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Propulsion of 46,000-50,000 dwt

Handymax Tanker

Content

Introduction.................................................................................................. 5 EEDI and Major Ship and Main Engine Parameters........................................ 6 Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI). ...................................................... 6 Major propeller and engine parameters. .................................................... 7 46,000-50,000 dwt Handymax tanker...................................................... 9 Main Engine Operating Costs 15.1 knots.................................................. 10 Fuel consumption and EEDI................................................................... 10 Operating costs..................................................................................... 13 Main Engine Operating Costs 14.5 knots.................................................. 14 Fuel consumption and EEDI................................................................... 14 Operating costs..................................................................................... 17 Summary.................................................................................................... 18

Propulsion of 46,000-50,000 dwt Handymax Tanker

Introduction
The main ship particulars of 46,00050,000 dwt Handymax tankers are normally as follows: the overall ship length is 183 m, breadth 32.2 m and design/ scantling draught 11.0 m/12.2 m, see Fig. 1. Recent development steps have made it possible to offer solutions which will enable significantly lower transportation costs for Handymax tankers (and bulk carriers) as outlined in the following. One of the goals in the marine industry today is to reduce the impact of CO2 emissions from ships and, therefore, to reduce the fuel consumption for the

propulsion of ships to the widest possible extent at any load. This also means that the inherent design CO2 index of a new ship, the socalled Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI), will be reduced. Based on an average reference CO2 emission from existing tankers, the CO2 emission from new tankers in gram per dwt per nautical mile must be equal to or lower than the reference emission figures valid for the specific tanker. This drive may often result in operation at lower than normal service ship speeds compared to earlier, resulting in reduced propulsion power utilisation. The design

ship speed at Normal Continuous Rating (NCR), including 15% sea margin, used to be as high as 15.0-15.5 knots. Today, the ship speed may be expected to be lower, possibly 14.5 knots, or even lower. A more technically advanced development drive is to optimise the aftbody and hull lines of the ship including bulbous bow, also considering operation in ballast condition making it possible to install propellers with a larger propeller diameter and, thereby, obtaining higher propeller efficiency, but at a reduced optimum propeller speed. As the two-stroke main engine is directly coupled with the propeller, the intro-

Fig. 1: Handymax tanker

Propulsion of 46,000-50,000 dwt Handymax Tanker

duction of the Green ultra long stroke G50ME-B9.3 engine with even lower than usual shaft speed will meet this drive and target goal. The main dimensions for this engine type, and for other existing Handymax tanker (and bulk carrier) engines, are shown in Fig. 2. On the basis of a case study of a 47,000 dwt Handymax tanker in compliance with IMO Tier II emission rules, this paper shows the influence on fuel consumption when choosing the new G50ME-B engine compared with existing Handymax tanker engines. The layout ranges of 6 and 7G50ME-B9.3 engines compared with 6 and 7S50MEB9.3 and existing 6 and 7S50ME-C8.2 engines are shown in Fig. 4.

EEDI and Major Ship and Main Engine Parameters


Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) The Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) is a mandatory instrument to be calculated and made as available information for new ships contracted after 1 January 2012. EEDI represents the amount of CO2 in gram emitted when transporting one deadweight tonnage of cargo one nautical mile. For tankers, the EEDI value is essentially calculated on the basis of maximum cargo capacity, propulsion power, ship speed, SFOC (Specific Fuel Oil Consumption) and fuel type. However, certain correction factors are applicable, e.g. for installed Waste Heat Recov-

ery systems. To evaluate the achieved EEDI, a reference value for the specific ship type and the specified cargo capacity is used for comparison. The main engines 75% SMCR (Specified Maximum Continuous Rating). figure is as standard applied in the calculation of the EEDI figure, in which also the CO2 emission from the auxiliary engines of the ship is included. According to the rules finally decided on 15 July 2011, the EEDI of a new ship is reduced to a certain factor compared to a reference value. Thus, a ship built after 2025 is required to have a 30% lower EEDI than the present reference figure (2012).

9,915

9,320

1,860 1,205

1,765

8,586 3,350 1,673 1,098 1,190

3,896

3,150

G50ME-B9

S50ME-B9

S50ME-C8

Fig. 2: Main dimensions for a G50ME-B9 engine and for other existing Handymax tanker engines

Propulsion of 46,000-50,000 dwt Handymax Tanker

Major propeller and engine parameters In general, the highest possible propulsive efficiency required to provide a given ship speed is obtained with the largest possible propeller diameter d, in combination with the corresponding, optimum pitch/diameter ratio p/d.

