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OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS MANUAL 110 MW STEAM TURBINE AND ACCESSORIES

VOLUME 1

BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LTD.


RAMACHANDRAPURAM HYDERAB AD-500 032

CONTENTS
Description
INTRODUCTION ... ... ... Page No. Article No. 1 3 5 7 11 15 17 19 23 25 27 29 33 37 Drawing 01-00-00 02-00-00 03-00-00 03-02-00 3-10-1500-D 3-10-2069-S 03-04-00 2-10-1C19-S 1-10-2011-S 1-10-2010-S 03-05-00 3-10-OD37-M 03-05-05 0-10-1018-S 3-10-2020-S 03-06-00 0-10-1003^8 3-10-2024-S 03-06-08 3-10-2035-S 03-07-00 03-07-01 3-10-2036-S 03-07-02 3-10-2032-S 3-10-2037-S 3-10-2040-S 03-07-03 3-10-2046-S 3-10-2017-S 3-10-2043-S 03-07-04 3-10-2021-S 3-10-2048-S.

MAIN TECHNICAL DATA OFTURBOSETS ... FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION OF THE MAIN PARTS.................................................................. TURBINE CASINGS STEAM TURBINE ............................... ... ... ...

MEASURING POINTS OF METAL TEMPERA TURE .................................................................... GLAND STEAM SYSTEM ................................... SCHEME OF GLAND STEAM AND DRAIN REGULATION OF H.P. GLAND STEAM REGULATION OF L.P. GLAND STEAM ... ...

ROTORS, BEARINGS AND TURNING GEAR THERMAL EXPANSION OF CASINGS AND ROTORS MEASUREMENT OF BEARING VIBRATIONS ... MECHANICAL TURNING GEAR DESCRIPTION TURNING GEAR GEAR OIL SYSTEM INJECTOR OIL FILTER DESCRIPTION OIL FILTER ............ ... ............................... ............................ ... ... .............................. WIRING DIAGRAM OF 110 MWTURNING

SCHEME OF OIL PIPING SYSTEMS 110 MW ...

REGULATION AND SAFETY EQUIPMENT FOR TURBINE PROPER................................. SPEED SENSING ELEMENT PUMP TRANSFORMER SPEED CHANGER LIMITER DESCRIPTION LIMITER POSITIONS OF LIMITER QUICK CLOSING RETURN FLAPS VALVE ASSEMBLY ... TRANSFORMER DESCRIPTION NON UNIFORMITY CHANGER ................ .............. ... ... ... ............... ... .............. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... NON ...

..............................

PRESURE LIMITER DRIVE ................................. VALVES AND ................

H.P. QUICK CLOSING STOP AND GOVERNING


................................. SERVOMOTOR OF H.P. QUICK STOP VALVE...

CONTENTS-Contd.
Description
SERVOMOTOR OF L.P QUICK CLOSING STOP VALVE .. .. . L.P QUICK CLOSING INTERCEPTOR VALVE .. .. NON RETURN VALVE . ELECTROMAGNETIC RELAY . CHANGE OVER VALVE .. ACCELERATOR .. .. .. GOVERNING VALVES . .. GOVERNING VALVES DRIVE 1 / 4 .. SERVOMOTOR OF L.P INTERCEPT VALVE LIFT OF GOVERNING AND INTERCEPTOR VALVES Vs SECONDARY OIL PRESSURE EMERGENCY GOVERNORS . . EMERGENCY GOVERNOR . TESTER OF EMERGENCY GOVERNOR ( DESCRIPTION ) .. TESTER OF OVER SPEED GOVERNORS OIL DISTRIBUTOR ( DESCRIPTION ) OIL DISTRIBUTOR .. .. . NON RETURN VALVE Js 10 .. MAGNETIC RELAY( DESCRIPTION ) RELAY OF MAGNET .. . . ACCELERATOR RELAY (DESCRIPTION ).. ACCELERATOR . MAIN RELAY ( DESCRIPTION ) . MAIN RELAY . . . MAIN RELAY . . HYDRO-MECHNICAL AXIAL PROTECTION ( DESCRIPTION ) . .. MECHNICAL PROTECTION OF DISPPLACEMENT . .. ELECTROMAGNETIC PROTECTION OF AXIAL MOVEMENT OF THE THRUST BEARING COLLAR,RELATIVE EXPANSION OF ROTORS AND CASING .. ELECTRICAL PROTECTION OF DISPLACEMENT .. SENSING DEVICE FOR ROTORS EXETENSION FRONT . SENSING DEVICE FOR ROTORS EXETENSION REAR .. APPERATUS FOR MEASURING THE VIB RATIONS OF BEARING PEDESTALS .

Page. No

Article No.
_ _ _ _ _ _ 03-07-05 _ _ _

Drawing No.
3-10-2049-S 3-10-2047-S 4-10-1063-S 3-10-2041-S 3-10-2028-S 3-10-2042-S 3-10-2031-S 3-10-2050-S TC-0097-D ( Graph ) 4-10-1046-S 2-10-1010-S 3-10-2026-S 4-10-1045-S 3-10-2025-S 3-10-2051-S 3-10-2044-S 3-10-2018-S

43

49 51 53 55 57 59

_ _ 03-07-07 _ 03-07-08 _ _ 03-07-09 _ 03-07-10 _ 03-07-11 _ _ 03-07-12 _

67

3-10-2023-S

69

_ _ _ _ 3-10-2022-S 3-10-2038-S 3-10-2039-S

73

03-07-14

CONTENTSContd, Description
TECHNICAL DATA OF ACCESSORIES IN CONDENSATION AND REGENERATIVE SYSTEM ............................................................. DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENT IN CONDEN SATION AND REGENERATIVE SYSTEM ... SURFACE CONDENSER ... ... ... SURFACE CONDENSER ... ... ... CONDENSER VACUUM CURVES 110 MW ... CONDENSER VACUUM CURVES 110 MW... STARTING EJECTOR AND THE MAIN EJECTOR ... ... STEAM JET AIR EJECTOR., ... ... STARTING EJECTOR ... ... ... COOLING WATER CIRCUIT ... ... LEVEL CONTROLLER IN THE CONDENSER (DESCRIPTION) ... ... ... LEVEL CONTROLLER ... ... ... REGENERATIVE SYSTEM ... ... ... CYCLE OF 1ST AND 2ND STAGE HEATING (LPH) ... ... ... CYCLE OF 3RD STAGE HEATING (LPH) AND EXPANDER OF WORKING CONDENSATE ... ... ... CYCLE OF IV STAGE HEATING ... ... CYCLE OF V STAGE HEATING ... ... CYCLE OF VI STAGE HEATING ... CYCLE OF VII STAGE HEATING ... ... CYCLE OF VIII STAGE HEATING... ... TESTING OF SIGNALISATION AND PRO TECTION SYSTEM OF HEATERS ... L.P. HEATER No. 3 ... ... ... LEVEL REGULATOR ... ... ... EXPANDER .............................. H.P. HEATER 1 ... ... ... Page No, Article No. Drawing No.

75 79

03-08-00 03-09-00'

0-14-1035 014-1036 RC-0038 (Graph) RC-0039 (Graph)

83

87 89 91 93 95 99 101 103 105 107 109

03-09-02 03-09-04 03-09-05 03-10-00 03-10-01 03-10-03 03-10-04 03-10-05 03-10-06 03-10-07 03-10-08 03-10-09

0-14-1032-A 0-14-1031-A

0-10-1016-S

0-14-1018-A 0-14-1014-A 0-14-1015-A 0-14-1021-A

01.00.00

INTRODUCTION

These operating instructions have been specially prepared for the use of the customer, giving details of the turbo setserving as a partial documentation of the complete operating instructions for the entire block. However, please note, these instructions are not to be passed on to a third person without the prior consent of the manufacturer. These operating instructions are based on the assumption that the user has a basic knowledge of the turboset and its operation, and of the various safety regulations in force. To ensure reliable, faultless operation and maximum possible service life of the machinery, knowledge of all instructions and the experience attained in practice, are essential, since no operating instructions can completely cover all the possibilities that may arise during operation of such extensive equipment. To acquire detailed knowledge, it is recommended that the operating personnel be closely involved in the erection of the equipment, and, in the operational tests, during the commissioning of the set. It is also necessary that the operator performing the loading and unloading of the unit, should be

acquainted, not only with the instructions for the turbo-alternator and other electrical equipment, but also with the concerned articles of the instructions dealing with the turbine and boiler. In case of unit operation, it is suggested that the boiler attendant in-charge be acquainted with the turboset operation in general. The descriptive part of these instructions deal mainly with those parts and circuits which must be operated by the attending personnel during the starting operations. The assembly drawings, layouts, schemes, passport and other necessary documents have already been supplied to the customer. The operating instructions for the turbo-alternator and its auxiliaries and pumps are supplied separately. The manufacturer reserves the right of changing these instructions according to the experience gained during the long term operation of other machines of the same type. After the trial run at site, our commissioning engineers may feel the need to change certain portions of the operating instructions, due to specific conditions of the unit. Such changes will be intimated to all customers by the commissioning engineers.
1

02.00.00

MAIN TECHNICAL DATA OF TURBOSETS

02.01.01 The basic parameters: Rated output measured at the terminals of the generator as per CNS 080030 110,000 k\v Economical output 95,000 kw Rated speed 3,000 rpm

H.P. cylinder - 2 row curtis wheel + 8 moving wheels. Wt. of HP rotor approx. 5,500kg. M.P. cylinder12 moving wheels. Wt. of MP roto r app ro x.! 1,000 kg' L.P. cylinder4 moving wheels of double-flow design. Wt.of LP rotor approx. 24;()0()kg. Direction of the turbine rotationto the right, when looking at the turbine from the front bearing pedestal.

Rated pressure of steam just before the stop valve 130 ata Max. pressure of steam before the stop valve 146 ata Rated temp, of steam before the stop valve 535C Max. temp, of steam before the stop valve 545C Rated pressure of steam before the M.P. casing 31.63 ata Max. pressure of steam before the M.P. casing 35 ata Rated temp, of steam before the M.P. casing 535C Max. temp, of steam before the M.P. casing 545C No.of non-regulated extractions 8.

02.01.03 The Quantity of oil for first filling: For the turbine approx. For oil system of generator, approx. 19.000 4,400 liters liters

Total ;

23,400

liters

Consumption of make-up oil for the whole turbo set 0.38 kg/hr.

02.01.02 System of the turbine: 4 governing valves + 2 interceptor valves.

02.01.04 Rotors rotate at 62 rpm. on turning gearduring Starting and Stopping. 3

03.00.00

FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION OF THE MAIN PARTS

03.01.00 GENERAL DESCRIPTION : 03.01.01 There are two live steam lines connecting the boiler to the turbine. There are two cold reheat and two hot reheat lines connecting the reheater and the turbine. In each of the two live steam lines, one electrically operated isolating valve, one water separator and one quick closing stop valve are mounted. In each of the cold reheat lines a non-return flap valve, controlled by quick closing oil is provided. Both the hot reheat lines are provided with water separators just before the interceptor valves. 03.01.02 For starting of unit from the cold state, all drains in the main steam lines, the steam slide valve on the main steam line, the HP quick closing valves and the non return flaps on the outlet of the HP cylinder must be opened before lighting up the oil burners at the boiler. After testing all the protections on the turbo set the set is put on the turning gear. By this a slow heating up of the steam mains is. ensured up to the valve cones of regulation valves,

which remain closed up to the moment of actual starting up by steam. For hot start it is necessary to achieve specified temperatures of live and reheat steam mentioned in operational part, before opening the steam slide valve on the steam mains and before the actual starting of the turbine.

03.02.00

TURBINE CASINGS:

03.02.01 The high-pressure part consists of two horizontally divided concentric casings. The inner casing is placed in the outer casing in such a way that it is possible for it to expand in all directions, maintaining at the same time the alignment of the two casings, while the fixed point of the inner casing in the axial direction is between the nozzle chambers. The free expansion of the inner casing is also enabled by the gland connection of the nozzle chambers with the incoming steam piping. The medium pressure part is a horizontally divided casing with guide wheels partially mounted in the casing in carriers and partially directly in the casing. The steam supply piping is connected rigidly with the casing, and steam to the front carrier chamber is led-in by an extended pipe which is sealed by glands at the connecting branch of the steam chamber. The low-pressure casing is divided horizontally and comprises of 3 parts, connected by vertical flanges. In the front and rear parts of the casing, both the bearings of LP rotor and the rear bearing of MP rotor are located. The outlet connecting branches

of the outer parts are connected rigidly with the condensers, and the condensers are supported on springs. It is necessary to prop-up the feet of condenser with rigid supports before filling the condenser steam space with water to test its tightness so that the increased weight in the condenser is not transformed on to the LP casing. In the middle part of the LP casing two tube nests of 1st LP Heater and two tube nests of 2nd LP Heater are mounted for heating the condensate. To remove the top casing it is necessary to dismount these nests first, and then the nuts of the flange bolts inside the cylinder. 03.02.02 The casings are interconnected by a system of guide keys through bearing pedestals between the MP and HP parts and the front bearing pedestal of the HP parts, so that the alignment of all the casings is ensured with the possibility of free thermal expansion of the casings. The schematic representation is on the drawing 3-10-003 7M. In the axial direction the fixed point is at the central part of the LP casing, so that the maximum axial thermal expansion is attained at the front bearing pedestal on the
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electromagnetic indicator of the expansion of casings (203). At steady full load operation with the normal steam parameters, the expansion achieved at this point would be about 25 mm. The displacement of the bearing pedestal between HP and MP part is indicated by the electromagnetic pickup (204) and attains a value of about 15 mm. The free movement of the bearing pedestals on the supports without jumps or impacts is important, to prevent the deformation of the casings and pedestals, and to ensure a proper pressure distribution on the axial and radial bearings. It is therefore necessary to make sure (during erection of the bearing pedestals) that the contact surfaces are clean. It is also necessary, during erection, to apply a lubricant to the contact surfaces (colloidal graphite solution in oil manufactured by Hard Castleward & Company, Bombay) which considerably reduces the friction. Before starting the machine it is necessary to clean the top sliding surfaces of the supports properly arid to keep it clean during operation also. 03.02.03 Most of the parting plane bolts are designed to be heated by 8

electrical healing elements, so that the necessary assembly prestressing of bolts can be achieved. The heating of bolts before the tightening up and before the locking prevents them from being seized. Detailed instructions for the process of tightening the bolts are given in the drawing documentation. The amount of assembly pre-stressing of the individual group of bolts, the required elongation by heating, the required time of heating, and the angle of rotation of the nuts (from the initial position of slight tightening-up of the nuts when the bolts are cold) after the bolts have been heated up, are stated in the tabulation given in the turbine passport. A careful mounting of the bolts as per the instructions, and a regular inspection of their elongation, is important for ensuring a reliable and tight connection of both the halves of the casings at the permissible stress of bolts. 03.02.04 The flanges of HP and MP casings are designed to heat up by steam during the starting-up of the turboset, by which the difference in temperature between the cylindrical portion of the casing, flanges and the connecting bolts

is reduced, and hence the deformation of the casing and the additional stress on the bolts are limited to a permissible value. The method of steam connection for heating is explained in the section 03.03.00. 03.02.05 One of the most important indications for the method of starting the rate of loading and unloading of the set is the temperature difference at various points of the casing, and the temperature difference between the admission steam and the inlet parts of the turbine. For the purpose of checking the temperature of the casing and piping, as well as the difference in temperature thermocouples are mounted as per the scheme 310-2069-S. The thermocouples are partly connected to the indicating apparatus and partly to the registering apparatus, and the increase in the difference of temperature of HP flange and HP cylindrical top part is signalled optically. The maximum permissible difference in temperature is given in the respective section on operation. Exceeding the given value by improper starting operation,

would increase the stress on the materials and result in inadmissible deformation. For example, exceeding the admissible difference of temperature between the top and bottom parts of the casing would result in unfavorable transient deflection of the casing, by which the radial clearance between the rotor and the stator may even be unilaterally reduced to zero, which during rotation, may lead to the bending of rotors and breakdown of the machine. 03.02.06 A very important factor, for the satisfactory distribution of temperature in the casing, is to make sure the insulation of the casing is not loose, anywhere, and that there are no gaps between the individual parts of the insulation. It is therefore necessary to pay equal attention to the insulation during the overhaul and repairs, as at the first erection. 03.03.00
Connection for heating the flange of the Turbine casing:

The connection scheme is given in the enclosed " Scheme of gland steam and dewatering", 210-1019-S.

