 17, 2011 2:27 pm Published by Marc Leave your thoughts Alright, lets move right past the cute name and get right into it. In the past few posts, weve talked about your awesome insides and how superimportant our intestines are in terms of digestion and absorption.

Just to keeps things nice and simple, and to bring you up to speed, gut irritation causes inflammation in the micro villi lining of the small intestine, keeping all the important nutrients, vitamins, and minerals from properly entering your system and helping to build YOU. As if it wasnt enough that these so-called essential carbohydrates were basically

blocking the gates in your gut, anti-nutrients such as lectin and phytates are robbing you of the rest of the minerals and nutrients that are already in very short supply. Hold yer horses, partner! Before you freak out, let me clarify that meat sources do contain some of these elements, though not in as vast a concentration as those in carbohydrate sources. Harmless as plants, like those from which grains are derived, might be, they have their own mechanisms by which they need to ensure their survival and reproduction. Unlike animals, plants are more passive with their adaptations. Over generations, humans have adapted ways to deal with these foods to make them palatable. One of the simplest of these methods is soaking. Fermenting and sprouting can also help to diminish the anti-nutrient load, though perpetual exposure over a lifespan eventually breaks down the human machine. Sticky-Icky Lectins Lectins are an extraordinarily sticky protein that particularly like carbohydrates (sugars). Once it enters into the small intestine, it has the tendency to stick to the intestinal epithelial cells, or as weve come to lovingly know them, the micro villi lining. Its here that the stage is set for yet another wonderful phenomenon known as leaky gut. When the intestinal lining is compromised, the body begins attempting to repair the damage, and shunts any and all remaining vital nutrients such as minerals, proteins, and vitamins to the area of damage. This is further complicated by the fact that the body is also attempting to mount an immune response to address the already glutencompromised brush villi. To make matters worse, lectins and a number of other anti-nutrients eventually compromise the intestinal lining, altogether. When the walls of the gut are compromised, full-blown leaky gut is in effect, allowing lectin, bits of food, and other toxins to enter into the bloodstream. Amongst other ill-effects, certain forms of lectin have a strong resemblance to insulin, and can lock into cellular insulin-receptor sites. Because lectins have a strong binding ability, they tend to leave the cells glucose-transport system wide open, causing the bodys cells to become over-saturated with glucose (sugar), and preventing insulin from performing this action. In this boy cried wolf condition, insulin is produced by the pancreas in response to glucose from food, to help transport this fuel into the cells but never accomplishes its task. Hyperinsulinemia and sets in, and progresses to Type 2 Diabetes. Fun stuff, eh! What else would you expect from something thats considered a natural insecticide!!!

I can certainly elaborate on the suck-factor of lectins, though we cant give this stuff all the credit and fun! We cant forget about phytates! Phytates: The Prince of Thieves Ah, grains. So natural, so healthy. Um, I dont think so. All this stuff must be pretty exhausting by now. To think that our once great and beloved grains have been lying to us all this time! Relax. Ill keep the phytates-story brief. In terms of robbing you of nutrient awesomeness, phytates pretty much take the cake. Im pretty sure they would, if they could! Phytic acid is absolutely indigestible for us guys and gals. Though weve certainly come up with ways to minimize the stuff in food, its hard to avoid the compounding effect it has in damaging the gut, and overall health. Having immense binding ability, much like lectins to carbohydrates, phytates are particularly clingy when it comes to calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc. And to think, grains are sold as a great source of minerals and vitamins! Everythings a Lie What Do I Believe In?!?! Okay, alright. Its not all fire-and-brimstone-absolute-hopelessness bad. I promise.

Simply removing grains and legumes from your diet will easily stop these nasty little episodes from happening, and get you back on track better gut and overall awesomeness. Much of this stuff will seem overwhelming at first, since youll probably fumble your way through the grocery store wondering what to fill the other half of your empty shopping cart with. Im pretty sure youre smart enough to find your way around, and

make it work. Though, in spite of my faith in you, Id recommend you check out some of the stuff linked here. Of course, youre more than welcome to comment and ask questions if you need to feed your curiosity. Tags: anti-nutrients, brush border, calcium, carbohydrates, glucose, gut, gut irritation, inflammation, iron, lectins, magnesium, microv villi, phytates, small intestine, zinc Categorised in: Advice, Background, Caveman Diet, Informational, Paleo Solution This post was written by Marc http://www.myprimalbeing.com/how-lectins-and-phytates-are-robbing-you-of-nutrientgoodies/

Fecal Phytate Excretion Varies with Dietary Phytate and Age in Women
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Hyojee Joung, PhD, Bo Y. Jeun, MS, Shan J. Li, PhD, Jihye Kim, PhD, Leslie R. Woodhouse, PhD, Janet C. King, PhD, Ross M. Welch, PhD and Hee Y. Paik, ScD

+ Author Affiliations 1. Graduate School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, KOREA, USDA 2. Department of Food and Nutrition, Seoul National University, Seoul, KOREA, USDA 3. Western Human Nutrition Research Center, Davis 4. Division of Nutritional Genomics, Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute (CHORI), Oakland, California, USDA/ARS, U.S. Plant, Soil 5. Nutrition Laboratory, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 1. Address reprint requests to: Hee Young Paik, ScD, Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Human Ecology, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Shillim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, KOREA. E-mail: hypaik@snu.ac.kr Next Section

Abstract
Objective: Information on the excretion of dietary phytate in humans under different conditions is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate fecal excretion of dietary phytate and phosphorus in a group of young and elderly women consuming high and low phytate diets. Methods: Fifteen young and fourteen elderly women were fed two experimental diets, high phytate and low phytate, for 10 days each with a washout period of 10 days between the two diet periods. Duplicate diet samples from two different menus and complete fecal samples were collected for 5 days during each diet period and analyzed for phytate and phosphorus contents. Mean daily excretions and percentages of dietary intakes of phytate and phosphorus were calculated. Results: Dietary phytate level does impact phytate excretion, but the effect was observed only in young subjects. Fecal phytate excretion of young subjects during the

high phytate diet (313mg/d) was significantly higher than during the low phytate diet (176mg/d), however, that of elderly subjects did not vary with dietary phytate levels. Phosphorus excretion, net absorption, and apparent absorption rate were affected by dietary phytate level but not by the age of the subjects. Conclusions: Results of this study indicate that phytate degradation in the gastrointestinal tract is substantial and more variable in young women than in elderly women. The high capacity of phytate degradation in elderly subjects may be related to long-term phytate intake but needs further clarification. Both beneficial and adverse health effects of phytate need to be studied considering the long-term phytate intake and age of subjects as well as dietary phytate levels.

phytate phosphorus excretion excretion rate women

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INTRODUCTION
Phytic acid is contained in high amounts in whole grains and beans. It has been considered to have adverse effects on mineral absorption because it can bind metal ions and decrease their absorption [1, 2]. Phytate serves as phosphorus storage in most seeds and grains [3]. The myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) is the major inositol phosphate, representing more than 90% of the total myo-inositol phosphate and the myo-inositol pentaphosphate (IP5) is only less than 810% of total phosphate in some grains [4]. Phytate forms relatively stable bonds with positive ions such as calcium, manganese, zinc and iron that can result in insoluble precipitates, and decrease absorption of these minerals [2, 5]. However, there is an increased interest in the beneficial health effects of phytate because of recent epidemiological findings suggesting that whole grain and bean products have protective effects against several diseases, such as obesity, cancer, cardiovascular diseases and type II diabetes [6]. Although un-degraded dietary phytate may have adverse nutritional consequences with respect to mineral utilization, the presence of un-degraded products of phytate in the colon may have beneficial effects, such as anti-oxidant properties and may protect against the development of carcinoma [710]. Experimental studies have shown that the high affinity of phytate for polyvalent ions can inhibit ion-mediated production of hydroxyl radicals (OH), which cause oxidative damage to DNA, and that phytic acid reduces cellular proliferation in human mammary carcinoma cells and colon carcinoma cell lines, and reverses malignant phenotypes to normal. Therefore, it is important to measure the extent of un-degraded dietary phytate in the gastrointestinal tract to determine the role of dietary phytate, which may be either beneficial or detrimental to human health. Degradation of phytate in the gastrointestinal tract is of nutritional importance because of its mineral binding capacity. Intestinal degradation of phytate can result in alleviation of the adverse effect of phytate on mineral bioavailability [11]. On the other hand, the

protective effect of the anti-oxidant properties may be reduced as more phytate degrades. The extent of dietary phytate degradation is reported to vary from 40 to 75% in humans, and it may occur throughout the whole gut [12, 13]. Phytate degradation may occur from the activities of dietary phytase, intestinal mucosal phytase, or phytase produced by the small intestinal microflora [11]. Mucosal phytase in the human small intestine seems to play only a minor role compared to dietary phytase for phytate hydrolysis [14]. Some phytate degradation is thought to occur in the colon by the action of microbial phytase originating from colonic bacteria [11, 13]. However, to date the extent of dietary phytate degradation in the gut under different dietary and host conditions remains unclear. Some investigators suggested that dietary phytate and wheat bran enhanced mucosal phytase activity in the rats small intestines [15], but it has also been reported that phytase in the small intestine does not seem to be adapted to high phytate intake in humans [11, 16]. If the adaptation occurs to increase phytate degradation in the small intestine after long periods of consuming a high phytate diet, then adverse effects of phytate on mineral bioavailability may be reduced. This implies that, in populations habitually consuming a high phytate diet, phytate may not affect mineral bioavailability as much as previously thought. Phosphate is released during phytate hydrolysis in the gastrointestinal tract and can be absorbed and utilized in the body. In populations consuming a high phytate diet, phytate can be an important dietary source of phosphorus. The traditional Korean diet is composed mainly of grains and vegetables as well as legumes such as soybean curd, soybeans, and soybean paste. Such foods contain large amounts of phytate [17, 18]. Degradation of dietary phytate in the gastrointestinal tract can provide metabolically available phosphorus and the amount of phosphorus from dietary phytate depends on the extent of phytate degradation. However, information about the degradation of dietary phytate and factors influencing this rate in humans is still limited. This study was carried out to measure the fecal phytate excretion in a group of young and elderly women fed either a low or high phytate diet. Elderly women are considered to have been on high phytate for a longer period of time compared to young subjects who tend to consume a more westernized diet containing low phytate. Previous SectionNext Section

METHODS
Subjects
Sixteen healthy young women (1924 years) and fifteen healthy elderly women (6475 years) were recruited for the study through flyers on the campus and in neighboring areas of Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea. Subjects were selected after an interview. Fifteen young subjects and fourteen elderly subjects completed the study. Exclusion criteria included body mass index (BMI) of less than 17 or greater than 26 kg/m2, smoking, habitual drinking, regular uses of prescription drugs, oral contraceptives, vitamin or mineral supplements, hemoglobin level of less than 10.5 g/dl, the presence of acute disease or chronic disease such as diabetes, gastrointestinal disorder, and hyperlipidemia. Five of the elderly women took diuretics for treating hypertension during the study.

All subjects gave informed consent to participate in this study, and the study protocol was reviewed and approved by the Committee on Human Research of the College of Human Ecology at Seoul National University and the Institutional Review Board at the University of California in Davis, CA. General characteristics of subjects are described in Table 1. View this table: In this window In a new window Table 1. Baseline Characteristics of Subjects

Study Design
The experimental diet study was divided into one high and one low phytate diet period of ten days each with a 10-day washout period in between. Subjects stayed in a metabolic unit during the metabolic periods and consumed diets prepared at our metabolic kitchen. Each diet was composed of two menus provided on alternate days. To allow time for adaptation to the experimental diets, all fecal samples were collected starting from day 5 on the experimental diet. Since subjects had varied bowel movement time, the fecal collection times were recorded and the mean daily fecal excretion was calculated on the basis of 24 hours. Upon completion of the first metabolic period of the high phytate diet, subjects returned to their homes for a 10-day washout period before starting the low phytate diet. Although subjects were on a free-living diet during the washout period, they were instructed to avoid high phytate foods so that they could adapt more easily to the low phytate diet of the second period. No leftovers were recorded for the subjects during the two experimental diets, except for two young subjects who ate 80% of the prepared meals during the total period. Their intake was calculated on the basis of the actual amount of diet consumed. Body weight was measured twice a week before breakfast to monitor changes in weight.

Experimental Diets
The two-day rotating menus, composed of common Korean foods, were prepared during the first and second metabolic periods (Table 2). All food and drinks were provided to study subjects during both metabolic periods. Menus during the high phytate diet included dishes made with brown rice and soybean products and the low phytate diet was prepared by substituting brown rice with white rice and by treating the soybean dishes with phytase. Averaged phytate: zinc molar ratios were 24 and 27 for young and elderly women respectively for high phytate diets and 10 and 12 for young and elderly subjects respectively for low phytate diets. Detailed methodologies for the phytase treatment of foods are described elsewhere [17]. Phytase enzyme (5000 U/g, BASF, Mount Olive NJ) from Aspergillus niger was added to brown rice gruel for 6 hours at 4C and soybean curd for 3 hours at 4C prior to cooking. The nutrient compositions of the experimental diets are shown in Table 3. Energy and macronutrients were calculated using the Korean Nutrient Composition Table provided by the Korean Nutrition Society [19], and phytate and phosphorus intake levels were measured as described in the following section.

View this table: In this window In a new window Table 2A. Menus for the Controlled Diets of Young Women View this table: In this window In a new window Table 2B. Menus for the Controlled Diets of Elderly Women View this table: In this window In a new window Table 3. Composition of the Experimental Diets

Analyses of the Diets and Fecal Samples


Weighed portions of every diet and fecal sample were stored in polyethylene bags at 20C. Stored diets and fecal samples were freeze-dried, homogenized using a blender, and stored in desiccators until analysis. Composites of the freeze-dried diets (0.20.4g) and fecal samples (0.10.2g) of each subject from each metabolic period were microwave digested (MARS 5, CEM Corp., Matthews, NC) with 4 ml concentrated HNO3 (Trace metal grade; Fisher Scientific; Pittsburgh, PA). Diet and fecal samples were diluted with 1% HNO3 (Trace metal grade; Fisher Scientific; Pittsburgh, PA) prior to mineral analysis including phosphorus. Phosphorus content in diet and fecal samples was determined by ICP-AES (Vista, Varian Inc., Walnut Creek, CA). IP5 and IP6 forms of phytate contents were determined by Dionex Liquid Chromatograph System (Dionex Corp., Sunnyvale, CA, USA) after phytate extraction. Phytate (IP6), myo-Inositol 1, 3, 4, 5, 6-pentakis-phosphate (IP5) and phosphate ion (PO43) were extracted using a modification of the procedure from Lehrfeld[20]. Ten ml of 1.25% (v/v) H2SO4 was added to freeze-dried diet and fecal composites (0.25 g) weighed out in disposable 15 ml centrifuge tubes. After vortexing, tubes were placed horizontally on a shaker for 2 hours, then centrifuged at 1800 g's for 10 min. One ml of supernatant was then diluted to a final volume of 10 ml with deionized water. Phosphate, IP5 and IP6 contained in this sample were separated and quantified against appropriate standards via HPLC. Aliquots (25 uL) were injected into a Dionex (Dionex Corp., Sunnyvale, CA, USA) IonPac AS11 4 250 mm column preceded by an IonPac AG11 4 50 mm guard column (DX600 Dionex Liquid Chromatograph System equipped with an AS50 Autosampler, a GS50 gradient pump, an ED50 conductivity detector, and an AMMS III 4 mm Suppressor, with external 50 mM H2SO4 suppressant). The sample was eluted using a carbonate-free 200 mM NaOH solution and deionized water (diw) gradient. The flow rate was 1

ml/min starting at 13% 200 mM NaOH and 87% diw for 3 min followed by 8 min of a linear gradient up to 50% of the NaOH solution. A four min re-equilibration was used to return the column to initial conditions (modification of Dionex Application Note 65). All measurements were done in triplicate. Mean daily fecal phytate and phosphorus excretions of each subject for each metabolic period were calculated by the amount of phytate and phosphorus contents in the total fecal samples of each period and prorated for 24 hours. Net absorption of phosphorus was obtained from the difference of phosphorus between the diet and the feces. Fecal excretion rates of dietary phytate and phosphorus and apparent absorption rate of phosphorus were calculated as shown below.

Statistical Analysis
Results are expressed as means SD. The analysis of variance (proc GLM) was used to determine interaction and main effects for diet groups and age on excretion of dietary phytate and phosphorus. All significant differences were defined as a p value < 0.05. Statistical analyses were conducted with SAS 8.2 (SAS institute Inc, NC 27513, USA). Previous SectionNext Section

RESULTS
The subjects mean daily fecal frequency was comparable among groups, but the mean dry weight of feces per day during the high phytate diet period was significantly higher than that of the low phytate diet period (p<0.05, Table 4). View this table: In this window In a new window Table 4. The Analyzed Intakes and Excretions of Phytate and Phosphorus during the Experimental Periods Dietary phytate level does impact phytate excretion, but the effect was observed only in young subjects. The high phytate diet increased fecal phytate excretion significantly in young women compared to the low phytate diet (313mg/d, vs. 176mg/d (p<0.05, Table 4). No significant differences were observed in elderly subjects. Degradation rate of dietary phytate was affected significantly by both dietary phytate level and the age of subjects, but there was no significant interaction between the two factors. Degradation rates of dietary phytate in the elderly subjects were higher compared to young women on both high and low phytate diets, and they were also higher during the high phytate diet period compared to the low phytate diet period both in young and elderly subjects (Table 4).

Phosphorus excretion was affected by dietary phytate intakes but not by the age of the subject. There were significant differences of fecal excretion rate of phosphorus and the net absorbed phosphorus between diet periods (p<0.05, Table 4). Apparent absorption of dietary phosphorus was also significantly lower during the high dietary phytate period than during the low phytate period (p<0.05). However, age did not influence the fecal excretion rate of phosphorus, net absorbed phosphorus, nor apparent phosphorus absorption (p>0.05). Younger subjects had significantly higher fecal excretion rates of phosphorus during the high phytate diet (39%) than during the low phytate diet (28%), while elderly subjects had similar excretion rates of phosphorus during the high phytate (33%) and the low phytate diets (32%). Previous SectionNext Section

DISCUSSION
The results of this study show that only a part of dietary phytate is excreted in both young and elderly subjects. Considerable amounts of dietary phytate seemed to have been degraded in the gastrointestinal tract of the subjects, and the amount of fecal phytate excretion is affected by the age of subjects. Young women excreted more phytate than elderly women and they also seem to be more responsive to changes in dietary phytate levels. Degradation rates of dietary phytate were influenced by both dietary phytate and age of subjects. Elderly subjects had higher phytate degradation rates than younger subjects consuming the same level of dietary phytate. Both young and elderly subjects showed higher degradation rate of dietary phytate when dietary phytate was higher. These results indicate that the total amount of degraded phytate was higher during the high phytate than during the low phytate diet and that it was higher in elderly than in young subjects. It is not clear at this point whether the observed differences between the young and the elderly subjects are due to the changes in gut function in aging or due to the adaptation to long-term high phytate intake that occurs in traditional Korean diet. The degradation rates of dietary phytate observed in this study, 7493% of intake, tended to be higher than the rates reported in previous studies. In a study conducted in an ileostomized human model, 2060% of phytate from wheat bran were remained in the intestinal chyme [12, 14]. Sandberg et al found that 72% of the total dietary phytate was degraded in the gastrointestinal tract in pigs fed a reference diet [21]. The lower degradation of phytate observed in ileostomy patients may be because the degradation in the colon cannot occur in these patients while the whole gastrointestinal tract degradation occurred in our study, indicating substantial contribution of the colon on intestinal phytate degradation. The inhibitory effect of dietary phytate on the mineral absorption has been shown to be higher during high phytate diets compared to low phytate diets in humans [2224]. Schlemmer et al found that dietary phytate degradation occurs in colon as well as stomach and small intestine of pigs [13], and thus inhibitory effect of dietary phytate on mineral absorption in upper intestine may be lower than previously thought. However, Leytem et al reported that degradation of dietary phytate occurs in the lower digestive tract of swine, and they still can have a negative impact on mineral retention [25]. This study showed that the young women excreted more phytate during the high phytate diet than the low phytate diet, and thus the negative impact of dietary phytate might be most

critical in young women of child-bearing age, especially who consume a high phytate diet. Therefore, studies on phytate and mineral interactions should consider not only the phytate content of the diet but also the factors influencing phytate degradation, such as the age of subjects and long-term phytate intake. Several investigators studied the phytate degrading enzymes and adaptation of phytate degradation to high phytate diets. Yang et al [26] showed in a study with rats that the intestinal phytase induction after birth seems to be accelerated by phytate intake. Lopez et al [15] also reported that when diets contain phytate, induction of mucosal phytase exists in rats and the enhancement of mucosal phytase improves intestinal calcium absorption, showing the capacity of the small intestine to adapt diet rich in phytate and poor calcium. Even though we can not directly apply these results to humans because the ability to hydrolyze phytate varies between species of mono-gastric animals and humans, our data support that increased dietary phytate intake could stimulate phytate degradation in the gut over time. However, Sandburg showed that no adaptation to increased small intestinal phytate degradation with high oat bran diets for 17 days occurred in ileostomy subjects [11). Brune et al also reported that no adaptation to long term high phytate intake was observed in long-term Swedish vegetarians, and in consequence no increased gastro-intestinal phytate degradation over time [16]. It is necessary to elucidate whether adaptation of phytate degradation to the long-term high phytate diet can occur in human, and research for the adaptation mechanism and influencing factors, such as genetic differences and duration of high phytate diet are required to confirm. We also measured intake and fecal excretion of phosphorus, as well as the net absorption and apparent absorption rate of dietary phosphorus (Table 4). Endogenous phosphorus excretion into the gut is assumed to be less than 15% of the normal total daily excretion, but it was not included in the calculation of the excretion and absorption rates in this study. Only fecal phosphorus, which includes endogenously excreted phosphorus, was determined and used for calculations. The calculations show that phosphorus metabolism is affected significantly only by age, but not by the dietary phytate content. However, young women were more responsive to the changes in dietary phytate. Excretion rate of phosphorus was significantly lower when they were on the low phytate diet compared to the high phytate diet in young women but no such changes were observed in the elderly women. From our data of young subjects, a considerable amount of dietary phytate seems to have been degraded providing absorbable phosphorus. The amounts of phytate bound phosphorus (phytate-P) from diet and feces can be calculated by multiplying the ratio of phosphorus in the phytate structure (28.1% of IP6 and 26.7% of IP5). An alternate source of phosphorus (non phytate-P) was also calculated by subtracting phytate-P from total phosphorus of the diet and feces, which includes IP4 and below and other forms of phosphorus as well [27]. If there was no dietary phytate degradation in the gut, all absorbed phosphorus (892 mg/d) would come from non phytate-P; 87% out of 1025 mg/d during the high phytate diet of young subjects (data not shown). However, the apparent absorption rate of total dietary phosphorus in young women in our study was 61% during the high phytate period suggesting utilization of some phosphorus from phytate degradation in these subjects. The apparent absorption rate of phosphorus in this study was similar to reports of other studies, which showed an apparent absorption of 5570% for phosphorus in normal diets [28, 29].