According to the black curve, the existing propeller diameter of 5.8 m may have the optimum pitch/diameter ratio of 0.72, and the lowest possible SMCR shaft power of about 9,900 kW at about 131 r/min. The black curve shows that if a bigger

duced, i.e. the necessary SMCR shaft power will increase, see the red curve. The red curve also shows that propulsion-wise it will always be an advantage to choose the largest possible propeller diameter, even though the optimum pitch/diameter ratio would involve a too low propeller speed (in relation to the required main engine speed). Thus, when using a somewhat lower pitch/ diameter ratio, compared with the optimum ratio, the propeller/engine speed may be increased and will only cause a minor extra power increase.

As an example, this is illustrated for a 46,000-50,000 dwt Handymax tanker with a service ship speed of 15 knots, see the black curve on Fig. 3. The needed propulsion SMCR (Specified Maximum Continuous Rating) power and speed is shown for a given optimum propeller diameter d and p/d ratio.

propeller diameter of 6.8 m is possible, the necessary SMCR shaft power will be reduced to about 9,050 kW at about 95 r/min, i.e. the bigger the propeller, the lower the optimum propeller speed. If the pitch for this diameter is changed, the propulsive efficiency will be re-

Propulsion SMCR power kW 10,000

d
4-bladed FP-propellers d = Propeller diameter p/d = Pitch/diameter ratio Design Ship Speed = 15.0 kn Design Draught = 11.0 m
S50ME-B9.3 S50ME-B9.3 S50ME-C8.2 S50ME-C8.2

d p/

5.8 m 0.72

9,500

6.3 m 1.05 0.95


G50ME-B9.3

0.74

0.55
Power and speed curve for the given propeller diameter d = 6.8 m with different p/d ratios

0.60 0.85 6.8 m 0.76 0.65

9,000

G50ME-B9.3

p/d

7.3 m

0.78

Power and speed curve for various propeller diameters (d) with optimum p/d ratio

SMCR power and speed are inclusive of: 15% sea margin 10% engine margin 5% propeller light running

8,500 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 r/min Engine/propeller speed at SMCR

Fig. 3: Influence of propeller diameter and pitch on SMCR for a 46,000-50,000 dwt Handymax tanker operating at 15.0 knots

Propulsion of 46,000-50,000 dwt Handymax Tanker

Propulsion SMCR power kW

Increased propeller diameter G50ME-B9.3


Possible Dprop=6.8 m (= 61.8% of Tdes ) Possible Dprop=6.3 m (= 57.3% of Tdes ) Existing Dprop=5.8 m (= 52.7% of Tdes )

4-bladed FP-propellers
14,000 constant ship speed coefcient = 0.28 SMCR power and speed are inclusive of: 15% sea margin 10% engine margin 5% light running Tdes = 11.0 m
0 7G5 .3 - B9 ME
M3

16.0 kn

7S 5 .3 -B9 0ME

12,000

10,000

6G5

.3 - B9 0 ME
M3

3 -B9. 0ME M2 6S5


M2

7S 5

- C 8. 0ME

15.1 kn 15.0 kn 14.5 kn 14.0 kn 13.5 kn

15.5 kn

-C8.2 M1 0ME 6S5 M1

8,000


6,000 G50ME-B9.3 Bore = 500 mm Stroke = 2,500 mm Vpist = 8.33 m/s (9.00 m/s) S/B = 5.00 MEP = 21 bar = 1,720 kW/cyl. at 100 r/min L1 (L1 = 1,860 kW/cyl. at 108 r/min) 60 70 80 100 r/min 108 r/min 117 r/min

127 r/min

4,000

2,000

M M1 M2 M3 90

= = = =

SMCR (14.5 kn) 8,500 kW x 119 r/min, 6S50ME-C8.2 8,310 kW x 110 r/min, 6S50ME-B9.3 7,950 kW x 94 r/min, 6G50ME-B9.3 100 110 120

M M1 M2 M3

= = = =

SMCR (15.1 kn) 9,960 kW x 127 r/min, 6S50ME-C8.2 (L1) 9,730 kW x 117 r/min, 6S50ME-B9.3 9,310 kW x 100 r/min, 6G50ME-B9.3 130 140 150 r/min Engine/propeller speed at SMCR