03.03-01 The horizontal flange of the external high pressure cylinder along with the bolts on the dividing plane, as well as the flanges and connecting bolts in the parting plane of the MP casing can be heated by live steam from the interconnecting piping between the HP emergency stop valves. The steam supply line to the heating system of flange of both the HP and MP casings is provided with one closing valve with electric drive whose limit switches are given an impulse for the signalling of the OPENCLOSE positions, and also with a regulating valve with electric drive. Besides the valves in both the incoming steam lines, orifice plates are provided. The indicator for full or partial opening of the valve, if provided, should be located near the relative expansion indicator of the rotors. The outlet of steam from the flanges of both the casings is a common one, and is connected across an orifice plate to the piping of IV extraction before the quick-closing extraction valve. The drain from the bottom nuts of the connecting bolts of each casing is connected individually to the piping of chimney steam. 10

03.03.02 Flange heating is resorted to during: (i) Cold start. (ii) Hot start after substantial outage. (iii) Rapid increase of load from a steady low load. The main consideration while flange heating, is to avoid excessive relative expansions of the casings and rotors. (The massive flanges heat up at a slower rate during starting than the rotors which are washed by the hot steam. During considerable increases in load, the massive cylinders and their flanges similarly lag behind the rotor in heating up.)

03.04.00

GLAND STEAM SYSTEM

The connections of the system are given in the piping scheme of the turboset, and on the scheme of gland steam and dewatering 210-1019-S. 03.04.01 From the front gland of the internal HP casing, the gland steam is exhausted through the piping marked 1 (2-10-1019-S) through the non-return valves into the incoming steam line to the MP interceptor valves. By the same piping marked 1 even the steam (marked 12) from the connection of the incoming piping o f I t o IV H P r e g u l a t i o n valves on the HP casing is exhausted to the MP interceptor valves. 03.04.02 Both the front and rear glands of the external HP casing, and the front gland of the MP casing form one independently controlled system 3 (as per 2-10-1019-S), and the rear gland of MP casing and the front and rear glands of LP casing form the other system (5). The chimney steam spaces are connected in one common circuit (8).

03.04.03 The circuit marked 2 in the scheme 2-10-1019-S may be connected according to the position of the change-over valve either to the 5th extraction piping or to the condenser. During starting of the turboset and whenever the 5th heater is out of operation, it is necessary to connect the circuit 2 to the condenser by means of the change-over valve by the manual operation of the respective control switches in the unit control room. The position of the change-over valve which ensures the exhausting of steam from glands to the V extraction piping, after the fifth heater has been put into operation from the fifth extraction point, can be achieved by manual operation of the appertaining control switch in the unit control room. At a loss of pressure in the quick closing oil system, the change-over valve automatically exhausts the gland steam into the condenser (i.e. 1. at the machine cutting off, 2. at the trip of generator from the grid due to generator protec tion, 3. on reaching the maximum condensate level in the fifth heater or 4. at a pressure drop below 2.75 ata in the V extrac11

tion point). Then the heating of V extraction is done automatically by external steam from the reduction station Header. At an increase of pressure in the V extraction to 3 ata, the heating system in the fifth extraction starts closing, the electrical valve on the steam line to V LPH from the V extraction opens, and the change-over valve also automatically exhausts gland steam to the V extraction of the turbine.
03.04.04

pressure gauge of range 02000 mm water column. Both the regulating valves have bypass valves in case the automatics are put out of operation. The steam space of the gland steam condenser is drained off through an automatic water separator into the main condenser. The non-permissible rise of level of condensate in the gland steam condenser is signalled both visually and audibly. If the rise of level is due to the improper functioning of the automatic water separator, it is possible to reduce the level (so that it is visible in the inspection glass gauge) by manual operation of the bypass of the automatic water separator. If it is necessary, due to any reason, to put the gland steam condenser out of operation, the gland steam is sucked into the main condenser, by opening the respective valve. In case of failure of tubes in the tube nest of the gland steam condenser, the level rises in its steam space to the nonpermissible value, impulses are given by the level indicators for automatic cutting off of the gland steam condenser, as well as the chimney steam condenser from operation on the steam side. The gland steam is automatically

In the system of gland steam marked 3, the glands of the casings and the glands of the IV to VIII extraction valve spindles are sealed during starting by steam from the cold reheat line. At the increase of steam pressure in the casing, the gland steam from these glands is sucked off into the gland steam condenser. The servomotors of both the regulating valves for sealing as well as for sucking off, are operated by the common oil jet regulator (viz. scheme 1-10-2011S) which gets the impulse from the piping connecting the glands with both the regulating valves. The normal expected pressure of steam is about 300 mm of water column and is checked on the 12

sucked off into the main condenser, and the chimney steam is exhausted through spray cooler into the atmosphere by means of blowers. The level signaliser gives the following impulses: (1) To close the electrical valves on the steam piping to the gland steam and chimney steam condensers. (2) To open the electrical valve for admitting the chimney steam to the spray cooler, and to open the electrical valve to admit the gland steam to the main condenser. (3) To close the electrical valves on the suction piping of the air steam mixture from chimney steam condenser to the blowers. (4) To open the electrical valve on the incoming condensate spray to the spray coolers of the chimney steam. (5) To the optical and acoustic signals : During a faulty connection, it is necessary to manually open the bypass valves on the condensate line so that

the main condensate can flow bypassing the chimney steam and gland steam condenser, and afterwards to cut off these condensers on the water side by closing the valves on the inlet to the chimney steam condenser and the outlet from the gland steam condenser. 03.04.05 The system of gland steam marked 5 (2-10-1019-S) is sealed by steam from the deaerator through a regulating valve, operated by the oil jet regulator (viz. scheme 1-10-2010-S). The normal expected pressure is about 300 mm of w.cl. and is checked by the pressure gauge in the range of 02,000 mm of water column. When the automatic is out of operation the sealing is done manually by means of the bypass valve. 03.04.06 The last outlet portion of all the glands, along with the glands of the spindles of HP and LP quick closing valves, regulating valves and interceptor valves are con nected to the chimney steam condenser. The air steam mixture from the steam side of the 13

chimney steam condenser is sucked off into the atmosphere by means of a blower. In the chimney steam piping to the chimney steam condenser it is necessary to adjust the valve to maintain a pressure of + 20 to 50 mm of water column (measured by a manometer of range - 400 to + 600 mm of w.cl.), in the chimney space, which ensures that the steam does not leak around the shaft from the glands, but at the same time the air is not sucked off unnecessarily. On the water side the chimney steam condenser is placed after the II LPH. It has, in case of necessity, a common by-pass with the gland steam condenser on the water side. The regulation of draining off of condensate from the chimney steam condenser is done through an automatic steam trap. The draining of condensate can be, if necessary, controlled manually by means of by-pass. In the case of a broken tube when an nonpermissible level rise is reached in the chimney steam condenser, impulses are given by two level signallisers for stopping the operation of both the chimney steam and the gland steam condensers. On the steam side, the steam air mixture from
14

the chimney is exhausted directly to the atmosphere through the spray coolers by means of the blowers, and the gland steam is sucked off into the condenser. The level signalisers give the same impulses as given in the case of nonpermissible level rise in the gland steam condensers. While in a faulty condition, it is necessary to manually open the common by-pass of the condensate of both the chimney steam and gland steam condenser, and afterwards to stop the operation of these condensers on the water side also, by closing the valves on the inlet to chimney steam condenser and on the outlet from the gland steam condenser. 03.04.07 The sealing of gland (marked 5) is regulated so that the minimum quantity of steam leaks through from the glands and that sucking off of air into the glands and into the condenser is prevented. Excessive leaking of steam from the glands under the turbine cover, results in the corrosion of the cover and instruments, dampening the insulation of the casing and damaging the entry of steam into the bearing stand and into the oil. Such an operation therefore is not permissible.

03.05.00

ROTORS, BEARINGS AND TURNING GEAR

03.05.01 All the rotors are mutually connected by means of rigid couplings, including the rotor of the generator. The critical speed of the whole system of rotors manifests in the following ranges of speeds at the operating conditions : 19002200 rpm Best noticed on the MP and LP rotors and generator. 2350 rpm Best noticed on the HP rotor.

salting of the turbine or ingress of water into the turbine) or other effects (like impurities), there are two protections mounted near the axial bearing, one hydromechanical (206) and one electromagnetic (205 in 3-10-0037M), which trip the turboset during the non-permissible movement of the rotor (Section 03-07-12). The magnitude of the thermal expansion of the rotor varies (mainly during larger changes of load and during starting up) from the expansion of the respective casings, because of the difference in mass and to a one sided heating up of the outer casing by steam. To check this relative changes in length, electromagnetic pick-ups are mounted on the front bearing pedestal (No. 200 in 3-10-0037M), on the pedestal b e twe e n M P a n d LP p a r ts (No. 201), and between LP part and generator (202). The maximum permissible relative expansions of the rotors are given by the axial clearances between the guide and moving wheels as well as the axial clearance in the inner and outer glands and the same is signalled at the block control room. The respective values for the individual pick-up are given in section 03.07.13. 15

During the running up of the set these ranges of speed must be crossed over smoothly.

03.05.02 The axial load of the entire system of rotors is taken up by a doublesided axial bearing, located in the bearing stand between HP and MP casings. For checking the cases of wear or damage of the axial bearing because of nonpermissible increase of axial force (for example during the heavy

03.05.03

The rotors are placed on radial bearings which are machined to elliptical shape. Further scraping operations or change of top and side clearances, and the change in temperature of oil, influence the oil wedge and the position of the journal in the bearing as well as the magnitude of the critical speed of the rotors. Therefore, it is necessary during repairs of bearings at the overhauls, to maintain the same condition as existed during the initial assembly. The temperatures of individual bearings are measured by resistance thermometers. 03.05.04 In the lower half of the bearing, a hollow groove is provided in the babbit metal through which oil is supplied through a drilled hole from the high pressure jacking oil pumps (GP as in 0-10-1003-S) through a non-return ball valve located directly at the bearing. By this high pressure oil, the rotors are lifted in the bearings, when it is possible to engage and operate the turning gear with electric motor and thus any scraping of the bearing metal is prevented. 16

03.05.05

MECHANICAL TURNING GEAR DESCRIPTION

The turning gear is located on the bearing pedestal between LP part and the generator. It is intended for setting the rotor in motion from the standstill position before they are started to rotate by steam and also to rotate the rotors for cooling down after shut-down, so as to avoid any undesirable temporary or permanent deformation of the rotors due to the different temperatures in the sections perpendicular to the axis of the rotor. This equipment turns the rotor at a speed of 62 rpm by a system of gears. The drive for the turning gear comes from a vertical electric motor of 30 KW. and 1,460 rpm. The driving pinion is supported in the body of the turning gear in a swinging way, and it is thrown into engagement with the coupling gear by means of the servomotor (40) which is located inside the turning equipment. The force required for engaging the gear is the oil pressure of 50 atg, from one of the high pressure rotor lifting oil pumps. The pinion is secured in the disengaged position by means of the tie rod (34) and a drop catch (25) which is located against the hook of the holding cam (26). Lifting of the driving pinion, after the turbine has started to rotate by steam, is ensured by the spring (39) under the piston of servomotor. The force of the spring is enough to lift the driving pinion when the speed of the rotor is more than 62 rpm. At higher speeds of the

turbine, the driving pinion is thrown out of engagement by the peripheral force on the pitch circle of the pinion gearing. The servomotor piston has a recess at the top and this together with the casing of the servomotor forms a damping arrangement to damp any shocks that may arise due to sudden throwing out of engagement of the driving pinion because of quick increase in the speed of the rotor.
Putting the turning gear into operation :

Before putting the turning gear into operation, the valve on the incoming lubricating oil piping to the turning gear, must be opened. Impulse of oil pressure is taken for the interlocking manostat (174 in 3-102020-S), which at a loss of pressure of lubricating oil does not permit the starting of the electric motor of the turning gear equipment. The jacking oil pump for lifting the rotor is put into operation which also supplies the working oil for engaging the drive pinion. The working oil is supplied to the relay (156) which is operated by an electromagnet. The switching on of the electric motor can be done either by remote control or from the machine floor. The operation is done in two stages. First, the electromagnet on the relay (156) is switched on, after which the engaging of the magnet allows the working oil through the relay to the under side of the piston of the drop catch (25), which is lifted out. Simultaneously. through 17

a contact pressure gauge, an impulse is given for optical signalisation No. 1 which indicates admitting of pressure oil under the piston of the servomotor. The pressure oil flows through the holes in the piston to the top side of the piston of the servomotor and because of the differential pressure on the piston, the oil presses the piston to the bottom and thus engages the pinion with the gearing on the coupling. The movement of the pinion is transmitted mechanically by the links 33 and 34 on to the signalling cam (27) which, by means of the limit switch (172), gives the impulse to the optical signal No. 2, if the pinion is in engagement by at least 15 mm. Only when both these optical signals are on, should the motor of the turning gear be switched on. The switching on of the motor, before the engagement of the pinion with the gearing of the coupling, can damage the turning gear. Therefore, it is necessary to wait before switching on the motor, till the pinion is fully engaged, and the pinion carrier rests against the respective stop. The current impulse for the magnet is given through a time relay, which after five seconds cuts 2 kohms/50 W resistance into the circuit as a limiter of the current which protects the electromagnet from burning out, in case the pinion positioning requires a longer time. If during the sliding in of the pinion, the heads of the gearing come into contact with each other, it is necessary to 18

release the magnet by which the pinion is lifted out forcibly, by means of the spring of the servomotor, and the procedure should be repeated again. Should the repeated attempts also fail to achieve the proper engagement, it is possible to turn the pinion a little, by means of a spanner fitted on to the square-head provided on the shaft, which is brought out on to the side of the turning equipment, the remaining portion of the equipment being covered.
CAUTION:

The signalling of the optical signal No. 2 at the engagement of the pinion is adjusted by the manufacturer, and if the equipment is overhauled at any time, this must be carefully inspected. Engagement of the pinion by 15 mm corresponds to a distance of about 25 mm from the stop of the pinion carriers to the projection in bearing pedestal. Before switching on the electro-motor both the indicating lamps must be on. After the start of rotation of the turning gear, the change-over magnet is to be manually released by switching off the magnet and the relay changes over and allows the oil from servomotor to drain. The pinion is held in engagement by means of the peripheral force. If the working oil pressure remains in the servomotor during the turbine starting, the pinion will not shift out of engagement, and the turning gear would get damaged.

03.06.00

OIL SYSTEM

03.06.01 The oil system is shown in scheme 0-10-1003-S in which the main regulation and protection equipment operated by oil, the fittings, measuring and electrical control instruments, are shown schematically. The numbering of the instruments is done on scheme 010-1003-S. The lubrication and regulation systems are mutually interconnected. The main oil tank is divided by removable screens into two spaces. Oil is led into one of these spaces from all the drains which then flow into the second space through the screens, from where the suction is taken to all the oil pumps. Both the spaces are provided with level signalisers (207, 208) for the maximum level in the first and the minimum level in the second space. The oil levels are also indicated by level gauges. It is necessary to ensure the cleaning of the screen periodically and to top up the oil level as required. The screens must be clean, especially during the initial commissioning periods. The cleaning of the screens could be carried out, even during operation, because behind the first coarse screen, there are two fine screens, which can be alternatively removed and cleaned. The valve Nd. 15 connected above the mud collector, serves for taking oil samples. The sampling of oil is to be carried out regularly during operation and as per the results of the

chemical analysis, it is necessary to decide on the centrifuging of the oil, or on complete replacement of the oil. Oil for centrifuging is taken from the bottom of the mud collector through the connection Nd. 80. The draining of water and impurities from the tank is carried out simultaneously, from the bottom of the collector by the valve Nd. 15 (marked P). This works best when the machine as well as all the pumps are at rest, and when all the water and impurities in the oil have settled down at the bottom of the tank. It is recommended that all the valves mentioned above are secured against manipulation by any unauthorised personnel. From the space above the level of the oil in the tank, the oil and water vapour mixture is sucked off by an electrically driven exhaust fan (OVE). This fan must always be in operation when the oil system is working. 03.06.02 During the normal operation of the turboset, all the required oil is supplied by the main oil pump, (centrifugal single-stage type (MOP)] whose impeller is directly mounted on the HP rotor of the turbine. During standstill of the turbine and during starting and stopping of the set, the oil is supplied by means of one of the two starting oil pumps (marked SOP). These pumps are immersed in the oil tank and are driven by motors located at 8 m level. They are started manually after the valves 19

B(D) on the delivery of the pump are kept opened. The delivery of starting oil pump, and the main oil pumps are connected across non-return flaps. A branch from the delivery of starting oil pump is led to the suction of main oil pump through a non-return flap and the valve marked E, by which the pressure of oil in the suction of main oil pump is maintained at 5-6 atg during the starting of the turboset. On the delivery of main oil pump, the pressure of oil during normal operation is 9.5 to 12 atg. The oil is divided into three main circuits. (a) To the injector in the oil tank (art. 03.06.06). (b) To the oil coolers across the orifice plate, gate valves and non-return flaps, in the lubri cating oil (art. 03.06.07). (c) To the regulation and protec tion equipment with a branch for hydrogen cooling system of alternator (03.06.08). (d) To Askania Regulators. The drop of pressure of oil to 8 atg in the delivery is signalled by the manostat (130). If there is a further decrease to 7 atg, the manostat (131) gives impulse to trip the turboset. 03.06.03 Besides the starting oil pump with a delivery of about 12 atg, one emergency oil pump (marked as EOP ) with a delivery of 2.7
20

atg for the lubricating oil is provided. This is used when the turning gear is in operation, and also when the regulation oil is not required. The emergency oil pump serves mainly for taking over in case of fall of lubricating oil pressure in front of the bearing to 0.8 atg. At this value the manostats (139, 140) give the impulses for starting the emergency oil pump. During the normal running of the turbo set, the starting switch, on the switch board of the control circuit of the electric motor of the emergency oil pump, must be kept, in " automatic " position and the valves (H and J) on the suction and delivery of the pump must always be kept open during operation. The pump is driven either by an AC motor or, in the case of failure of AC power, a DC motor. Optical signals are given for the following: (a) In case of failure of AC or DC supply. (b) The position of the main control switch. (c) The running of the pump. Detailed description of the electrical connections (which are not in the scope of supply of turbine) is the subject matter of separate instructions. 03.06.04 An auxiliary oil tank of smaller capacity is provided at zero level, to facilitate draining of oil from all parts, which cannot be drained into the main oil tank.