Beneficial effects of phytate have also been reported. The high affinity of phytate for polyvalent caions can inhibit oxidative damage to cellular DNA, and reduce cellular proliferation in human mammary carcinoma cells and colon carcinoma cell lines [7, 30, 31]. Additionally, phytate enhances the anti-proliferative effects of adriamycin and tamoxifen in breast cancer cell lines [10]. Hydrolysis products of phytate containing three or more phosphate esters were able to inhibit iron induced lipid peroxidation although their effectiveness decreased with dephosphorylation [32]. Katayama [33] has shown that phytate protects against the development of fatty liver resulting from elevated hepatic lipogenesis. Fisher et al [34] stated that myo-inositol serves as a clinically relevant osmolyte in the Central Nervous System, and that phytate and its derivatives may play roles in such diverse cellular functions as DNA repair, nuclear RNA export and synaptic membrane trafficking. Thus further research should also focus on this compound regarding its effects on the development and prevention of diseases as well as inhibitory effects on the mineral absorption. In our study the increased dry weight of feces during the high phytate diets compared to low phytate suggest that phytate can prevent constipation and may have preventive effects on diseases of the colon, including cancer. However, it is not clear whether the increased dry weight of feces was caused solely by phytate, or by possible variations in dietary components other than phytate, such as fiber, between the two metabolic periods. Interrelationships of phytate and fiber on mineral bioavailability and prevention of cancer should also be addressed in future research. Future research on phytate and mineral bioavailability also need to consider not only the phytate content of the diet but also the degradation of phytate in the small intestine, the possibility of subjects adaptation to the high phytate diet, and the age of the subjects. Results of such studies would be necessary to give dietary recommendations for phytate intake. Considering the high prevalence of deficiency of minerals, such as iron and zinc, in the world where the majority of the population consumes high amounts of grains, legumes, and seeds high in phytate, more studies are needed to increase our knowledge and understanding of phytate metabolism and its effect on mineral utilization as well as disease prevention. Previous SectionNext Section

CONCLUSION
Dietary phytate level does impact phytate excretion, but the effect was observed only in young subjects. Young women excreted more phytate than elderly women and they also seem to be more responsive to changes in dietary phytate levels. The elderly women, who are considered to have consumed high phytate diets for a long time, seem to have a higher capacity for degrading dietary phytate than the young women. The results imply that considerable amounts of dietary phytate are degraded in the gastrointestinal tract possibly decreasing the adverse effects of phytate on mineral absorption and intestinal degrading capacity of phytate may be enhanced with long-term high phytate intake. Both beneficial and adverse health effects of phytate need to be studied considering the long-term phytate intake and age of subjects as well as dietary phytate levels. Previous SectionNext Section

Acknowledgments
This study was funded by the Korea Research Foundation (KRF 2001-003-D00119). The USDA / WHNRC provided clinical supplies for the study and analytical reagents for the phosphorus analyses. Dr. Welch's group did the phytate analyses and we thank Larry Heller for his excellent technical assistance in analyzing the diet and fecal samples for phytate.

Received March 13, 2005. Accepted August 17, 2006.

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Fight the Phytate! Reducing Antinutrients in Food


Posted by drwillipDecember 7, 2012 Home

Self-portrait Sebastian Domenico (December 2012) A must-read for those trying to improve their health is Westin A. Price Foundations treatise on phytic acid. Ive read it before, but theres so much info in it that one is bound to pick up something new with every read. The basic premise is that there are anti-nutrients in whole grains, beans, seeds and nuts that steal minerals from our diet, and inhibit enzyme activity in the gut. These supposedly healthy foods can work against us, if not prepared properly. However, the answer is not to avoid whole grains, since white bread contains far less nutrients. It is also not smart to avoid beans, nuts and seeds, which are loaded with nutrients of all kinds especially vegetarian protein, fiber and healthy fats and are good low-carb alternatives. But these foods can rob minerals like calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc if eaten raw. Its all in the preparation. Phytate is a molecule that contains six phosphates, which steal minerals as they pass through the digestive tract. All these raw foods must at least be soaked overnight and rinsed well before eating, to remove roughly half of the antinutrients. Sprouting also reduces the anti-nutrient content, as does cooking. Fermenting food effectively eliminates all anti-nutrients. Thats why fermented soy (miso, tempeh, soy sauce, natto) is good for you, while regular soy (tofu, edamame, soy milk) is detrimental. Our ancestors went out of their way to prepare these foods, but weve lost the art in this fast-food culture. Part of the problem is the influence of the raw food movement. Unfortunately, eating nuts and seeds in their raw state can be detrimental to health. On the other hand, soaking nuts and seeds negatively affects flavor, so its often necessary to roast them afterward

to add back flavor. Its not enough just to buy roasted seeds or nuts, because its the soaking and sprouting that removes most of the bad stuff. Its worth it to read up on this controversy, and learn how to prepare these foods in advance. An easier way to avoid some anti-nutrients is to consume minerals along with them. Taking a calcium/magnesium citrate capsule any time you eat brown rice, whole wheat bread, bran cereal, hummus, or raw nuts can saturate phytate with minerals to keep it from stealing others. Another nutrient to take when eating raw food is vitamin C, which can steal back the minerals and make them more available for absorption. These methods do not completely solve the problem, but they may have a significant impact. Another solution is to buy organic (composted) food. Nonorganic foods are grown with synthetic fertilizer containing excessive inorganic phosphate, which is converted to phytate (the storage form of phosphorus). The best yardstick to assess the impact of these anti-nutrients is bone health. If you are dealing with dental problems, chances are its due to the whole grains, raw nuts, seeds and beans you eat. This is also true if youre losing bone mineral density postmenopausally. The choices are clear: Either reduce the anti-nutrients that steal minerals, or add extra minerals and vitamin C to your diet, or both, if you want to preserve your bones and teeth. We soak and sprout virtually all our beans, seeds, nuts and grains, and cook most of them. The cereals and breads we buy are sprouted as well. But, after reading about these anti-nutrients again, we will make an effort to cook or roast all our beans, nuts and seeds. I also want to explore the souring and fermenting process. Lately Ive taken to adding a TBS of apple cider vinegar to the soak water, which helps the process. I may start adding a touch of yogurt as well to foster fermentation. Warmer temperatures, such as in the oven (turned off), also help promote these processes.. Frankly, this runs counter to everything weve been told about eating healthy. Eating bran is supposed to be good for us, but the science says otherwise. Eating raw is supposedly key to a healthy diet, but not for certain foods. Eating whole grain is better than eating white, processed junk, but it has its own set of drawbacks. The good news is, these problems can be corrected with a little bit of effort and advanced preparation. Learn to soak, sprout, ferment and cook these foods and they will serve you well. http://www.westonaprice.org/food-features/living-with-phytic-acid

To sprout or to ferment?

To sprout or to ferment? That is the question. In the 1930s, Dr Weston A. Price, a dentist from Cleveland, Ohio, traveled the world in search of the perfect diet. His amazing journeys took him into the wilds to seek out people "who were living in accordance with the tradition of their race and as little affected as might be possible by the influence of the white man".

Wherever he found them, from the Swiss Alps to the Arctic, from the Polynesian atolls to Australia, they were a "picture of superb health": they had superb physiques, perfect teeth, no arthritis, no degenerative diseases, and they were cheerful, happy, hardy folk. He also found that when members of these isolated groups changed their dietary traditions for foods of commerce a catastrophic health decline would soon arise. He found it took only one generation of eating industrialized food to destroy health and immunity.

The diets of the primitive people he studied varied greatly, but they had some commonalities: they all contained no refined or denatured foods; used some type of animal products, with some raw. The diets were four times as high in calcium and other minerals, and encompassed 10 times the amount of fat-soluble vitamins as the modern diet. Every diet included foods with high enzyme content. Seeds, grains, and nuts were soaked, sprouted, fermented, or naturally leavened. Fat content varied from 30 80% of total calories (only four percent from polyunsaturated fatty acids). They all contained

nearly equal amounts of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid. They contained some salt and made use of bones, usually as broth.

I am going to discuss each topic separately. So stay tuned for more articles! Here I want to explain why it is important that we properly prepare our grains, nuts, seeds and beans by soaking them and sprouting them. I also want to explain when one method is preferable to the other.

Nuts, grains, and legumes are all seeds (and here I will refer to them as seeds). Nature has provided seeds with protective mechanisms to keep them safe from predators until conditions are desirable for germination. For example, seeds are difficult to digest in order to facilitate seed dispersal the animal that eats them carries them away, and then drops them right into a pile of fertilizer. But in order to pass through the gut intact, they must be indigestible. In addition to this, seeds need to remain secure until they are able to sprout. Enzyme inhibitors and other anti-nutrients maintain this stability keeping the seed dormant until it is time to sprout. Soaking seeds initiates germination, deactivates anti-nutrients, and increases enzymatic activity. Phytic acid is deconstructed and inhibitors are neutralized. The acid medium used in the soaking process breaks the bonds that bind important minerals, making them bioavailable. We can say that soaking begins to predigest the seeds. The difference between soaking and sprouting is time. Deciding between soaking and sprouting will be based on your digestive fire. Some people do well with soaked seeds, others need to sprout them in order to further reduce anti-nutrients and make them even more digestible. Sprouting increases the seeds nutritional profile even more than soaking. Sprouting still begins with an overnight soak in saltwater or water and other acid medium, but can continue for 1-3 days more (depending on how long that particular seed takes to sprout). You will know when the time is up when you can see the sprouts growing. Only truly raw nuts, beans, and seeds will sprout, so check your sources well. In California there is a mandatory pasteurization process for nuts, so even though they are sold raw, they are not truly raw and will most likely not sprout.

I buy raw nuts and seeds in bulk from Wilderness Family Naturals http://www.wildernessfamilynaturals.com/ Wilderness Family Naturals is a great company that sells much more beyond raw seeds. It is a lifesaver for those who cannot dedicate much time to prepping (soaking, sprouting, dehydrating, making mayo, etc). http://www.healthfullivingsd.com/joom/index.php/articles/184-to-sprout-or-to-ferment

Raw, Nuts and Seeds


Our Raw, Nuts and Seeds are USDA Certified Organic by ICS (International Certification Services).

Wilderness Family Naturals does their best to procure the highest quality raw materials available at co

The result of this hard work is evidenced by these certified organic, raw nuts and seeds. With the exception of W Peanuts, they are the raw product Wilderness Family Naturals uses when creating their soaked and dehydrated nu well as nut butter blends.

These raw nuts and seeds are stored in cool, dry conditions awaiting production. With the exception of the Wild Jun each 25# box is packaged as ordered, to assure the freshness and quality our customers have come to expect.

Wild Jungle Peanuts are grown in the Amazon River Basin several times a year. We make purchases as necessary them, without soaking or dehydrating, in 1# bags. The 4# size is the vacuum packed bag these peanuts originally a

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Saving Tomato Seeds - Seed Saving for Next Year's Tomato Crop
By Marie Iannotti, About.com Guide 2 of 8 Previous Next

Fermenting the Seeds Improves Germination

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Tips to Trim Belly FatUnleashYourThin.comDoctor Exposes Three Simple Tips That Help to Accelerate Fat Loss If the seeds are not floating in liquid from the tomato, add up to a cup of water to help separate the seeds from the pulp. Then set the bowl of tomato seeds and pulp in a warm, out of the way spot. You will need to allow 2-4 days for the fermentation to take place. As it does so, the mixture is going to begin to smell awful, so store the bowl where you won't pass by frequently. If you have glass jars available, they make a good container for fermenting tomato seeds. The extra space at the top of the jar controls some of the odor and the clear sides let you keep tabs on what is happening. Covering the top of the jar with cheesecloth or paper towel will keep fruit flies out and also diminish the spread of the unpleasant odor

Saving Tomato Seeds - Seed Saving for Next Year's Tomato Crop
By Marie Iannotti, About.com Guide 3 of 8 Previous Next Fermentation is Complete

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Never Eat These Two FoodsUnleashYourThin.comTrim Off a Tiny Bit of Fat Daily By Avoiding These Two Common Foods What you eventually want to see is a layer of mold on top of your seeds & pulp. The process is done when bubbles start rising from the mixture or when the entire bowl is covered with mold. Don't leave the seeds fermenting past this stage or they may begin to germinate

Saving Tomato Seeds - Seed Saving for Next Year's Tomato Crop
By Marie Iannotti, About.com Guide 4 of 8 Previous Next Checking the Seeds in the Jar

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Never Eat These Two FoodsUnleashYourThin.comTrim Off a Tiny Bit of Fat Daily By Avoiding These Two Common Foods It is harder to see the layer of mold through the glass jar, but you can generally tell the fermentation is complete when the seeds settle to the bottom of the jar in a watery liquid and the thicker pulp and mold sit on top of them.

Saving Tomato Seeds - Seed Saving for Next Year's Tomato Crop
By Marie Iannotti, About.com Guide 5 of 8 Previous Next Getting the Tomato Seeds Ready to Save

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Never Eat These Two FoodsUnleashYourThin.comTrim Off a Tiny Bit of Fat Daily By Avoiding These Two Common Foods Finally you can remove and dispose of the mold covering. Lifting it before rinsing the seeds will make rinsing easier, but it's not necessary. You can add some water to the jar or bowl and stir or shake vigorously. The good seeds will settle to the bottom, allowing you to drain off the excess first. Cleaning Your Fermented Tomato Seeds

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Strain the seed mixture into a colander and rinse the seeds well under running water. Try to remove any remaining pulp bits. Drying Tomato Seeds

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Never Eat These Two FoodsUnleashYourThin.comTrim Off a Tiny Bit of Fat Daily By Avoiding These Two Common Foods Spread the seeds onto either a paper plate or glass dish, to dry. Don't use paper or paper towels or the seeds will stick to them and be difficult to remove. Set them in a warm, dry spot and allow to dry completely. Shake them on the plate daily to make sure they don't clump and that they dry evenly. Don't try to speed the process by using heat. Storing and Saving Tomato Seeds

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Pictures of Small Gardensvictoriana.comHow to Design a Small Garden. Use Virtual Garden Tools. Once the seeds are thoroughly dry, you can store them in an air tight container, in a cool, dry place. The envelop shown here will be placed inside a canning jar. Remember to label and date your seeds! Now that you've seen how easy it is to save tomato seeds, here are some excellent heirloom tomato varieties to consider growing and passing along http://gardening.about.com/od/totallytomatoes/ss/TomatoSeeds_8.htm

How to Save Tomato Seeds


Fermentation Method
The following step-by-step guide to saving tomato seeds is the exact process that we use here on the farm to produce the great seed that you have come to expect from Victory Seeds. We have found that the fermentation method results in the cleanest seeds along with high germination rates possible. In presenting this guide, it is assumed that you are saving seed from tomatoes that are not hybrids, are true-to-type, openpollinated, and have not been cross pollinated.

The first photograph shows a very common late summer / early fall scene here on the farm - containers of fermenting tomato seeds.

Most larger fruits are cut in half at their equator and squeezed into labeled, washed and sterilized plastic containers. As seen in the above photo, small fruit

can be simply squeezed. However, we have learn from experience that making a small cut in the fruit will allow for better control of the squirting direction. The containers of seeds and juice are then placed in a warm location (80 degrees F is good) and out of the direct sunlight with the lids loosely in place. The idea is to promote fermentation. I stir these batches a couple of times during the fermentation process as I have found that perfectly good seeds can get caught up on top of the mold scum, dry out, and become throwaways. Also, if the lids are left on tight, you might end up with a mess when they explode!

After two to three days of fermentation, this photo is representative of what you will see in your containers. Be attentive, check on them often, and DO NOT leave the seeds in this liquid too long or they will begin to germinate. The seeds can also darken if left in this process too long. The fermentation process breaks down the gelatinous material that encases the seed. These jelly sacks contain a germination inhibitor so once it is gone, there is nothing holding the seeds back from germinating. This is why you need to get them from the fermentation to the drying process as quickly as possible. Fermentation is also said to be helpful in eliminating seed borne diseases.

Once germination is complete and the seeds are no longer surrounded by the gelatinous matter, find an out of the way location in the garden and start the cleaning process by pouring off the top scum (the big chunks). Some people find the ripe, fermented tomato smell to be offensive. To me it smells a lot like home brewing or winemaking.

Add water.

Stir up the concoction.

Carefully pour off the material floating on the surface. This will include bad seed, tomato juice and other bits of the tomato tissue.

Add more water and continue the rinse process. Some people simply pour this mixture through a strainer and wash. I find that I eliminate a lot more undeveloped or bad seeds by this rinse and pour method.

Continue the process. It is similar to panning for gold. The nice, healthy, heavy seeds (gold) remain in the bottom of the container while the other material washes away with the liquid.

After a few wash - rinse - pour cycles, you end up with a batch of beautiful seeds.

This step is the first in the drying process. The container is quickly inverted onto your drying medium. If you have small mesh drying screens, use them. If you are processing a lot of different varieties and in fairly small quantities (one ounce or less), cheap coffee filters work great. Do not use paper towels. The seeds will stick and you will regret it. Also, do not use metal or plastic. You want something that will wick the moisture away from the seeds and promote drying.

This is what it looks like after picking up the container. Make sure the filter is labeled with the variety and date. You might think you will remember what they are, but it is a big waste when you don't.

Locate the seeds in a warm location, out of the direct sunlight with good ventilation. A fan may be necessary if you have high humidity. Stir a couple of times during the day breaking up the clumps of seeds. Never dry in an oven. You need to get your seed dried quickly or it will start to sprout. Complete drying can take up to a week. Properly dried and stored, you should experience seed germination rates of 50% for up to ten years. Four to seven years are typical. We store dried seed in airtight glass jars in a cool, dry location. Small desiccant packets can also be used in the jars to lower the moisture and thereby help to increase seed life. This is not the only method of saving tomato seeds but simply a method that has worked well for us for many, many years. Here is a link to another site: http://www.avrdc.org/LC/tomato/hybrid/13extman.html

http://www.vintageveggies.com/information/seedsave_tomato.html

Corn yellow

Amaranth

Wheat

Rye

Wild rice

Buckwheat

Quinoa

Nutrition Data provides this comprehensive nutrition information for every food and recipe:

Ingredient List (recipes only) Nutrition Facts Label Nutritional Target Map Nutrition Data's Opinion Caloric Ratio Pyramid Estimated Glycemic Load Inflammation Factor Nutrient Balance Indicator Protein Quality Detailed Nutrition Information

"Add to" Options


The orange menu in the upper right provides quick access to analysis and tracking tools. To learn more about Add to Tracking, Create Recipe, or Add to My Foods, please see the My ND Help page. To learn more about Add to Compare, please see the Compare Foods Help page.

Serving Size Drop-Down


Use the Serving Size drop-down menu to select the serving size that best fits your needs. The information displayed in the Nutrition Facts label, the Nutrition Information tables, the Estimated Glycemic Load graphic, and the Inflammation Factor graphic will be updated automatically as soon as you make your selection.

Ingredient List (for Recipes Only)


When analyzing a combination of foods that have been saved as a recipe, you will see a list of the individual foods and the selected serving size and quantity for each. For example, if your recipe contains carrots, you might see "Carrots: 1.5 x 1 cup, chopped (128g)" or "Carrots: 4 x 1 ounce (28g)," depending on which serving size you selected and which quantity you entered when creating the recipe. Note: The weight in grams refers to the selected serving size and not the weight of the indicated quantity. Clicking on the name of any individual ingredient will take you to the Nutrition Facts page for that food. (For more information on how to create a recipe, please see Nutrition Data's My Recipes Help page.) Back to top

Nutrition Facts Label


The Nutrition Facts label is generated according to the nutrition labeling standard maintained by the FDA. You will find Nutrition Facts labels in the same format on all packaged foods sold. The panel gives information about the nutrients that the FDA has determined are most critical in the American diet. Changing the serving size in the Serving Size drop-down at the top of the page will automatically update the Nutrition Facts panel with values for the selected serving size. TIP: You can download a printable image (PDF) of this panel by clicking on the link below the panel. Back to top

Nutritional Target Map (patent pending)


This graphic helps you see at a glance how foods line up with your nutritional and weight-management goals by telling you how nutritious (nutrient-dense) and filling (calorie-dense) a food is. Foods are mapped according to two nutritional indices that were developed by Nutrition Data:

The Fullness Factor (FF) rates foods on a 0 to 5 scale that predicts the satiating effect of the food. Higher FF numbers indicate that a food is more filling or satisfying per calorie. Lower FF numbers suggest that a food will supply a lot of calories before you feel full. Therefore, foods with high FF numbers may support weight loss and foods with low FF numbers may support weight gain. Read more on the Fullness Factor. The ND (Nutrition Data) Rating scores foods on a 0 to 5 scale based on the FDA recommendations for a healthy diet. A higher ND Rating indicates that a

food is more nutritious. The proprietary formula used to derive the ND Rating takes into account the nutrient density of the food (how many nutrients per calorie), how many different essential nutrients are present, the relative importance of the nutrients present, and the amount of nutrients that are frequently overconsumed, such as sodium, cholesterol, and saturated fat. How to Use the Nutritional Target Map Every food has a distinct position on the Nutritional Target Map, and specific areas of the Map align with common nutritional goals such as weight loss, optimum nutrition, and healthy weight gain

Foods closer to the right edge of the map (with a high ND Rating) are considered to be good choices for optimizing the nutritional quality of your diet. Foods closer to the upper right corner of the map (with a high Fullness Factor and a high ND Rating) are considered to be good choices for healthy weight loss. Foods closer to the lower right corner (with a low Fullness Factor and a high ND Rating) are considered to be good choices for healthy weight gain.

See also the Better Choices Diet page. Back to top

Nutrition Data's Opinion


Nutrition Data awards foods 0 to 5 stars in each of three categories, based on their nutrient density (ND Rating) and their satiating effect (Fullness Factor).