Fig. 4: Different main engine and propeller layouts and SMCR possibilities (M1, M2, M3 for 15.1 knots and M1, M2, M3 for 14.5 knots) for a 46,000-50,000 dwt Handymax tanker operating at 15.1 knots and 14.5 knots, respectively

The efficiency of a two-stroke main engine particularly depends on the ratio of the maximum (firing) pressure and the mean effective pressure. The higher the ratio, the higher the engine efficiency, i.e. the lower the Specific Fuel Oil Consumption (SFOC). Furthermore, the higher the stroke/bore ratio of a two-stroke engine, the higher the engine efficiency. This means, for example, that an ultra long stroke en-

gine type, as the G50ME-B9.3, may have a higher efficiency compared with a shorter stroke engine type, like an S50ME-C8.2.

This is valid for propellers with Kappel technology available at MAN Diesel & Turbo, Frederikshavn, Denmark. Hence, with such a propeller type,

The application of new propeller design technologies may also motivate use of main engines with lower rpm. Thus, for the same propeller diameter, these propeller types can demonstrate an up to 6% improved overall efficiency gain at about 10% lower propeller speed.

the advantage of the new low speed G50ME-B9.3 engine can be utilised also in case a correspondingly larger propeller cannot be accommodated.

Propulsion of 46,000-50,000 dwt Handymax Tanker

46,000-50,000 dwt Handymax tanker For a 47,000 dwt Handymax tanker, the following case study illustrates the potential for reducing fuel consumption by increasing the propeller diameter and introducing the G50ME-B9.3 as main engine. The ship particulars assumed are as follows:
Scantling draught Design draught Length overall Length between pp Breadth Sea margin Engine margin Design ship speed m m m m m % % 12.2 11.0 183.0 174.0 32.2 15 10 FPP 4 target

ferent design ship speeds and propeller diameters, and the corresponding SMCR power and speed, point M, for propulsion of the Handymax tanker is found, see Fig. 4. The propeller diameter change corresponds approximately to the constant ship speed factor = 0.28 [ref. PM2 = PM1 x (n2/n1). Referring to the two ship speeds of 15.1 knots and 14.5 knots, respectively, three potential main engine types, 6S50MC-C8.2, 6S50ME-B9.3 and 6G50ME-B9.3 and pertaining layout diagrams and SMCR points have been drawn-in in Fig. 4, and the main engine operating costs have been calculated and described below individually for each ship speed case. The layout diagram of the G50ME-B9.3

for tankers with limited room for installation of a large propeller. The S50MC-C and S50ME-C engines (127 r/min) have often been used in the past as prime movers for Handymax tankers, and the relatively new S50MEB9 (117 r/min) has already been installed in some ships. Therefore, a comparison between the new 6G50ME-B9.3 and the existing 6S50ME-C8.2 is of major interest in this paper. It should be noted that the ship speed stated refers to NCR = 90% SMCR including 15% sea margin. If based on calm weather, i.e. without sea margin, the obtainable ship speed at NCR = 90% SMCR will be about 0.5 knots higher. If based on 75% SMCR, as applied for calculation of the EEDI, the ship speed will be about 0.2 knot lower, still based on calm weather conditions, i.e. without any sea margin.

kn 15.1 and 14.5

Type of propeller No. of propeller blades Propeller diameter m

Based on the above-stated average ship particulars assumed, we have made a power prediction calculation (Holtrop & Mennens Method) for dif-

below or equal to 100 r/min is especially suitable for Handymax tankers (and bulk carriers) whereas the speed range from 100 to 108 r/min is particularly suitable

Propulsion of 46,000-50,000 dwt Handymax Tanker

Main Engine Operating Costs 15.1 knots


The calculated main engine examples are as follows:
15.1 knots 1. 6S50ME-C8.2 (D prop = 5.9 m) M1 = 9,960 kW x 127.0 r/min M2 = 9,730 kW x 117.0 r/min. M3 = 9,310 kW x 100.0 r/min. 2. 6S50ME-B9.3 (D prop = 6.2 m)

Propulsion of 47,000 dwt Handymax Tanker 15.1 knots


Expected propulsion power demand at N = NCR = 90% SMCR Propulsion power demand at N = NCR kW Relative power reduction %