A level signaliser (209) is provided on this tank to switch on the AOP at a specified level, and to pump oil into main oil tank. And when a minimum level of oil is reached the level signaliser (210) stops the AOP. 03.06.05 High pressure oil (supplied by jacking oil pump) lifts the rotors in the bearings before engaging the turning gear. The suction of these pumps are connected to the lubrication oil system. The jacking oil pump for lifting of the rotors consists of one driving motor with three numbers of single flow gear pumps of 25 L/mt. output, 50 atg pressure and two numbers of duplex type with an output of 2x25 L/mt. and pressure 50 atg. For the front and rear HP bearings one pump supplies the oil and each of the other pumps supply oil to the individual bearings. The last 7th pump gives the impulse oil for putting the turning gear into operation. Each pump has its own relief valve which opens at an increase of pressure to 70 atg. On the pipe line for this high pressure oil, non-return ball valves are mounted just in front of the bearings, to prevent the back flow of oil from the bearings when the jacking oil pump is not running. Before putting the lifting oil pump into operation, it is necessary to ensure sufficient pressure of lubricating oil so that these pumps do not run dry, and get seized.

03.06.06 Part of the oil from the delivery of the main oil pump (9.512 atg) flows back to the oil injector in the oil tank. Using this high pressure oil (9.512 atg) as the working fluid, the injector sucks oil from the main oil tank and supplies the total required quantity of suction oil to the main oil pump at a pressure of 0-40-5 atg. A fall of pressure to 0.1 atg is signalled optically by means of the manostat (147) and further drop of pressure calls for the tripping of the machine, as otherwise there is a dangerous possibility of the breaking of the suction column and loss of oil in the pressure system. After achieving the rated speed, the valve E is slowly closed and if the correct pressure of about 0.4 atg is maintained at the suction of the pump, the starting oil pump is stopped. The valve E is afterwards opened to such an extent as to ensure instantaneous flooding of the suction, in the case of a necessity of putting the starting oil pump into operation. 03.06.07 A further part of the oil from the delivery of main oil pump, is utilised as lubricating oil, after reducing the pressure by means of an electrically operated valve (F) placed in between two orifice plates, to a value of 1.00 to 1.15 atg before the bearings. The valves (K and L) on the inlet and outlet oil coolers are always kept fully open. When the pressure of lubricating oil drops to 21

0.9 atg., the manostat (138) connects for signalisation, and at a loss of pressure to 0.8 atg the turboset trips and simultaneously the emergency oil pump is put into operation, by means of the second and third manostats (139, 140). The temperature of rubricating oil after the coolers is to be maintained during operation in the range of 42 to 45C by regulating the cooling water quantity to the oil coolers. A rise of temperature of oil to 47C is signalled by thermostat 45 (located in the piping from the coolers to the bearings). To achieve the proper viscosity of oil, thereby enabling a quick starting up of the turboset, it is necessary before starting the turboset to heat up the oil to 35C. This could be achieved by running the starting oil pump for sometime under the circulation of oil. At normal operation for cooling the oil, cooling water from the pumping station is used, by taking a branch off, before the condenser and the heated water is led to the outlet piping of cooling water from the condenser. [n front of the individual bearings, on the piping are mounted well dimensioned niters (2 in. 0-101003-S) which filter off the impurities in the lubricating cycle. Pressure gauges are provided before and after the filters to ascertain the extent of clogging of filters by means of pressure difference. If this pressure 22

difference exceeds 0.3 ata the filters are to be cleaned. The cleaning of the filters requires the turboset to be stopped and therefore it is essential to make sure that the cleaning of the entire oil system is perfect during erection and overhauls ; so that the stoppages due to this cause arefew during the initial operation. With careful assembling, and with a thorough rinsing of the entire oil system before the first commissioning, the filters may be dismantled after the initial operation and before the test run. On the incoming lubricating line to the turning gear, a valve is mounted which must be opened manually, before putting into operation the turning gear and must be closed again after stopping. Temperature of return oil from the individual bearings of the turboset is measured by glass thermometers. The return oil from the bearing stands of the generator is led to the common discharge piping from the other bearings through a spilling tank and siphon, so that the possible entry of hydrogen into the oil tank is prevented. The spilling tank is deaerated by means of a pipe taken above the roof of the engine room.

03.06.08

OIL FILTER DESCRIPTION

The remaining part of oil from the delivery of the main oil pump is supplied to the hydrogen cooling system, partly direct to the quick closing valves, regulating valves, control and protection equipment of the turbine, and partly through a filter (OF) located in the front bearing pedestal. This filter is of a disc type, and has two relief valves which open automatically at a non-permissible increase of difference of pressure before and after the filter discs. The filters must be cleaned regularly (at least once in the shift) by rotating the shaft with square head by 360 (which projects out of the front bearing pedestal on the front side), so as to avoid the opening of these relief valves and the consequent flow of impurities through that. The proper cleaning of the filter with pressure should be carried out after the stoppage of the set, at least twice a year ; and more frequently during the initial operating period. The branch of distribution oil to the hydrogen cooling equipment is provided with a valve (V) which is open during operation, and the atmospheric side of the hydrogen seal is sealed with oil. From the seal and from the bearings the return oil is taken through a spilling tank and siphon to the oil tank of the turbine.
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03.07.00

REGULATION AND SAFETY EQUIPMENT FOR TURBINE PROPER

The scheme of regulation of the turbine is given in the drawing 010-1003-S. The quantity of steam entering the turbine is regulated by four governing valves (GV) on the inlet to the HP part, and by two interceptor valves (IV) on the inlet to the MP part. The amount of opening, at any instant of these valves, is given by the pressure of secondary oil, which is indirectly dependent upon the primary oil pressure and directly dependent upon the spring force in the transformer (TR), and incidentally dependent upon the position of limiter (LT), during the standstill and during starting of the turboset. The pressure of primary oil is directly dependent upon the speed of the set through the speed sensing element (SE) . The tension of the spring in the transformer can be varied by operating the speed changer (SC) or the nominal speed changer (NSC) thus making it possible to vary the speed before synchronising, and to vary the load after synchronising the alternator on to the grid. The non-uniformity of the regulation can be changed continuously in the range 3.5 to 5% by means of the non-uniformity changer [(NUC) Changes the

leverage of the connecting links of the transformer] and by that, the proportion of change of output of the set can be influenced, with respect to the changes of output on the other machines connected to the common grid, when there is a change on the loading of the grid. In case of a breakdown of any equipment of the block, which calls for the immediate stopping of the set, quick closing devices are provided in the regulation system of the turboset viz. HP quick closing valves (HPQCSV) ; MP quick closing valves (MPQCSV) ; non-return flap on the outlet from the HP (NF) ; non-return quick closing extraction valves (EV) ; change-over valve in the gland steam system (COV). All the impulses for stopping the set due to breakdown, act either directly (emergency governors FEG, and REG at the non-permissible excessive speed rise) or by the hand tripping lever (TL) or through the relay magnet RM on the main relay MR, which creates instantaneous loss of pressure of quick closing oil by the change of flow of oil inside the relay. The quick draining of oil from the quick closing system of the piping of the 25

non-return flaps and extraction valves is assisted by means of an Accelerator drain AD, which, during the loss of pressure of quick closing oil from the main relay opens a bigger area for draining. The loss of pressure of quick closing oil on the main relay creates simultaneously loss of pressure of secondary oil through the Accelerator Relay AR, and by that the closing of governing and interceptor valves. A temporary action of the relay AR even during the normal pressure of quick-closing oil, could occur at the trip of the generator from the grid due to some electrical protections by an impulse to the magnet of the accelerator relay. To test the HP and MP quick closing valves even during operation of turbine at a decreased load, the distributor DTR is provided, which along with the 3way valves G, enables the closing of quick closing valves, alternatively on the right or left side. The free movement of the spindles of the individual governing valves and interceptor valves at a decreased load could be tested by the electro-magnetic relays provided at the individual valves. The testing of proper 26

functioning of emergency governors at the rated speed can be done by applying oil pressure through the tester of emergency governors TEG. The HP and MP quick closing valves, the non-return flaps, and the non-return extraction valves during normal operation have only two positions, i.e. either fully opened or fully closed. The quantity of steam let into the turbine is regulated by governing and interceptor valves (quick closing valves and non-return flaps being fully opened). More detailed descriptions of the individual regulation and safety equipments, and the method of their operation at the various conditions, are given in the following sections:

03.07.01

SPEED SENSING ELEMENT

SPEED SENSING ELEMENT 3-10-2036-S (marked as SE on 0-10-1003-S) : The speed sensing element located on the extension of HP rotor, maintains the pressure in the circuit of primary oil, which is directly proportional to the square of the speed of the turbine, and proportional to the specific weight of the oil. The range of speed 2,850 to 3 360 rpm, corresponds to the primary oil pressures of 2-17 to 2-99 atg. at an oil temp, of 50C. Under the same conditions, the speed of 3,000 rpm corresponds to a pressure of approx. 2-38 atg. Constant filling up of the primary oil space upto the smallest inside diameter of sensing element proper, and upto the transformer, is ensured by permanent supply of distribution oil through an adjustable orifice, located directly on the filter of the distributing oil (OF). This orifice is adjusted only during the first setting or after the dismantling for an overhaul by the following method. The orifice is fully closed by rotating the shaft with a square head (or the left corner of the front bearing pedestal) and then to open the same by about 8 full threads. Part of the supplied oil

flows due to untightness in the packing sleeve (4) and the remaining flows into the inner space of the speed sensing element, from where it is thrown off into the bearing pedestal due to the centrifugal force through the holes drilled in the body of the speed sensing element. A hole drilled in the axis of the whole attachment upto the inner space of the sensing element ensures the equalisation of the pressure of the internal space with the atmospheric pressure. The packing sleeve (4) is fitted to the sensing element, in a sliding way. and is locked by means of a screw (14) against rotation. In the centre part of the sleeve, holes have been drilled for admitting the incoming oil, in a way to avoid the rotation of oil in the body chamber.

27

03.07.02

TRANSFORMER DESCRIPTION

TRANSFORMER 3-10-2032-S (marked as TR on 0-10-1003-S): The pressure of the secondary oil is regulated by the transformer (which is led into the transformer through the pipe union marked 72) in the following way: The oil is supplied to the secondary oil system from the distribution oil through an orifice plate of 4 mm dia. (located at the pipe union on the oil distributor near the oil filter) and is by-passed into the drain by means of the cone marked 13. The cone is connected to a lever arm marked 22, which has a fulcrum at the roller (71) of the main support (5). The moment of force of the secondary oil on the area of cone is at an equilibrium with the force acting on the other end of the beam resulting from the differential pressure from the spring (78) and the force due to a given primary oil pressure on the bellows (8). The tension of the spring can be varied by moving the screw (19) by means of levers marked 26 and 23 (operated by speed changer) or by rotating the screw (19) by means of the gear drive (15) (operated by nominal speed changer), If the

alternator has not been synchronised on to the grid, the speed of the turboset changes (for the speed above approx. 2,430 rpm) by changing the tension of the spring (78). By increasing the tension of. the spring (78) the equilibrium of the lever arm is disturbed and the cone 13 reduces the area of draining of the secondary oil and thereby increases the secondary oil pressure which opens the regulation valves, effecting an increase in the speed of the turboset. With the increase. of speed, there is an increase in the pressure of primary oil and the regulation gets stabilised in the new equilibrium position at the higher speed. If the Alternator is connected to the grid, the increase in the tension of the spring likewise disturbs the equilibrium of the lever arm, which is again equalised after the increase in the secondary oil pressure due to the reduction of discharge area over the cone (13). The increase of secondary oil pressure, results in an increase in the opening of the regulating valves and by that, in an increase of the output of the machine. The pressure of primary oil in this case changes only in the range corresponding to the value of change of frequency of the grid. 29

On a decrease in the tension of spring of the transformer, a reverse procedure to the one stated above will occur, followed by a drop of speed or load. The ratio of leverage on the arm (22) can be changed continuously by moving the movable support (5) around the bottom fulcrum by a non-uniformity changer, which acts on the moving support through its roller against the tension of the spring (14). Reduction of leverage on the lever at the cone side, reduces the nonuniformity, and vice-versa. Because of the importance of the transformer as a part of the regulating system, proper attention and care must be given to the same. Hence, it is necessary to check the tightness of the transformer bellows at each overhaul. This can be done (after cleaning and drying the transformer thoroughly) by filling the primary oil space with kerosene through pipe union 73. The above space is kept under a slight pressure for some period. This pressure however must not exceed the operating value of 2-3 atg. During this test, any leakage of kerosene through the openings in the lid (with space between the bellows) is to be observed.
30

NON-UNIFORMITY CHANGER : 3-10-2037-S (NUC in 0-10-1003-S).

The non-uniformity changer enables the changing of the nonuniformity continuously in the range 3.5% to 5%. By rotating the hand wheel towards the left (after pulling out and by rotating slightly), lock 8 bolt 5 moves towards the bearing pedestal and pushes out the moving support of the transformer (5). This increases the leverage of the beam on the cone side, thereby increasing the non-uniformity of the regulation. The locking of the hand wheel against any undesirable movement, can be done after 1 /5 turn of the wheel which corresponds to a change of nonuniformity of 0.1 %.
SPEED CHANGER : 3-10-2040S (SC in 0-10-1003-S).

The speed changer enables the the change of speed, before putting the alternator on the grid, and change of output after synchronising. By rotating the handle wheel (12) (which is fixed rigidly to the bush 19) to the right, screw 9 moves away from the bearing pedestal and the roller, fixed to the end of the screw, releases the lever of transformer (marked 23

on 3-10-2032-S) which is pressed against the roller by the tension of the spring of the transformer. The tension on the spring of the transformer is reduced and the speed of the turboset (or the output) is reduced. The total lift of the speed changer is 44 mm. The end positions are limited by the nut (18) locked on to the screw (9) by a pin. The movement of the screw (9) can be remotely controlled by the electromotor through the gearing 5 and 3. The wheel (3) is connected to the bush 19 through a friction coupling, which slips at the turning of the changing device hand wheel, and during the motor run, in case of the bolt 9 being in one of the extreme positions already.
BASIC SETTING OF THE TRANSFORMER AND CHANGERS:

The non-uniformity changer must be set and adjusted with regard to the transformer in such a way that in the extreme position of the changing device achieved by turning the hand wheel to the left side (max. non-uniformity) the transformer pivoted arm (5 of 3-102032-S) is at an equal distance (90 mm) from the roller axis on the pivot arm and axis of the eye (25).