Foods that are both nutritious and filling are considered better choices for weight loss. Foods that are nutritious without being filling are considered better choices for healthy weight gain. Foods that have more essential nutrients per calorie are considered better choices for optimum health. Note: Lower ratings do not necessarily mean that the food should be avoided but that it might be best consumed in moderation. Likewise, high ratings do not guarantee a perfect food but indicate a food that is more likely to be a positive addition to your diet. Nutrition Data also indicates whether a food is high or low in various nutrients, according to the dietary recommendations of the FDA. If a 200-Calorie serving provides... less than 2% of the Daily Value less than 5% of the Daily Value more than 20% of the Daily Value more than 40% of the Daily Value The food is considered to be... very low in that nutrient low in that nutrient high in that nutrient very high in that nutrient

Because of the health risks associated with overconsumption of saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium, high levels of these nutrients are reported as "Bad," while high levels of more essential nutrients are reported as "Good." Nutrition Data also reports if more than 20% of the calories in the food come from sugars or alcohol, and if the food contains any trans fat. Nutrition Data's Opinion and ratings are editorial opinions of Nutrition Data, given without warranty, and are not intended to replace the advice of a nutritionist or healthcare professional. No food is completely good or bad for you: Optimum nutrition depends on your individualized needs and the combined nutritional benefits of all foods that you consume. Back to top

Caloric Ratio Pyramid


This graphic indicates the percentage of the food's calories that are derived from the three main macronutrientscarbohydrates, fats, and protein. If the food contains alcohol, a fourth number will appear that indicates the percentage of calories derived from alcohol.

Each position within this special graph indicates a different caloric ratio. The top point of this pyramid indicates a food with 100% of its calories derived from fats (and 0% from carbohydrates and protein). As you move downward on the pyramid, the percentage of calories from fats decreases; the very bottom line of the pyramid indicates a food that is completely fat-free. In a similar manner, the left-most corner of the pyramid is 100% carbohydrate and the right-most is 100% protein. How to use the Caloric Ratio Pyramid Although there are differences of opinion over which ratios are most optimal for health and weight loss, many popular diets are based on a particular caloric ratio. For example, the USDA guidelines recommend that approximately 60% of the calories you consume should come from carbohydrates and approximately 30% from fat. Proponents of the Zone diet recommend a ratio (40%-30%-30%) much lower in carbohydrates but higher in protein. Advocates of the Atkins and South Beach diets recommend even lower consumption of carbohydrates, while many other diet philosophies focus on an ultralow consumption of fats. Regardless of which diet philosophy you subscribe to, the Caloric Ratio Pyramid will show you how various foods and meal plans align with your dietary goals. Any recommended caloric ratio can be envisioned as a "target zone." (Please see examples below.)

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Estimated Glycemic Load


Nutrition Data estimates the Glycemic Load of foods and recipes using a proprietary eGL formula. Because Glycemic Load is dependent on serving size, the eGL value will change if you adjust the serving size in the Serving Size drop-down at the top of the Nutrition Facts page. Glycemic Load gives an indication of how much a serving of a food is likely to increase your blood-sugar levels. A composite eGL is also generated as part of Nutrition Data's My Tracking report. This composite eGL is the sum of eGLs for all foods in your running total. To learn how to use My Tracking to analyze your diet, see the My Tracking Help page. How to use the estimated Glycemic Load Because Glycemic Load is related to the food's effect on blood sugar, low Glycemic Load diets are often recommended for diabetic control and weight loss. Foods with an eGL of 10 or less per serving are generally considered to have a low glycemic load. Foods with an eGL of 20 or more per serving are considered to have a high glycemic load. It is not necessary to avoid all foods with a high eGL to have a low glycemic diet, although you may wish to limit your intake of these foods. Experts vary on their recommendations for what your total for the day should be, but a typical target for total eGL is 100 or less per day, distributed somewhat evenly across your meals and snacks. If you have diabetes or metabolic syndrome, you might want to aim a little lower. If you are not overweight and are physically active, a little higher is acceptable. Read more about the Estimated Glycemic Load. See also the Glycemic Index topic page. Back to top

IF (Inflammation Factor) Rating


Nutrition Data estimates the inflammatory or anti-inflammatory potential of individual or combinations of foods using a proprietary formula developed by Monica Reinagel. Foods with positive IF Ratings are considered anti-inflammatory and those with negative IF Ratings inflammatory. Because it is dependent on serving size, the IF Rating will change if you change the serving size in the Serving Size drop-down at the top of the Nutrition Facts page. If there is not enough data to calculate an IF Rating, it will be indicated as N/A (not available). A composite IF Rating is also generated as part of Nutrition Data's My Tracking report. To learn how to use My Tracking to analyze your diet, see the My Tracking Help page. How to use the IF Rating Because systemic inflammation has been tied to an increased risk of a variety of diseases, many nutritional experts recommend an anti-inflammatory diet. It is not necessary to avoid all foods with negative IF Ratings to follow an anti-inflammatory diet, although strongly inflammatory foods should be eaten in limited quantities. The goal is to balance negative foods with positive foods so that the combined rating for all foods eaten in a single day is positive. A typical target for a single day is a combined IF Rating of 50 or higher. Those with inflammatory conditions or at increased risk for diseases linked with inflammation may try to reach a combined total of 200 or higher. Read more about the IF Rating Back to top

Nutrient Balance Indicator


Very few foods contain a complete array of essential nutrients; therefore, it's important to eat a variety of foods to fulfill our nutritional needs. The Nutrient Balance Indicator lets you see at a glance the nutritional strengths and weaknesses of a food, and can help you construct meals that are more nutritionally balanced. Each spoke in the wheel represents a different nutrient. The spoke for dietary fiber is colored green, protein is blue, vitamins are purple, minerals are white, and yellow

represents a group of commonly overconsumed nutrientssaturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium. The density of each nutrient is indicated by how far that spoke extends towards the edge of the graph. A Completeness Score between 0 and 100 summarizes how complete the food is with respect to 23 essential nutrients. How to Use the Nutrient Balance Indicator The main purpose of the Nutrient Balance Indicator is to visually summarize a food's nutritional strengths and weaknesses. For example, in the above graphic, you can see that this food is a poor source of vitamin D, vitamin B12, and selenium but that the food does contain abundant amounts of dietary fiber, vitamin K, thiamin, vitamin B6, folate, manganese, and potassium. It is also high in sodium. This information can help you choose other foods that complement the strengths and weaknesses of this food and create a nutritionally complete diet. For more detailed information about this graphic and its use, please see Nutrition Data's Nutrient Balance Indicator page. Back to top

Optimal levels for amino acids are based on the following amino acid profile recommended by the Institute of Medicine's Food and Nutrition Board: Essential Amino Acid mg/g of Protein Tryptophan 7 Threonine 27 Isoleucine 25 Leucine 55 Lysine 51 Methionine+Cystine 25 Phenylalanine+Tyrosine 47 Valine 32 Histidine 18 Note: The Amino Acid Score calculated by Nutrition Data is a basic measure of protein quality, but it has not been adjusted for the digestibility of the protein. Protein digestibility depends on the type of protein (animal proteins are more digestible than plant proteins), as well as the method in which the food was prepared. If digestibility is accounted for, the Amino Acid Score will be somewhat lower than stated.

Protein Quality
Protein Quality is dependent on having all the essential amino acids in the proper proportions. If one or more amino acids are not present in sufficient amounts, the protein in a food is considered incomplete. Diets that are very low in protein or that are very restrictive in the types of protein consumed (e.g., vegetarian diets) may not provide complete protein. Each spoke on the Protein Quality Indicator represents one of the nine essential amino acids. The size of each spoke is proportionate to the percentage of the optimal level for that amino acid. The amino acid with the lowest level is considered the "limiting" amino acid for that food and determines the overall Amino Acid Score. How to Use the Protein Quality Indicator If the Amino Acid Score is less than 100, a link is provided to "complementary" sources of protein. These are foods that are higher in the limiting amino acid(s) and/or lower in the amino acids most prevalent in the food. By combining complementary proteins, you may be able to increase the overall quality of the protein you consume. Back to top

Detailed Nutrition Information


This segment of the analysis displays values for the 130+ different nutrients tracked by Nutrition Data. Click on the More details button at the bottom of any category to see an extended list of nutrients. The Percent Daily Value (%DV) for those nutrients with FDA Daily Values is also listed to the right of the nutrient values. Changing the serving size in the serving size drop-down at the top of the page will automatically update these nutrient tables with values for the selected serving size. Note: Not all foods have measured values for all nutrients. A "~" in place of a value indicates a nutrient that has not been measured or whose value has not been reported to Nutrition Data. For recipes, a "~" preceding a value indicates a nutrient for which one or more ingredients has no measured value. Read More http://nutritiondata.self.com/help/analysis-help#ixzz2W92xWHtm

The Nutrient Balance Indicator appears in every ND analysis, and also on ND's Total Consumption report. This symbol illustrates nutrient density and provides visual feedback that can help you create meals that are healthier and more nutritionally balanced. It also includes a calculated "Completeness Score," which indicates how complete the food is with respect to 23 essential nutrients.

How to Interpret the Nutrient Balance Indicator


The main portion of the Nutrient Balance Indicator is a special type of radial graph. It's very similar to a bar graph, but instead of having horizontal or vertical bars, the bars (or "spokes") of this graph extend outward from the center. Each spoke represents a different essential nutrient and is grouped into one of five color-coded categories Dietary Fiber (green), Protein (blue), Vitamins (purple), Minerals (white), and potentially troublesome nutrients (yellow). The nutrient densities used for the Nutrient Balance Indicator are derived from the percentages of FDA Daily Values that are contained in a 1,000-calorie portion of the food. If the 1,000-calorie portion contains less than 10% of the Daily Value for a nutrient, or if no data is available for that nutrient, the nutrient's spoke appears completely gray. For higher nutrient densities, a proportionate part of the spoke is filled with color. Nutrient Balance at a Glance The main purpose of the Nutrient Balance Indicator is to visually expose some of the food's nutritional strengths and weaknesses. For example, in the above detail, it's very easy to see that this food is a poor source of vitamin D, vitamin B12, and selenium, but that the food does contain abundant amounts of dietary fiber, vitamin K, thiamin, vitamin B6, folate, manganese, potassium, and sodium.

Understanding the Completeness Score At the bottom of the Nutrient Balance Indicator is a Completeness Score that ranges from 0 to 100. This score essentially tells you how close the food is to filling your needs for all of these essential nutrients. With a Completeness Score of 100, all of the spokes on the Nutrient Balance Indicator (except for the three yellow ones) will be completely filled. Note: Saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium are not included in the calculation of ND's Completeness Score. They're shown on the Nutrient Balance Indicator simply to provide feedback to those individuals who are restricting their intake of these nutrients. While the Completeness Score and Nutrition Data's Rating are both derived from the density of the essential nutrients in the food, they have very different purposes. ND's Rating compares the levels of "good" nutrients to the levels of "bad" nutrients to evaluate the food's potential for making a positive impact on your diet. It does not, however, provide any indication of whether the food contains a complete array of essential nutrients. Therefore, it's possible (and very common) to have foods with good ratings that are still deficient in some nutrients. For example, consider the following food:

Mushrooms, cooked

ND gives cooked mushrooms its highest rating of 5.0 because they are a good source of many nutrients and are especially rich in vitamin D, niacin, pantothenic acid, and copper. However, look at the Nutrient Balance Indicator above. Despite their high rating, mushrooms are a poor source of calcium and are completely deficient in vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin K, and vitamin B12. Because of these deficiencies, its Completeness Score is well below 100.

Using the Nutrient Balance Indicator to Improve Your Meals and Recipes While the ND Rating provides feedback on the nutritional value of a single food, the Nutrient Balance Indicator provides a better way to gauge the nutritional value of an entire meal. By using My ND, you can easily experiment with your own meals and recipes to find combinations of foods that are more nutritionally complete. For example, below are Nutrient Balance Indicators for three individual foods, plus a recipe that combines them. The nutritional strengths of these foods complement one another, so the resulting recipe is more nutritionally complete. Tuna, canned Spinach, cooked Mushrooms, cooked

= Recipe: 3 oz Tuna + 1.5 cups spinach + 0.5 cups mushrooms

Note: To learn how to create and analyze your own recipes with My Recipes, please see the My Recipes Help page.

Does the Completeness Score Need to Be 100? It's a good idea to strive for higher Completeness Scores, but don't become obsessed with this number. Remember that this score is based on the nutrients contained in 1,000 calories of the food. In a single day, it's likely that you consume roughly two times that amount of food, so it's possible for you to be fully nourished even if the overall Completeness Score for your diet is below 100. Most people consume some foods (e.g., junk foods, desserts, flavored drinks) for reasons other than simple nourishment. If junk food is all that you eat, your health will eventually suffer. However, if you make sure that nutritionally rich and complete foods make up the majority of your diet, you have more leeway to enjoy some of the less nutritious foods without jeopardizing your nutritional health. Nutrition Data's Nutrient Balance Indicator and Completeness Score simply help you find those nutritionally superior foods.

Can You Rely on Nutritional Supplements to Satisfy Your Needs? All of the essential nutrients in Nutrition Data's Nutrient Balance Indicator are available in supplement form. So, in theory, you could correct a weak diet simply by adding a daily multivitamin. Realize, however, that vitamin and mineral supplements are refined products that typically contain only the nutrients shown on their label. Nutrition is an evolving science, and not every essential nutrient has yet been identified.

By consuming nutritious whole foods, it's more likely that you'll benefit from trace nutrients that your supplements don't include. Instead of relying on nutritional supplements, consider using them to fill in during the times when it's not possible or practical to prepare and eat a regular meal. Nutrition shakes, such as the one profiled below, are a type of supplement that is especially well suited for this purpose. Read More http://nutritiondata.self.com/help/nutrient-balanceindicator#ixzz2W93jVUQS

5 Superfoods You Don't Know About


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If you're like most Americans and made a New Year's resolution to eat healthier, then I have some tips for you. A healthy diet needn't be composed solely of spinach and salmon. That's right: There are many other lesser-known foods that can make your diet healthy, varied and delicious. Read on for more information about foods that you're probably not eating, but should be.

Quinoa
Looking for additional protein in your diet? Forget meat or protein shakes; quinoa (pronounced keen-wa) contains more protein than any other grain. Termed a "supergrain" by nutritionists and food gurus, quinoa is derived from the seed of a plant that is related to spinach. A main staple of the ancient Inca diet, quinoa has just recently made its debut in North America. Quinoa's secret is that it contains an amino acid called lysine, which is lacking in most grains; lysine makes quinoa a complete protein. In addition to the protein you'll receive

(the World Health Organization equates the protein levels in quinoa to the amount found in milk), you'll also get your daily doses of vitamin B6, thiamin, niacin, potassium, and riboflavin. Furthermore, quinoa is a great source of copper, zinc, magnesium, and folate. The best way to consume quinoa is to toast the seeds in a dry skillet (after rinsing them thoroughly). Toasted quinoa can then be combined with oil, spices and water to create a pilaf-type dish. Incorporate fruit, nuts, cheese or fresh herbs into the pilaf to create a whole, well-balanced meal. Cooked quinoa can also be added to soups, stir-fries, casseroles or stews, and cold cooked quinoa is a great addition to salads. Although quinoa has been around for centuries, it is relatively new to North America; therefore, it is more costly than other grains. However, it tends to triple in size after cooking, so you will get your money's worth.

Amaranth
Amaranth is another supergrain that is extremely high in protein. Amaranth seeds, derived from the amaranth plant, are similar to quinoa in that they contain lysine, the amino acid lacking in most other grains that is responsible for adding protein. Amaranth contains three times more fiber and five times more iron than wheat, and has more protein than milk. In addition to these benefits, amaranth also has high levels of vitamins A and C, calcium, potassium, and phosphorous. Amaranth is a very versatile grain that can be used in a variety of different dishes. It is regularly made into flour and used to create breads, pastas or other baked goods (found primarily in health food stores). Unlike most other grains, amaranth does not contain gluten, which makes it a perfect choice for people with celiac disease or a gluten allergy. This supergrain is found extensively in health-food or whole-food markets in the form of hot and cold cereals, ready-made bread and mixes for baked goods (such as pancakes and muffins). It can also be used as a breading substitute for meats, fish or chicken, and it can be added to soups or salads (it has a nutty flavor that complements cold and hot foods nicely). A great meat substitute, a food that contains all the minerals found in human blood and a super-healthy leafy green... Next Page >>

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5 Superfoods You Don't Know About

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Tempeh
Tempeh is derived from fermented soybeans. To make tempeh, soybeans are inoculated with a culturing agent and incubated -- the result is a solid, cake-like substance. This is yet another outlet of soy that has come to exist as a healthy substitute for meat. Don't get us wrong: Tempeh does not taste like meat (so it will not satisfy a steak craving), but it can definitely provide equal amounts of protein with less fat, cholesterol and calories. In addition to its high levels of soy protein, tempeh is also a great source of omega-3 fatty acids, which have many health benefits. They have been shown to improve heart health, reduce hypertension, alleviate many autoimmune disorders (including arthritis and lupus), and improve certain mental health conditions, such as depression. It is also armed with dietary fiber, which can help prevent the onset of many bowelrelated illnesses and conditions. In more recent studies, tempeh and other foods containing soy protein have been shown to reduce the risk of prostate cancer due to their high levels of the isoflavone genistein. Tempeh is solid and will not fall apart like tofu (another soy protein meat substitute) when cooking, which makes it relatively easy to prepare. It can be seasoned and broiled or baked (like meat), or it can be ground up and added to soups and pasta sauces.

Seaweed (sea vegetables)


Sea vegetables are neither plants nor animals; they are, in fact, algae found in both freshwater and saltwater environments. Don't worry; you're not eating the bright green stuff that grows along the side of boats -chances are that you've tasted sea vegetables in some form without even knowing it. Sea vegetables, most commonly referred to as seaweed, are great sources of vitamin B, magnesium, iron, folate, and calcium. Furthermore, seaweed is a better source of minerals than any other vegetable. Seaweed contains all the minerals found in human

blood, as the minerals in seawater are similar to those found in our blood, with nearly identical concentrations. Seaweed is a low-calorie, virtually fat-free food that has anti-inflammatory and stressrelief qualities, as well as the ability to lower the risk of heart disease. Certain types of seaweed, such as kelp, also have very high levels of iodine, which is essential in regulating the thyroid -- the gland that controls most of the body's physiological functions. There are many varieties of sea vegetables that can be used in different ways. In North America, though, you are most likely to find seaweed in Japanese food. It can be wrapped around sushi rolls, served on top of salads or in soups, and eaten (dried) right out of the bag.

Kale
Kale is a green, leafy vegetable from the same family as cabbage and Brussels sprouts, but it is much more versatile. Kale has primarily stood out among nutritionists as an anti-cancer food due to the high amounts of organosulfur compounds it contains. Food and health scientists believe that these important compounds fuel the body to detox carcinogenic substances in the body, thus warding off certain types of cancer. In addition to its cancer-fighting qualities, kale has also been shown to lower the risk of cataracts, the most common cause of vision loss among people aged 55 and older. This is due to the presence of carotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin), which have been proven to ward off the debilitating eye disease. Kale is also packed with additional nutrients, such as vitamins A, C, E, and B, as well as manganese, copper, calcium, and iron. Additionally, since kale is a relatively fat-free and low-calorie food, it is a great addition to any healthy diet. A great way to prepare kale is to saute it with spices, garlic, onions, and oil, and serve it as a side dish. It has a bitter taste, so it is best flavored with spices or combined with sweeter ingredients. Kale is also commonly chopped for use in soups, stir-fries, pasta sauces, and salads.

try new foods to be healthy


Spice up your healthy diet by adding some of these superfoods. As I always say, the key to a healthy diet is moderation and variety. Why don't you try something new this week? Read more: http://www.askmen.com/sports/foodcourt_100/149b_eating_well.html#ixzz2W9SBvw Dw

All About Grains

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Introduction Amaranth Barley Buckwheat Corn Flax Kamut Millet Oats Popcorn Quinoa Rice Rye Spelt Triticale Wheat

Introduction - All About Grains

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Grains are the most important food group. We should be eating most of our foods from them every day. It's no accident the USDA's food pyramid suggests we eat 6-11 servings from this group each day. According to the food pyramid, we should be eating twice as much from the cereals group than any other group. This is because our bodies were designed to subsist mostly on grains and they do their best when following this simple guideline. Grains should supply us with the majority of our energy intake. Grains are loaded with complex carbohydrates that take a lot of time to metabolize and turn into energy. This is important for a couple of reasons. By eating grains, your circulatory system doesn't get hammered with a ton of glucose that's hard to process. Eating mostly sweets and highly refined foods causes all sorts of problems. These foods cause high and then low blood-sugar levels with their attending symptoms of loss of concentration and behavioral problems in children. The complex carbohydrates found in whole grains are slowly broken down by your digestive system into usable sugars. They give your body a metered flow of energy - food that will stick with you without you or your children getting hungry long before the next meal. Grains are also a rich protein source, supplying half the world's protein needs. Mostly low in fat, grains are generally rich in the B vitamins and contain many minerals needed for good health. Please see our vitamin and mineral pages to learn more about how these essential nutrients perform in the body. Generally, grains are high in soluble and insoluble fiber. Fiber contains few vitamins, minerals or calories but performs a vital function in our digestive system. Fiber maintains bulk so the digestive juices keep flowing. Our intestinal tract permits liquefied, digested foods to pass through it's walls into the blood stream where these nutrients can be used throughout the body to keep us healthy. Not as well known is the digestive system's secondary function of taking waste products and poisons and carrying them outside our body. If everything we eat is liquefied and absorbed, there's nothing to keep these poisons and waste products, which are dumped into the intestinal tract, moving through the system. And if this happens, some of them are even re-absorbed back into the circulatory system where the blood moves these unwanted agents throughout our systems again! This is very unhealthy. Cholesterol is an excellent example of this where it's re-absorbed back into the body in the large intestine if there

isn't something to keep it moving. This 'something' is fiber, and is sometimes referred to as 'roughage.' Fiber has been directly linked to reducing heart disease. It also reduces constipation, tends to clean the intestinal walls and generally promotes good health. Grains, in their whole, unrefined form contain large amounts of fiber. Let's talk a bit more about protein. The weak levels of the amino acid, lysine, found in grain has customarily been considered grain's nutritional 'weak link.' However, unknown by many people, there are several grains rich in lysine such as buckwheat, amaranth, quinoa and oats. These grains can either be eaten by themselves or blended with wheat, one of the low lysine grains, providing a balanced protein. You can also do this by adding dairy products or legumes to your diet. It's not necessary to eat meat to exceed the body's protein needs. For those of you interested in food storage, grains in their whole seed form are the longest storing foods obtainable. When stored dry in a cool place, grains retain their excellent nutritional characteristics over many years. Unfortunately, grain milled into flour has a relatively short storage life of about one year when stored in paper bags. This is because flour link have that hard, outer shell that protects it's contents from oxidation like the whole seed provides. For the best storage life, store your foods in their whole seed form. Then, when you grind your grains for use, you get all the nutrition these whole kernels intended you to receive. Nature meant for us to eat grains in their whole form as has been done by man for millennia. But within the last 100 years this has changed. Grains, freshly ground in their whole seed form contain all the nutrients required for their digestion. When we eat fractional products made from grain such as highly refined white flour, our bodies must pull from their nutrient reserves to digest these nutrient poor foods leaving our nutrient bank poorer than it was before we ate them. This ought not to be! Grains eaten in their whole form add to the body's nutrient bank, bringing good health. Man has been cultivating grains for many thousands of years. Most of the present grains we eat have ancient origins but a few, such as Tritiale are only about 100 years old. Through the centuries, different grains have naturally evolved until today they contain large amounts of carbohydrates, protein, vitamins and minerals. Of present day world production, wheat tips the scale as the most cultivated crop making up 30% of the world's grain production. Wheat is followed by rice and corn both at 28%. Barley is 4th at 7% followed by sorghum at 3%, oats at 2% and millet and rye are each at 1%. In addition to these grains, there are numerous minor grains available whose production is so small they are not on the world grain production list. Eating a balanced diet from all the major food groups greatly improves your chances of getting the vital nutrients your body needs to stay healthy without the need of nutritional supplements. Eating these foods in their whole, fresh form will increase the nutritional value of what you eat and at the same time be more pleasing to the pallet. We hope the pages in this section will help you rediscover the wholesome goodness found in the many grains available and tickle your curiosity enough to give the ones you are unfamiliar with a try.