10,000

Inclusive of sea margin = 15% 8,964 kW 8,757 kW

10

8,379 kW

9 8

8,000
6.5%

7 6 5

6,000

3. 6G50ME-B9.3 (D prop = 6.7 m)


4,000
2.3%

4 3 2 1
0%

The main engine fuel consumption and operating costs at N = NCR = 90% SMCR have been calculated for the above three main engine/propeller cases operating on the relatively high ship speed of 15.1 knots, as often used earlier. Furthermore, the corresponding EEDI has been calculated on the basis of the 75% SMCR-related figures (without sea margin). Fuel consumption and EEDI Fig. 5 shows the influence of the propeller diameter with four propeller blades when going from about 5.9 m to 6.7 m. Thus, N3 for the 6G50ME-B9.3 with a 6.7 m propeller diameter has a propulsion power demand that is about 6.5% lower compared with N1 valid for the 6S50ME-C8.2 with a propeller diameter of about 5.9 m.
0 6S50ME-C8.2 N1 Dprop: 5.9 m4 2,000

6S50ME-B9.3 N2 6.2 m4

6G50ME-B9.3 N3 6.7 m4

Fig. 5: Expected propulsion power demand at NCR = 90% SMCR for 15.1 knots

10 Propulsion of 46,000-50,000 dwt Handymax Tanker

Fig. 6 shows the influence on the main engine efficiency, indicated by the Specific Fuel Oil Consumption, SFOC, for the three cases. N3 = 90% M3 for the 6G50ME-B9.3 has an SFOC of 164.1 g/kWh and almost the same 164.3 g/ kWh for N2 = 90% M2 with 6S50MEB9.3 where in both cases for the ME-B engine is included +1 g/kWh needed for the Hydraulic Power Supply (HPS) system. The 164.1 g/kWh SFOC of the N3 for the 6G50ME-B9.3 is 2.2% lower compared with N1 for the nominally rated 6S50ME-C8.2 with an SFOC of 167.8 g/kWh. This is because of the greater derating potential and the higher stroke/bore ratio of this G-engine type.

Propulsion of 47,000 dwt Handymax Tanker 15.1 knots


Expected SFOC
SFOC g/kWh 180 179 178 177 176 175 174 173 172 171 170 169 168 167 166 165 164 163 162 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90

ME-B9.2 (without VET)

IMO Tier ll ISO ambient conditions LCV = 42,700 kJ/kg Standard high-load optimised engines

(VET = Variable Exhaust valve Timing)

Dprop M1 6S50ME-C8.2 5.9 m 4

Standard ME-B9.3 (with VET)


N2

N1

Savings in SFOC 0%
M2 6S50ME-B9.3 6.2 m 4 M3 6G50ME-B9.3 6.7 m 4

N3

2.1% 2.2%

95 100 % SMCR Engine shaft power

N = NCR M = SMCR

For ME-B9.3 engines the fuel consumption (+1g/kWh) for HPS is included.

Fig. 6: Expected SFOC for 15.1 knots

Propulsion of 46,000-50,000 dwt Handymax Tanker 11

When multiplying the propulsion power demand at N (Fig. 5) with the SFOC (Fig. 6), the daily fuel consumption is found and is shown in Fig. 7. Compared with N1 for the existing 6S50ME-C8.2, the total reduction of fuel consumption of the new 6G50ME-B9.3 at N3 is about 8.6% (see also the above-mentioned savings of 6.5% and 2.2%). The reference and the actual EEDI figures have been calculated and are shown in Fig. 8 (EEDI ref =1,218.8 x dwt
-0.488

Propulsion of 47,000 dwt Handymax Tanker 15.1 knots


Expected fuel consumption at N = NCR = 90% SMCR Fuel consumption of main engine t/24h IMO Tier ll ISO ambient conditions LCV = 42,700 kJ/kg 36.10 t/24h 34.54 t/24h 33.00 t/24h Relative saving of fuel consumption %

40 35 30 25

8.6%

20 15
4.3%

10 5 0
0%

, 15 July 2011). As can be

seen for all three cases, the actual EEDI figures are equal to or lower than the reference figure. Particularly, case 3 with 6G50ME-B9.3 has a low EEDI about 92% of the reference figure.