In this position of the nonuniformity changer, the transformer lever arm (supporting area of the roller) must be in the horizontal position at a bellows lift of 2 mm which can be achieved by screwing in the screw (21) in the lever arm. The horizontal position of the beam can be achieved by adjusting the height of the eye 25. It may be necessary to check likewise the centricity of the cone (13) with the hole in the flange (17) which could be damaged if the flat spring (16) position is adjusted wrongly. The speed changing device (3-10-2040-S)is to be adjusted and set by an adjusting nut 18 so that the contact surface of the outside lever 23 of transformer, (3-10-2032-S) moved by the roller on the speed changer, is in a vertical position at a lift of speed changer of 18 mm from zero position. The nominal speed changer is to be initially set to the mean position (approximately 100 revolutions from one extreme position), by rotating the shaft with a square head, which is protruding out of the bearing pedestal front wall. The final setting is to be done afterwards, during the starting up of the turboset. At the time of starting the turbine the hand wheel of the 31

speed changer is turned to the extreme right position (i.e. in the direction of speed reduction), the non-uniformity changer in the left end position (i.e. max. nonuniformity) and the speed is increased by the limiter due to the fact that the regulation of secondary oil pressure by the transformer cone has not been in operation as yet, due to the low pressure of the primary oil. Only on reaching a speed of about 2,300 rpm, the equilibrium position of the lever arm of the transformer occurs, and it is achieved by a specific adjustment of the spring pretension by the nominal speed changer. If the transformer starts to function at a lower speed, which means that it is not possible to achieve 2,930 rpm by the limiter, it is necessary to increase the tension of the spring in the transformer, by rotating the shaft of the nominal speed changer in the left hand direction. If the transformer starts to function at a higher speed (i.e. it is possible to achieve a speed higher than 2,930 rpm with limiter) it is necessary to reduce the tension of the spring of the transformer by rotation of the shaft of the nominal speedchanger in the right-hand direc32

tion. The position of the nominal speed changer thus adjusted, is final for further operation and for speed increases above 2,930 rpm and output increase shall be done only by the speed changer. Any further manipulation by the nominal speed changer will be needed only for testing the emergency governors by increase of speed. If it is not possible to achieve the required speeds by the full opening of speed changer, then by rotating the shaft of the nominal speed changer to the left, the speed is increased upto the speed corresponding to the setting of emergency governors. After testing out the emergency governors, the shaft of the nominal speed changer is turned towards the right by the same number of revolutions which were required for testing the emergency governors. Proper adjustment of the nominal speed changer is checked as follows : By reducing the speed by the speed changer, a speed of 2,930 rpm is achieved in the right extreme position of the speed changer (at a setting of nonuniformity changer to 5 % and the limiter is set for a certain output).

03.07.03

LIMITER DESCRIPTION

LIMITER 3-10-2046-S and 3-10-2017-S LTon (0-10-1003-S) : The limiter is a device controlled either by a hand wheel or by an electric motor and is intended to fulfil the following functions: (a) At the standstill of the machine, the secondary oil pressure is regulated by the limiter, and thereby controls the extent of the opening of the regulating valves and verifies their proper adjust ments and movability. Please note however, that the secon dary oil pressure can be achieved by the limiter, only when the main relay is in engaged position. Before the start of increase of secondary oil pressure, the HP and MP quick closing valves open fully. Therefore, it is not possible to test the function ing of regulating valves, with steam before the quick closing valves. (b) During the starting up of the machine, upto about 2,930 rpm, the secondary oil pres sure is regulated by the limiter and thus controls the opening of the regulation valves and the speed of the turboset. (c) When the transformer has taken over the regulating function, the limiter works as a by-pass valve in the secondary oil system with a continuous adjustable move ment of by-passing, so that,

by the limiter, the secondary oil pressure may be increased, only upto a value chosen before hand (depending on the output required) determined by the limiter position. (d) At a loss of control oil pressure in both the branches from the main relay to the limiter (which occurs due to any impulse causing the clos ing of all the quick closing organs), the limiter creates the loss of secondary oil pressure and by that the closing of all regulation valves. (e) The limiter also ensures in the case given above that the quick closing and regulation valves do not automatically open again to the earlier positions of opening, after resetting the impulse which created the closure. The re opening of the quick closing valves followed by the spring of regulating valves, is possi ble only by the limiter which however must first of all be put back to its basic zero position. (f) By means of the microswitches (282 and 283 in 010-1003-S) located on the selsyn transmitter of the limiter, it is possible to set two previously chosen values of output, to which the output can be reduced by automatic impulses at a partial breakdown on the boiler accessories.
33

DESCRIPTION OF THE FUNCTION OF LIM1TER WITH DRIVE AND WITH SELSYN TRANSMITTER:

The limiter proper is divided into two mutually inter-connected oil circuits, the secondary oil circuit with inlet marked I (3-10-2017-S) and the control oil with inlet marked II. The loss of control oil pressure simultaneously causes the loss of secondary oil pressure in the other circuit. The loss of pressure of control oil could be caused either by lifting slide valve 13 by the two armed lever roller, controlled by a cam 18 on the other arm (position according to Fig. A) when the cam acts by its max. radius or by the action of main relay (MR in 3-10-2044-S) with the cam being in any position (position according to Fig. D). The position of the cam 17 and 18, keyed on to a common shaft and controlled by the two slide valves 12 and 13 through the armed lever, can be adjusted either by the hand wheel or remotely by electric motor 46 (310-2043-S). The instantaneous position of the cam can be followed on remote electrical indicators (with scale in per cent) which are connected, through the receiving selsyn, with the transmitting selsyn (7) whose position is dependant on the position of the cam shaft through a gearing or directly on the mechanical indicator (51) connected with the shaft of the transmitting selsyn. The initial position of cam on the max. radius (the hand wheel being turned to
34

the right hand extreme position corresponds to 0% on the scale of the electrical indicator, and the position of cams on the minimum radius corresponds to the value 100% on the scale of the electrical indicator. The various working positions of the limiter are shown in the figures A to D in the drawing 3-10-2017-S.
FIGURE A :

Cams on the max. radius (hand wheel of the limiter in the right extreme position). The control oil leaks through the edge ' b ' of the slide valve to the drain, and bush 11 is kept in the top position by means of the force of spring (15). By this the drain of the secondary oil into the bearing pedestal is open.
FIGURE B :

By rotating the cam shaft in the direction of the arrow marked in the drawing (the limiter hand wheel being turned towards left), the slide (13) drops down and closes the draining of control oil under the edge ' b \ By this, the pressure of the control oil increases, which presses the bush (11) against the tension of the spring (15). After taking the cam shaft through an angle of approx. 75, the bush will come down to close the drain of secondary oil by its lower annular surface, and in the space above the bush the full pressure of control oil is attained on further rotation to about 90. By this, in the main relay, the bushes are changed over and a pressure of oil in the whole emergency stop

system will be achieved, and the HP and MP emergency stop valves will be fully opened. The cam 17 still remains in the maximum radius, and hence the slide valve 12 is also still in the top position, and below its edge ' a' the secondary oil stems into the drain.
FIGURE C :

of operation. The highest position of the limiter however, corresponds to 100% output, the exact position of which is to be marked on both the electrical and mechanical indicators during the final operation.
FIGURE D :

On further rotation of the cam shaft in the direction of the arrow, the slide valve (13) remains unchanged as the cam (18) has constant radius. However, the slide 12 comes down as the radius of the cam (17) decreases. By this the drain of secondary oil is throttled under the edge ' a ' and the pressure of secondary oil stands to increase at a rotation of about 110. The increase of secondary oil pressure simultaneously creates the dropping of the bush (10) against the force of spring (14). Each position of the cam (17) and consequently the slide 12, corresponds only to a certain pressure value of the secondary oil, proportional to the compression of the spring 14. As soon as the speed of about 2,930 rpm of the turboset is attained during starting-up, the regulation of the secondary oil by the transformer starts, and further increase of pressure of secondary oil and speed is not possible by the limiter, but by the speed changer. The limiter is set manually (by rotating the hand wheel to the left) or by electrical motor to the position corresponding to the maximum output on which the turboset is to be operated in the following period

In case of loss of control oil pressure in space II due to the functioning of the main relay the bush 11 is forced out by the spring (15) to the top position, and the slide (13) is also partly lifted. Then a sudden loss of secondary oil pressure will occur and cause the closing of all regulating valves. The loss of pressure in the control oil circuit creates a loss of pressure in the quick closing oil circuit in the main relay, and thus it effects the closing of all the quick closing valves operated by the quick closing oiL It is not possible to reopen them, (because of the position of the slides and the bushes in the limiter) as long as the limiter is not brought back into its basic zero position, as per the figure A, by taking the limiter hand wheel to the right. A non-return ball valve is mounted in the secondary oil piping to the limiter. The purpose of this valve is to arrest the reverse flow of oil from the space of the limiter to the secondary oil system, during the sudden unloading of the set. This has a considerable effect on the shortening of the servomotors' closing time. 35

03.07.04

QUICK CLOSING VALVES AND NONRETURN FLAPS

This group includes all the fittings that are maintained in open position by quick closing oil pressure. At a loss of pressure they close automatically. (A) HP Quick Closing Stop Valves 3-10-2021-S 3-10-2048-S(HP QCSV on 0-10-1003-S) : On either of the two supply piping of admission steam, one quick closing valve is provided just before the regulating valve. Through the screen mounted directly on the body of the valve, the steam comes above the main cone. The cone is provided with an internal by-pass cone, which makes it possible to equalise the pressures before and after the main cone at the beginning of the starting of the turboset. The valve is operated by the servomotor (3-10-2048-S) on whose piston the force of springs 9 and 10 act on one side, and on the other side acts the. pressure of quick closing oil. The quick closing oil is led into the servomotor, from the main relay through the accelerator, through which the oil flows to the underside of the piston of the servomotor through the orifice (26), so that the opening of the valve is slow. On the other hand, at a loss of pressure of quick closing oil, after the main relay, the oil

pressure below the piston of servomotor causes the lifting of the cone 8 from the seating, so that the oil beneath the piston is quickly forced out to the drain through a larger area. To dampen the impact of the cone of the valve on its seating, during quick closing, the piston of the servomotor in its lower position acts as a shock absorber. In this last portion of the movement, the oil from the space underneath the piston drains out through the leakage around piston, and the small holes drilled in the piston. Magnitude of dampening is adjusted by setting the coupling of the servomotor piston rod and the valve spindle so that the piston in its fully closed position of the valve is 12 mm above the lowest possible position. The closing of the valve is signalled by a limit switch (marked 255 and 256 as per Drg. 0-10-1003-S) located on the servomotors. The method of testing the mobility of the valve is given in the section 03.07.11 about the main relay under para B/3. (B) Non-return Flaps (NF 0-10-1003-S) : These are mounted on either piping, through which the steam is led from the HP casing to the reheater in the boiler. They are intended to prevent the back flow of steam into the HP casing in

37

the case of starting the turboset from hot condition, when the temperature of steam before the reheater is lower than that of HP cylinder, which may get cooled down. The closed position of the non-return flaps is signalled by a micro-switch (marked 260 on 0-10-1003-S). Opening of the flap is possible only at the equalisation of pressure of steam before and after the flaps. During testing, before starting the machine, flaps can be opened simultaneously with the HP and MP quick closing valves by the limiter only when there is no pressure after the non-return flaps. If steam pressure exists after the flaps, the flaps open only after a rise of pressure in the HP casing to about the same value. The required increase of pressure of steam in the HP casing can occur after the opening of HP regulating valves. The non-return flaps close completely at a loss of pressure of quick closing oil under normal operating conditions along with the HPQCS valves. (C) LP Quick Closing Valves (310-2047-S, 3-10-2049-S LPQCSV on 0-10-1003-S) : Both the valves are located at about the level of the axis of the turboset, each on either side of the MP casing. They are connected in one unit with the 38

interceptor valves so that the steam passes from the interceptor valves to the quick closing valves. The body of the valve is supported on a bracket on the MP casing on one side (in a sliding way in the direction of the turbine axis of a key), and on the other side by two swing supports (60) with special joints, so that the free normal expansion of the MP casing, steam piping, from the valves to the MP casing as well as the body proper of the valves are possible. The spindle of the valve marked 8 with the cone (13) in 310-2047-S is controlled by a servomotor 3-10-2049-S). The design of this servomotor is the same as that of HP quick closing valves including the accelerator drain and the limit switches (marked 258. 259 as per 0-10-1003-S) for signalling the closed position of the valves. The valve fully opens, slowly after attaining the pressure of quick closing oil and instantaneously closes at the loss of pressure of quick closing oil. The method of testing the action of the valves is given in the section 03-07-11 in para B/3. (D) Quick Closing non-return extraction valves as per 410-1063-S (EV on 0-101003-S) : IV to VIII extractions are provided with quick closing non-

return extraction valves. The extent of opening of these valves can be regulated by the limiting screw (15). The spindle of the valve is operated by the piston rod 19, which is rigidly connected to the piston 7. The quick closing oil coming through the electromagnetic relay (EMR in 0-101003-S) flows to the bottom piston (7) through the small holes and acts against the force of the springs (17 & 18). The quick closing oil simultaneously acts on the bottom area of the free piston (20) against the tension of the spring 16. The piston (20) is lifted to its top position by means of oil pressure. However the piston (7), on which a higher spring force (18, 17) (than the force due to the differential oil pressure) acts, is lifted from the bottom position, only at a definite difference of pressure of steam before and after the valve cone. If a reverse flow of steam from heaters to the turbine occurs due to a sudden decrease of load or for other reasons, the valve automatically closes even at the full pressure of quick closing oil. Quick closing of the valve occurs at a loss of pressure of quick closing oil in the servomotor (which can happen by a loss of pressure in the entire quick closing system at the action of main

relay, when all the quick closing valves close). In case of a loss of pressure of oil, only in the extraction valve by the action of electro-magnetic relay (EMR on 0-10-1003-S), the extraction valves close when the pressure of extraction steam before and after the extraction valves is equal, or at the reverse flow of steam. The electrical circuit of the magnet is switched on by means of several signalisers on attaining the maximum permissible level of condensate in the respective heaters. The freeness of the spindle of the extraction valves can be tested during operation, by rotating the hand wheel on the valve stand towards the right, by which the screw (15) decreases the lift of the cone and the pressure after the valve drops. The construction of the electromagnetic relay is clear from the drawing No.3-10-2041-S. In the operating condition (i.e.) when the slide valve 3 is in the upper position, the space above the differential piston 5 is under the oil pressure, the supply of which is throttled by means of the screw 11. Around the piston 5 the quick closing oil flows to the servomotor of the extraction valve. The slide valve 3 is moved over to the lower position by the action of the magnet, due to which the space above the piston 39

will be connected to the drain through the uncovered ports in the bush 4. The differential piston moves over to the upper position because of the oil pressure below it, which results in cutting off of the oil supply to the servomotor of the extraction valve, and the oil from the servomotor is connected to the drain inside the relay. The impulse for the magnet to shift to the lower position is given through a time relay which, after a lapse of a max. of 5 seconds changes over the control voltage through a resistance to reduce the current, so as to prevent any damage to the winding of the magnet. In its lower position, the slide valve (3) is located by a locking pin (7). To put the lock pin back to its normal working position, it is first necessary to eliminate the fault, (i.e.) the electrical circuit to the magnet should be interrupted. After release of the lock pin, the slide valve moves back to its upper position by the spring force (25) and the differential piston also moves to the working position. (A) Change-over valve as per Drg. 3-10-2028-S COV in 010-1003-S) : The change-over valve is mounted on the gland steam piping from the first stage of the HP glands and MP glands, and enables the
40

switching over of steam either to the V extraction piping or to the condenser. The valve spindle (6) with the cone (5) is controlled by the servomotor piston rod (29). The piston of servomotor (22) is loaded on one side by the spring force (25 and 26) and on the other side by the quick closing oil pressure which is supplied from the main relay through the relay of electro-magnet (50) (marked as 278 on drg. 0-10-1003-S). The force of the spring 27 holds the slide valve 28 in the magnet holder in such a position, that the oil supply to the bottom of servomotor piston is open, moving the servomotor piston rod to close up gland steam connection with the condenser, and the gland steam is sucked off into the V extraction piping. The magnet could be energised manually or electrically for the following reasons : (a) Automatic impulse from maximum condensate level in the V L.P.H. (b) At a pressure drop below 2.75 ata in the V extraction. (c) An impluse from generator protections. When it is energised, the relay slide valve will be shifted over towards the axis of the servomotor, and will close the supply

of quick closing oil to the relay, and interconnect the spaces above and below the servomotor. Because of the spring force, the valve cone moves to a position that enables the cone to close the passage to the V extraction, and the gland steam is sucked off into the condenser. After a lapse of 2 seconds (after the emergency) the current flowing in the electrical circuit of the magnet is suitably reduced by the action of a time relay sufficient, to still hold the connection of the magnet in the position which permanently cuts off the inlet of quick closing oil to the bottom of the servomotor piston. The changing over of the valve by the spring force will also occur when there is a loss of quick closing oil pressure, by the action of the main relay when the machine is tripped. After any trip, the electrical circuit is intercepted by pressing the concerned push button, and only then does the spring (27) shift the slide (28) to connect the quick closing oil to the bottom of the servomotor. The electric circuit is also interrupted if the V extraction pressure rises to 3 ata. This impulse is given by a manostat mounted on the piping of the V extraction between the flange of the turbine and the quick closing

non-return valve of V extraction. (F) Accelerator Drain (3-102042-S) [AD in 0-10-1003-S]: The Accelerator drain is mounted in the right branch of the quick closing oil, which the non-return flaps, extraction valves and change-over valve, and the right quick closing valve are connected. Us function is to create a sudden loss of pressure of quick closing oil in the right branch, after the main relay has functioned, by discharging the oil after the accelerator drain to the drain in the body of the device itself. The quick closing oil is supplied through the union to the inner portion of the cone (5) and presses the cone, aided by the spring force (4), on to its seating on the bush (2). The oil to the extraction valves and changeover valve is supplied through the orifice in the screw (6) and the pressures before and after the cone are equalised. At the tripping of the main relay, the pressure below the cone is destroyed, and because of the oil pressure on the outside, the cone is pressed down against the spring force and enables the quick draining and destroyal of oil pressure in the respective system of quick closing oil, thus effecting accelerated quick closing.
41