Amaranth - All About Grains

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Amaranth seeds are tan or light brown in color and are about the size of poppy seeds. Not a true cereal grain, Amaranth is sometimes called a 'pseudo-grain' and has been referred to as a herb or even a vegetable. There are 60 species of Amaranth on the planet. With it's own genus classification, Amaranthus, Amaranth is a relative of the common pigweed. Some of these species of Amaranth are grown for their spinach-like leaves which are eaten as a salad while other species are grown only for ornamental or decorative purposes. And lastly, still other species produce the tiny seeds that are so nutritious. Sold mostly in health food stores, Amaranth is an extremely nutritious grain that is just becoming known in North America. Amaranth has a long and interesting history in Mexico where it's been grown and harvested for thousands of years by the Mayan and Incan civilizations. The Aztecs believed Amaranth had magical properties that would give them amazing strength. Because of this, it became one of the main foods of the Aztec royalty. Amaranth also held an intricate role in some of their ancient rituals. In one ritual, the seeds were crushed open, then honey and human blood were added followed by forming this reddish paste into the shapes of birds and snakes then baking it. With the coming of the Spanish into the Americas, this abominable practice was abolished. Every crop of Amaranth that could be found was burned. Punishment for possession of the grain became so harsh that even having one seed was punished by chopping off the hands. Amaranth quickly became a 'lost' seed for many generations. Presently, Amaranth is grown in Mexico, Peru and Nepal as well as in the United States. Amaranth's great nutritional qualities are the driving force powering it's comeback. It's high in protein, particularly in the amino acid, Lysine, which is low in the cereal grains. In fact, Amaranth has the highest lysine content of all the grains in this study with Quinoa coming in a close second. To make your whole wheat bread a complete protein, substitute about 25% of your wheat flour with Amaranth flour. Amaranth, by itself, has a really nice amino acid blend. Just 150 grams of the grain is all that's required to supply an adult with 100% of the daily requirement of protein. Amaranth is one of the highest grains in fiber content. This makes Amaranth an effective agent against cancer and heart disease. Amaranth is also the only grain in this study that contains significant amounts of phytosterols which scientists are just now learning play a major part in the prevention of all kinds of diseases. Amaranth is also rich in many vitamins and minerals. The following table lists only the nutrients in Amaranth that are higher than those found in wheat. As nutritious as wheat is, you can see that Amaranth puts it to shame...

Nutrients in 100 Grams of Amaranth Unit Amount % More of In Than Nutrient Measure Amaranth Wheat Food energy KCal: 374.000 114 Protein Gms: 14.450 115 Total lipid (fat) Gms: 6.510 423 Total saturated fat Gms: 1.662 618 Ttl monounsaturated fat Gms: 1.433 717 Ttl polyunsaturated fat Gms: 2.891 461 Total dietary fiber Gms: 15.200 121 Ascorbic acid Mg : 4.200 Infinite Riboflavin Mg : 0.208 181 Folacin Mcg: 49.000 129 Potassium Mg : 366.000 101 Calcium Mg : 153.000 528 Phosphorus Mg : 455.000 158 Magnesium Mg : 266.000 211 Iron Mg : 7.590 238 Zinc Mg : 3.180 120 Copper Mg : 0.777 179 Palmitic acid (16:0) Gms: 1.284 549 Oleic acid (18:1) Gms: 1.433 746 Linoleic acid (18:2/n6) Gms: 2.834 472 Phytosterols Mg : 24.000 Infinite Histidine Gms: 0.389 136 Isoleucine Gms: 0.582 127 Leucine Gms: 0.879 103 Lysine Gms: 0.747 223 Methionine Gms: 0.226 112 Threonine Gms: 0.558 153 Tryptophan Gms: 0.181 113 Valine Gms: 0.679 122 Arginine Gms: 1.060 178 Alanine Gms: 0.799 176 Amaranth must be cooked before it is eaten because it contains components in it's raw form that block the absorption of some nutrients in our digestive system. You should cook Amaranth whether you plan on giving it to your family or your pets. For those of you who are allergic to wheat, Amaranth can be your grain of choice. However, Amaranth contains no gluten and because of this, it's not good for making yeast breads by itself. Mixed with 75% wheat flour and 25% Amaranth flour, the resulting dough should give you a nice rising loaf of bread. However, for breads that don't require gluten to raise such as biscuits, muffins, pancakes, pastas or flat breads, you can go as high as 100% Amaranth flour. Amaranth can be boiled for 20 minutes in it's whole seed form for a morning breakfast cereal. It can also be ground raw or for added flavor, it can be toasted before grinding. Try popping it like you would pop popcorn. Popped Amaranth's uses are many as they add texture and crunchiness to breads, salads, soups and granola. Whole seed, cooked Amaranth also goes well in soups, granolas and as already mentioned, mixes well with wheat flour to make a myriad of different baked goods. Amaranth flour also makes a nice thickener for gravies, soups and stews. Sprouted Amaranth goes well in salads or prepared cereals. As Amaranth contains fairly high levels of poly-unsaturated fats, it's a good idea to store them in your refrigerator after opening the container. For long term storage, package them with oxygen absorbers in an air-tight container which should extend their storage life for several years if stored in a cool place. Having a hard outer shell, Amaranth should store better than Quinoa or buckwheat which have similar nutritional qualities but have a softer, more permeable shell. We think you will enjoy experimenting with this ancient grain and will be excited with it's wholesome flavor and the excellent nutrition it will provide for your family. Recipes: http://www.gfrecipes.com/amaranth.txt Quinoa and Amaranth Recipes http://home.att.net/~ashburysaubergines/a/r3.htm Amaranth Salad http://www.nuworldamaranth.com/recipeindex.htm Amaranth and Quinoa recipes

http://www.lombardia.com/kitchen/bread/recipe735.html Toasted Amaranth Rolls http://www.ichef.com/ichef-recipes/Breads/42223.html Amaranth Rye Sticks References: The Prudent Pantry by Alan T. Hagen http://www.voicenet.com/~tjohn/grains.html http://www.godsbanquet.com/recipes/grain.htm http://wv.essortment.com/whatisamaranth_rirz.htm http://www.nuworldamaranth.com http://www.nuworldamaranth.com/nutritionindex.htm

Barley - All About Grains

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Much like rye, barley can grow in harsh conditions and poor soils where other grains wouldn't produce well. Being an ancient grain, barley was one of the first grains domesticated, even before wheat was cultivated. Not used as much as it once was as a food, barley is still a very important crop in today's market place. Today, barley is primarily used as animal feed and for making malt in the making of beer. However, on a smaller scale, barley can be processed for human consumption in the form of pot or hulled barley, pearled barley and barley flakes. Barley's nutrition is much like wheat's. There are a few minor differences, however. Barley contains twice as many fatty acids as wheat which accounts for it's 10% higher calorie count. And as great as wheat's fiber content is, barley contains about 40% more, or over 17%. Barley contains vitamin E; wheat contains none. And barley contains 68% more thiamin, 250% more riboflavin and 38% more lysine than wheat, giving barley a more balanced protein. Whole barley must be prepared for human consumption because of it's hard, fibrous hull that is not easily removed. Only buy barley in it's whole form if you want to sprout it and eat it as barley grass. Processors use an abrasive machine to remove the hull making it safe to eat. At this stage it's called hulled or pot barley. In this processed form, the germ has been damaged to the point that it will no longer sprout. Pearled barley, which is hulled barley with the ends of the kernel removed so it's round in shape is another popular way you can get barley. Pearled barley has it's germ and much of the bran around the endosperm removed. This is where many of the vitamins and minerals are found and because of this, it's nutritional qualities are down about 25%-33% from what you generally find in hulled barley. But pearled barley cooks up much quicker which is it's big advantage. Both pearled barley and hulled barley are primarily used in soups and

stews where they fluff up to almost the size of a pea. Some people also cook a pot of hulled or pearled barley and eat it as a breakfast cereal. It's also sometimes an ingredient in vegetable stuffing or used in pilafs. You can make barley flour at home by putting hulled or pearled barley though your grain grinder. Barley flour has a weaker gluten than wheat flour so when making yeast breads, you will not want to add more than 50% barley flour to your wheat flour. In some parts of the world such as Scotland and Ireland, barley flour plays a predominant part in their baking. Barley flour adds a nutty and appealing flavor to your baked goods. When making pancakes, biscuits and rolls, you can use 100% barley flour and still get good results. Barley 'flakes' are made by rolling hulled barley. It looks almost identical to rolled oats and can be used like rolled oats in making cooked breakfast cereal. Barley flakes are also a perfect ingredient for granola. A few barley flakes mixed with bread dough gives your breads a unique texture and makes them even more healthy with a robust appearance and an enhanced flavor. For the qualities barley possesses it is far under-used in North America today. Inexpensive in price, barley in it's many forms can be used to add wholesome, nutritional goodness to the vast majority of foods you cook every day. Barley Recipes http://starburst.cbl.cees.edu/~tara/mushbarley.html Mushroom Barley Soup References: The Prudent Pantry by Alan T. Hagen http://www.godsbanquet.com/recipes/grain.htm

Buckwheat - All About Grains

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It is believed that buckwheat was first domesticated in China. As it spread across Asia and Europe during the centuries, it took a particularly strong hold in Russia where kasha is popular. A relatively new grain, it hasn't been in cultivation for much more than a thousand years. Saying it's a grain is a misstatement as it's not really a grain at all. It's

actually, technically, a fruit. It's a hardy plant that thrives in poor soil conditions and continues to live through freezing temperatures, droughts and excess rain. The unprocessed, three-sided buckwheat seed has a thick, hard outer hull that must be mechanically removed before it's ready to eat which is the way it's sold. After the seed has been de-hulled, the inner seed or groat has a light brown or light green coloring and is so soft that it can be easily chewed. Having a distinctive, pleasant, rich flavor all it's own, 100% buckwheat flour makes delicious pancakes. Mixed with wheat flour, buckwheat makes great tasting biscuits, muffins and breads and can be mixed up to 50% with wheat flour for making yeast breads. In Eastern Europe, the groats are toasted and are known as kasha. Commercial food processors mix buckwheat flour with other flours to make pancake mixes, breakfast cereals, breads and turkey stuffing. In Europe, buckwheat groats are used whole in hot cereals and soups. They can also be boiled until they become soft and fluffy and then eaten like rice. The Orient is the largest user of North American grown buckwheat where it's used to make sorba noodles. Whole grain buckwheat is an amazingly nutritious food. Even though it's protein is relatively low at approximately 11%, the protein buckwheat does have contains the eight essential amino acids and is one of the few "grains" (remember that buckwheat isn't a grain at all) high in lysine. If you use half buckwheat flour with your wheat flour, the buckwheat's amino acids will round out the limiting amino acids in your wheat nicely, giving you a nearly perfect balance of the 8 essential amino acids. This particular balance between half wheat and half buckwheat flour is much more closely aligned to your dietary needs even than lean beef!!! It's also rich in many of the B vitamins as well as the minerals; phosphorus, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper and manganese. In addition to this, it's a good oil source of Linoleic acid, one of the two essential fatty acids we must have to be healthy. Nutritionally speaking, buckwheat is a truly impressive food. Buckwheat contains rather volatile essential fats inside the seed that aren't protected very well after the air-tight hull has been removed. It isn't a good storing grain unless precautions are taken to remove the oxygen. Like brown rice, oxygen makes the essential oils in the seed go rancid, giving it a bad taste and making it unfit to eat. So, when storing buckwheat for long term storage, be sure you place it in airtight containers and use oxygen absorber technology which should give it a long storage life. The buckwheat plant is also very useful as honey bees love it's flowers for making dark, rich flavored honey. And farmers also use it as a green fertilizer. Just a couple of years ago, buckwheat hull pillows were the rage. You can still find buckwheat hull pillows advertised in different catalogs. These pillows are famous for providing a soft yet cool pillow that permits the skin next to the pillow to breath. Buckwheat is certainly a versatile plant and is definitely a seed worth storing to round out the nutrition in your food supply - especially if you'd prefer not to eat beans to get that lysine to augment your wheat. Buckwheat Recipes: Over 100 Recipes at Soar http://inikwww.gfrecipes.com/buckwheat.txt http://cgi.fatfree.com/cgi-bin/fatfree/recipes.cgi?buckwheat+or+kasha

References: The Prudent Pantry by Alan T. Hagan http://www.agric.gov.ab.ca/agdex/100/118_20-2.html http://www.godsbanquet.com/recipes/grain.htm

Corn - All About Grains

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Talk with most any corn farmer and he will most likely argue, should the subject come up, that corn is the most important grain in production today. There is twice as much field corn grown in the US than any other single grain. Aside from eating the kernel itself, corn starch was the first discovered alternate use for field corn. Soon after this, developers learned how to turn corn starch into fructose sugar, the most popular beverage sweetener in North America today which is twice as sweet as regular table sugars. From this humble beginning, literally thousands of other uses for corn have been discovered. This list includes ethanol alcohol, cosmetic and skin care products, drugs, batteries, rubber, beverages, crayons, soaps, absorbent materials for diapers, food additives, biodegradable plastics, food supplements and the list goes on and on. Many believe that corn, more than any other grain during this new century, will be instrumental in feeding the world's ever growing population. Another name for Yellow Dent Corn is 'field corn.' Field corn is quite a different product than what most North Americans have become accustomed to; sweet corn. Sweet corn, the corn we eat as a vegetable, has a very thin skin. Sweet corn is loaded with sugars which is harvested before the kernels mature. The field corn called yellow dent, has a very thick outer skin that doesn't soften up to the point you can eat it even if you cook it for hours. There's really only two ways to eat it - grind it dry into a meal, or by using a lye, remove the skin and eat it as hominy. Many years ago Indians soaked their corn for hours in water that had been seeped through wood ashes containing potassium hydroxide. The kernels puffed up which broke the outer shell open. The resulting food had a unique flavor, tasting nothing like corn. Native American cultures have been soaking field corn in wood ash water for centuries to remove the outer husk making the whole kernel - minus the husk - edible without grinding it. This whole hominy was then used in soups and stews, or dried and ground into masa and was then used to make tortillas, tamales or pikki bread. It was also coarsely ground to make hominy grits. It's fascinating how, knowing nothing about nutrition, natural means have been developed among peoples to get their nutrition from foods. This process of using some

type of caustic agent to remove the outer husk of the corn kernel is yet another example. Corn contains enough niacin to prevent it's deficiency disease, pellagra from forming. But it's in an unusable form! However, the lye treatment the natives have been using for centuries to remove the outer skin frees up this niacin so the body can absorb it. It's too bad that Old World descendant Americans living in the Deep South during the 1920s and 1930s didn't learn this simple lesson as so many of them suffered from pellagra during that period of time. Several caustic solutions can be used to remove the husks, turning yellow dent corn into whole hominy. Commercial enterprises presently use common lye, or sodium hydroxide. Quicklime, which is calcium oxide, or slaked lime, otherwise known as calcium hydroxide or pickling lime also works well for this process and adds the nutrient, calcium to the end product. Yellow dent corn gets it's name from the inward 'dent' on each side of the kernel and is the primary corn used by the large food manufacturers in making a myriad of products including corn chips, tortillas and taco shells. Yellow dent corn has a relatively soft, inner starchy layer which grinds nicely into a powder. The other variety of field corn, called flint corn, of which popcorn is a close relative, has a very hard starchy interior. Popcorn and flint corn can also be ground into a flour but their hard starch tends to shatter rather than mush into a powder. Because of this, the flint type corns make more of a gritty flour. The cornmeal you buy in the store is also most likely made from yellow dent corn. However, nutritionally speaking, there's a big difference between the corn meal you can buy in the store and freshly ground corn meal you grind yourself at home. There's a couple of reasons for this. In store-bought corn flour or meal, the outer skin (a great source of fiber) and the germ which is loaded with nutrients has been removed. The grain millers particularly like to remove the germ as it contains the oils that quickly go rancid - something they don't want to happen before you get their cornmeal home and used. Unfortunately, it also contains many of the vitamins and minerals that make corn so healthy. And just like white wheat flour, because they have taken so many nutrients out during the milling process, they'll chuck some cheap, un-chelated minerals back in to make it look like the customer is buying a healthy product. Corn has sometimes gotten a bad rap as not being a very nutritious food. Like the majority of the other cereal grains, corn is low in lysine. And it's marginally low in Isoleucine and the amino acid combination Methionine and Cystine as well. However, if you add just 50 grams of soybeans to 100 grams of yellow dent corn (dry weight) it more than rounds out an adult male's one day requirement for the essential amino acids. For the weight conscious among us, this works out to only 565 calories. Not bad! Corn also contains goodly quantities of many B vitamins and the minerals Phosphorus, Magnesium, Iron, Zinc and the essential Linoleic Acid. Corn's 72% starch content makes it a high energy food. Corn contains adequate amounts of vitamin A, the highest of any cereal grain. It goes almost without mention that corn and legumes (two complementary foods that combine to make a complete protein) have been staple foods for the peoples in Central and South America for centuries and continues to be so to this day. Corn has been grown by the original peoples on North and South America for 7,000 years. Christopher Columbus brought corn home to Spain. The Pilgrims were preserved by corn the Indians gave them and corn from that time has traveled with us into modern

history. We feel freshly ground corn meal, ground yourself just before baking, produces great results both in flavor and nutrition. Until you've tried freshly ground corn, it will be hard for you to believe there can be such a big difference in flavor. A lot of that extra flavor comes from the parts of the kernel that's not removed when you mill it. Added to this, the air has little chance to oxidize the nutrients in it's whole corn form. When you grind it the same day you bake or cook with it, there's no time for this natural aging process to make your cornmeal stale, unlike what happens as it sits in the grocery store. Whole corn can be coarsely ground to make grits or finely ground to make cornbread, tortillas or chips. We feel as you learn how to use corn, you'll come to appreciate this versatile grain for the unique food it is - a staple grain, that with squash and beans has kept the early native Americans alive for centuries. Cornmeal Recipes http://www.godsbanquet.com/recipes/grain.htm References: The Prudent Pantry by Alan T. Hagan http://www.voicenet.com/~tjohn/grains.html http://agguide.agronomy.psu.edu/sect4/sec41a.htm#Yellow%20dent%20corn http://www.godsbanquet.com/recipes/grain.htm

Flax - All About Grains

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Flax is truly an amazing grain which is proving itself over and over again as a nutritional wonder-grain. The scientific community is becoming more and more excited as it continues to learn about the healthful and healing effects of flax. Almost half the weight of this small, dark brown tear-shaped seed contains oil. And to a large extent, it's this oil that's making the big splash among the nutritional experts of today. But it's not just the oil that's making waves, as flax seed also contains several other remarkable nutritional elements that has everyone talking.