6S50ME-C8.2 N1 5.9 m 4 Dprop:

6S50ME-B9.3 N2 6.2 m 4

6G50ME-B9.3 N3 6.7 m 4

16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

For ME-B9.3 engines the fuel consumption for HPS is included.


Fig. 7: Expected fuel consumption at NCR = 90% SMCR for 15.1 knots

Propulsion of 47,000 dwt Handymax Tanker 15.1 knots


Energy Efciency Design Index (EEDI) 75% SMCR: 14.9 kn without sea margin Reference and actual EEDI CO2 emissions gram per dwt/n mile

8 7

Actual/Reference EEDI %

EEDI reference 2012


6.40 6.42 100% 6.40 6.18 97%

EEDI actual
6.40 5.91 92%

120 110 100 90 80 70

6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Dprop:

60 50 40 30 20 10 6S50ME-C8.2 N1 5.9 m 4 6S50ME-B9.3 N2 6.2 m 4 6G50ME-B9.3 N3 6.7 m 4 0

Fig. 8: Reference and actual Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) for 15.1 knots

12 Propulsion of 46,000-50,000 dwt Handymax Tanker

Operating costs The total main engine operating costs per year, 250 days/year, and fuel price of 700 USD/t, are shown in Fig. 9. The lube oil and maintenance costs are shown too. As can be seen, the major operating costs originate from the fuel costs about 96%.

Propulsion of 47,000 DWT Tanker 15.1 knots


Total annual main engine operating costs IMO Tier ll ISO ambient conditions 250 days/year Annual operating costs NCR = 90% SMCR Million USD/Year Fuel price: 700 USD/t

Relative saving in operating costs %

14 13 12 11 10
8.3%

6 5

Maintenance Lub. oil Fuel oil

After some years in service, the relative savings in operating costs in Net Present Value (NPV), see Fig. 10, with the existing 6S50ME-C8.2 used as basis with the propeller diameter of about 5.9 m, indicates an NPV saving for the new 6G50ME-B9.3 engine with the propeller diameter of about 6.7 m. After 25 years in operation, the saving is about 9.6 million USD for N3 with 6G50ME-B9.3 with the SMCR speed of 100.0 r/min and propeller diameter of about 6.7 m.
0 1
0%

9 8 7 6

4 3
4.2%

5 4 3 2 1 0

6S50ME-C8.2 N1 Dprop: 5.9 m4

6S50ME-B9.3 N2 6.2 m4

6G50ME-B9.3 N3 6.7 m4

Fig. 9: Total annual main engine operating costs for 15.1 knots

Propulsion of 47,000 dwt Handymax Tanker 15.1 knots


Relative saving in main engine operating costs (NPV) Saving in operating costs (Net Present Value) Million USD

12 IMO Tier ll ISO ambient conditions N = NCR = 90% SMCR 250 days/year Fuel price: 700 USD/t Rate of interest and discount: 6% p.a. Rate of ination: 3% p.a. N3 6.7 m 4 6G50ME-B9.3

10

N2 6.2 m 4 6S50ME-B9.3

2 N1 5.9 m 4 6S50ME-C8.2
Lifetime

0 2

10

15

20

25

30 Years

Fig. 10: Relative saving in main engine operating costs (NPV) for 15.1 knots

Propulsion of 46,000-50,000 dwt Handymax Tanker 13

Main Engine Operating Costs 14.5 knots


The calculated main engine examples are as follows:
14.5 knots 1. 6S50ME-C8.2 (D prop = 5.9 m) M1 = 8,500 kW x 119.0 r/min M2 = 8,310 kW x 110.0 r/min. M3 = 7,950 kW x 94.0 r/min. 2. 6S50ME-B9.3 (D prop = 6.2 m) 3. 6G50ME-B9.3 (D prop = 6.7 m)

Propulsion of 47,000 dwt Handymax Tanker 14.5 knots


Expected propulsion power demand at N = NCR = 90% SMCR Propulsion power demand at N = NCR kW Relative power reduction %