03.07.05

GOVERNING VALVES

The quantity of admission steam entering the turbine is regulated by 4 governing valves, out of which valve Nos. 3 and 1 are located in a common chamber after the left HP quick closing stop valve. The valves Nos. 4 and 2 are located in the other chamber after the right HP quick closing stop valve. From each of the four governing valves, steam is led through independent transfer piping to the respective nozzle chambers in the inner HP cylinder. The nozzle chambers of the I and IV governing valves are located under the turbine axis and the chamber of III and II are located over the axis. The steam space of left and right valve chambers are interconnected with a piping, so that if one of the HP quick closing stop valves is closed, both the chambers are always under the pressure of steam. The quantity of steam to the MP part is regulated by two interceptor valves each mounted before, MP quick closing stop valve. The extent of opening of the valves is dependent upon the secondary oil pressure according to the diagram TC-0097D. The secondary oil pressure for full opening of the

interceptor valves (2.0 atg) and the governing valves (3.2 atg) are signalled, by manostats 135, 136). In the secondary oil circuit, an accelerator relay (3-10-2051-S) (marked AP in 0-10-1003-S) is mounted which ensures a loss of secondary oil pressure simultaneously with the loss of quick closing oil pressure in both the branches. All the governing valves also close when an impulse for closing of all the quick closing valves is given. (A) H.P. Governing valves (3-10-2021-S,3-10-2031-S) (marked GV in 0-10-1003-S): The design and construction of the steam flow part of the valve is given in the drawing 3-102021-S. The spindle of the Governing valve is connected with the cross-head as per 3-102031-S by the nut 37 and a sp lit p in . T h e cro ss h ead is axially movable on the pedestal of the valve 2 and is guided through the bushes 25 and 26. The spring 41 acts on the crosshead in the direction of closing the valve. By means of the pivot 57, the tie rod 80 is connected to the cross-head and is controlled on the other end by the lever 5. The lever 5 rotates in 43

the pivot 58, and is controlled through the tie rod by the servomotor piston rod 62. The force of spring 42 acts on the lever in the direction of closing the valve. The position of the piston 8 o! the servomotor i dependent on the pressure of the oil under the piston. The pressure of this oil is regulated by slide valve 21 and hush 33 by the regulating edge. The top edge (x) regulates the inlet of distributing oil under the piston, and the bottom edge (/) regulates the draining of oil from this space. The position of slide valve 21 is dependent on the position of the piston of the converter 22, 160 (on top of which the variable secondary oil pressure acts against the force of spring 43), or on the change of position of the piston of the converter which has an effect on the pressure of oil in the space above slide 21. To this space the distributing oil is supplied through an orifice 94, and through the lever edge of the converter, and it is drained through the internal space of the slide. The increase of secondary oil pressure results in the converter piston moving downwards, which diminishes the gap between the
44

lower edge of the converter and the slide valve, thereby increasing the oil pressure above the slide 21. Because of this increase of oil pressure, the slide moves close to a lower position against the force of the spring 44, and the top regulating edge admits oil to the bottom of the piston of servomotor, when the bottom edge closes the drain from the bottom space of the piston. Because of this increase of oil pressure under the piston of servomotor, the piston moves upwards against the spring force 41 and 42 and the valve opens. Simultaneously, however, through the feed back arrangements actuated by the links 61, 161. 162, and the swinging two armed lever 7 in conjunction with the spring 44, the bush 33 follows the movements of the slide (i.e.) moves downwards, and the regulating edge again throttles the flow of oil. By this, the servomotor settles into a new higher position, corresponding to the higher pressure of secondary oil. At a decrease of secondary oil pressure the reverse process takes place, with a resulting drop of oil pressure between the piston of servomotor and the throttling of the governing valves.

The drive of each valve is provided with an electro-magnetic relay which enables the testing of proper functioning of the valves even during operation on load, for the full lift of the valve. By pressing the respective push buttons on the instrument panel and thereby closing the electrical circuit of the electro-magnet (158) (marked as 272 in 0-10-1003-S), the armature of the magnet is moved along the relay piston, in the direction against the force of spring 49. By this, the distributing oil is admitted above the piston 36 through the holes in the bush 33 and slide 21, which presses down piston 36 against the force of spring 45, 46. In the space above the slide 21, the oil pressure is drained and the governing valves fully closed immediately, which is optically signalled by the microswitches 159 (marked 257 in 0-10-1003-S). After a lapse of one second, the electrical circuit of electro-magnet is intercepted by the action of an adjustable time relay, and the servomotor of the magnet along with the piston of the relay 55 returns lo its original position because of the force of spring 49. Thus oil above the piston (36) is drained, and the valve opens again to the same value as before the test. By the same procedure, it is possible to test all the govern-

ing valves that have been opened one after the other with a time interval of about one minute. The valves No. 13 can be tested (at a steady operation) at a load upto 75% of the rated output and valve No. 4 whenever it is opened. This test is done periodically once a week, but in case of a doubt on the cleanliness of steam and the free movement of any of the valves, the test is to be done more often. It is necessary during each test to check, as per the signal lights, whether the valve actually closes completely and whether it opens again to its original value. If not the cause must be immediately investigated and rectified, even if the machine has to be shut down. To prevent the sudden impact of the valve on its seat during the quick closing of the valve, the piston of the servomotor in its lower position works as a damper. The magnitude of damping is adjusted by the extent of screwing in of the piston rod 62 with screw (locked by the lock nut 63) so that at the full closing of the valve, the piston has a lift of 4 mm from the lowest possible position. The secondary oil is admitted above the bushes of the converter through an orifice in the cone 17 of the drain accelerating device. The cone is pressed against its seat or the bush by spring 50. At the loss of pressure in the system of secondary oil, the 45

oil above the converter piston will compress the cone 17 against the spring force, and oil is drained into the drain over the cone through a larger section, and the valve closes the steam supply to the turbine quickly. The piston of the converter is centred in its lower position by the pressure of distributing oil, which is admitted through a perforated insertion piece (69) with a fine screen (83) for filtering any possible impurities in the oil. The screen must be cleaned at every outage of the unit. (B) Interceptor Valves 3-10-2047S 3-10-2050-S (IV in 010-1003-S) : Design of the steam flow part of the valve is given in the drawing 3-10-2047-S. The internal bypass of the main cone 6 is closed by the small cone on the spindle (7). First, the steam passage is opened by the small cone which creates a drop of the pressure above the main cone and the same is carried by the small cone during its further movement. The spindle of the valve is operated through a fixed coupling of the piston of the servomotor (42 as per 3-10-2050-S). The functional principle of the drive of the valve is the same as HP governing valve. The difference in construction is mainly in the direct connection of the piston rod of the servo46

motor, and with the spindle of the valve which calls for the location of the spring 26 and 27 intended for closing of the valve, directly in the servomotor, and in the arrangement of feed back system from the link to the bush 23. The functional testing of the interceptor valves is carried out at least once a week, at steady operation, by an electro-magnetic relay, connected in the same way as that of the HP governing valves. The two valves are tested one after the other at a load upto 75 % rated value. The closing of the valve is checked by the signal lamp, which receives an impulse from the microswitch located on the body of the valve and operated by the piston of the servomotor through the collar 63. On 0-10-1003-S, the magnets are marked with Nos. 273 and the microswitch by 262, 263.
(C) Setting the characteristics of Governing and Interceptor valves :

The proper relation of the lift with respect to the pressure of secondary oil, (when adjusting the governing and interceptor valves as per diagram TC-0097-D at the standstill of the machine) is achieved by proper adjustment of the spring 43, which acts against the pressure of secondary oil on the piston of converter (22, 160) through the support 70.

and the tie rod 78 (the position numbers as per the drg. 3-10-2031 S). At the assembly, the pre-stressing of the spring as well as the number of active coils are set preliminarily. The final adjustment of all these valves could be carried out with oil pressure as given below : (a) Initially, the start of opening of the valve at the specified secondary oil pressure (as per the diagram) is set approximately. If the valve starts to open at a lower (higher) pressure of the secondary oil than specified, it is necessary to increase (decrease) the pretension of the spring 43 by tightening (loosening) the nuts on the tie rod (78). (h) It is necessary to check whether the actual measured characteristics agree with the given characteristic. In case the measured characteristic at this part is steeper (flatter) than shown in the diagram (i.e.) a greater (smaller) valve lift corresponds to a certain chosen difference of pressure of the secondary oil than determined by the diagram [measured value is more (less) than in the diagram], making it necessary to turn the support 70 to the right (to the left) and decrease (increase) the number of active coils of the spring. It is necessary to simultaneously check the start of opening of the valve

approximately, and in case of too great a difference this should be rectified immediately as per para (a). Setting of the support (number of active coils of spring) by which the slope of the measured characteristic corresponds to the diagram, is final, even if the start of opening is not yet quite correct. (c) The final setting of the correct start of opening, as per the diagram, is done as per the para (a) without affecting the inclination of the characteristic set as per para (b). Simultaneously, the proper lift of the interceptor valves must be checked with respect to the secondary oil pressure and the start of opening of the I and II governing valves. If the lifts are measured on the piston rod of servomotor, the fact that the piston rod stroke is 3 times the stroke of the valve spindle, must be considered. After the final adjustment, the full course of the characteristic is to be recorded and kept, which will serve as the basis for future verification of the proper functioning of the governing valves during operation. The valves are to be adjusted as far as possible at the operating oil temperature i.e. at a minimum temperature of 50C before the oil coolers.
47

03.07.06

EMERGENCY GOVERNORS

EMERGENCY GOVERNORS 4-10-1046-S (Marked FEG, REG in 0-10-1003-S):

space of emergency governors by means of the testing device of the emergency governors. The oil pressure acts on the pin in the same direction as that of the centrifugal force acting on the pin, and the pressure at the moment of tripping, measured by the pressure gauges provided on the tester, is an indication for judging the correct functioning of the emergency governors, provided that the machine speed is equal at all tests. The slipping out of the pins result in the deflection of the lever of the main relay, which results in the loss of quick closing oil pressure and the consequent closing of quick closing devices. Another protection against inadmissible rise of speed of the set, is the manostat 133 as per 0-10-1003-S connected on the primary oil system. On an increase of oil pressure to 3.05 atg, the manostat makes contact and gives an impulse for tripping of the unit through the electromagnetic relay (RM).

There are two emergency governors located on the extension piece of the HP rotor and they give the impulse for closing of the steam inlet to the turbine at the increase of speed to the value of 3,300 to 3,360 rpm. The centre of gravity of the pin 3 is away from the axis of the turbine, and the centrifugal force of the pin acts against the force of the spring (4). On attaining the speed at which the centrifugal force of the pin is higher than the force of the spring, the pin instantaneously comes out with the full stroke value designed. The speed at which the emergency governor is to act, can be adjusted by varying the pre-tension of spring 4 by changing the thickness of washer 6. The return of the pin to its original position, will occur at a decrease of speed to about 3,050 rpm. The reduction in the thickness of the washer by 1 mm corresponds approximately to a reduction of tripping speed of the pin by 120 rpm. The slipping out of pins can be achieved even at the rated speed by admitting pressure oil to the

49

03.07.07

TESTER OF EMERGENCY GOVERNOR (DESCRIPTION)

TESTER OF EMERGENCY GOVERNOR 2-10-1010-S (TEG on O-10-1003-S) : The tester is intended for testing the correct functioning of the emergency governors while the set is running at the rated speed. During normal operation, the hand wheel (60) is screwed out to the extreme position on the left, so that the bushes marked 5 and 6 mounted on that are kept away from the tip of the rotor and also no oil is admitted to the tester through the unions A and B. If the front (rear) emergency governor marked FEG (REG) is to be tested while the machine is at rated speed, it is necessary to supply pressure oil to the unions A (B), by rotating the distributor (marked DTR on 0-10-1003-S) by about 150 from the middle position to the right (left). By rotating the hand wheel towards the right, the tester moves towards the rotor and the pressure oil enters the inner (outer) canals in the bush marked 5 and 6 and in the space of front (rear) emergency governor, till the pin of the governor comes out. The pressure of oil at the moment of tripping, measured by the pressure gauge 57 should be compared with oil pressure, ascertained at

the basic test performed at the same rated speed. This basic test should be performed immediately after the test of the emergency governors by the over speed for tripping. If the pressure of oil required for slipping out the pin at any subsequent verification, is higher than that of the basic test it indicates that the oil space of the emergency governor is unclean and must be cleaned after the stoppage of the set. Immediately after the completion of !he test the tester should always be moved away from the tip of the rotor by rotating the hand wheel of the tester to the left up to the end.

51

03.07.08

OIL DISTRIBUTOR (DESCRIPTION)

DISTRIBUTOR 3-10-2026-S (DTR in 0-10-1003-S) : The distributor helps to achieve the following three objectives : (1) To divide the system of quick closing oil into two parts, right and left, through the main relay. (2) The sequential testing of both the emergency governors by the emergency tester. (3) The sequential setting of both parts of the main relay to operating positions. The distributor is connected through union 15 to the distributing oil, which however does not flow further, at normal operation of the machine when the distributor is always in the neutral position (position 1). At the rotation of the distributor by 150 from the neutral position to the left (right) by means of the hand wheel upto the stop (on the drawing position 2 rotated towards left), the inlet of distributing oil is connected through the three-way valve (G in 0-101003-S) to the main relay which is divided into two parts by the movement of the piston (7 in 3-102018-S). Simultaneously, oil is supplied to the emergency gover-

nor tester to that part which enables the testing of rear (front) emergency governor by the oil pressure. The inlet of oil to the second part of the tester is closed by the 3-way valve G. The distributor is held in the rotated position of 150 by the force of spring (4). The rotation of the distributor by 90 from the neutral position to the left (right), (on the drg. position No. 3 rotated towards left), allows the distributing oil to the left (right) part of the main relay above the piston (33 on 3-10-2018-S) which is pushed to the bottom position and thus keeps the left (right) part of the main relay engaged.

53

03.07.09

MAGNETIC RELAY (DESCRIPTION)

MAGNETI RELAY : 3-10in 0-10-1003-S) : C 2025-S The magnetic relay which is located on the left side of the front bearing pedestal, transfers the electrical impulses from all the protections of turboset, on to the main relay and effects the tripping of both the parts of the main relay simultaneously. The impulses from the push buttons of the fire protection which are located on the escape ways from the machine, as well as all other such impulses of the entire block, which are to trip the unit, are connected to this magnet. The electrical impulses from all the protections are connected to the magnet (270 in 0-10-1003-S) by independent electrical circuits through different routes. When the electrical circuit of the magnet is energised due to the action of any of the protections, the armature of the magnet, along with the piston (3) moves down against the force of the spring (4). Even if only one of the pistons moves to the lower position (when the circuit for the other magnet is defective) there will be a loss of oil pressure in both the main relay connecting pipings since the supply of oil to these connecting pipings from the

distributing oil circuit is through orifice plates which have a cross section considerably smaller than the oil discharge section created in the relay. The loss of oil pressure in the connecting piping, results in the tripping of both parts of the main relay. By tripping of the main relay, the quick closing oil pressure is destroyed in the whole system, and all the quick closing organs of the system close immediately. The pressure switches mounted on the quick closing circuits (marked 253, 254 in 0-101003-S) connect the respective microswitches, which give the impulses for cutting off the electrical supply to the electromagnet circuit, and the piston along with the armature of the magnet, return back to their normal upper position. The turboset can be tripped out of operation by manually pressing down the pin of any one of the magnets.