Flax was already under wide cultivation in the Babylon Empire in 3,000 BC and it's early beginnings are thought to precede this date by a couple of millennia. Through the history of man, flax has also been very important for the strong fibers in it's straw which have been extracted from the stems and woven into linen. Over the centuries, flax has been developed into different strains until today there are two main varieties grown, one for flax seed oil and the other for the fibers in the stem for cloth making. Over half the oil found in flax seed consists of the highly sensitive fatty acid, Alpha Linolenic Acid (LNA). LNA will harden from the oxygen in the air if not protected from oxidation. This characteristic in flax seed oil has been exploited in industrial applications for hundreds of years. Paint flax seed oil on wood, for example, and over the span of a couple of days the oxidizing oils will harden, forming a protective barrier for the wood. This demonstrates flax oil's great qualities as an oil based coating for both wood and concrete which is still in wide use today in the paint industry. It is also a main ingredient in linoleum and is presently used in making particle board. It's not hard to find farmers that feed flax seed meal to their livestock as it aids their digestion and gives them a nice, shiny coat. And high levels of flax seed meal are now being fed to chickens producing eggs that demand a premium price which are rich in this omega-3 oil. Flax was first brought to North America in 1617. By 1875 flax was being cultivated over much of the inhabited country. Flax was grown in North America mainly for it's oil used in industrial applications. During the two world wars, flax's production had a marked increase as the need for this oil grew. Over the centuries, flax oil has been used to coat farm tools to prevent rusting. It's whole seed has been boiled and used as a poultice for boils and other skin infections. The mucilage obtained from boiling whole flax seed has been used as a hair gel. And through the ages, ground flax seed has been eaten for it's healthful properties. Flax production has soared as the demand has tripled in just the last decade for flax as a nutritional supplement. The study of how flax relates to heart disease and cancer is in it's infancy but what has been learned to date shows solid evidence of it's healthful properties. As the nutritional benefits of flax continue to come to light, it's use will only increase. Partial Flax Nutrient Profile 100 Grams Calories 450 Breakdown of the oils Protein 21 gm Inega-3 LNA 57% Fatty Acids (oils) 42 gm Omega-6 LA 14% Dietary Fiber 28 gm Monounsaturates 19% Carbohydrate 6 gm Saturates 5% Other 3 gm Other 5% Flax seed has some truly amazing nutritional characteristics. It is most noted for it's high levels of LNA, lignans and fiber which will be explored in much greater detail later. For a grain, flax seed also has a very high level of protein at 21%. The amino acid list for flax seed lines up fairly closely with wheat's essential amino acids. However, flax contains high amounts of fiber, vitamin E, folacin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6 and is extremely high in the minerals potassium, calcium and phosphorus. Containing many other nutrients as well, flax seed is an incredibly important nutritional source and contains all the nutrients necessary to correctly digest the oils located within the seed.Because of the lubricative properties of the oil, flax seed is believed to help reduce

the symptoms of arthritis. Current research tends to support the theory that flax seed is beneficial in lowering cholesterol and lowering the risk of heart disease, preventing cancer, correcting auto-immune disorders and the relief of constipation. Fifty-seven percent of flax seed oil is Alfa-linolenic acid (LNA) which is the highest LNA food known in the world. LNA is one of the two essential fatty acids we must get from eating foods. Our bodies can't make this precursor nutrient our systems need to make other vital fatty acids which perform life's functions. It's estimated that less than 1% of all fatty acids eaten by the average North American contain LNA with a whopping 95% of the population not getting enough of this vital fatty acid to be really healthy. This was not always the case. Technological developments in the last 125 years have largely changed our diets. Before the Industrial Revolution, when Americans hunted and gathered their food, there was as much as ten times more LNA in the diet as there is now. In addition, the intake of saturated fatty acids, and trans-fatty acids which were unknown in those days, has dramatically increased. These two dramatic changes in our diets are now causing real problems with our present day health. This causes all sorts of problems we don't need to have: growth retardation, weakness, impairment of vision and learning ability, motor un-coordination, behavioral changes, high triglycerides (fat) in the blood, high blood pressure, tissue inflammation, skin disorders, mental deterioration, hypertension, low metabolic rate and some kinds of immune dysfunction. Early research also points to LNA as an effective stroke reducing agent. Research is also learning that LNA appears to protect the heart against arrhythmia, a decease of the electrical stability of the heart. LNA inhibits Atherosclerosis, a inflammatory condition. But it is also thought that LNA works with flax's other nutrients to help bring about this effect in reducing inflammation. So, how much LNA does a person need? The US has no RDA for it; but the latest information suggests one to two percent of your total calories should consist of LNA. This equates to 2.7-5.5 grams of LNA per day for an adult. One teaspoon of LNA weighs about 4.75 grams. As flax seed contains about 20% LNA by weight, that would equate to 1 to 2 tablespoons of flax seed per day. To further clarify the picture on LNA and how it is affected by the other essential fatty acid, Linoleic acid (LA), see our Essential Fatty Acids pages. LA, which we already get too much of in our diets in North America, if eaten in too large amounts creates an LNA/LA imbalance and can inhibit absorption of LNA. The opposite is also true. LNA during pregnancy and early growth is vital for correct nerve and visual development of the fetus and infant. LNA is also important in lowering blood triglyceride levels and because of this, it is believed to lower the risk of heart disease. It also reduces the chances of blood clots forming in the vessels. LNA is now under study to gain concrete evidence LNA reduces the risk of cancer. Flax seed's other primary ingredient we are emphasizing in this report is a group of phytoestrogenic compounds known as lignans. Flax seed contains 100 times more lignans than the next closest food. Lignans get broken down by intestinal bacteria into enterodiol and enterolactone, two mammalian lignans. Lignans contain powerful anticancer fighting agents and are especially effective against breast, colon, uterus and prostate cancers by controlling the sex hormones in our systems. As one example, lignans seem to flush excess estrogen from the body. Research has just begun on this fascinating subject. Lignans also seem to have anti-fungal, antibacterial and anti-viral

properties. Flax seed oil contains practically no lignans - you must eat the flax seed, first ground into a meal. Flax oil also is missing many of the nutrients needed to digest it. But these nutrients are located in the seed. Both from a health and economic standpoint, we suggest eating whole flax seed you grind yourself rather than the high priced flax seed oil. Flax seed has been proven to markedly reduce cholesterol levels as effectively as oat bran and fruit pectin. This is probably due to it's unusually high levels of soluble and insoluble fiber. Flax's high quality fiber teamed with LNA and the rich lignans work together to build healthy blood lipid patterns. Of flax's 28% fiber content, 2/3rds of it is mucilage, a soluble fiber. As an experiment, boil 1 tablespoon of whole flax seed in a cup of water. In about 5 minutes, a thick, clear liquid will appear. This soluble fiber acts as a wonderful lubricant in moving food through your intestinal system. It also carries with it cholesterol that has been expelled into the large intestine, preventing it's re-absorption. The mucilage alone is a great boon to health. Flax's other fiber - it's insoluble fiber - also keeps things flowing though your intestinal tract. It's been shown that the fiber in 50 grams of flax seed eaten in muffins increased the number of bowel movements helping prevent constipation. The two types of fiber in flax seed maintain the fecal bulk and keep it moving through the colon. The LNA and lignans in flax seed both support and strengthen the body's immune system. Through processes beyond the scope of this report, flax seed bolsters the immune system in several different ways strengthening it to fight off disease. Flax seed is an important grain that will improve just about everyone's health. Even healthy people can improve their health by eating ground flax seed. When the author started eating flax seed, he was in the US Army and considered himself to be as healthy as anyone. After eating 3 tablespoons of flax seed each day for about a month, he noticed some remarkable things begin to happen. Instead of coming back almost dead from a five mile run, he noticed his vitality increase to the point that on finishing a long run like this, he felt as fresh as he did before the run. He also noticed a big difference in his vision. Colors became much bolder as if they were 'jumping out' at him. Evidently, he was suffering from an LNA deficiency. Had he been getting enough LNA he probably wouldn't have noticed any changes which brings up a story. A guy added 3 quarts of oil to the engine of his car and found that it ran better. He was so excited about it that he told everyone he met that if they, too, added three quarts of oil to their engines their cars would also run better. Of course, most people know if their oil level is already up to the 'full line' on the dipstick, that adding 3 more quarts of oil isn't going to make their cars run better. Rather the opposite will happen and their engine will likely blow a seal. This little analogy goes a long way to show that no nutrient is going to make you feel better unless you have a deficiency in it. If your body is already getting plenty of a certain nutrient, giving it more won't make it feel better. And sometimes it will make the body feel worse if it's an oil soluble vitamin or some other nutrient that can cause a

toxicity if it's eaten in over-abundance. (The author believes the real secret to good health includes eating good, wholesome foods containing all the nutrients needed for good health, coupled with exercise.) Flax certainly plays a role in this. As a full 95% of the population in North America are not eating enough LNA, it's a fairly safe bet that you will feel better after you start yourself on a diet of flax. For flax to do any good in your system, the seed must be broken open. The outer shell on the flax seed is so hard that unbroken, it just passes right through you, retaining all it's nutrients. (So much for all those recipes that have whole flax seed as an ingredient!) Don't be tempted to buy expensive flax seed oil as it contains none of the lignans or fiber found in the seed. And Don't buy flax seed meal already ground. The outer shell of the flax seed is nature's perfect container and breaking it open exposes the delicate fatty acids to rapid oxidation. Grind only as much flax seed as you plan on using that day. There's several ways of breaking the seed open. The easiest way is to grind a small amount of dry flax seed in a blender or coffee grinder. When making bread, it can also be mixed with your other whole grains before grinding. Don't try to grind flax seed in a grain grinder by itself. It contains so much fat that the oily flax seed pulp will plug your grinder. You can add flax seed meal to many different dishes. Mix it in yogurt, salad dressings, on prepared or cooked cereal and you can bake it into many different desserts or breads. Much like putting too much oil in a car, it is possible to eat too much flax seed. Tipping the scales with too heavy an ingestion of LNA will prevent the proper digestion and use of it's sister essential fatty acid, LA. Three tablespoons of flax seed a day should be enough to take care of anyone's LNA needs. And after several weeks or months of usage, you can probably cut it down to 1 to 2 tablespoons of flax seed per day after you've gotten over the LNA deficiency. How can you tell if you're getting too much? Your fingernails will get thin and break easily. But it would take months of ingesting too much LNA for this to happen. Unlike some nutrients that are destroyed with heat, the LNA and lignans in flax can safely be heated up to baking temperatures without harming them. Studies have shown the LNA and lignans in flax seed can withstand temperatures up to 350 degrees F for 2 hours. These temperatures and times are worse than most home baking conditions. How long can you store flax seed? The author is presently eating five year old flax seed that was stored in cans sealed with oxygen absorbers. He says it's still 'just fine'. Whole, un-ground flax seed should store in the kitchen without any special care given to it for a year. Stored in the absence of oxygen in a cool room, flax's storage life will be increased to many years. With flax's vitamin E content which is a good antioxidant, you can consider your flax seed a good storing commodity if you take good care of it. Containing no gluten, flax seed should be perfectly safe to eat by those with wheat allergies. If you are in poor health, please consult your doctor before starting a diet of flax seed. If you are already under the care of a physician, we strongly recommend you first get your doctor's approval before eating flax seed. Flax Recipes: http://www.flaxcouncil.ca/recindex.htm

http://www.sunflowerseed.com/html/flax_recipes.html http://www.flaxproducts.com/info_recipes.html References: http://www.flaxcouncil.ca A great resource if you'd like to learn more. http://www.askdrsears.com/html/4/T041700.asp#T041701

Kamut - All About Grains

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Kamut is a Brand of khorasan wheat. Kamut is a close relative to wheat whose kernel. Its about the same shape as a wheat seed but a Kamut kernel is more than twice as big. Even though Kamut is very closely related to wheat, many people who are wheat intolerant can eat Kamut with no problems. Kamut also has some pretty amazing nutritional strengths. And as an amazingly versatile grain, Kamut can be used in place of all the different wheats; the hard and soft varieties and also durum wheat. Kamut's history is as interesting as any grain you can find. Stories abound about how a small sample of this grain was found in the pyramids of Egypt. They were planted and grew. This story revolves around a young Montana airman while stationed in the US Air Force in Portugal. Someone gave, or more likely, sold him 36 kernels of this grain, telling him it came from the pyramids of Egypt. Evidently, the serviceman believed him, and mailed the kernels home to his wheat-farmer dad who planted them. Of the 36 kernels, 32 of them sprouted. After carefully tending these seeds and their offspring for the next 6 years, these 32 kernels had grown to 1,500 bushels. (I did the math, yes it's possible.) This unusual, large kerneled wheat was shown at the county fair and was called "King Tut's Wheat." Bob Quinn, just a boy at the time, was a youngster in the crowd. The grain never really caught on at that time and the farmer ended up feeding it to his cattle. In 1977, Bob, now a agricultural scientist with a Ph.D., remembered that strange looking wheat and after scouring the country side came up with a pint bottle of it. By 1988, Bob had the strain built back up and had generated enough interest in it that he could start marketing it commercially. Scientists from around the world have inspected Kamut and attempted to give it a taxonomic classification. However, it's exact class still remains somewhat uncertain but is believed to be an ancient durum wheat variety. As 3,000 year-old wheat from the Egyptian tombs can't sprout, the scientists who have attempted to classify this seed generally believe Kamut was an obscure grain kept alive by peasant farmers in Egypt or Asia Minor. Adding to the mystery shrouding this grain, in the last 50 years, Kamut has vanished from it's traditional lands as modern varieties of wheat replaced it. The

person who sold those 36 kernels to the airman, I can only guess to make a quick buck, actually did the world a really big favor in bringing this ancient grain back from obscurity and certain extinction. Dr. Quinn patented the seed, then coined and trade marked the name "Kamut" which is believed to be an ancient Egyptian word for wheat. Kamut may have disappeared from it's native lands in the Old World, but it is alive and doing well in the small corners of Montana and Alberta. Kamut is a high protein grain, generally containing 30% more protein than wheat. It's amino acid ratio is about the same as wheat so if you should happen to be eating nothing but Kamut, you may wish to add some peanut butter, legumes or some other food high in lysine to give you a little better amino acid blend. As this grain hasn't been altered by modern plant breeders, it retains it's ancient nutrition, flavor and goodness. Due to it's slightly higher fatty acid content, Kamut can be considered a high energy grain, and compared to wheat, Kamut also contains elevated levels of vitamin E, Thiamin, Riboflavin, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, pantothentic acid, copper and complex carbohydrates. All around, Kamut seems to be a very healthy grain. Because of it's larger seed size in comparison to wheat, there's less fiber in Kamut than wheat. So, depending on your needs, if you require a high fiber diet, perhaps Spelt would be a better alternative which has a higher fiber content than even wheat. The fact that many people who are allergic to wheat and can tolerate Kamut is probably the biggest reason Kamut has made real inroads into the health food markets. Several studies have been conducted with Kamut on people with wheat allergies. People with wheat allergies must be careful when trying Kamut. Laboratory tests show that 30% of the subjects with wheat allergies also displayed allergies to Kamut. In some cases their reactions to Kamut were even worse than for wheat. However, on the flip side of the coin, many people who couldn't eat wheat had no problem with Kamut. Giving additional hope to wheat sensitive people, bakeries have noted that their Kamut products have been safe to eat for almost every wheat sensitive person who has purchased their products. The bottom line - if you are wheat sensitive, under the advice of your doctor, you may wish to carefully try Kamut with the hope that you can eat bread again. If you don't have wheat allergies, you can feel confident Kamut will be a new experience because of it's great flavor. And because of it's higher nutrition, you will probably feel better as well. As mentioned before, you can use Kamut in your different recipes calling for wheat. Be aware, however, that Kamut is closer to durum wheat than the hard wheat varieties and doesn't contain as much gluten. Because of this, you may wish to add wheat gluten or alter your expectations toward a little heavier loaf of bread. Kamut goes great in cakes and is ideally suited for your home-made pastas. We think you'll appreciate the fine flavor of Kamut and after having once tried it, will look forward to baking with this new yet ancient grain as much as your family will enjoy eating it. Dozens Of Kamut Recipes: http://www.Kamut.com/recipes/recipes.html http://www.nursehealer.com/Recipes19.htm References: http://www.Kamut.com

The Prudent Pantry by Alan T. Hagan http://www.mehl.at/kamlinks.htm

Millet - All About Grains

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The millet seed is a small, round, ivory colored seed about 20 mm in diameter. There are 6,000 varieties of millet grown around the world. The variety sold in North America for human consumption is called Pearl Millet. It has a rather alkaline pH which makes it a really easy grain to digest. Used mainly as bird feed, millet has a rather bland flavor. Millet is thought to be one of the first grains cultivated by man. The first recorded comments regarding millet date back to 5,500 BC in China. Millet could have been domesticated hundreds or even thousands of years before this in Africa where it still grows wild throughout the continent. Found in ancient pottery and ancient writings alike throughout China, millet was an extremely important grain but diminished somewhat with the advent of rice and maize. Although it's role has diminished through the centuries, millet is still a food under wide cultivation in parts of Africa, India and China where it's a staple food. Much of millet's success in surviving through the ages has been it's ability to produce well in hot, arid, drought prone areas where nothing else will grow. As another plus, it can be harvested only 45-65 days after planting. Through the centuries, Millet spread it's way through Europe and was most often eaten boiled whole as a porridge but was sometimes made into a flat bread which the Egyptians first developed. Millet contains more calories than wheat, probably because of it's higher oil content of 4.2% which is 50% polyunsaturated. Millet is rich in B vitamins, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, zinc copper and manganese. It's protein content is a little lower than that of wheat as are the essential amino acids. Like wheat, lysine is millet's limiting amino acid. However, millet contains enough protein to still be considered a good protein source. Millet is a gluten free grain and is the only grain that retains it's alkaline properties after being cooked which is ideal for people with wheat allergies. With a texture much like brown rice, millet can be used in pilafs, casseroles or most oriental dishes that call for rice, quinoa or buckwheat. It can be ground into flour and used in flat breads or mixed

up to 25% with wheat flour for use in yeast breads. After it has been soaked for a couple of hours, millet in it's whole grain form cooks like rice in about 20 minutes. Millet cooks well into vegetable loaves and adds body to soups and stews. Millet added dry to your biscuit, bread and roll doughs adds a crunchy texture and brings variety to your baked goods. Able to be popped like popcorn, popped millet goes well in breakfast cereals, granola and bread. Increasing in volume more than any other grain, a cup of dry millet expands to three cups of cooked millet which takes on the form of a fluffy, delicate flavored hot cereal you are sure to appreciate. For baked dishes, cook millet at 350 degrees F for 45 minutes. Boiled millet cooks in 10-20 minutes. Steamed millet, cooked in a saucepan, cooks in 15 to 30 minutes. Millet is a good storing grain which will store without any special considerations for one to two years. If you want to put millet into long term storage, package it inside airtight containers and use oxygen absorbers. Stored in this fashion and put in a cool place, millet should keep well for many years. Recipes: Orange Millet Bread (For Bread Machine) Sweet Oatmeal Bread w/Millet http://www.ivu.org/recipes/greek/tabouli-with.html Tabouli with Millet http://www.vegparadise.com/highestperch29.html Millet with spicy tomato sauce References: The Prudent Pantry by Alan T. Hagan http://www.naturalhub.com/natural_food_guide_grains_beans_seeds.htm http://books.nap.edu/books/0309049903/html/38.html http://www.agron.iastate.edu/~weeds/Ag317-99/id/WeedID/Ffox.html http://www.vegparadise.com/highestperch29.html http://www.voicenet.com/~tjohn/grains.html

Oats - All About Grains

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Oats, like barley, have a hard outer hull that must be removed before it's ready for human consumption. Even though the outer hull of an oat kernel comes off easier than a

barley kernel's hull, it's still not within reach of the average consumer to accomplish this. For this reason, if you want whole oats to eat, purchase them already hulled. Hulled oats, called oat groats, look very much like rye or Triticale. Unlike barley which must have it's hull sanded off damaging the seed, an oat groat kernel's outer bran layer is still intact after de-hulling. This somewhat protects the inner nutrients and also permits it to sprout. From this stage of processing, oats are most often rolled. Sometimes they are cut into two to four pieces before rolling and are called 'steel cut rolled oats,' or quick rolled oats. Opening the seed in this way permits oxidation of the inner nutrients causing them to go rancid. Long ago, it was learned if oat groats were steamed first destroying the enzymes that permitted rancidity to happen, the rolled oats could be stored for long periods of time and stay fresh. We've heard more than one story of a family opening up a well stored 25 year old can of rolled oats thinking they'd only be good to feed the chickens. But to their surprise, their rolled oats were still fresh and wholesome after all that time. Oats have been around for quite some time, dating back to around 2,000 B.C. in the Middle East. Oats date back in Germany to 1,000 B.C. and because oats contain little gluten, they were considered not good for much more than animal feed. However, because oats can grow in conditions where wheat and barley won't produce, they made a place for themselves though history during harsh years and were considered a grain for the poor. Today, about 95% of all oats grown are used as animal feed. Through modern science won't learned that oats are a remarkably healthy food. With a relatively high soluble and insoluble fiber content of 10%, oats are an excellent food in lowering cholesterol and reducing the risk of heart disease. Containing over 4 times the fatty acids of wheat, oats can be considered a high calorie food containing 19% more calories than wheat. One third of those fats are the polyunsaturated type which are required for good health. Oats are also rich in the B vitamins, contain the anti-oxidant vitamin E and oats are mineral rich as well. The following table shows the nutrients in oats that are higher than the nutrients found in wheat... Nutrients in 100 Grams of Oats Unit % More Of Than Nutrient Measure Oats Wheat Food energy KCal: 389 19% Total lipids Gms: 6.9 348% Vitamin E Mg: 1.09 Infinite Thiamin Mg: 0.763 99% Riboflavin Mg: 0.139 21% Folacin Mcg: 56 47% Potassium Mg: 429 18% Calcium Mg: 54 86% Phosphorus Mg: 523 82% Magnesium Mg: 177 40% Iron Mg: 4.72 48% Zinc Mg: 3.97 50% Pantothenic acid Mg: 1.349 41% Copper Mg: 0.626 44% Manganese Mg: 4.916 23% Oats are considered a 'cleansing grain.' They not only cleanse your intestinal tract but your blood as well. Oats contain an excellent balance of amino acids. It's proteins are almost in perfect proportion to the body's needs. High in lysine which is often low in other cereal grains, oats bring a real balance to your protein needs without the need of mixing foods. Oats contain high levels of complex carbohydrates which have been linked to reducing the risk of cancer and the better control of diabetes. In the grocery stores of North America, oats are most often found as either regular or quick rolled oats. However, if you have a flaker, you can produce your own rolled oats from our oat groats producing a fresher, tastier, and more nutritious cereal. You can also run oat groats through your grain grinder to get oat flour for baking or for use in other

dishes. Using 25% oat flour, the natural vitamin E in oats will help keep your breads from going stale so quickly. Oat flour can also be used as a preservative for ice cream and other dairy products (it's that vitamin E again). It's also used as a talc replacer in skin care products. Oat bran contains glucans, a cholesterol lowering chemical through a mechanism still unclear to the scientific community. This soluble fiber in oat bran may also aid in regulating blood sugar levels by forming gels that slow the absorption of glucose sugar in the intestinal tract. It only takes 2 minutes to cook oat bran in boiling water. It's almost a convenience food when thinking of things to have for breakfast. It takes about 10-15 minutes to cook regular rolled oats. Quick rolled oats, being thinner, cook much quicker in 2-3 minutes. And instant rolled oats, which have already been cooked then dehydrated, just need hot water added. As instant rolled oats are the least nutritious, you should think seriously about using them in your every day cooking habits instead of using the slower cooking quick oats. Instant oats certainly have their place, however, such as on camping trips and in your 72-hour kits. Using rolled oats as a meat extender in meat loafs is a well known practice. And then there's oatmeal cookies. But aside from eating oatmeal for breakfast, oats aren't used too much in mainstream North America today. This is too bad as oats are so extremely healthy! The Scots and Irish base much of their cooking on oats, showing us Americans by good example that oats are a more versatile food than we seem to think. Oat flour makes rich thickeners for soups, gravies and stews. Oat flour will also add nutrition to your breads, muffins, crackers, beverages and desserts. And everybody knows oats are the main ingredient in granola. Because of the antioxidants in oats, they are a good storing grain. However, for best storage conditions, pack them in airtight containers, use oxygen absorbers and store them in a cool place. Oat Recipes: Hundreds of recipes References: The Prudent Pantry by Alan T. Hagan http://www.godsbanquet.com/recipes/grain.htm http://www.can-oat.com http://www.bartleby.com/65/oa/oats.html

