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A) Radiography :
Principle : It is based on the principle of differential absorption of penetration radiation in the component and record of these on film. Equipment : 1. X ray camera or isotope. Usually Iridium 192 is being used as a source in TBW. 2. Film. 3. Chemical for processing the film. Testing : The test consists of taking X ray photograph of the internal conditions of the weld metal. The photographic film is placed on the side opposite to the source radiation. The radiation rays penetrate the metal and produce an image on the film. Development of the film : The room is called a dark room where these films are processed. In this room no external light is allowed to enter. Only a red colored 0-watt bulb is made to glow. The film is brought in this dark room with proper packing. Development stages of the film : a) Film Development with developer. b) Stop bath immersion to stop development c) Fixture solution to get permanent image d) Cleaner solution. e) Drying. Each stage is followed as per predetermined time period. The film is evaluated with help of light source. The evaluation is done as per the attached chart. Advantages : 1. Applicable to all materials. 2. Permanent record available. Limitations : 1. Radiation hazards. 2. High skill of operator. 3. High costs. Application : 1. For all butt joints. 2. Header to end cover Set in joint of ASME design.

B) Dye penetrant test :

Principle : Dye penetrant test consists of a liquid medium entering into open discontinuities and bleed out of the same by capillary action to stain a developer coating on surface. Equipment ( Consumables ) : 1) Penetrant liquid. 2) Cleaning medium. 3) Developer. Test : The surface to be inspected must be free of gases, oil and other foreign materials. The surface is initially cleaned with a dry cloth or sponge. Then a dry penetrant is taken and is sprayed over the surface. The penetrant then penetrates into the irregularities. The excess penetrant is wiped off clean. Here the skill of the operator is required so that the excess force required may not be during cleaning which may even remain from the smooth surface giving results. The developer is a volatile liquid, contains fine white powder, and is sprayed. The red dye left in the cracks is drained out through capillary action showing the irregularities. Advantages : 1. Very simple and cheap. 2. No limitations on the materials. ( Except porous & absorbing ) size and shape. Limitations : 1. Limited to the flows open to the surface. 2. Pre-cleaning of the surface is critical. 3. Discontinuity depth not known. Applications : 1. Surface discontinuities in weld. 2. Initiation propagation of cracks in service.

C) Magnetic Particle testing :

Principle : Change in magnetic permeability of materials and accumulation of magnetic particles on the resultant leakage of the flux. Equipment : 1. Magnetic source. 2. Particle medium wet / dry which may be fluorescent of non fluorescent 3. Light source. Test : This test is use to detect the surface faults by means of setting up of a magnetic field or magnetic lines. A magnetic field is applied to the piece. Powered magnetic material is sprinkled over the mark to be tested. At a discontinuity or a crack there will leakage of magnetic field. This field will effect the magnetic powder and these particles will align themselves in the cracks. It is use for the discontinuity over the surface or the sub surface. Advantages : 1. Fast and simple technique. Limitations : 1. Limited to magnetic materials only. 2. Field strength and orientation critical. 3. Can detect only surface and subsurface defects. Applications : 1. Ferromagnetic materials, welds and forging.

D) Ultrasonic test :
Principle : It is based on the reflection of ultrasonic pulses/waves from in homogeneous in a specific material based on the difference in either velocity or density of sound waves in that material or both. Test : This test is used to detect internal cracks by means of sending ultrasonic waves. The reflection of the waves is seen on the oscilloscope. If there is any homogeneity inside the test piece then waves of shorter length get reflected which can be seen on an oscilloscope. A study on the length of wave can show the depth at which crack is present. Equipment : 1. Ultrasonic transducer. 2. Oscilloscope 3. Reference standards. Advantages : 1. 2. 3. 4. High sensitivity to critical defects. Portable instruments. Broad range materials. Single side access (Particularly useful for in service inspections.)

Limitations : 1. 2. 3. 4. Operator dependence for evaluation. Difficult to quantify the distributed defects. Completely dependent on reference standards. Calibrations are required.

Applications : 1. Volumetric testing of welds, forging, raw materials. 2. Thickness and corrosion monitoring for in service inspection.`