03.07.10

ACCELERATOR RELAY (DESCRIPTION)

ACCELERATOR RELAY (3-102051-S) (AR in 0-10-1003-S) : The accelerator relay, which is located on the left side of the front bearing pedestal, ensures the closing of all the governing and interceptor valves permanently, at a loss of pressure of the quick closing oil and temporarily, by electro-magnet 271 in (0-10-1003-S) at the action of some of the protections of the alternator, transformer or on the H.T. lines, by which the alternator is taken off the grid. During normal operation, piston 16 is held in its top position by means of the quick closing oil pressure at its bottom, supplied through the ports in piston 17. Thus, the drain of secondary oil is closed, which is supplied above the ring (15) connected to the piston (16). Thus the secondary oil pressure acts against the force provided by the quick closing oil. At a loss of pressure of quick closing oil, the piston 16 drops down to the bottom position, and because of the secondary oil pressure and its own weight, the secondary oil is connected to the drain. At the closing of the electrical circuit of the electro-magnet, the

armature of the magnet along with piston 17 moves downwards against the force of the spring (2). Because of this, the inlet of quick closing oil to the bottom of piston 16 is closed, and this space is connected to the drain. Due to the downward movement of the piston, the secondary oil is drained to the drain, closing instantaneously both the HP and MP governing valves. The electrical circuit of the electromagnet automatically gets cut off after 2 to 2.5 sees, by the action of an adjustable time relay in the electric circuit of the magnet, after which, piston 17 returns back, to its top position because of spring force 2. This results in the lifting up of piston 16 and consequently, the closing of the drain of secondary oil, and the governing valves open again (after the stabilisation of the transient speed rise) to a value which corresponds to a speed, which is dependent upon the magnitude of the load that is thrown off, and the setting of the non-uniformity of the regulation,

57

03.07.11

MAIN RELAY (DESCRIPTION)

MAIN RELAY 3-10-2044-S, 310-2018-S (MR in 0-10-1003-S): Main relay is the central device, which accepts all the impulses from the various protections of the set for the immediate tripping of the machine causing loss of pressure of quick closing oil in the system. Main relay consists of two analogous functioning parts mutually interconnected by channels in its casting across the sleeve 27 and the slide 7. At the bottom position of the slide (view N), each of the two functioning parts of the relay acts on the whole system of quick closing oil. This is the normal operating position. In the top position of the slide (view R), each functional part of the relay acts only on the half of the system of quick closing oil which is divided into right or left systems. This divided system can be achieved by admitting the control oil by the union marked VIII underneath slide 7, by the rotation of the distributor (DTR on 0-10-1003-S) to right or left extreme position (150 from the neutral). The division of the system is performed only at the tests of the emergency governors.

and at the test for the proper functioning of quick closing valves during operation, and the same is signalised (by the signal lamps) through a pressure switch (252 on 0-10-1003-S) connected to the union marked VII. Tripping of the main relay is effected by 4 types of impulses, namely : (1) Direct mechanical action of the emergency governor (either by actual increase in speed or by tester of emer gency governor). (2) By the manual action of trip lever located on the front side of the front bearing pedestal (TL in 0-10-1003-S) by rotating the lever in a clockwise direction which results in the rotation of the cams (23) and the lifting of the pins marked 22 ; (3) The electrical impulses from the remaining protec tions (including the remote tripping push buttons) con nected through the magnetic relay (RM on 0-10-1003-S) create a loss of pressure of oil above both the pistons (6) thereby lifting the piston by the spring force (17, 18). 59

(4) By manual pressing of the pin directly, at either of the magnetic relays (marked 270 in 0-10-1003-S) with a result similar to (3). The impulse (1) from the front emergency governor (PEG as per 0-10-1003-S) acts only on the lever 14 and the connected bell crank lever 16, and from the rear emergency governor (REG) only on the lever 13 and 15. The other impulses from (2) to (4) result in the acting of both the levers 15 and 16 simultaneously. By the movement of the levers 15 and 16, the pistons (33) are released from the notch in the levers and the spring force (12) presses them towards the top position, draining the oil through the ports in the slide (8) and (9). There will be a loss of pressure of oil in the space above the slides, and even in the piping to the limiter (union IV), as the distributing oil is supplied into this space through a small hole in the slides. The loss of pressure in each part makes the respective signal lamps light up through the pressure switches (250, 251 in 0-10-1003-S). The two slides are lifted to the top portion due to the pressure of 60

distributing oil, cutting off the supply of distributing oil to the quick closing system and draining the quick closing oil into the bearing pedestals. The loss of pressure of quick closing oil in the right and left systems is signalled by the respective signal lamps through the pressure switches 253 and 254 (on 0-10-1003-S). The procedure for bringing the main relay back to the normal engaged position after cancelling the tripping impulse, depends upon the type of tripping that has occurred. (A) At the undivided system the distributor in the neutral position: (1) Only the right (left) part of the main relay has tripped by the action of front (rear) emergency governor by the increase of speed. The entire quick closing system is without oil pressure, and all the quick closing valves are closed. The signal lamps 251 (250) and 253 and 254 are on. The governing and interceptor valves are also closed because of the loss of pressure of secondary oil by the action of Accelerator Relay.

Bringing into operating condition :

The nominal speed changer is to be brought to its basic position, if it had been manipulated before the tripping. The speed changer is to be rotated to the right extreme position (). The limiter is rotated towards the right (), upto the basic position below 90 when the signal lamps 250 (251) also light up. Open the drain between the cones of interceptor and MP quick closing valves, so as to equalise the pressure on the cone of the quick closing valve. If the speed of the turboset has fallen below 3,000 rpm when the pin of the emergency governor would have returned to its normal position, the distributor is turned through 90 from the neutral position towards the right (left) and kept for about 2 3 sees, by which oil will be supplied through the union V above the piston 33, which is pressed downwards and closes the drain of oil through the hole in the slide 8 (9). By bringing back the distributor to its neutral position, the oil pressure above the piston is interrupted, but the same is further held in this position by the notch in the bell crank lever, pressed by

the force of spring 19. By opening the limiter [by rotating towards left (+)] the drain of control oil through the limiter is closed above the slide 8 and 9, and the oil pressure rises pushing the slide down to the bottom position and the signal lamps 250 (251) will be switched off. Thus, the draining of the quick closing oil in the main relay is stopped and the signal lamps 253, 254 are switched off when the quick closing valves open. Due to the quick closing oil pressure, the drain of secondary oil pressure is automatically stopped from the Accelerator Relay (AR). By a further slow opening of the limiter, the governing valves and the interceptor valves start opening, as required for increasing the speed. After the regulation has been taken over by the transformer, the limiter is set to a value corresponding to the full output. The rated speed is regulated by means of the speed changer. The drains between the cones of the interceptor and MP quick closing valves are closed. 61

(2) Both parts of the main relay are tripped by the simultaneous action of both the emer. gency governors, or by the action of other protections for tripping the unit by the magnetic relays or by the hand tripping. The entire quick closing and control oil systems are without oil pressure. The signal lamps 250, 251, 253, 254 are on.
Bringing into operating condition:

hand tripping of the unit or by tripping of both the emergency governors. The entire system of quick closing and control oil circuits is without the oil pressure. The governing valves and the interceptor valves are also closed because of loss of pressure of secondary oil by the action of Accelerator Relay (AR). The lamps 250, 251, 252,253, 254 are on.
Bringing back to the operating condition :

The procedure as given in (1) holds good for this with only one difference; that it is necessary to rotate the distributor by 90 from the neutral position towards both the directions so that both the halves of the main relay get engaged. In case the tripping has occurred due to the action of the electromagnet, it is evident that the concerned trouble is to be first set right, before the re-starting with the limiter.
(B) At the divided system the distributor is rotated through 150 towards left or right :

The nominal speed changer is brought to its basic intermediate position if it had been manipulated earlier. The speed changer is rotated to its extreme right position (). The limiter is rotated towards the right () upto the basic position below 90. Open the drain between the cones of the Interceptor and MP QCV, so as to equalise the pressure on the cone of QCV. In case the tripping is due to the action of emergency governors by increase in speed, it is necessary to wait till the speed falls below 3,000 rpm. In case the tripping has occurred by the action of electro-magnetic relay, it is necessary to rectify the cause of the trouble.

(I) When both the parts of the main relay are tripped by any of the impulses from various protections acting through the magnetic relay, or by the 62

While slowly bringing-hack the distributor to the intermediate neutral position from 150 position, at a rotation of 90, the right (left) part of the relay automatically gets engaged and the signal lamp 252 will be off. On further rotation of the distributor by 90 from the neutral position to the left (right) direction, the left (right) part of the relay gets engaged. Then the distributor is kept in the neutral position. By rotating the limiter towards the left (+), the pressure of control oil pressure builds up above the pistons 8 and 9 and the lamps 250, 251 will be switched off. The slides will automatically move towards the bottom position, by which the normal pressure of quick closing oil is achieved, and the lamps 253, 254 are switched off, and the quick closing valves open. By the further slow opening of the limiter, the interceptor and governing valves are open as per requirement of speed. After the regulation has been taken over by the transformer, the limiter is set to a value corresponding to the full output.

The speed of the set is adjusted by the speed changer. The drains between the valve cones of the interceptor and QCV are closed. (2) When only one part of the relay, for eg. the left, is tripped, due to the action of the rear emergency governor (REG) at the increase of speed, there is a loss of pressure of quick closing oil only in the left part of the system and consequent closing of the left HP-MP quick closing valves. The lamps 250, 252, 253 light up. By the movement of the ball in the three-way valve G (as per 0-10-1003-S) the normal pressure of quick closing oil into the right part of the system is maintained. The pressure of secondary oil in the Accelerator Relay (AR) as well as the control oil pressure in the limiter are maintained and thus the governing and interceptor valves remain open and the set continues to be in operation. Bringing into operating condition : The nominal speed changer is brought back to its basic position, if the same has been manipulated before the tripping. Using the 63

speed changer reduce the speed of the set to 3,000 rpm. The distributor is rotated from its earlier turning of 150 to 90 towards the left of the neutral position, and when the lamps 250, 252 and 253 are switched off, bring the distributor back to the neutral position. Then the left HP QCV will open. To open the left MP QCV, open the drain between the left interceptor and QCV, and by manual pressing of the electro-magnet on the left interceptor valve, the drain is closed temporarily. Thus, the pressure before and after the valve cone of the MP QCV is equalised and the MP QCV will open. The manual pressing of the magnet is released and the above said drain is also closed. (3) One part of the relay is tripped, for eg. the left, by the action of the rear emergency governor (REG) at the rated speed by the emergency governor tester. This condition is achieved by rotating the distributor by 150 from the neutral position towards the left, and by screwing in the oil tester of the emergency governors towards the rotor by rotating its hand wheel to the right. 64

The left part of the system of quick closing oil is without pressure, and the left HP and MP QCV are closed. The signal lamps 250, 252, 253 light up. The right side HP and MP QCV, as well as all the governing valves remain open, the limiter remains in the unchanged working position, and the secondary oil pressure is maintained by the 3-way valve (G in 0-10-1003-S). Bringing into operating condition : The emergency governor oil tester is moved away from the rotor by rotating the hand wheel of the tester towards the left completely. The distributor is rotated to a position of 90 towards the left from its earlier position of 150 ; from the neutral, and after the lights 250, 252 and 253 switch off the distributor is taken to the neutral position. The left HP QCV will open. To open the MP QCV also, open the drain between the left interceptor valve and the left QCV, and press the electro-magnet of the interceptor valve manually to close the same momentarily. When the MP QCV is opened, the electromagnet on the interceptor valve is released, and the above mentioned drain is also closed. The mani-

pulations given under B 3 are used not only during the testing of protections before the synchronising, but also during the running on a load of about 40-50 MW. By this method, the process of the HP and MP QCV of both the sides are also checked simultaneously along with the testing of functioning of emergency governor, without any undesirable shocks of load changes. This testing is performed once a week and more often in case of a doubt regarding the quality of steam or oil. During this testing the shift in charge shall be present and more attention is given to the set, the necessary instructions for alertness having been given to the operating personnel of the whole block before hand. The actual closing of the respective valves is checked by the signals 255 and 256, 258, 259 on 0-10-1003-S which are connected on the respective limit switches on the quick closing valves. If during this test it is observed that any of the emergency governors trip (even at the repeated tests) at a higher pressure of oil than the corresponding value noticed at the last setting of the emergency governors, or that any of the quick closing HP and MP valves do not close fully, the turboset should

not be operated further, until these defects are rectified.


The distributor should always be in the neutral intermediate position during operation so as to ensure the tripping of the complete unit even when one of the emergency governors act during the normal run.

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03.07.12

HYDRO-MECHANICAL AXIAL PROTECTION (DESCRIPTION)

HYDRO-MECHANICAL AXIAL PROTECTION 3-10-2023-S (206 as per Drg. 0-10-1003-S) 3-100037-M: This is mounted on the cover of the bearing pedestal between HP and MP parts, and is intended for tripping the unit from operation at an axial movement of the rotor with respect to the stator, by more than 0.7 mm in either direction with an assumption that the clearance in the axial bearing is 0.3 mm. The slide (3) is pressed against the collar on the rotor by means of spring 7 through slide 1 and lever 16. The slide moves into body 13 to which the lubricating oil is supplied through an orifice. During the normal operation, the inlet of oil is closed in the body by the slide which covers on both sides the inlet ports. At the movement of the rotor in any axial direction, the slide also follows the movement till it starts releasing the oil to the drain. By this, the pressure of oil on the incoming piping after the orifice, starts dropping till, at a movement of 0.7 mm, the pressure drops to such a value that the manostat (206 on 0-101003-S) which is connected to the piping after the orifice makes the contact. The manostat connects

the circuit of the magnet of the magnetic relay (RM) which results in the tripping of the main relay and the turboset. The proper setting of the protection is carried out with the rotor pressed towards the generator, by adjusting the respective connection of slide 1 with lever 16. The testing of the proper functioning of the protection is performed before the start of the unit or before synchronising, by slowly pressing by hand, the armature of the magnet (38) to the bottom position by which link 4 and the two armed lever (14) move the slide away from the middle position and thus making contact in the manostat. The testing for a proper functioning of the circuit can be performed also, by energising the magnet by pressing the respective push button in the control panel. The circuit of the electro-magnet will be intercepted automatically by a time relay after 3 seconds.