10,000

Inclusive of sea margin = 15%

10 9

8,000

7,650 kW

7,479 kW

8 7,155 kW
6.5%

7 6 5

6,000

4,000
2.2%

4 3 2 1

The main engine fuel consumption and operating costs at N = NCR = 90% SMCR have been calculated for the above three main engine/propeller cases operating on the relatively lower ship speed of 14.5 knots, which is probably going to be a more normal choice in the future. Furthermore, the EEDI has been calculated on the basis of the 75%. SMCR-related figures (without sea margin). Fuel consumption and EEDI Fig. 11 shows the influence of the propeller diameter with four propeller blades when going from about 5.9 m to 6.7 m. Thus, N3 for the 6G50ME-B9.3 with an about 6.7 m propeller diameter has a propulsion power demand that is about 6.5% lower compared with the N1 for the 6S50ME-C8.2 with an about 5.9 m propeller diameter. For the two ME-B engine cases, an extra SFOC of +1 g/kWh has been added corresponding to the power demand needed for the Hydraulic Power Supply (HPS) system.
0
0%

2,000

6S50ME-C8.2 N1 Dprop: 5.9 m4

6S50ME-B9.3 N2 6.2 m4

6G50ME-B9.3 N3 6.7 m4

Fig. 11: Expected propulsion power demand at NCR = 90% SMCR for 14.5 knots

14 Propulsion of 46,000-50,000 dwt Handymax Tanker

Fig. 12 shows the influence on the main engine efficiency, indicated by the Specific Fuel Oil Consumption, SFOC, for the three cases. N3 = 90% M3 with the 6G50ME-B9.3 has a relatively low SFOC of 161.6 g/kWh compared with the 165.1 g/kWh for N1 = 90% M1 for the 6S50ME-C8.2, i.e. an SFOC reduction of about 2.1%, mainly caused by the greater derating potential and higher stroke/bore ratio of the G-engine type.

Propulsion of 47,000 dwt Handymax Tanker 14.5 knots


Expected SFOC SFOC g/kWh 179 178 177 176 175 174 173 172 171 170 169 168 167 166 165 164 163 162 161
N2 N3 Dprop
M1 6S50ME-C8.2 5.9 m 4

ME-B9.2 (without VET)

IMO Tier ll ISO ambient conditions LCV = 42,700 kJ/kg Standard high-load optimised engines

(VET = Variable Exhaust valve Timing)

Standard ME-B9.3 (with VET)

Savings in SFOC
N1

0%

M2 6S50ME-B9.3 6.2 m 4 M3 6G50ME-B9.3 6.7 m 4

2.0% 2.1%

160 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 % SMCR Engine shaft power


N = NCR M = SMCR

For ME-B9.3 engines the fuel consumption (+1g/kWh) for HPS is included.

Fig. 12: Expected SFOC for 14.5 knots

Propulsion of 46,000-50,000 dwt Handymax Tanker 15

The daily fuel consumption is found by multiplying the propulsion power demand at N (Fig. 11) with the SFOC (Fig. 12), see Fig. 13. The total reduction of fuel consumption of the new 6G50MEB9.3 is about 8.5% compared with the existing 6S50ME-C8.2 (see also the above-mentioned savings of 6.5% and 2.1%).

Propulsion of 47,000 dwt Handymax Tanker 14.5 knots


Expected fuel consumption at N = NCR = 90% SMCR Fuel consumption of main engine t/24h IMO Tier ll ISO ambient conditions LCV = 42,700 kJ/kg Relative saving of fuel consumption %

35 30 25

14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6

30.32 t/24h

29.05 t/24h

27.75 t/24h

8.5%

20

The reference and the actual EEDI figures have been calculated and are shown in Fig. 14 (EEDIref = 1,218.8 x dwt
-0.488

15
4.2%

5 4 3 2

, 15 July 2011). As can be

10 5 0
0%

seen for all three cases, the actual EEDI figures are now somewhat lower than the reference figure because of the relatively low ship speed of 14.5 knots. Particularly, case 3 with 6G50ME-B9.3 has a low EEDI about 82% of the reference figure.

1 6S50ME-B9.3 N2 6.2 m 4 6G50ME-B9.3 N3 6.7 m 4 0

6S50ME-C8.2 N1 Dprop: 5.9 m 4

For ME-B9.3 engines the fuel consumption for HPS is included.