Popcorn - All About Grains

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Popcorn is already a very familiar food to almost everyone. A special strain of corn, popcorn has been in existence for thousands of years. In fact, the oldest popcorn found to date was discovered in a bat cave in New Mexico and was 5,600 years old. Popcorn has also been excavated out of tombs in South America and it was so well preserved it still popped. Thousands of years old popped corn, still white and fresh looking has also been found in ancient burial sites. Popcorn kernels from those early times had a tougher hull and were not as round looking as today's popcorn. When the first Europeans made their mark on the Americas, popcorn was grown by most of the Indians living on the continent. Ancient natives wore popcorn in their hair and around their necks and used it in many different rituals honoring their Gods and their dead. When the Europeans arrived, it became a favorite food for them as well. It was found at that first Thanksgiving Day feast in Massachusetts and later in it's popped form was the first ever puffed breakfast cereal. Later, during the latter part of the 19th century, popcorn was very popular in the cities. Vendors pushed their little carts containing gas powered poppers up and down the streets and at fairs and horse races. During the Great Depression, popcorn made another upswing as this 'extra' was one of the few treats people could afford. During W.W.II when sugar was rationed, popcorn made another surge in popularity. The 1950's were not good years for popcorn. But when the 60's came along and North America fell in love with their televisions, popcorn made it's return to popularity which has only increased until the average American now eats a whopping 68 quarts of popcorn per year. Popcorn is a type of flint corn. It's kernels have a very hard outer shell with a hard starchy inside. It is dried to a moisture level of 13.5% - the optimum moisture content for good popping. Over the years, plant breeders have had their hand in perfecting popcorn until it's popping ability is now up to 99%. You may have considered popcorn to be junk-food. However, it actually supplies a lot of nutrition and is suggested as a snack by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the American Dental Association (ADA) and the American Dietetic Association (ADA). Popcorn contains substantial amounts of carbohydrates, fiber, many of the B vitamins, Potassium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Iron, Zinc, Pantothenic acid, Copper, Manganese, Linoleic acid and all the essential amino acids. And for how inexpensive popcorn is, popcorn will give you very good nutritional bang for the buck in your food storage or every-day eating. It's inexpensive, easy to pop and great fun to eat. Hints for getting the best popped corn: Don't pop popcorn in butter as the butter will burn before it can get hot enough. Popcorn pops best in temperatures of 400-460 degrees F. If your oil starts to smoke which happens at 500 degrees F, you've got it too hot. Any oil will work. Use enough oil to cover the bottom of the pan. For your health, you should choose a light cooking oil or better yet, skip the oil all together and use an air popper. The movie houses use yellow dyed coconut oil which does a great job of popping the popcorn although there are healthier oils you can use than coconut oil. To see if you have the oil hot enough, drop a couple of kernels into the hot oil. If it's hot enough, they should pop in just a few seconds. If you don't have a popper, any thick bottomed, high walled pan will do. Popcorn can even be easily made in a Dutch oven over a camp fire. When your oil is the right temperature, pour in your popcorn, shaking the pan to cover all the seeds in oil. Do this with the lid on to prevent burns should the

hot oil try to splash out of the pan. Using a lid helps the kernels to heat more evenly and keeps the popping corn from flying all over the place. (If you are using a popcorn popper, shaking it isn't necessary because of it's rounded bottom.) As it begins popping, it's important to continue to shake a flat-bottomed pan. This helps any un-popped kernels to settle to the bottom of the pan where they can pop. As soon as you hear the popcorn stop popping, pull the pan off the heat and pour the popcorn into another container. It will burn if you leave it in the hot pan. What can you do if you've done everything right but your popcorn still doesn't pop very well? As mentioned above, popcorn must have about 13.5 to 14% moisture to pop properly. This is because as the popcorn kernel is heated, the moisture inside the seed is turned to steam creating a huge inner pressure. As this pressure continues past the shell's strength to keep it in, the skin ruptures and the inner starchy layer of the kernel greatly expands and turns itself inside out. If the moisture isn't there, this pressure build-up can't happen. If you find your popcorn has excessive old maids (un-popped kernels) in it, the problem might be that it lacks moisture. Place 3 cups of un-popped popcorn into a quart bottle. Add a tablespoon of water, put the lid on and shake it to get water on all the kernels. If the water puddles in the bottom of the bottle, shake it again every 10 minutes until enough of the water has been absorbed to prevent puddling. Now let it sit for two or three days while the moisture is evenly distributed into the kernels. If it still doesn't pop correctly, repeat this process but add no more than 2 teaspoons of water the second time. Yes, it's also possible to get it so moist it won't pop, so definitely, don't add water a third time. Lastly, you can even take your old maids that didn't pop, rejuvenate them with water using the above process and re-pop them. (With a measurement of three cups un-popped popcorn, 1 tablespoon of water will increase the moisture content 2.5%. A teaspoon of water will increase the moisture level almost 1%. Air dried popcorn will probably never get below a 10% moisture content on it's own, so adding even two tablespoons of water would be pushing it, raising the moisture content to 15% - that is if it started out at a moisture level of 10%.) Final thoughts: Popcorn doesn't grind nicely into a flour like yellow dent corn but is fairly gritty because of it's hard inner starches. Also, popcorn is such a hard kernel that several of the lower-end grain grinders can be damaged by it. As popcorn costs twice as much as yellow dent corn, it only makes sense to get that type of field corn for your corn meal needs and leave the popcorn for popping. Popcorn Recipes: http://www.popcorn.org http://www.hungrymonster.com References: http://www.popcorn.org The Prudent Pantry by Alan T. Hagan

Quinoa - All About Grains

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Like some of the other exotic grains, Quinoa isn't a grain at all but is technically a fruit. Quinoa might be a new and exotic item here in North America, however, this isn't so in South America where it has grown for more than 5,000 years in and around the Andes Mountains. The Incas called Quinoa 'the Mother Grain' as eating this food tended to give long life. Quinoa can be grown just about anywhere - presently being grown in the US and Canada. But North American growers, so far, are unable to match the quality of Quinoa that comes from the high mountains of South America. Farmers trying to grow this variety of Quinoa, called Altiplano, haven't been able to get it to produce in the lower elevations of North America. Instead, North American farmers grow a darker brown, more bitter tasting variety of Quinoa called 'Sea Level Quinoa.' The really good, light colored, sweetly delicate Quinoa comes from the highest mountains in the Andes. This 'Golden Grain of the Andes' is such a rugged little plant that it can even grow at high, extremely dry elevations where even grass won't grow. Yet, the most sought-after strains of Quinoa are so fragile that they won't produce at lower elevations on good soil. Interestingly enough, much of the world's Quinoa is grown in Bolivia at elevations around 12,000 feet. The Quinoa seed is a small oval disk about 1.5-2 mm in diameter. As it grows, the seed is coated with a dark, almost black layer of 'saponine' that has a bitter, soapy taste. Saponine is the plant's natural defense against insects, birds and other small animals that might want to eat it on the stock. Before Quinoa can be eaten, the saponine must me washed off. (As saponine acts as a crude soap, the locals who grow Quinoa, save the saponine-water and wash their clothes in it!) Virtually all Quinoa sold in North America as food already has the saponine removed. This leaves a very nutritious food that has been called my many, 'nature's perfect food.' Quinoa is one of the few foods with a relatively balanced protein. Quinoa's high level of the amino acid, lycine, complements wheat nicely. By mixing Quinoa into your wheat at a ratio of 25% Quinoa to 75% wheat, the Quinoa will make your wheat breads a complete protein. Quinoa contains a long list of nutrients. The following table lists the nutrients found in Quinoa that are higher than what is found in wheat: Nutrients in 100 grams of Quinoa Unit Amount % More Of In Than Nutrient Measure Quinoa Wheat Food energy KCal: 374 113% Total lipid (fat) Gms: 5.8 302% Carbohydrate, by diff. Gms: 68.9 101% Ttl monounsaturated fat Gms: 1.535 506% Ttl polyunsaturated fat Gms: 2.347 306% Riboflavin Mg : 0.396 360% Folacin Mcg: 49 113% Potassium Mg : 740 217% Calcium Mg : 60 240% Phosphorus Mg : 410 123% Magnesium Mg : 210 169% Iron Mg : 9.25 256% Zinc Mg : 3.3 118% Pantothenic acid Mg : 1.047 111% Copper Mg : 0.82 200% Oleic acid (18:1) Gms: 1.525 646% Linoleic acid (18:2/n6) Gms: 2.214 304% Lysine Gms: 0.734 181% Methionine Gms: 0.262 113% Arginine Gms: 0.918 130% Tryptophan Gms: 1.100 580%

Quinoa has a high oil content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Because of this, it's important to store Quinoa in a cool place, and if you are going to store it for the long term, place it in airtight containers and remove the oxygen with oxygen absorbers. Removing the oxygen doesn't stop the aging process of foods, but it goes a long way to extend it several times. The Quinoa that we offer comes from the Altiplano strain grown between 12,000 and 14,000 feet in the Andes Mountains of Bolivia. It's saponine has been carefully washed off so you can still sprout the seed if you like. Some Quinoa processors use steam during the de-saponine process which kills the seed. Our Quinoa comes directly from the subsistence farmers of the high mountains of Bolivia. Getting our Quinoa directly supports these farmers who work hard, toiling by hand without the aid of machines to plant and harvest this crop, wishing only to provide you with an outstanding product that can only be grown in this unique area of the world. Quinoa contains no gluten so it's safe for gluten intolerant people to eat. Quinoa can be eaten in many different ways. Traditionally it has been eaten as a porridge or in soups and stews. Only taking 10-12 minutes to boil until soft (Quinoa is the fastest cooking whole grain), Quinoa seed's size mushrooms into plump little morsels with a tail. The Altiplano Quinoa has somewhat of a bland yet pleasant flavor. Having a nice, crisp texture similar to brown rice, Quinoa has greatly expanded nutritional qualities over rice and can be used in place of rice in most dishes. Quinoa is also delicious eaten as a side dish by itself. Quinoa flour has been made into spaghetti noodles, flakes, a drink and Quinoa has even been popped. Mixed with wheat flour, Quinoa will boost the nutritional qualities of your bread and add it's unique flavor. In addition to this, it can be used to make delicious salads, soups and desserts. With the amazing nutrition that's found in Quinoa, we think, as you begin to use this grain, you will start using it more and more in your daily cooking. Recipes: http://www.ox.compsoc.org.uk/~kake/cookery/quinoa.html http://vegetarianrecipe.com/AZ/QinPdding.asp Quinoa pudding http://www.quinoa.com/recipes.htm http://www.healthrecipes.com/quinoa_recipes.htm http://www.fatfree.com/archive/1999/oct/msg00065.html http://www.healthrecipes.com/quinoa_recipes.htm http://www.quinoa.net/Recipes/recipes.html References: http://www.quinoa.net http://quinoa.com/quinoa.htm http://www.nuworldamaranth.com http://www.godsbanquet.com/recipes/grain.htm

Rice - All About Grains

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View our complete line of Organic Rice

Rice, a traditional staple food of the Orient, has gradually become a food that is used around the world. A primary food in many parts of Asia, rice makes up anywhere between 55% and 80% of the caloric intake in countries such as Bangladesh, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam where the average person eats up to 300 lbs. of rice a year. Up to 95% of the world's rice is consumed in Asia, grown within 5 miles of where it is consumed. As another example of how much a local crop rice is, of the world's 520 million metric ton crop grown world wide, only about 10% of it grown in the United States, yet the US is the largest exporter of rice in the world. Yes, rice has been an important food in the Orient for thousands of years. But because of it's ease of cooking, good taste and it's high diversity in making literally thousands of different dishes, rice is becoming an ever more important part of the diet here in North America. Rice can be used as part of every meal of the day and in every dish served. Rice milk and rice crispies for breakfast, a rice snack at lunch and boiled rice in place of potatoes and rice pudding at dinner. Rice goes well with any vegetable and with most of the fruits. There are literally thousands of uses for rice in casseroles, salads and desserts. It is believed that rice was first cultivated in central India but was quickly put into large cultivation by the Chinese. This happened as long as 5,500 years ago with rice quickly spreading throughout Asia. It took rice over 4,500 years to reach Europe in the 12th Century, AD. Then rice was brought to the Americas in the 1690s. Most of us here in America only know of two kinds of rice - long grain brown rice and long grain white rice which is refined long grain brown rice. However, there are over 7,000 varieties of rice around the world. There are different varieties of medium length rice, and short grain rices as well whose kernels can be so stubby that the seed is almost round in shape. As 99% of the rice eaten in North America is long grain brown or white rice, we will restrict most of our comments to these two rices. However, you will see a small section on Basmati rice at the bottom. Brown rice is turned into white rice by polishing the outer layers off. With the outer layers removed, the rice cooks a little quicker, is easier to chew and because it's flavor is a bit more bland, can be more easily made into more foods than brown rice. In it's unrefined form, brown rice has a very short shelf life of 6 to 12 months. This is because the fatty acids, unprotected from the air in the outer layers of the kernel go rancid relatively quickly. In it's refined form, white rice will store for many years if carefully

preserved. But there's a big problem with white rice. The majority of the nutrients in the rice kernel are in the layers that are removed. What's left is mostly starch. As refined rice is 81%-83% carbohydrates, it's considered a high energy food. But on the flip side of this, many of the nutrients needed for correct digestion of white rice were removed during the milling process which forces the body to 'steal' from it's reserves to digest it. Compared to brown rice, white rice's nutrients have been greatly reduced in fatty acids, fiber (which is already low in brown rice compared to some of the other grains), vitamin E, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folacin, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, zinc and copper. The amino acids remain relatively unchanged. (See the rice comparison table at the bottom of this paper.) As white rice is so poor nutritionally, it is usually fortified with several of these same nutrients that were removed. These fortified vitamins are usually in the form of a powder on the outside of the rice. If you wash your white rice before cooking it, you will wash off the majority of these added nutrients. When you eat brown rice, you eat all the natural nutrition that comes with this grain. After becoming accustomed to brown rice, many people like it just as much or better with it's more robust flavor and more hardy texture. We have come to understand brown rice will stay fresh for years if it is packed in the absence of oxygen then stored in a cool place. With the oxygen removed, there's little oxygen to oxidize the fatty acids. This greatly retards the aging process. There are a couple of different ways white rice can be processed. The parboiling process takes brown rice, soaks it then steams it which drives many of the nutrients from the outer layers into the main endosperm part of the seed. It's then dried. After drying, the outer layers and germ are removed, turning it into parboiled, white rice. Parboiling the rice first increases it's nutrient value but parboiled rice still falls far short of the nutrition found in brown rice. But enough of the B vitamins have been driven into the kernel to prevent beriberi, a deficiency disease caused by a lack of thiamin. Eating only white rice, beriberi is almost a certainty. Instant rice has been fully cooked and is then dehydrated. It requires little more than hot water to reconstitute it. Being pre-cooked, instant rice could go well in your 72 hr kit or the small survival unit you keep in your car or boat. However, as it has been further processed, it's generally more expensive and although it has been fortified, is the least nutritious of the different kinds of white rice you can buy. Taking about 90 minutes to cook (20 minutes if it's been pre-soaked), rice is customarily cooked once a day in the orient and eaten in various ways during the day. White rice is the least nutritious of all the grains. Should you decide to make rice one of the staples of your food supply, care should be taken to insure adequate vitamins and minerals are received from other sources. Although rice has it's problems nutritionally as a standalone food, it's a great energy source. And although it's low in protein, as compared to some of the other grains, the protein rice does contain is more available than the amino acids in wheat. The good news is you wouldn't get a protein deficiency even if the only thing you ate was rice. And among the grains, rice's amino acid balance is only bettered by oats. Lastly, although not as cheap per calorie as wheat, rice is a great buy when considering energy VS cost and is much more versatile in it's whole grain form than wheat. Permit rice to add a lot of diversity to your food supply and day-to-day diet. Basmati rice, traditionally a special strain of rice from India and Pakistan, it's starting to be grown in North America as well. Indistinguishable from brown rice to the untrained

eye, all one needs is a quick whiff of the Basmati rice to know they are not the same. Basmati rice has a strong, pungent odor that also has a much stronger flavor than regular long grain brown rice. When cooking Basmati rice, it's always a good idea to wash it first in water which washes away a bit of it's starch, making it less sticky when cooked. Sought after for Asian cuisine, many people have grown to love the flavor and texture of this rice grown half way around the world. Nutrition Values Of Processed and Unprocessed Long Grain Rice: Brown White Rice Enriched Enriched Raw Unenriched Parboiled Instant Food energy KCal: 370.000 365.000 371.000 379.000 Protein Gms: 7.940 7.130 6.790 7.660 Total lipid (fat) Gms: 2.920 0.660 0.560 0.290 Carbohydrate, by diff. Gms: 77.240 79.950 81.720 83.590 Total saturated fat Gms: 0.584 0.180 0.151 0.078 Ttl monounsaturated fat Gms: 1.056 0.206 0.173 0.089 Ttl polyunsaturated fat Gms: 1.044 0.177 0.149 0.077 Cholesterol Mg : 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 Sodium Mg : 7.000 5.000 5.000 6.000 Total dietary fiber Gms: 3.500 1.300 1.700 1.600 Vitamin A Re : 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 Vitamin E Mg : 0.680 0.000 0.000 0.000 Thiamin Mg : 0.401 0.070 0.596 0.618 Riboflavin Mg : 0.093 0.049 0.070 0.060 Niacin Mg : 5.091 1.600 3.632 5.471 Vitamin B6 Mg : 0.509 0.164 0.350 0.044 Folacin Mcg: 20.000 8.000 17.000 6.000 Potassium Mg : 223.000 115.000 120.000 18.000 Calcium Mg : 23.000 28.000 60.000 18.000 Phosphorus Mg : 333.000 115.000 136.000 68.000 Magnesium Mg : 143.000 25.000 31.000 12.000 Iron Mg : 1.470 0.800 3.560 4.190 Zinc Mg : 2.020 1.090 0.960 0.960 Pantothenic acid Mg : 1.493 1.014 1.133 0.432 Copper Mg : 0.277 0.220 0.191 0.165 Manganese Mg : 3.743 1.088 0.850 0.647 Histidine Gms: 0.202 0.168 0.160 0.180 Isoleucine Gms: 0.336 0.308 0.293 0.331 Leucine Gms: 0.657 0.589 0.562 0.633 Lysine Gms: 0.303 0.258 0.246 0.277 Methionine Gms: 0.179 0.168 0.160 0.180 Cystine Gms: 0.096 0.146 0.139 0.157 Methionine+Cystine Gms: 0.275 0.314 0.299 0.337 Phenylalanine Gms: 0.410 0.381 0.363 0.409 Tyrosine Gms: 0.298 0.238 0.227 0.256 Phenylalanine+Tyrosine Gms: 0.708 0.619 0.590 0.665 Threonine Gms: 0.291 0.255 0.243 0.274 Tryptophan Gms: 0.101 0.083 0.079 0.089 Valine Gms: 0.466 0.435 0.414 0.467 Arginine Gms: 0.602 0.594 0.566 0.638 Alanine Gms: 0.463 0.413 0.394 0.444 Aspartic acid Gms: 0.743 0.670 0.638 0.719 Glutamic acid Gms: 1.618 1.389 1.325 1.493 Glycine Gms: 0.391 0.325 0.309 0.349 Recipes: http://www.unclebens.com/us/cookbook Uncle Ben's http://recipes.alastra.com/rice/default.html Hundreds of Rice Recipes http://www.godsbanquet.com/recipes/rice%20world.htm Resources: The Prudent Pantry by Alan T. Hagen http://www.cup.org/books/kiple/rice.htm http://www.bartleby.com/61/39/B0103950.html http://www.godsbanquet.com/recipes/rice%20world.htm http://www.cup.org/books/kiple/rice.htm

Rye - All About Grains

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A kernel of rye has many of the characteristics of a wheat seed but is a little less plump, is a little longer and has a darker, grayer color. Chewing seeds from each, they also taste quite similar, although rye has a little stronger flavor. When cooked, rye takes on it's distinctive flavor that makes this bread such a treat. A very popular grain in East Europe and Germany, breads made from rye have a distinctive flavor that is prized by many. A relatively new grain, it's estimated that rye has only been in cultivation for 2,000 to 3,000 years, probably originating in Asia Minor. In the past, rye was a very popular grain as it grew so well, even on poor soils, under dry, cold conditions and at high altitudes - on lands where other grains didn't produce well. For many in the dark ages, rye was a grain that could most often be counted on to give them enough of a return that they wouldn't starve. Rye made it's debut into the Americas in the 16th and 17th centuries and has been a minor cereal grain here ever since. During the 19th century and into the 20th century with the advent of more hardy, quicker maturing and more abundant producing strains of wheat, rye has markedly decreased in popularity and production. But rye continues to hold it's 'nitch' with the distinctive flavor it gives breads in Europe as well as here in North America. Although rye does have some gluten, it doesn't contain enough to make good bread and must be used with other high gluten flours. Because of this, rye bread is generally heavier than wheat bread and has a darker color, a reflection of the grain it comes from. The more wheat flour is used, the lighter and milder the bread. Pumpernickel is one of the breads on the rye heavy side of this spectrum, prized by many for it's rich, dark brown color and strong flavor. Rye's nutritional characteristics are similar to the other cereal grains, however rye is higher than wheat in fiber, vitamin E, riboflavin, folacin and pantothentic acid. And unusual for a cereal grain, rye contains twice as much of the amino acid, lysine as wheat. This is especially significant because lysine's the limiting amino acid in wheat and most other cereal grains which necessitates food mixing to develop a complete protein. This isn't a problem with rye as eating rye by itself gives you a well rounded protein. Rye's high fiber content, higher than the wheats, also aids in fighting heart disease. In one study reported in the December, 1966 edition of the American Heart Association's Journal, the high fiber content in grains, and especially rye, decreased the incidence of heart disease by 17% in 22,000 Finnish subjects. Rye has many uses but is most well known for breads and the making of rye whisky. Rye flours are used as fillers in sauces, soups and in many processed meats such as sausages. Rye can be rolled into flakes or cracked and eaten as a breakfast cereal or ground and made into crackers. Rye can be added to many foods to give them a distinctive flavor. Whole rye kernels take a long time to cook - as long as two hours.

