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Ovarian Cycle Follicular Phase Primordial Follicle becomes a Primary Follicle A primordial follicle is activated by the oocyte o Squamouslike

e cells surrounding primary oocyte grow, becoming cuboidal cells o Oocyte enlarges Follicle called a Primary Follicle A Primary Follicle Becomes a Secondary Follicle Follicular cells proliferate o From stratified epithelium around oocyte o Since more than one cell layer present, called Secondary Follicle o Follicle cells called granulosa cells Bidirectional conversations occur o Guide each others development A Secondary Follicle Becomes a Late secondary Follicle Layer of connective tissue condenses around follicle, forming the theca follicle o As follicle cell grows, thecal

Hormonal interactions during Ovarian Cycle GnRH stimulates FSH and LH secretion GnRH secreted by hypothalamus stimulates production and release of FSH and LH by anterior pituitary

Menstrual phase Menstrual Phase Uterus Sheds all but the deepest part of the endometrium o Ovarian hormones are at their lowest normal levels and gonadotropins are beginning to rise The thick hormone dependent, functional layer of the endometrium detaches from uterine wall o Accompanied by bleeding for 3 to 5 days By day 5, growing ovarian follicles are producing more estrogen

FSH and LH stimulate follicle growth and maturation and estrogen secretion FSH exerts its main effects on granulosa cells of the late secondary or vesicular follicles

Proliferative phase Endometrium rebuilds itself o Under influence of rising blood estrogens o Basal layer generates new functional layer

and granulose cells produce LH targets the thecal cells estrogens o As follicle enlarges, LH probes Oocyte secretes thick transparent thecal cells to produce extracellular layer called Zona androgens Pellucida o Diffuse through basement membrane where converted Clear liquid accumulates between to estrogen by granulosa cells granulosa cells o Produce late secondary Negative Feedback follicle Rising estrogen levels in plasma exert Late Secondary Follicle Becomes a Vesicular negative feedback effect on Follicle hypothalamus and anterior pituitary Fluid between granulosa cells form o Inhibit release of FSH and LH large fluid cavity called antrum o Simultaneously prod pituitary o Distinguish vesicular follicle to synthesise and accumulate from late secondary follicle these gonadotropins Continues to expand until isolates the Within ovary, estrogen enhances oocyte estrogen output by intensifying effect o Along with surrounding of FSH on follicle maturation capsule of granulosa cells Inhibin, released by granulosa cells called Corona Radiata exert negative feedback on FSH When follicle is full size, 2.5 cm, Only dominant follicle survives this bulges from external ovarian surface dip in FSH o By day 14 o The other follicles fail to Primary oocyte completes Meiosis I to develop further and form secondary oocyte and first polar deteriorate body o Now set for ovulation Positive feedback o At this point, granulosa cells High estrogen levels produced by send signal to oocyte to tell it dominant follicle and other maturing not to complete meiosis yet follicles have opposite effect o Once reaches critical level, briefly exerts a positive

As new layer thickens, glands enlarge and spiral arteries increase in number Consequently, endometrium once again becomes velvety, thick and well vascularised Estrogens also induce synthesis of progesterone receptors in the endometrial cells o Ready them for interactions progesterone Normally cervical mucus is thick and sticky but rising estrogen levels cause it to become thin to facilitate sperm Ovulation occurs due to sudden surge of LH

feedback on brain and anterior pituitary LH surge High estrogen levels cause sudden burst like release of accumulated LH by anterior pituitary

Ovulation Ovulation Occurs when ballooning ovary wall ruptures and expels secondary oocyte o Still surrounded by the Corona Radiata into the peritoneal cavity Most likely the follicle selected has the greatest FSH sensitivity the quickest

Ovulation LH surge stimulates the primary oocyte of the dominant follicle to complete the first meiotic division o Form secondary oocyte that continues on Series of events that weaken ovary wall o Release of prostaglandins o Inflammatory response Shorty after ovulation, estrogen levels decline o Reflect damage of burst follicle Corpus Luteum Forms o LH surge transforms ruptured follicle into a corpus Luteum o LH stimulates to produce progesterone and some estrogen Secretory Phase 14 day phase what is the most constant timewise Endometrium prepares to implantation of embryo Rising progesterone levels from

Luteal Phase Luteal Phase After ovulation, ruptured follicle collapses o Atrium fills with clotted blood Remaining granulosa cells grow in size and along with Thecal cells from

Corpus Luteum o Begin to secrete progesterone and some estrogen If pregnancy does not occur, Corpus Luteum starts to degrade in 10 days and hormonal output ends o Leaves Corpus Albicans behind o If pregnancy occurs, corpus Luteum persists until placenta is ready to take over in 3 months

Progesterone helps maintain stratum functionalis- essential for pregnancy

Negative feedback inhibits LH and FSH release Rising progesterone and estrogen levels exert powerful negative feedbackin hypothalamus and anterior pituitary release of LH and FSH o Release of inhibin enhances this inhibitory effect o Inhibit development of new follicles and prevent additional LH surges that could cause additional oocytes to be ovulated

corpus Luteum cause o Spiral arteries to elaborate o Secrete nutritious glycogen into uterine cavity o These nutrients sustain embryo until it has implanted Increasing progesterone levels cause cervical mucus to become viscous again, forming cervical plug o Prevent entry of sperm and pathogens If fertilisation has not occurred, corpus Luteum degenerates o LH levels decline o Progesterone levels fall o Deprive endometrium of hormonal support o Endometrium dies