Fig. 13: Expected fuel consumption at NCR = 90 SMCR for 14.5 knots

Propulsion of 47,000 dwt Handymax Tanker 14.5 knots


Energy Efciency Design Index (EEDI) 75% SMCR: 14.9 kn without sea margin Reference and actual EEDI CO2 emissions gram per dwt/n mile

Actual/Reference EEDI %

8 7
6.40

EEDI reference 2012


6.40 5.71 89% 5.50 86%

EEDI actual
6.40

120 110 100 90

6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Dprop:

5.26 82%

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10

6S50ME-C8.2 N1 5.9 m 4

6S50ME-B9.3 N2 6.2 m 4

6G50ME-B9.3 N3 6.7 m 4

Fig. 14: Reference and actual Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) for 14.5 knots

16 Propulsion of 46,000-50,000 dwt Handymax Tanker

Propulsion of 47,000 DWT Tanker 14.5 knots


Total annual main engine operating costs IMO Tier ll ISO ambient conditions 250 days/year NCR = 90% SMCR Fuel price: 700 USD/t

Operating costs The total main engine operating costs


Relative saving in operating costs %

per year, 250 days/year, and fuel price of 700 USD/t, are shown in Fig. 15. Lube oil and maintenance costs are also shown at the top of each column. As can be seen, the major operating costs originate from the fuel costs about 96%. After some years in service, the relative savings in operating costs in Net Present Value, NPV, see Fig. 16, with the existing 6S50ME-C8.2 with the propeller diameter of about 5.9 m used as basis, indicates an NPV saving after some years in service for the new 6G50ME-B9.3 engine with the propeller diameter of about 6.7 m. After 25 years in operation, the saving is about 7.9 million USD for N3 with the 6G50ME-B9.3 with the SMCR speed of 94.0 r/min and propeller diameter of about 6.7 m.

Annual operating costs Million USD/Year

12 11

Maintenance Lub. oil


8.2% Fuel oil

10 9 8 7

3
4.0%

6 5 4 3

1
0%

2 1
6S50ME-B9.3 N2 6.2 m4 6G50ME-B9.3 N3 6.7 m4

0
Dprop:

6S50ME-C8.2 N1 5.9 m4

Fig. 15: Total annual main engine operating costs for 14.5 knots

Propulsion of 47,000 dwt Handymax Tanker 14.5 knots


Relative saving in main engine operating costs (NPV) Saving in operating costs (Net Present Value) Million USD

10

IMO Tier ll ISO ambient conditions N = NCR = 90% SMCR 250 days/year Fuel price: 700 USD/t Rate of interest and discount: 6% p.a. Rate of ination: 3% p.a.

N3 6.7 m 4 6G50ME-B9.3

N2 6.2 m 4 6S50ME-B9.3

2
N1 5.9 m 4 6S50ME-C8.2

10

15

20

25

30 Years

Lifetime

Fig. 16: Relative saving in main engine operating costs (NPV) for 14.5 knots

Propulsion of 46,000-50,000 dwt Handymax Tanker 17

Summary
Traditionally, super long stroke S-type engines, with relatively low engine speeds, have been applied as prime movers in tankers. Following the efficiency optimisation trends in the market, the possibility of using even larger propellers has been thoroughly evaluated with a view to using engines with even lower speeds for propulsion of particularly tankers (but also bulk carriers). Handymax tankers (and bulk carriers) may be compatible with propellers with larger propeller diameters than the current designs, and thus high efficiencies

following an adaptation of the aft hull design to accommodate the larger propeller, together with optimised hull lines and bulbous bow, considering operation in ballast conditions. The new ultra long stroke G50MEB9.3 engine type meets this trend in the Handymax tanker (and bulk carrier) market. This paper indicates, depending on the propeller diameter used, an overall efficiency increase of 8-9% when using G50ME-B9.3, compared with existing main engine type S50MEC8.2 applied so far. Compared with existing S50MC-C8 or even S50ME-C7/MC-C7 often used in

the past, the overall efficiency increase will be even higher when using G50MEB9.3. The Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) will also be reduced when using G50ME-B9.3. In order to meet the stricter given reference figure in the future, the design of the ship itself and the design ship speed applied (reduced speed) has to be further evaluated by the shipyards to further reduce the EEDI.

18 Propulsion of 46,000-50,000 dwt Handymax Tanker

All data provided in this document is non-binding. This data serves informational purposes only and is especially not guaranteed in any way. Depending on the subsequent specific individual projects, the relevant data may be subject to changes and will be assessed and determined individually for each project. This will depend on the particular characteristics of each individual project, especially . specific site and operational conditions. CopyrightMAN Diesel & Turbo. 5510-0110-02ppr Dec 2013 Printed in Denmark

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