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03.07.13

ELECTROMAGNETIC PROTECTION OF AXIAL MOVEMENT OF THE THRUST BEARING COLLAR, RELATIVE EXPANSION OF ROTORS AND CASINGS

A common apparatus consisting of electro-magnetic pick-ups, panel of protections with measuring bridges and signalling set, a box of stabilising transductors, change-over switches, indicating instruments and a 6 point recorder is used for measuring the axial movement of thrust bearing collar and relative expansion of rotors and casings. This apparatus is supplied with its own instructions Pamphlet giving the adjustments on the electrical side also. Therefore, only a general description with instructions for adjusting the mechanical part by which the pick-ups are mounted, is given here. The pick-ups for measuring the expansion of HP and MP casings, enable the reading of the expansion directly on the scale in the pick-up as well as on the indicating instrument and the recorder. For the protection of axial bearing and the relative expansion of HP, MP and LP rotors contact less differential transformer type pick-ups of the similar design are used. The primary winding of the pick-up is supplied with the 240V through an insulating transformer with a transductor unit. The collar rotates along

with the rotor of the turbine, in between the pole shoes of the pick-up. When the rotor and the collar move, the air gaps in between the pole shoes and the collar vary, which induces a proportional voltage in the secondary winding of the pick-up. This voltage is fed across a rectifying bridge. The difference of DC voltages of both the bridges determines the magnitude of current for the indicating instrument and the recorder, and the relay, which on attaining the pre-set value, gives the impulse for signalling or the tripping of the unit through the electro-magnetic relay (RM). The indicating instrument is common for all the pick-ups, and the value for the respective pickup is read off after choosing the particular pick-up by means of the change-over switch. The recorder is also common, with automatic recording of the individual values one after the other. (A) Electro-magnetic pick-up for the axial protection 310-2022-S (205 in 0-10-1003S, 3-10-0037-M): The pick-up is mounted in a sliding way in a holder on the cover 69

of the bearing pedestal between the HP and MP parts as per drawing 3-10-2022-S. When the rotor is pressed towards the generator, the collar, on the rotor is away by 0.15 mm from the central position towards the generator (checked by feeler gauge). With the pick-up moved by 0.15 mm towards the HP part, both the indicators and recording instruments must read a value of + 0.15 mm, and in this position the pick-up must be fixed permanently. The relays in the electric circuit of the protection are adjusted such that the impulse for tripping the unit is given at an axial movement of the collar by 0.5 mm towards the generator i.e. when the indicating instrument reads a movement of + 0.65 mm. When the rotor moves towards the front end by 0.3 mm (which is the clearance in the axial bearing) the instruments will read 0.15 mm. The relay again gives the impulse for tripping the unit on further movement of the collar by 0.5 mm towards the direction of front end of the turbine, i.e. when the instruments are reading 0.65mm. Simultaneously there is an optical signal at the protection panel. The testing of the proper functioning of the protection circuit of the axial bearing is done before the start of the unit, or before the synchronising, slowly pressing by hand the
70

armature of the magnet located on the holder of the pick-up. By a system of the rods and levers the pick-up is moved in the grooves of the holder by a maximum of about 1.5 mm, by which it is possible to follow the same on the indicating instrument with the change-over switch kept in the proper position. By this method, a condition of the collar being moved towards the generator is simulated, and at a value of 0.65 mm, the electro-magnetic relay (RM) must trip the unit. The testing of this can also be performed remotely by the push buttons from the control panel, by which the electric circuit of the magnet of the axial protection is energised. The circuit is automatically cut off after 3 seconds through a time relay. (B) Electro-magnetic pick-up for the relative expansion of HP Rotor 2-10-1010-S (200 in 0-10-1003-S, 3-100037M) : The pick-up is firmly mounted on the holder marked 2, which slides on the body of the tester of emergency governor marked 1 in the front bearing pedestalDuring assembly, the pick-up is set by screw 26 and hand wheel 31, so that the collar on the rotor is exactly in the middle of the pole pieces of the pick-up, when the rotor is kept

pressed towards the generator. The indicating and recording apparatuses must, at this position read ' Zero'. The relay in the electrical circuit of the protection is adjusted to give an impulse for signalisation at the expansion of HP rotor to +3.5 mm and 1.5 mm relative to the HP casing. The proper functioning of the protection circuit can be tested at any time by moving the pick-up in both the directions by handwheel 31. By rotating the wheel towards the left, a condition similar to the increase of relative expansion of HP rotor is created, and towards the right the vice versa. The stops for the movement of pick-up of about 5 mm towards the generator and about 2 mm towards the front are permitted. After testing the pick-up must be returned to its original basic position. (C) Electro-magnetic pick-up for the relative expansion of MP and LP rotors 3-102038-S, 3-10-2039-S (201, 202 in 0-10-1003-S, 3-100037M) : The type and mounting of these for pick-ups are similar to the one for the axial protection. During assembly the holders of the pick-ups are set, so that the collars on the rotors are at the centre of the two pole pieces of the pick-up, when the rotors are

pressed towards the generator. The indicating and recording instruments must, at this position, indicate ' Zero ' reading. The relays on the electrical circuit are set so that signallisation occurs at : Relative expansion of MP rotor with respect to MP casing Relative expansion of LP rotor with respect to LP casing 1 + 3.5 mm 1.5 mm + 4 mm 2 mm

By pressing the armature of the magnet on the holder of pick-up (either manually or remotely by pressing the corresponding push button for energising the magnet), it is possible to verify the proper functioning of the measuring circuit on the indicating instrument. At the pick-up for MP part, the relative expansion of the rotor seemingly increases and in LP part it decreases by about 1.5 mm. Note :The precise values for signalisation mentioned in para B and C will be decided finally and corrected in the operating instructions if necessary, by the Commissioning Engineers, according to the values entered in the passport of the machine after erection and before the first starting of the unit. 71

03.07.14

APPARATUS FOR MEASURING THE VIBRATIONS OF BEARING PEDESTALS

Apparatus for measuring the vibrations of the bearing pedestals (224 on 3-10-0037-M) : The apparatus consists of 12 pickups, the electronic system of the apparatus and the recording instrument. The pick-ups are firmly mounted on the bearing pedestals as per the scheme 3-100037M, for measuring vibrations in the vertical, horizontal or the axial directions. It is however, possible for a different arrangement of the pick-ups, which is decided as per the magnitude and characteristic of the vibration of the individual pedestal in the actual operation. The electronic part and the recording parts of the instruments are located in the unit control room. The apparatus gives the impulse for signalisation in case the vibration of any of the bearing pedestal reaches the pre-set value. This value is finally decided during the test run, and is however, limited to 50 microns. Description and necessary instructions for this apparatus will be given by the respective manufacturers.

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03.08.00

TECHNICAL DATA OF ACCESSORIES IN CONDENSATION AND REGENERATIVE SYSTEM

03.08.01 Two-way surface condensers 2 Nos. Each of cooling area3380 sq.m. Quantity of cooling water for both the condensers 15400 Cu.m/hr. Resistance on water side of each condenser 5 m.w.cl. 03.08.02 One two-stage steam jet air ejector of ' Duplex Type ', each with its own condenser: Minimum pressure of working Steam 7 ata Temperature of steam 300C Steam Consumption 1600 Kg/hr.
03.08.03

Fan output 1980 cu.m/hr. El. Motor rating 7.5 B.H.P/ 415v/50c/sec. Speed 2855 rpm 03.08.06 Two starting oil pumps : 125COAV/305 Quantity 2000 1/mt. Head 138 Meters of water column. Pressure 12 atg. Squirrel cage induction Motor Rating 95 K.W./415v/50c/sec. Speed 1480 rpm. Np 72 KW. 03.08.07 One Emergency Pump : 100NCU

One single-stage steam jet starting ejector, without auxiliary condenser for quick evacuation of the set before putting into operation.
03.08.04

Lubricating

Oil

Quantity 800 1/mt. Pressure 2.7 atg; Head 23 metres of water column. R.P.M. - 1450 A.C. Motor: Rating 9 K.W./415v/50c/sec, Np =- 6 KW. 1465 rpm.

One fan driven by electric motor for exhausting the oil vapours from the oil tank. Electric Motor Rating0.8 K.W./ 415v/50c/sec. Speed 1400 rpm. 03.08.05 Two fans for exhausting the steam air mixture from the chimney steam condenser.

Speed D.C. Motor : Rating 8.5 K.W./220 v, D.C. Speed 1465 rpm, 75

03.08.08

Seven Numbers of oil pumps for lifting of the rotors by means of pressure oil during the start of rotation of rotors by turning gear: (a) Three pumps : Output Pressure 25 1/mt. (b) Two duplex pumps : Output Pressure Rating 30K.W./415V/ 50 c/s. 1465 rpm. Speed 03.08.09 ONE LEAKAGE / auxiliary oil pump for repumping of oil from the collecting auxiliary oil tank to the main oil tank : 28 Pump : Output 1/m 2 Pressure Electric Motor : Rating 0.75 H.P./415 v/50c/s. Speed 1440 rpm. 03.08.10 Condensate pump (150 C JNV/6) 3 Nos. 76 2 x 25 1/mt. 50 atg.

Quantity 2660 1/m. Head 215 metres of water column. Speed -- 1450 rpm. Np 142 K.W. Temperature of working medium 40C. Squirrel cage induction motor : Rated capacity 175 K.W./6600v/ 50 cps. 03.08.11 Condensate booster pump (100CJH/7)-2 Nos . Quantity 1150 1/m. Head 153 metres of water column. Speed 1475 rpm. Np ~~ 43 K.W. Temperature 120C Squirrel cage induction Motor : Rated capacity of Motor: 55 K.W./415 v/3^/50 cps.

(c) Electric motor :

03.08.12 Boiler feed pump (200 KHI) 2 Nos. Each for 100% output. Quantity 8180 I/minute. ~ 450t/hr Head 1960 metres of water column. Speed 4500 rpm. Np 3140 KW. Temperature 158C.

Pressure at delivery 185.7 atg. Squirrel cage induction motor : Capacity 3500 K.W/6600v/ 50 cps. 03.08.13
Two low pressure heaters of the 1st stage hearingVertical Design:

80 Sq.m. on steam side. Number of ' U ' tubes 242. Size 15/13 mm. Resistance on water side at a flow of 272.143 t/hr 10.1 m.w.cl. Test pressure on waterside 42 atg. 03.08.14
Two low pressure heaters of the Hnd stage heating Vertical Design :

Each of area

Area on steam side 30 sq.m. Quantity of steam for condens ing 900v kg/hr. Number of ' U' Tubes 121 Size 15/13 mm. Resistance on water side at a flow of 272.143 t/hr is about 3.3 m.w.cl. Designed pressure on steam side 1 atg. Designed pressure on water side 28 atg. Test pressure on steam side with water 3 atg. Test pressure on water side 42 atg. 03.08.16
One gland steam condenser Vertical Design :

Each of area on steam side 80 sq.m. Number of' U ' tubes 242 Size 15/13 mm. Resistance on water side at a flow of 272.143 t/hr. 10.1 rn.w. cl. Test pressure on water side 42 atg. 03.08.15
One chimney steam condenser Vertical Design :

Area 80 sq.m. Quantity of steam for condensing 3800v/kg/hr. Number of ' U' tubes 256 Size 15/13 mm. Resistance on water side at a flow of 273.143 t/hr is about 4.74 m.w.cl. Safety valve on steam side is set at 6 atg. Test pressure on water side 42 atg. Test pressure on steam side with water 9 atg.
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03.08.17 Low pressure heaters (IIIrd stage, IVth stage and Vth stage of) heating Vertical Design : Each : Area on steam side 250 sq.m. Number of 'U' tubes 710 Size 15/13 mmResistance on water side at a flow of 308.469 t/hr. is about 6.36 m.w.cl. Safety valve setting pressure on steam side 6 atg. The test pressure on water side 42 atg. The test pressure on steam side with water 9 atg.

Size of tubes 25/15 mm. Resistance on water side at a flow of 361.5 t/hr. in spiral tubes 16 m.w.cl. Resistance on water side at a flow of 60 t/hr. in ' W tubes 16 m.w.cl. Setting pressure for safety valve on steam side 20 atg. Test pressure on water side 450 atg. Test pressure on steam side with water 30 atg.

03.08.20 One high pressure heater of VHIth stage heating Vertical Design : Area on steam side 308 sq.m. Number of spiral shape steel tubes 240 Size 25/15 mm. Resistance on water side at a flow of 361.5 t/hr. in spiral tubes. 16 m.w.cl. Resistance on water side at a flow of 60 t/hr. in 'W T ubes 16 m.w.cl. Setting pressure for safety valve on steam side 40 atg. Test pressure on water side 450 atg. Test pressure on steam side with water 60 atg.

03.08.18 One condensate expander at the pressure level of IIId stage heating : Safety valve setting pressure 6 atg. Test pressure with water 9 atg. 03.08.19 One high pressure heater Vllth stage heating Vertical Design : Area on steam side 308 sq.m. Number of spiral steel tubes 240 78

03.09,00

DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENT IN CONDENSATION AND REGENERATIVE SYSTEM

03.09.01 CONDENSERS: The surface condensers are supported on springs which take up the weight of the condenser, and the weight of one half of the cooling water in the condenser. The condensers are firmly connected with the exhaust branches on the LP casing. Through the inlet steam branches each condenser, on the water side is vertically divided, into two independent double path circuits which enables the cleaning of water space of the condensers in stages, during the operation of the turboset at reduced outputs as per diagram RC-0050. If the cleaning takes place during operation, one half of both the condensers which are on the common cooling water circuit, should be put out of operation. After closing the valve on the inlet of cooling water to the respective halves of the condenser, and after closing the respective deaerating valves of the steam space, the water from these halves which are put out of operation are drained simultaneously. The water chambers are separated from the steam space by means of the tube end plates, which are painted with two coats of APCODUR 66 Black on the water side, after the completion of the roller expansion of cooling water tubes. If there is a leakage in the tube

end plate, the leaking water is arrested in the narrow space separated from the main steam space, by the intercepting tube plates located very near to the tube end plates. From this space, condensate of about 500 kg/hr from each condenser is continuously drained off into the impure condensate tank, which is at the condenser pressure. The samples of the impure condensate can be drawn by the sample collecting vessel, which has valves for connecting to the vacuum and to the atmosphere. On the common piping, for draining off the impure condensate to the impure condensate tank, a measurement of conductivity of range 015 micro mhos/cm is mounted. In case the impure condensate tank has not been envisaged and not been provided, this additional facility of draining away the cooling water leakage through the non-tightness of the tubes of the condenser will not be available, and there is no necessity to provide the intercepting tube plates. Also the sample collecting drains are blinded. On the steam side, both the condensers are inter-connected by a balancing piping connecting the super structures of the condensers by which the pressure in both the condensers are equalised. On the shell of the condenser near the rear tube end plate, an expansion bellow is provided to 79

compensate the relative thermal expansion of the condenser tubes and shell. The inner surface of the water chambers is painted with two protective coats of interior boiler paint F6194, against corrosion. The inner surface of the steam space is painted with one coat of wash-primer, and one coat of APCODUR 22 AD Grey. The spoiled paint work must be repaired with the same coats of paint as stated above. The steam space of each condenser is divided transversely into 5 parts by 4 support plates, which have slightly higher size holes for cooling tubes. However these support plates are fixed to the shell of the condenser in such a way that the tubes are supported by them, thus preventing the vibration of the tubes. The bottom part of the steam space of the condenser, is divided by longitudinal partitions into 10 sections. The branches for the sensing elements of the permanent condensate conductivity measurement system are built-in and blinded in each section. The condensate from individual sections spills over from each section into a common longitudinal collector (hot well) and is deaerated. From the hot well, the condensate is then led to the suction of the condensate pumps. The two
80

sections near the intercepting tube plates ate provided with facilities to drain the impure condensate of about 3.5 t hr. from each section, to the impure condensate tank in case of defect of any of the tubes. These facilities however will not be available, if the impure condensate tank is not provided. In case a higher conductivity is noted at the suction of the condensate pumps, by opening these branches individually one after the other, the exact place of leakage is located, and then this section is continuously drained off to the impure condensate tank. (When the valve for draining the condensate to the impure condensate tank is opened at the defective section the level in that will fall below the level of spill-over, and the conductivity at the suction of the condensate pumps will also drop down to the normal value). The loss of condensate has to be then continuously made up by admitting the chemically treated water. In the case of the inner six sections, there is no possibility for draining off the condensate, and it is assumed that in case of heavy leakage, leading to an impure condensate in the 6 sections, the turboset will be stopped to remove the leakage. The instrument for continuous measurement of the conductivity of condensate (with a range

of 0-10 micro mhos cm.), is mounted in the condensate piping from each of the two hot wells to the condensate pumps. The increase of conductivity to 3 micro mhos cm. is signalled. The conductivity and the levels in the hot well and in the feed water tank must be followed carefully and if necessary, the make up water is added by the automatic regulation in the incoming demineralised water line. The regulating valve is controlled by the impulse from the level of condensate in the feed water tank. The steam air mixture is sucked off from both the sides of the condenser (across the isolated set of cooling tubes in the condenser) by the steam jet air ejectors. After the erection of condenser at the site, and during the repairs of the condenser, the pressure test on the water side is performed at a pressure of 3.5 atg. The steam side is tested, by draining off the cooling water space completely and by filling up the steam space with water. In the case of the latter test, the condenser must be solidly supported by the packing plates, so that the increase in weight is not taken up by the springs and undue strain does not fall on the LP casing All the fittings in the vacuum side are provided with gland sealing of the spindles by conden-

sate from the delivery of the condensate pumps. For the quick destroyal of vacuum during the s to p p in g o f th e tu r b o s e t s o as to avoid the unnecessary cooling of the turboset by the chilled gland steam resulting by expansion due to the vacuum condition, a branch with an electrical valve is provided on the air piping from the condenser to the ejectors, with which it is possible to suck the air into the condenser from the atmosphere. The electrical valve is provided with a water seal so that its perfect tightness is ensured during normal operation of the turboset. The rear water chambers are deaerated to the atmosphere through a valve. The tightness of the entire vacuum system of the turboset can be tested during operation by temporarily closing the valve on the air line before the ejectors. The steam space can be assumed to be tight, in case, when, at the rated load of the turbine, the average fall of the vacuum (starting from the second minute after the closing of air valve) is less than 3 mm of Hg per minute. The condenser and the whole vacuum system of the turboset is safeguarded against the inner over pressure by the explosion membrances, located on the top half of the exhaust hood of the LP casing of the turbine. 81