And rye flakes can take as long as an hour to cook. Soaking the whole rye seed overnight will reduce the cooking time markedly. A small percentage of rye goes well with rice or you can make your own cracked or rolled multi-grain cereals. Rye flakes go great in granolas, trail mixes, and rye flakes are also a popular item in rye breads. Rye Bread Recipes: Latvian Sourdough Rye Bread German Rye Bread Limpa Rye Bread for Electric Bread Machine Bread Machine Jewish Rye Bread Stout Rye Bread Deli Style Rye Bread References: http://www.kellogg.com.au/04/02/0402f.asp http://www.dietetique.com.fr/laurence/cereales/en/rye.html http://www.mngrain.com/rye.html http://home3.inet.tele.dk/starch/isi/starch/rye.htm

Spelt - All About Grains

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Spelt comes from a wheat-like plant whose seed somewhat resembles wheat but is a bit longer and more pointed. Just like hard red winter wheat, Spelt must be planted in the fall of the year, maturing the following summer. It is an ancient grain that has been grown all over Europe for the last 9,000 years and is also referred to in the Old Testament of the Bible. In fact, it is believed that only the grains Emmer and Elkorn have preceded Spelt in being domesticated. Here in the United States, Spelt was brought by Swiss Immigrants to the Eastern Ohio and from that time spelt was a very common grain grown for hundreds of years throughout the United States. During the 20th Century, it was almost completely abandoned for the more modern varieties of wheat which had a higher yield, shorter growing season and better resistance to disease. In Europe, especially during the Middle Ages, Spelt was grown for human consumption and also animal feed. Here in the United States, until recent times, Spelt was grown mostly as feed. However, since the mid 1980's, Spent has made a real inroad into the health food market as a wheat substitute. Many people who are allergic to wheat can tolerate Spelt. However, many allergy doctors believe that Spelt is too closely related to wheat for it to be an effective replacement grain. They feel that even though wheat sensitive people might be able to

tolerate it now, as time goes by they will develop wheat-like allergies to it. However, companies that exclusively sell Spelt products to people, many of them with wheat allergies, say their customers have had really good luck eating Spelt goods. Spelt has a lower gluten strength which makes it possible for many people with gluten allergies to eat this product. Purity Foods, one of the main marketers of Spelt say that out of thousands of their customers with wheat allergies, only 16 of them have reported allergic reactions to Spelt. An Ohio bakery that specializes in making spelt products and distributes them over several different states has numerous customers who can't tolerate wheat yet can eat Spelt products. It seems, for the wheat intolerant among us, Spelt is probably worth a try. If you are allergic to wheat and you want to use Spelt, please consult your doctor before trying this product, then use adequate safeguards when trying Spelt to prevent serious complications should you also be allergic to this product. Spelt contains 15 - 21% protein which is much higher than wheat. It's also higher than wheat in complex carbohydrates, iron, potassium and the B Vitamins. Spelt is easier to digest than wheat products because of it's higher solubility in water. Spelt also contains nutrients that aid in blood clotting and also stimulate the immune system. Due to Spelt's high water solubility and fragile gluten, the grain's vital substances can be absorbed quickly by the body with a minimum of digestive work. Spelt contains special carbohydrates which play a decisive role in blood clotting and stimulate the body's immune system. It's high fiber content aids in reducing cholesterol and heart disease. It's also nice to know that something as healthy as Spelt also has a great flavor. Spelt is just another example of what great nutrition should taste like. Cooking with Spelt flour is similar to cooking with wheat flour. You can make all the same dishes such as pancakes and waffles, muffins, cakes, crackers and cookies, pastas and breads. Because of it's lower gluten content, however, you will probably not wish to let it rise as high as regular wheat flour bread. When baking, Spelt flour doesn't require as much water - if substituting spelt flour for wheat flour in your favorite recipe, start by using only 3/4ths as much water. Recipes: http://www.sfn.saskatoon.sk.ca/business/steephill/speltrec.html http://www.around.ntl.sympatico.ca/~jroberge/srecipe.html References: The Prudent Pantry by Alan T. Hagan http://207.87.221.23/~frenchs http://www.purityfoods.com/furrow.html http://www.spelt.com

Triticale - All About Grains

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Triticale is a new grain that was created by crossing rye and durum wheat. It's kernels are longer than wheat seeds and are plumper than rye. It's color can range from the tan of wheat to the gray-brown color of rye. Triticale is a new, man-made grain first grown in 1875. But it's development didn't really begin until the 1930's. It took scientists over 30 years to get it perfected to the point they felt they could release the grain for commercial production. This happened in 1969. Triticale is still in the middle of it's period of accelerated evolution which will continue into the future. Triticale takes the best qualities of durum wheat and rye and ends up with properties better than both grains. Rye is known for it's ability to grow well on poor ground, dry conditions and cold climates. Triticale is just as hardy. And Triticale contains more protein than either of it's parents, rye or wheat. The scientists haven't worked out all the 'bugs' yet in Triticale, however. The lower gluten content of Triticale is one of them. Because of this, bakers who use Triticale use 50% wheat flour so the loaf won't be so heavy. As the world becomes more populated and we put ever poorer soils into production, Triticale's importance will increase with it's higher yields over wheat or rye. Triticale is a healthy grain. We've already mentioned it's higher protein content. Of that protein, it has a higher quality amino acid balance than it's parents. It has a higher lysine content than wheat and like wheat, can be stored for long periods of time. Presently, 6 million metric tons of Triticale are grown, mostly in Europe, with about 7% of this production here in North America. This will only increase in the future. When using Triticale, treat it much like you would if you were using wheat or rye. With it's flavor that's much like wheat, it can be cooked whole as a breakfast cereal in about an hour. Rolled or cracked, it cooks up much more quickly. It can also be ground and used in the multitudinous recipes where wheat flour is used. Perhaps we should again mention that because of it's weaker gluten content, when making leavened breads, you should use at least 50% wheat flour to ensure a good rise. Don't knead the dough excessively as this can damage Triticale's delicate gluten. References: The Prudent Pantry by Alan T. Hagan http://www.agric.gov.ab.ca/agdex/100/18000201.html http://www.epicurious.com/run/fooddictionary/browse?entry_id=10652 http://www.worldbank.org/html/cgiar/newsletter/april97/8tritic.html http://www.voicenet.com/~tjohn/grains.html

Wheats - All About Grains

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Wheat has been called the 'staff of life' for hundreds of years because of it's excellent nutrition, storability and versatility. Aside from just a couple of limiting nutrients which can easily be made up with small quantities of other foods, wheat has long been considered the focal point of home food storage. Nutritional bang for the buck, wheat is the cheapest food available in North America. Just $90 of wheat at 2001 prices will provide the energy needs, all the protein requirements and many of the vitamins and minerals an adult needs for a whole year to stay healthy. No other food can even come close to this claim for such a low price. Wheat is the most versatile whole food grown in North America and is found in a high percentage of today's prepared dishes. Wheat has been a valuable crop for many thousands of years. It is believed that wheat was first domesticated from wild grasses as long ago as 9,000 B.C. in what is present day Iraq where it's still growing wild. From Iraq, wheat spread over the ancient world. By 2,000 B.C. wheat had spread through much of Asia, Europe and North Africa. Slowly during this same period, the different varieties of wheat we know so well today started to emerge - the hard and soft wheats and durum. Around 2,500 B.C. the Egyptians learned how to exploit the gluten in wheat flour making the first raised breads from yeast. This discovery alone pushed wheat to the forefront ahead of the other prized grains of the day, oats, millet, rice and barley. The Egyptians grew huge amounts of wheat. They eventually started exporting wheat to other parts of the new world. This turned into such a huge trade that massive sailing barges were built, large enough to carry 1,300 tons of grain in their holds. Their main trade route plied between Alexandria and Rome. After the fall of Rome, these massive sailing ships disappeared and nothing of their size was again seen until the early 19th century. Pasta, first believed to be invented in China, quickly became a mainstay in Rome and the rest of Italy where it remains an important staple item to this day. Wheat came to the Americas with Christopher Columbus and again by the Pilgrims in 1620. Through the centuries, wheat remained a labor intensive crop to grow and harvest but all of this changed in 1831 when Cyrus McCormick's binding machine went into production which was followed by the early threshing machine. Today, these two pieces of equipment are combined into one machine in the form of the modern combine which can do the work that took hundreds of men to accomplish with a scythe, flail and the wind. The different varieties of wheat grown today probably show little resemblance to wheat grown thousands of years ago. Plant breeders have had hundreds of years to carefully modify this grain to produce quicker in areas of short summers, be more drought resistant and have higher yields. Each variety has been enhanced with the positive characteristics for it's intended use. Wheat's productivity has been tweaked to the point that a year's harvest on one small acre of wheat can make all the bread a family of 4 eats in a ten year period! Wheat is the grain of versatility. More foods have their origins in

wheat than any other single food source contributing to 10-20% of the daily energy needs of people in over 60 countries. Wheat's secret to it's vast popularity lies in it's high gluten content - higher than any other grain. Gluten comes from the two amino acids, Gliadin and Glutenin, which make up about 80-85% of the protein in the hard wheat varieties. Gliadin and glutenin are also found in rye, oats and barley but at much lower levels. Gluten, when mixed with water, forms stringy, elastic strands which permits the dough to trap expanding gasses produced by yeast. This permits light, fluffy breads. Because the amino acids forming gluten make up so much of the protein in wheat, you can generally determine the gluten strength of hard wheat varieties by the total protein content. Although it's not true in all cases, generally speaking, when the protein content rises, the gluten content follows it. If you are going to mix other, non-gluten or low gluten flours with your wheat flour to make yeast breads, be sure to mix them with high gluten wheat flour. Gluten makes dough 'tough' which is good for bread flours but not good for pastry and cake flours. Refined gluten such as our Vital Wheat Gluten has a gluten content of around 45%. Next in gluten content comes flours made from the high protein hard wheats which contain gluten levels of 12.5-13.5%. All purpose flour contains about 10-12% gluten and is actually a mix of high and low gluten wheat flours. Pastry flour contains about 910% gluten and lastly, cake flour contains about 7-9%. Both these last flours are made from soft wheats. Flour high in gluten content doesn't make very good cakes as the cake would lose it's soft, easily cuttable characteristics. Good angel food cake requires the lowest gluten flours. Wheat is grown over much of North America but different types of wheat produce better in different parts of the country. The soft wheats which produce low gluten flours are grown east of the Mississippi River and in the Pacific Northwest where the humidity is usually high and temperatures remain elevated during the night. The hard wheats require low humidity, hot days and cool nights to develop their high protein levels. The Intermountain West has the best conditions for this although Kansas is also a major producer of the hard wheats. Perhaps the best areas, however, are the mountain valleys that don't freeze too early in the fall of the year or the plains of Montana and Alberta where hot days, cool nights and low humidity are the norm. These are the areas where we get our hard wheats for bread making. There are two major groups of wheats - the hard and soft varieties with a third major division for durum wheat. The hard wheats generally contain smaller kernels and are harder than soft wheat kernels. They contain high protein and gluten levels primarily designed for making bread flours. Depending on variety and growing conditions, hard wheats can have vasty different protein levels. For bread making, your wheat should have a minimum of 12% protein. The hard varieties of wheat can have protein levels up to 15 or 16%. Generally speaking for bread making, the higher the protein content the better. The two main types of hard wheat are the hard red and the hard white varieties. Hard white wheat is a relative new-comer that tends to produce a lighter colored, more spongy loaf of bread and because of this, it is gaining quick popularity among home bread makers. However, we have talked with bread makers who prefer the hard red wheat for it's more robust flavor and more traditional textured loaf of bread it makes.

The soft wheats are just that - not quite so hard. If you want to roll your own wheat, you should buy soft wheat. The hard wheats tend to crack and break in the flaking machine. Containing less protein and gluten, soft wheat flour is ideally suited for making biscuits, pastries and quick breads. Typical protein levels for the soft wheats are 9-11%. Flour made from the soft wheats can also be used for cake flours. If you want a really low gluten cake flour, mix your soft wheat flour with other low gluten flours such as oat flour, barley flour of buckwheat flour. Durum wheat is a botanically separate species from the hard and soft wheat varieties. It's kernels are a little larger and are shaped a bit differently than the other wheats. Durum wheat has very hard, high protein kernels but it's the wrong kind of protein to form a strong gluten. Durum has been used for centuries to make pasta; whether it's macaroni, egg noodles or spaghetti noodles. These different wheats can be further broken down into the winter and spring wheats. Winter wheats are planted in the fall of the year and must begin growing before winter comes. The top 'winter kills,' but just as soon as spring arrives, they jump back into life. Winter wheats can be harvested earlier in the year than spring wheats. Some people claim that hard red winter wheat has a better protein content than the hard spring wheats. However, this is not necessarily so. It all depends on the growing conditions and farming methods. The spring wheats are planted in the spring of the year then are harvested in the fall and can have excellent protein profiles. For example, all hard white wheat the bakers love so much is a spring wheat. We know of no food that stores as long as wheat. Stored in a cool, dry place, wheat has been known to store for 30 years. Prepared for long-term storage, wheat will last even longer than this if carefully stored. Modern food storage methodology suggests, however, that you rotate your wheat like you should rotate all your other foods to keep it as fresh as possible. There are a couple of fractional wheat products available aside from white flour we'd like to mention; wheat bran, wheat flakes, wheat germ and germade. Wheat Bran comes from the outer layers of the wheat kernel and contains 43% insoluble fiber. It also contains substantial amounts of protein, carbohydrates, and is quite high is some of the vitamins and minerals. It tastes great in muffins and other high fiber foods and is very effective as a cholesterol reducing agent as well as promoting regularity. Wheat germ contains just the embryo part of the wheat kernel which has been flattened in a roller. It's then toasted because of it's high oil content to extend it's shelf life. Wheat germ, a compressed source of nutrition, contains most of the vitamins and minerals found in the seed. The wheat germ has a wonderful, nutty flavor and goes well in granola or baked into breads or breakfast cereal.

Wheat flakes are made by rolling wheat in a flaker and cracked wheat is made by cracking open the wheat kernels. Both of these items can be cooked as a breakfast cereal. The wheat flakes also go well in breads, casseroles and granola. Germade, a popular cooked breakfast cereal, makes a good start to anyone's day. Germade is made from wheat that's had it's bran and germ removed. Then, the endosperm that's left is coarsely ground and packaged. References: The Prudent Pantry by Alan T. Hagan http://www.voicenet.com/~tjohn/grains.html http://www.godsbanquet.com/recipes/grain.htm http://www.cyberspaceag.com/wheathistory.html http://www.encyclopedia.com/articlesnew/13802History.html http://www.central.k12.ca.us/akers/students/agriculture/whistory.html http://www.leantichetradizioni.it/eng/frumento.htm http://www.pasta.co.uk/total_pasta/history http://www.faqs.org/faqs/food/sourdough/faq/section-2.html http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/cgi-bin/nut_search.pl https://www.usaemergencysupply.com/information_center/all_about_grains/all_about_ grains_wheats.htm

Leguminosa, Leguminosas: Leguminosas: En agricultura se incluye bajo este vocablo a un grupo de plantas cultivadas pertenecientes a la familia del mismo nombre, que se usan preferentemente para alimentacin de los animales y del hombre. Pueden ser de grano (juda, soja, haba, lenteja, garbanzo, guisante, algarroba, altramuz, cacahuete, etc.) o forrajeras (alfalfas, trboles, vezas, etc.) Leguminosas: Orden de plantas dicotiledneas que incluye la familia de las papilionceas. Son plantas leosas o herbceas con fruto tipo legumbre y con diversas especies cultivadas por su importancia en la alimentacin humana y del ganado y sus aplicaciones industriales. Las leguminosas son capaces de fijar nitrgeno atmosfrico por su simbiosis son el gnero bacteriano Rhizobium. Entre ellas se encuentran plantas como el garbanzo, la lenteja, la juda y el guisante. Leguminosas: Orden de plantas dicotiledneas que incluye la familia de las papilionceas. Son plantas leosas o herbceas con fruto tipo legumbre y con diversas especies cultivadas por su importancia en la alimentacin humana y del ganado y sus aplicaciones industriales. Las leguminosas son capaces de fijar nitrgeno atmosfrico por su simbiosis con el gnero bacteriano Rhizobium. Entre ellas se encuentran plantas como el garbanzo, la lenteja, la juda y el guisante. Leguminosas: Familia botnica que incluye plantas caracterizadas por producir frutos en forma de vainas dentro de las cuales se encuentran las semillas. Tienen la propiedad de tomar el nitrgeno de la atmsfera y a travs de bacterias en sus races, incorporndolo

al suelo. Ejemplos: frjol, arveja, garbanzo, soya, lenteja, matarratn, caup, alfalfa, guandul, kudz. Leguminosas: Familia de plantas que se caracteriza por una morfologa floral similar a la de la arveja. Muchas pero no todas las legumbres presentan ndulos radiculares por la simbiosis con bacterias del suelo fijadoras de nitrgeno como Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium y Azorhizobium. Leguminosas: Plantas cuyo fruto est protegido por una vaina o baya. algunas son importantes para la alimentacin animal, como la alfalfa y la soya.

Leguminosa, Leguminosas - Manual de Lombricultura


www.manualdelombricultura.com/glosario/.../163.htm...Translate this page Leguminosas: En agricultura se incluye bajo este vocablo a un grupo de plantas ... Ejemplos: frjol, arveja, garbanzo, soya, lenteja, matarratn, caup, alfalfa

Legumbre
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Tres tipos de lentejas.

Semillas de soja. Se denomina legumbre (del latn legumen) a la semilla contenida en la vaina de plantas de la familia de las Leguminosas (Fabaceae). Las legumbres constituyen un grupo de alimentos muy homogneo, desarrollados a partir del gineceo, de un solo carpelo y que se abre tanto por la sutura ventral como por el nervio dorsal, en dos valvas y con las semillas en una hilera ventral. Estas vainas suelen ser rectas y carnosas. Por lo general poseen una carne interior esponjosa, aterciopelada y de color blanco. Su parte interna corresponde al mesocarpio y al endocarpio del fruto. El tamao de las legumbres vara desde un milmetro o poco ms hasta cincuenta centmetros. Su forma, aunque en la mayora de los casos es alargada y comprimida, como la de las judas, frijoles o habichuelas, vara muchsimo. Estos frutos pertenecen al gran grupo de las plantas leguminosas (familia Fabaceae) y, a pesar del gran nmero de especies que componen esta familia, las utilizadas para la alimentacin humana y del ganado son relativamente pocas. La parte de la planta consumida en alimentacin animal y humana vara entre las distintas especies de leguminosas. En la mayor parte de los casos, la parte comestible coincide con la utilizada por la planta como almacn de sustancias de reserva. La gran variacin existente en la parte consumida es una consecuencia de la diversidad de estrategias utilizadas por las leguminosas para su adaptacin a los medios ms diversos.

ndice

1 Principales legumbres 2 Composicin o 2.1 Protenas o 2.2 Hidratos de carbono o 2.3 Fibra diettica o 2.4 Micronutrientes o 2.5 Lpidos o 2.6 Precauciones 3 Forma de preparacin de las legumbres 4 Importancia de las leguminosas 5 Historia de las legumbres 6 Sociologa de su consumo o 6.1 El problema de la flatulencia 7 Consumo mundial 8 Referencias 9 Enlaces externos

Principales legumbres

Vainas de arvejas. Las principales legumbres consumidas en la alimentacin humana son:


alfalfa guisantes (arvejas, alverjas o chcharos) judas (frjoles, porotos, judas, alubias o habichuelas) garbanzos habas ejotes (judas verdes, chauchas, vainicas, vainitas o porotos verdes) lentejas altramuces (altramuces, lupinos o chochos) cacahuetes (cacahuates o manes) soja (o soya)

Composicin

Legumbres en un mercado. Las legumbres han sido cultivadas por siglos por una gran variedad de culturas. Se pueden considerar alimentos nutricionalmente recomendables teniendo en cuenta su composicin en protenas, hidratos de carbono, lpidos, fibra, minerales y vitaminas. Las legumbres son bastante parecidas entre ellas en su composicin de nutrientes, el cual vara un poco en el cacahuete y la soja ya que el contenido de lpidos en stos puede alcanzar el 18%, frente a un 4% en el resto de legumbres.

Protenas
Las protenas comprenden alrededor del 20% del peso de las legumbres, pero es ms alta en los cacahuetes y en la soja hasta alcanzar el 38%. Debido a este alto porcentaje de protenas o sustancias nitrogenadas, las semillas de leguminosas han constituido el complemento ms utilizado para aumentar el contenido en protenas de las raciones concentradas que se suelen administrar a aves, cerdos y conejos y otros tipos de alimentacin del ganado. Sin embargo la soja ha eliminado prcticamente a otras legumbres del mercado de materias primas para pienso. Las variedades de legumbres consumidas por el hombre tienen un importante contenido en protenas, con una buena proporcin de aminocidos esenciales. De hecho, aunque no proporcionan todos stos, (suelen ser escasas en metionina) las legumbres constituyen un grupo especial dentro de los alimentos de origen vegetal, comparables a los cereales, con los que se complementan, compensando su escasez en lisina.

Hidratos de carbono
La cantidad de hidratos de carbono en las legumbres es de un 60 %, responsables del aporte calrico. Las legumbres son, por tanto, alimentos de origen vegetal ricos en hidratos de carbono (igual que las patatas, los cereales y las frutas) que contienen polisacridos o azcares complejos como el almidn, azcares simples como la

sacarosa, glucosa, fructosa, galactosa rafinosa y la estaquiosa, y oligosacridos a menudo presentes en las paredes celulares, que les proporciona sus especiales caractersticas de textura. Como todo alimento que proporciona caloras, su capacidad de engordar est directamente ligada a las cantidades que se ingieran y al acompaamiento o "sacramentos", es decir, los alimentos que se ingieran con ellas, como chorizo, panceta, oreja, etctera. Los hidratos de carbono no son imprescindibles para el hombre pero sin ellos, la dieta no es correcta. Desde el punto de vista nutricional, prescindir de las legumbres en individuos sanos supone una mala alimentacin. Slo hay que adaptar las dosis a cada variedad de legumbre. En el caso extremo y poco recomendable de que se eliminen, se debe aumentar la cantidad ingerida de grasas o protenas para as aportar la energa necesaria al organismo. Las judas verdes, guisantes y habas cuando se comen tiernas, tienen un valor calrico inferior que el mismo peso en seco, porque la cantidad de agua es ms elevada, aunque en general su composicin es muy parecida. La idea de que las legumbres se digieren mal es errnea ya que el proceso de digestin se realiza en su prctica totalidad en condiciones normales en individuos sanos, con la gran ventaja de que son carbohidratos de lenta asimilacin. La causa de esta creencia puede estar originada en los sntomas que se presentan en el intestino grueso, con formacin de gases y dilatacin. Estos se deben a la fermentacin de los azcares no digeribles (hidratos de carbono complejos y fibra), que en personas con trastornos gastrointestinales pueden acentuarse por el alto contenido de protenas en las legumbres. Los carbohidratos determinan el comportamiento de la legumbre en la coccin: la absorcin de agua durante el proceso, la textura de la legumbre cocinada (ms o menos suave, ms o menos 'mantecosa' o 'harinosa'), la elasticidad de las paredes celulares por la pectina contenida en ellas, etc.

Fibra diettica
Las legumbres son una fuente rica de fibra diettica ya que los hidratos de carbono complejos, como la celulosa, forman parte de la estructura de la pared celular de los vegetales y que no son absorbidos por el aparato digestivo humano. Las legumbres poseen entre el 11 y el 25% de fibra diettica y son, junto con los cereales, la principal fuente de esta. Este nutriente tiene efectos preventivos frente a la obesidad, diabetes mellitus, estreimiento, diverticulitis y el cncer de colon. Se ha demostrado que elevadas dosis de fibra alimenticia reducen el nivel de colesterol.

Micronutrientes
Las legumbres tienen cantidades importantes de hierro, cobre, carotenoides, vitamina B1, niacina, y constituyen una fuente importante de cido flico. Diversos estudios de investigacin indican que la ingesta de alimentos ricos en folatos puede prevenir las enfermedades coronarias. Tienen buenas cantidades de calcio y hierro, aunque de peor asimilacin que el de la carne o la leche, y son una buena fuente de vitaminas del grupo B.

Sin embargo las legumbres no presentan cantidades apreciables de vitamina C, excepto cuando germinan o estn verdes.

Lpidos
Las legumbres tienen bajo contenido en grasas. Se ha demostrado que una dieta variada y rica en legumbres ayuda a bajar el nivel de colesterol en la sangre, aunque no se ha demostrado cmo es el modo de actuacin. Se cree que este efecto se debe a la presencia de saponina y de determinados esteroles vegetales, de los que son ricas, por lo que pueden obstaculizar la absorcin de colesterol, tambin a que la persona deja de consumir alimentos de origen animal por lo tanto no consumen colesterol.

Precauciones

Latirismo: El consumo continuado de harina de almorta, as como de diversas variedades de lupn, es responsable de la acumulacin de neurotoxinas en el sistema nervioso que provoca latirismo, una enfermedad que ocasiona una parlisis grave. Esta dolencia, que se present en Espaa en los aos cuarenta,1 est latente en zonas pobres de la India. Fabismo: Es una enfermedad tpica de la cuenca mediterrnea y asociada a las legumbres que produce un tipo de anemia hemoltica. Est producida por la ingestin de habas (generalmente verdes), o por el polen de sus flores, y tiene su origen en la deficiencia hereditaria de una enzima que interviene en el metabolismo de los glcidos. Intoxicacin por aflatoxinas: Los cacahuetes se deben comer sin la envuelta que protege los frutos bajo la cscara porque puede estar contaminada por un moho que produce aflatoxinas que son unas sustancias muy txicas. El problema se extiende a la ganadera si se utilizan tortas de cacahuete infectado como componente de los forrajes.

Forma de preparacin de las legumbres

Preparacin colorida en ensalada.

Enlatadas. Las legumbres pueden comerse tiernas, secas, de forma cocida, fritas, etctera. Desde el punto de vista nutricional son ms aconsejables las tiernas, aunque desde el punto de vista gastronmico y del paladar, por la variedad de estilos de preparacin, las secas son las ms utilizadas. Suelen formar parte de numerosas variedades de cocidos. Granos verdes y legumbres de algunas especies constituyen la base de numerosos platos de cocina. Durante las operaciones culinarias (remojo y cocido) se pierden los txicos que pudieran contener. Es esencial que las vainas no tengan "pergamino", que es el tejido intercalado en el parnquima del fruto y su funcin es provocar la dehiscencia de la vaina para lanzar la semilla madura. La eliminacin del pergamino se ha conseguido por seleccin a lo largo de los siglos o milenios en las especies con variedades de vaina comestible. Lo ms incmodo y menos popular de estos alimentos es su larga preparacin, condicionada por un remojo de varias horas previo a una coccin prolongada. Sin estos preparativos culinarios no se podra disponer de fculas y protenas en condiciones de ser incorporadas al organismo a travs del aparato digestivo. Las recomendaciones en el consumo de legumbres son: 1. Ponerlas a remojo unas 12 horas antes con agua lo ms pura posible sin aadirle sal ni bicarbonato que ralentiza el ablandamiento y altera el sabor, pero una pequea cantidad de bicarbonato de sosa no tiene manifestacin organolptica alguna y al debilitar las indigestas fibras de celulosa de la cubierta de las legumbres las hace menos indigestas y adems aumenta la permeabilidad al agua. 2. La coccin no necesariamente debe hacerse en ollas a presin o con cerrado hermtico, aunque suelen ser buenas para acortar el tiempo de coccin y conservar las propiedades nutritivas. 3. Se debe aadir sal en el ltimo momento para evitar que las pieles se endurezcan. 4. Se recomienda consumir legumbres dos veces por semana, sin perder este hbito en verano, por ejemplo en ensaladas fras o cremas mezcladas con verduras. Muchas de las desventajas de la coccin y de su remojo inicial se han eliminado hoy en la actualidad ya que es posible adquirirlas envasadas en latas o en tarros de cristal, que por regla general poseen largos periodos de conservacin (oscilan entre los cinco y seis aos desde su envasado).

Importancia de las leguminosas


Las leguminosas, junto con los cereales y con algunas frutas y races tropicales, han sido la base principal de la alimentacin humana durante milenios, siendo el uso de las leguminosas, en sus mltiples formas, compaero inseparable de la evolucin del hombre. Los factores que han contribuido a la importancia mundial de las legumbres son:

1. El nmero de especies de la familia es de casi 20.000. La enorme variabilidad de formas y estrategias adoptadas ha permitido a sus especies adaptarse a las condiciones ecolgicas ms diversas que van desde los trpicos de frica, Asia y Amrica a zonas templadas e incluso fras. La familia Leguminosae que est presente en zonas ridas tiene tambin especies acuticas. Sus representantes se encuentran tanto en altitudes inferiores a cero, como en lugares casi inaccesibles de los Andes. 2. El elevado contenido proteico en el grano de algunas especies de leguminosas, convierte esta familia en la principal fuente de protena vegetal para la mayor parte de herbvoros y omnvoros, y entre estos ltimos, para el hombre. 3. La capacidad de tantas leguminosas de establecer una relacin simbitica con microorganismos capaces de fijar el nitrgeno atmosfrico y transformarlo en modo asimilable por las plantas, permite la colonizacin natural de suelos que, de otro modo, permaneceran casi despoblados. Esa caracterstica no slo beneficia a las leguminosas que la poseen, sino a las gramneas y otras familias que crecen a un lado. Esta asociacin es esencial en los grandes prados naturales y artificiales sobre los que se basa la ganadera mundial. La actual crisis energtica provoca la vuelta a los clsicos sistemas de alternancia de cultivos que incluyen las leguminosas como sustituto vlido de los abonados nitrogenados. Las leguminosas producen por tanto, un estado de fertilizacin natural para el suelo por lo que puede decirse que son uno de los escasos cultivos ecolgicos que permiten la alternancia de legumbres y cereales.

Historia de las legumbres


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Las legumbres tienen diversos orgenes, segn la especie:[cita requerida] en Mesopotamia, en la Amrica precolombina y en Asia oriental, adecundose perfectamente a la agricultura mediterrnea. Las leguminosas y los cereales fueron las primeras plantas cultivadas por el hombre. Hace unos diez mil aos en la zona del Cercano Oriente, exista una asociacin entre ciertas semillas como el trigo, cebada, lenteja, y guisante y los asentamientos humanos, que era un indicativo de una recoleccin preferencial: primer paso hacia el nacimiento de la agricultura. Los restos fsiles de semillas de trigo, cebada, lentejas y guisantes de hace ocho mil aos indican que ya se encontraban domesticadas por el hombre, domesticacin que alcanza a las habas en el cuarto milenio antes de Cristo. Las leguminosas tambin aparecen pronto en la agricultura del Nuevo Mundo (4000 antes de Cristo), precediendo en casi mil aos al maz. En algunos escritos mediorientales como la Biblia se habla de las legumbres en la dieta del pueblo judo, lo que refleja que stas han estado presentes en la alimentacin mediterrnea desde tiempos memorables.2 En el Libro de Gnesis, por ejemplo, se narra la historia de Esa, quien vendi sus derechos de primogenitura por un guisado de lentejas3 . Tambin es en la Biblia en la que se registra la primera dieta vegana de los seres humanos. En el Libro de Daniel, Captulo 1, se relata cmo el rey de Babilonia, Nabucodonosor II, orden que se criasen en su palacio algunos hijos de israelitas cautivos, entre ellos el que sera el profeta Daniel, y que se les diese una racin diaria de

la comida del rey. En el relato, Daniel pidi al principe permiso de no contaminarse con la comida pagana. Al final del perodo presentaban mejor aspecto que los que seguan la alimentacin del rey. Prueba, ahora, con tus siervos diez das, y dennos de las legumbres a comer, y agua a beber. Parezcan luego delante de ti nuestros rostros, y los rostros de los muchachos que comen de la racin de la comida del rey; y segn que vieres, hars con tus siervos. Consinti, pues, con ellos en esto, y prob con ellos diez das. Y al cabo de los diez das pareci el rostro de ellos mejor y ms gordo de carne, que los otros muchachos que coman de la racin de la comida del rey. As, fue que Melsar tomaba la racin de la comida de ellos, y el vino de su beber, y les daba legumbres. Daniel 1:12-16, Sagradas Escrituras (1569) En el relato se narra como se sigui con esta alimentacin y cuando fueron conducidos ante el Rey Nabucodonosor, ste "no encontr entre todos ninguno como Daniel y sus compaeros". Por su parte, una de las sentencias del libro de Proverbios de Salomn, declara que "mejor es la comida de legumbres donde hay amor, que de buey engordado donde hay odio".4 Por otra parte, los antiguos egipcios tuvieron en alta estima a las lentejas, cultivndolas extensamente y con mucho cuidado. Fueron tambin muy apreciadas por los romanos; se dice que en el barco especial en que se transport un obelisco desde Egipto a Roma, durante el reinado de Calgula, se transportaron 840 toneladas de lentejas. Sin embargo, las habas fueron consideradas por los egipcios como alimento despreciable. Los sacerdotes no las coman, aunque el pueblo llano s. Tampoco eran estimadas por los griegos y los romanos. La causa tal vez haya que buscarla en que pueden provocar fabismo (ver tambin latirismo). El guisante (o arveja) era alimento habitual en Roma, aunque tampoco muy apreciado. Fue en el siglo XVII cuando se populariz su consumo en verde y se convierte, en la corte de Luis XIV, en "una moda y una locura" en palabras de Madame de Maintenon. La juda, cultivada en toda Amrica desde tiempos remotos, se trajo de Amrica a Europa en el siglo XVI, constituyendo al principio un lujo extraordinario, accesible slo a la mesa de los ricos.[cita requerida] Desde el cultivo de lentejas y garbanzos en la civilizacin egipcia y con la incorporacin despus de las alubias blancas y rojas que llegaron procedentes del Nuevo Mundo, se instauraron en las comidas y guisos mediterrneos en la dieta mediterrnea. Corresponde a la soja el orgullo de ser la primera leguminosa de la que se dej constancia escrita: en los libros de Shen Nung, que datan del ao 2800 antes de Cristo, se describen los cinco cultivos principales y sagrados de China: arroz, soja, trigo, cebada y mijo. Con ella los antiguos elaboraban preparados de alto contenido protenico (requesn, salsas, quesos, pastas) utilizadas para condimentar y enriquecer su alimentacin bsica en cereales. Es alrededor del siglo IV antes de Cristo cuando idearon mtodos para extraer su aceite.

Sociologa de su consumo
A las leguminosas secas se les ha llamado "la carne del pobre", designacin que tiene inters desde varios puntos de vista: 1. En primer lugar, por su alto contenido protenico ya que la mayor parte de las leguminosas sobrepasan el 20% de protenas en sus semillas). Ya en tiempos medievales la Iglesia Catlica recomendaba el consumo de legumbres durante la Cuaresma. 2. En segundo lugar, se asocian las leguminosas con la idea de pobreza frente al consumo de carne animal, smbolo de riqueza. Esta asociacin viene de antiguo, siendo conocida y familiar en la antigua Grecia clsica. As en Pluto, de Aristfanes, uno de los personajes comenta, hablando de un nuevo rico: "ahora ya no le gustan las lentejas". 3. En tercer lugar la expresin "carne de pobre" es despectiva en el sentido de que constituye un alimento de "segunda clase". [cita requerida]

El problema de la flatulencia
La generacin de gas en el aparato digestivo como consecuencia del consumo de legumbres se debe a las grandes cantidades de hidratos de carbono que contienen algunas de ellas (especialmente, la soja, el frijol blanco y el frijol de media luna). Dado que las enzimas digestivas humanas no pueden trasnformarlos en azcares asimilables, esos hidratos salen del intestino superior inalterados y entran en las zonas inferiores del intestino, donde las bacterias residentes realizan la funcin que deberan haber hecho esas enzimas. Las variedades de hidratos de carbono que son las principales responsables de la produccin de gas son los oligosacridos, el dixido de carbono y el hidrgeno.5

Consumo mundial

Judas de tipo red kidney. Actualmente, el consumo de leguminosas vara desde los 3 gramos/persona/da en Suecia, Alemania, etc. y los 71 gramos en la India. Este consumo es inverso al consumo de protenas de origen animal. Segn los datos de la FAO, en Estados Unidos e Italia el consumo de leguminosas desciende con el aumento de los ingresos. En Austria, Alemania, Pases Bajos, Noruega y la mayora de los pases de Europa Central y Septentrional, el pequeo consumo de las leguminosas no est influido por los ingresos. En la India, Japn y otros pases asiticos el consumo de leguminosas es mayor en los grupos de rentas elevadas que en las ms

inferiores. Encuestas realizadas sobre las tendencias en Colombia parecen indicar mayor consumo en familias ms ricas. El consumo de legumbres en Espaa ha descendido de forma acusada a partir de los aos sesenta. Las causas son mltiples, entre las que se encuentran el desarrollo del sector ganadero, que ha favorecido la produccin de alimentos propios para los animales, la ausencia de procesos de investigacin eficaces para ofrecer semillas de calidad a los agricultores, el escaso inters del sector industrial en cuanto a su comercializacin, a pesar de que se encuentran platos tradicionales en conserva como la fabada o el cocido y la tendencia de los consumidores a elegir protenas de origen animal. Otra causa del descenso del consumo de legumbres es el aumento del nivel de vida que ha incrementado el consumo de otros alimentos y el estilo de vida: el hombre y la mujer trabajan fuera de casa y ninguno de ellos dispone de mucho tiempo para cocinar. En definitiva, la desigualdad creciente en la distribucin de la riqueza y el aumento de la poblacin humana permiten prever que el consumo de carne no se sustituir ni a corto ni a medio plazo por el suministro de protenas vegetales en la dieta. Una posible solucin sera la de evitar la transformacin de la protena vegetal en animal utilizando directamente aqulla en la alimentacin humana. Las leguminosas figuran entre los principales candidatos a ocupar dicho papel, dado su interesante contenido en protenas.

Referencias
1. 2. http://www.historiacocina.com/gourmets/venenos/almortas.htm Pilar Garca Lorda, Josep M. Snchez (2005), "La Alimentacin y la nutricin a travs de la historia", Editorial Glosa, S.L., pag 148 3. Gnesis 25:34 4. Proverbios 15:17 5. Cf. Harold McGee, La cocina y los alimentos. Enciclopedia de la ciencia y la cultura de la comida, Crculo de Lectores, Barcelona, 2007, pgs. 512-513.

Enlaces externos

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Gastronoma vegetariana

Legume
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search

Varieties of soybean seeds, a popular legume A legume /lum/ is a plant in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae), or the fruit or seed of such a plant. Legumes are grown agriculturally, primarily for their food grain seed (e.g. beans and lentils, or generally pulse), for livestock forage and silage, and as soil-enhancing green manure. Legumes are notable in that most of them have symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in structures called root nodules. Well-known legumes include alfalfa, clover, peas, beans, lentils, lupins, mesquite, carob, soybeans, peanuts, tamarind, and the woody climbing vine wisteria. Legume trees like the Locust trees (Gleditsia, Robinia) or the Kentucky coffeetree (Gymnocladus dioicus) can be used in permaculture food forests.[1] A legume fruit is a simple dry fruit that develops from a simple carpel and usually dehisces (opens along a seam) on two sides. A common name for this type of fruit is a pod, although the term "pod" is also applied to a few other fruit types, such as vanilla and radish.

Contents

1 Nitrogen-fixing ability 2 Uses by humans 3 Nutritional facts 4 References 5 External links

Nitrogen-fixing ability
Many legumes (alfalfa, clover, peas, beans, lentils, soybeans, peanuts and others) contain symbiotic bacteria called Rhizobia within root nodules of their root systems. (Plants belonging to the genus Styphnolobium is one exception to this rule). These bacteria have the special ability of fixing nitrogen from atmospheric, molecular nitrogen (N2) into ammonia (NH3).[2] The chemical reaction is: N2 + 8 H+ + 8 e 2 NH3 + H2 Ammonia is then converted to another form, ammonium (NH4+), usable by (some) plants by the following reaction: NH3 + H+ NH4+ This arrangement means that the root nodules are sources of nitrogen for legumes, making them relatively rich in plant proteins. All proteins contain nitrogenous amino acids. Nitrogen is therefore a necessary ingredient in the production of proteins. Hence, legumes are among the best sources of plant protein. When a legume plant dies in the field, for example following the harvest, all of its remaining nitrogen, incorporated into amino acids inside the remaining plant parts, are released back into the soil. In the soil, the amino acids are converted to nitrate (NO3-), making the nitrogen available to other plants, thereby serving as fertilizer for future crops.[3][4] In many traditional and organic farming practices, crop rotation involving legumes is common. By alternating between legumes and nonlegumes, sometimes planting nonlegumes two times in a row and then a legume, the field usually receives a sufficient amount of nitrogenous compounds to produce a good result, even when the crop is nonleguminous. Legumes are sometimes referred to as "green manure". Thomas Jefferson was one who propagated the use of crop rotation in American farming in the 18th century.

Uses by humans

Freshly dug peanuts (Arachis hypogaea), indehiscent legume fruits

White clover, a forage crop Farmed legumes can belong to many agricultural classes, including forage, grain, blooms, pharmaceutical/industrial, fallow/green manure, and timber species. Most commercially farmed species fill two or more roles simultaneously, depending upon their degree of maturity when harvested. Forage legumes are of two broad types. Some, like alfalfa, clover, vetch (Vicia), stylo (Stylosanthes), or Arachis, are sown in pasture and grazed by livestock. Other forage legumes such as Leucaena or Albizia are woody shrub or tree species that are either broken down by livestock or regularly cut by humans to provide livestock feed. Grain legumes are cultivated for their seeds, and are also called pulses. The seeds are used for human and animal consumption or for the production of oils for industrial uses. Grain legumes include beans, lentils, lupins, peas, and peanuts.[5] Legume species grown for their flowers include lupins, which are farmed commercially for their blooms as well as being popular in gardens worldwide.[citation needed] Industrially farmed legumes include Indigofera and Acacia species, which are cultivated for dye and natural gum production, respectively.[citation needed] Fallow/green manure legume species are cultivated to be tilled back into the soil in order to exploit the high levels of captured atmospheric nitrogen found in the roots of most legumes. Numerous legumes farmed for this purpose include Leucaena, Cyamopsis, and Sesbania species. Various legume species are farmed for timber production worldwide, including numerous Acacia species and Castanospermum australe.[citation needed]

Nutritional facts
Legumes contain relatively low quantities of the essential amino acid methionine, as compared to whole eggs, dairy products, or meat. This means that a smaller proportion

of the plant proteins, compared to proteins from eggs or meat, may be used for the synthesis of protein in humans, unless other higher methionine sources are consumed which are complementary in regard to their amino acid profile. The portion of plant proteins not suitable for the synthesis of human proteins is instead used as fuel in the human metabolism. Nevertheless, legumes are among the best protein sources in the plant kingdom. The low concentrations of the amino acid methionine in legumes may be compensated for simply by eating more of them[citation needed]. Since legumes are relatively cheap compared to meat, eating more legumes may be an alternative to meat for some. According to the protein combining theory, legumes should be combined with another protein source such as a grain in the same meal, to balance out the amino acid levels. Protein combining has lost favor as theory (with even its original proponent, Frances Moore Lapp, rejecting the need for protein combining in 1981[6]). A variety of protein sources is considered healthy, but they do not have to be consumed at the same meal. In any case, vegetarian cultures often serve legumes along with grains, which are low in the essential amino acid lysine, creating a more complete protein than either the beans or the grains on their own. Common examples of such combinations are dal with rice by Indians, beans with corn tortillas, tofu with rice, and peanut butter with wheat bread.[7]

References
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. ^ Cirrus Digital: Tree Encyclopedia ^ The Nitrogen cycle and Nitrogen fixation, Jim Deacon, Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, The University of Edinburgh [1] ^ Postgate, J (1998). Nitrogen Fixation, 3rd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK ^ Smil, V (2000). Cycles of Life. Scientific American Library. ^ The gene bank and breeding of grain legumes (lupine, vetch, soya, and beah), B.S. Kurlovich and S.I. Repyev (eds.), St. Petersburg: N. I. Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry, 1995, 438p. (Theoretical basis of plant breeding. V.111) ^ Diet for a Small Planet (ISBN 0-345-32120-0), 1981, p. 162; emphasis in original ^ Vogel, Steven. Prime Mover A Natural History of Muscle. W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., USA (2003), p. 301. ISBN 0-393-32463-X; ISBN 978-0-393-32463-1. in Google books

6. 7.

External links
Look up legume in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Wikisource has the text of the 1920 Encyclopedia Americana article Legume. Media related to Legumes at Wikimedia Commons

AEP - European association for grain legume research

Lupins - Geography, classification, genetic resources and breeding ILDIS - International Legume Database & Information Service Bioversity International The significance of Vavilov's scientific expeditions and ideas for development and use of legume genetic resources Legume Futures A major research initiative to develop novel uses for legumes in environmentally and economically sustainable cropping.

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Types of fruits
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Veganism and vegetarianism


Categories: Legumes Fruit morphology Vegan cuisine Vegetarian cuisine