03.09.02

STARTING EJECTOR AND THE MAIN EJECTOR

Starting Ejector: This serves for the quick evacuation of the turboset during starling. It consists of the steam chambers from which the steam is led through the nozzle into the mixing chamber, to which is connected the mixing nozzle with the diffuser. The working steam led into the ejector through the steam chamber flows through the steam nozzle attaining a high velocity. This creates a. vacuum in the mixing chamber and the air sucked from the condenser to the mixing chamber entrapping it in the flow of steam, and is led through the mixing nozzle and through a diffuser, into the exhaust and to the atmosphere. The starting ejector is provided with a pressure gauge for the measurement of steam pressure in the steam chamber ; and a vacuum gauge for the measurement of vacuum in the mixing chamber. STEAM JET AIR EJECTOR : This ejector sucks off the steam air mixture from the condenser during operation because of the leakage in the flange connections by defective sealing of glands. The ejector works with the superheated steam, and the condensate

pumped by the condensate pump serves as the cooling medium. The ejector is of a two-stage duplex type, provided with two first stage ejectors and two second stage ejectors, which are placed on the common body shell. The body consists of a shell welded from plates, which is divided with partition walls into two independent parts, and each part is further divided into the top (inter-condenser) and bottom (after condenser). The tube plates into which the tubes are roller expanded are welded at the ends of the shell. At the bottom of a shell, a float type steam trap is welded on, for maintaining the level in the steam space of the after condenser. The ejector rests on the foundation by meas of the foot plates welded on to the bottom part of the shell. The water chambers are bolted on to the tube plates. Front water chamber is provided with the flange connections for the inlet and outlet of cooling condensate. Thermowells are provided for the measurement of temperature of : (1) Steam space of Inter-con denser. (2) Condensate inlet and outlet. 83

Dcaerating valves are provided at the highest point of water chamber to deaerate the water chamber now and then during operation. For the full output, one half of the ejector, is enough and the second half serves as a reserve. The working steam is admitted, both into the first and second stage. The steam air mixture from the main condenser is sucked into the first stage and along with the working steam of 1 stage is exhausted into the intercondenser where the major portion of steam condenses. The condensate of this steam is led to the condenser through a siphon from the bottom part of the inter condenser. The non-condensed steam and air from the inter condenser is then sucked off by second stage and, along with its working steam is exhausted into the after-condenser. Similarly, the steam condenses in th e a f te r -c o n d e n s e r a n d the air is exhausted into the atmosphere. The condensate is drained by the float type steam trap into the main condenser. The working steam for the starting ejector and the steam jet air ejector is taken from the reduction station. During start84

ing, the steam is taken from starting steam mains. The steam jet air ejector is provided with the necessary measuring instruments for its reliable operation. 03.09.03
PUMPS IN THE CONDENSATION AND REGENERATION SYSTEMS :

The detailed description and the instructions for the operation of the various pumps and their driving motors pertaining to the auxiliaries of the turboset is supplied seperately. Before operating any one of the pumps, it is necessary to ensure sufficient flooding of the suction of the pump, by ensuring the proper level in the suction sump or in the collector, so that the impellers are safely submerged and do not suck in air or steam. The space of water chamber of the pumps must be clean, and the water must be free from impurities, which will initiate corrosion or sedimentation, and incidental clogging up of the suction of the pump. The lubrication of the pumps and the motors is to be carried out as per the lubrication chart furnished with each of them. The connection of water for cooling and

scaling is given in the Auxiliary C. W. Scheme and before operating the pump, the respective valves on the incoming water lines must be kept open. The glands are adjusted so that during operation, a small quantity of water flows through and keeps them cooled. Oil or grease in, the individual bearings must be regularly topped up or changed, the temperature of the bearings is to be checked, and the maximum permissible values are given in the respective instructions. Excessive filling up of bearings with grease is equally bad and gives rise to an increase of temperature as in the case of insufficient lubrication. The driving motors are mostly of the surface cooling type and it is necessary to keep the surface of the stator, as well as the grill on the cover of the ventilator clean, for the entry of cooling air, so that the temperature rise as given by the instructions is not exceeded. The motor must be put into operation only with enough insulation resistance of the windings, which must be inspected before starting after a long period of shut-down, incidently, even after a short term shut-down, if the motor is working

in humid conditions. In case of improper insulation resistance, it is necessary to dry the motor as per the instructions of the manufacturer. During starting and operation of the pumps the delivery must be regulated in such a way that the current loading of the motors does not exceed the values given on the name plate. It is necessary to adhere to the instructions of the manufacturer of the motors, with respect to the permitted number of starlings repeated during one hour. The procedure of manipulation of the valves in the respective circuits of the individual pumps is given in the section " Bringing the turboset into operation." The pumps which have 100% reserve must be operated alternatively at one week intervals.

85

03.09.04

COOLING WATER CIRCUIT

The cooling water is supplied from the pumping station. The cooling water is supplied to the entire system from a cooling water supply duel. A major portion of the cooling water is supplied to the condenser. Four valves are mounted on the outlet of the condenser for putting out of operation the individual halves of the condenser for tube cleaning, during operation. Part of the cooling water is supplied to the oil coolers, coolers for the sealing oil and to the condensate coolers if condensate is used for cooling of Hydrogen coolers. For the cooling of the auxiliary equipments, cooling water from a separate cooling water circuit is used. The water is supplied by booster pumps.

87

03.09.05

LEVEL CONTROLLER IN THE CONDENSER (DESCRIPTION)

LEVEL CONTROLLER IN THE CONDENSER (0-10-1016-S) :


The level controller maintains an approximately constant condensate level in the hot well during the running of the turboset, and thus maintains a practically constant suction head for the condensate pumps. Its construction and location ensures the flow of minimum required quantity of condensate for the cooling of steam jet air ejectors. It is located on the common delivery piping of the condensate pumps, and the float chamber of the controller (6) is connected at its bottom part with the hot well and at its top with the steam space of the condenser, so that the level in the float chamber corresponds to the level in the condenser hot well. The float with the lever (8) follows the level of the condensate in the floatchamber. The gear segments (3) and (5) are used as a transfer mechanism between the level of condensate and the position of the regulating slide (4). so as to ensure minimum friction and the prevention of

insensitivity. The changes in the level are mechanically transferred at the given proportion as the changes in the position of the cons (11) which is positioned against the end of the piston (17) of the regulating slide (4). The pressure water taken from the incoming piping through a filter, is led through the pipe union (52) into the amplifier provided at the bottom portion of the slide (4). On the top surface of the amplifier, the full pressure of the water is acting and, to the bottom surface, the water is admitted through an orifice 3 (28). Because of a change of position of the cone (11), there is a change in the pressure of water below the piston and due to that, there is a change in the position of the slide (4). Each particular position of the float corresponds to a particular position of the slide. Minimum level corresponds to the highest position of the slide and vice versa. The main flow part consists of a casing with three ways along with a regulating bush (2). The regulating slide (4) which has at its bottom portion, the amplifying piston opens the respective ports, 89

as per the level in the float chamber, and incidentally in the hot well, either to the regenerative system or for recirculation back to the condenser. The flow sections are profiled in such a way as to have a linear relationship between the level and the flow quantity. At the minimum level, the ports for recirculation are fully open, and the ports for the regeneration are fully closed. With the increase of level at higher loads of the turboset, the ports for recirculation, start closing and the ports for regeneration start to open admitting the condensate to the heaters. On further rise of level, the recirculation will be completely closed and the entire condensate is sent towards the heaters. All the piping connected to the controller is provided with valves, so that the controller can be isolated and inspected even during the operation of turboset, and the level can be regulated by the bypass valves in the respective piping either to the heaters or to the condenser. The height of the level in the hot well is indicated by the differential pressure transmitter which gives the impulse .through an electric indica-

tor at the block control room. The attainment of the maximum permissible level is signalled both acoustically and optically.

90

03.10.00

REGENERATIVE SYSTEM

The condensate and feed water are heated in 8 stages by the nonregulated extractions from the turbine, comprising of 5 low pressure heaters, a deaerator and two high pressure heaters. In addition to this, the entire condensate flows through the steam jet air ejectors, gland steam condenser and part of condensate through chimney steam condenser. The first and second stage of regenerative heating is done by two, double low pressure heaters which are mounted directly in the low pressure casing of the turbine with a common by-pass on the condensate line. In between the II and III stages of heating the chimney steam condenser and gland steam condenser are located and have a common by-pass on the condensate side. 3rd, 4th and 5th low pressure heaters form the individual stages of heating. The third and fourth heaters have a common by-pass on the water side and the fifth heater has an independent bypass. The deaerator along with the feed water tank forms the next stage of heating, heated by the steam from the VI extraction. The condensate cycle is protected from any abnormal rise of pressure by relief safety valves located in the piping before I and II LPH, after the gland steam condenser and before HI

LPH and after V LPH. All the valves are set for opening at a pressure of 28 atg. The high pressure heaters are located in the feed water cycle between the feed water pump and the boiler, and are heated by steam from the seventh and eight extractions. The 8th extraction steam is taken from the cold reheat line. The circuit of feed water is protected against any abnormal rise of pressure by a relief safety valve located in the piping before I HPH, and is set to open at a pressure of 300 atg. The condensate from the hot well of the condenser is pumped by condensate pumps through the ejector, all the LP heaters, gland steam and chimney steam condensers, into the feed water tank. At the full output, two condensate pumps are enough, and the third serves as a 50% reserve with provision for switching on in case of a failure of any one of the operating condensate pumps. At lower loads, one pump is enough for pumping the condensate. The second one is kept ready for starting, at the increase of the pumped quantity to 180 t/hr. Signalisation is provided, for a quick checking of pump in operation.

91

03.10.01

CYCLE OF 1ST AND 2ND STAGE HEATING (LPH)

The I and II stage heaters are of two twin tube nests, each mounted on to the LP casing of the turbine. These heaters on either branch have a common by-pass on the water side, so that, in case, any of the heaters on one side must be put out of operation, then that one half is put out of operation, and on the other side both the heaters can be in operation. Heating condensate from the II stage heater is led through a siphon to the I stage and from there, through another siphon, is taken to the mixing chamber at the suction of the condensate pump. On exceeding the first level of condensate in any one of the heaters, level signalisers give impulses for optical and acoustical signalisation. On attaining the faulty maximum level, the second level signaliser give the impulse for tripping the turboset and also for optical and acoustic signalisation. The stopping of the turboset by the impulse from second level signaliser can be avoided by opening the by-pass on the main condensate and by closing the inlet and outlet of the main condensate to that half of the heaters where the signalisation of level rise has occured. The

cause of the level rise is checked at the next stoppage of the turboset, by admitting the condensate into the heating tube bundle, and checking the condensate level in the steam space of the heater. If leakage of tube bundle is noticed, it has to be attended to. The non-condensing gases in the steam space are continuously sucked off into the condenser through an orifice. 03.10.02 CYCLE OF GLAND STEAM AND CHIMNEY STEAM CONDENSER The stages of heating in gland steam and chimney steam condensers are given in the section about gland steam system (03.04. 00).

93

03.10.03

CYCLE OF 3RD STAGE HEATING (LPH) AND EXPANDER OF WORKING CONDENSATE

(c) The III LP heater has on the water side a common by-pass with IV LPH . In case of a breakdown of any one of the heaters, both must be put out of operation. During this condition, the condensate is led by the bypass to the V LPH. The condensate is heated by steam from the III extraction of the turbine. In the extract! on piping there is an electrically operated valve and a nonreturn valve for preventing theback flow of steam to the turbine. The valve with electric drive is operated by the impulse from the maximum level in the III and IV LPH. The extraction piping is likewise connected through an electrical valve to the expander of working condensate. Both the valves, which are on the extraction piping, and in the piping from expander of working condensate to the III LPH, are provided with limit switches by which the closed position of the valves are signalled. Sucking off of the air and the non-condensing gases from the steam space of III LPH takes place continuously through an orifice and a valve to the condenser. The valve during normal operation is kept open. The condensate of the heating steam from the III LPH is led, along with the condensate from

the expander of working condensate to the suction of condensate booster pumps. The heating steam condensate from the V and IV extractions are cascaded in stages to the III LPH. The III LPH is provided with two independent level signalisers. At a non-permissible rise of level in the III LPH, the following impulses are given : (1) To close the valve in the III extraction piping to heat up the III LPH ; (2) To close the valve on the in coming heating steam to IV LPH ; (3) To close the valve on the inter-connection between the III extraction and ex pander of working conden sate ; (4) To close the non-return quick closing valve in the IV extraction piping. (5) Optical and acoustic signal. By the above , III and IV LPH are put out of operation on the steam side. It is therefore neces sary to manually open the by-pass of the heater on the water side, and afterwards to close the valves on the inlet to III LPH and on the outlet of IV LPH, and then to close the valve on the evacuation of air to the condenser. Furthermore, to open the valve on the draining of condensate of heating steam from V LPH 95

direct to the expander of heating condensate, and to close the valve in the heater drain from V heater to IV heater. Likewise to close the valve in the heater drain from III LPH to the suction of condensate booster pumps. (b) The expander at the level of III LPH : The expander, during normal operation, is at a pressure equal to that of III LPH. The expander mainly serves to collect the condensate of heating steam from 111, IV and V LPHS and at certain times even from 1st HPH and, to release steam from these condensate on to a pressure equal to that of III LPH . During normal operation, the condensate of heating steam always cascades from the higher stage to the lower stage. In case, III and IV LPHS are out of operation, the condensate from V LPH is led directly to the expander. Similarly, condensate of heating steam from HPH can be led directly to the expander, in case V LPH is out of operation. The released steam is led to the piping of III extraction before the III LPH. The piping of release steam from the expander is also connected across a membrane relief valve to the condenser in case of any non-permissible rise of pressure in the expander. The 96

over pressure for the opening of the relief valve is about 1.5 ata. The condensate from the expander is led, along with the condensate of the III LPH to the suction of the condensate booster pumps, which pump the condensate to the main condensate circuit before the III LPH. For full output, one condensate booster pump is enough and the second serves as a 100% stand by which takes over automatically, in case of a failure of the first. Regulation of the level in the expander, and also in III LPH is done by the level controller, which is operated by the differential pressure transmitter through an electronic regulator on the servomotor at the level controller. The level controller is mounted on the delivery piping of the condensate booster pump. Condensate of the heating steam is led to the circuit of main condensate before, III LPH or at the low level, and recirculated back to the expander by which the minimum required quantity for the pump operation is ensured. The condensate from the booster pump is diverted through the piston and the bush either to the circuit of main condensate or back to the expander. At higher levels, the piston opens the ports in the bush to allow the condensate into the main condensate circuit. At the fall of the

level, the delivery of condensate is throttled upto the minimum level and after that, the ports on the bush are opened for recirculation back to the expander. At the minimum level, the ports for allowing condensate to the main condensate cycle are fully closed and all the condensate of the heating steam is recirculated back to the expander. The equalising piping for draining of condensate is connected in the space above the piston. In case of the faulty working of level controller, it is possible to manually regulate the admission of condensate before III LPH or the re-circulation back to the expander. At the minimum level in the expander, the level signalisers mounted on it give the impulse for stopping the booster pump in operation, along with the interlocking impulse for the standby pump. At the level increase above the minimum level, impulse is given by the second level signaliser for the starting of the booster pump. The running and the switching off of any of the booster pumps is signalled. Working range of the regulated level is maintained by the level regulator, operated by the differential pressure transmitter through an electronic regulator at the servomotor. The maximum opening of the level regulator is signalled by a limit switch on the servomotor. At a non-per-

missible level rise in the expander, a double impulse is given by means of two independent level signalisers for the following : (1) To stop the working booster pump along with the simul taneous interlocking for the standby pump ; (2) To open the valve on the drain of condensate of heat ing steam from the expander directly to the condenser ; (3) To close the valve in the piping of released steam from the expander to the III extraction ; (4) Optical and acoustic signalisation. After the emptying of the expander into the condenser, the starting of the working booster pump does not occur. For a new, automatic starting of the booster pump the valve on the draining of condensate from the expander to the condenser must be closed manually and the valve on the released steam line from the expander to III extraction must be opened manually. By the manual closing or opening the automatics are switched off, and the closing or opening of the valves is done by operating the servomotor from the floor or from the block control room. 97

03.10.04

CYCLE OF IV STAGEHEATING

IV LPH is heated by the steam from the IV extraction, and on the water side it has a common by-pass with the III LPH. For safeguarding the turbine against the back flow of steam, a non-return quick closing extraction valve is provided on the fourth extraction near the turbine, and an electrically driven valve before the heater. Both the valves, in case of necessity close automatically. The deaeration of the steam space of IV LPH is done continuously through an orifice to the steam space of III LPH. The condensate of heating steam from IV LPH cascades to III LPH. The draining of condensate is regulated by the electrical regulating valve which gets the impulse from the differential pressure transmitter through an electric regulator. In case of a fault with regulation system, it is possible to regulate the draining of condensate by hand control, with the valves on the by-pass of regulating valve. The maximum opening of the regulating valve is optically signalled by a limit switch at the servomotor of the valve. On a nonpermissible level rise in the heater, the level regulators by

means of two independent level signalisers, give a double impulse for stopping the IH and IV LPH, including the expander on the steam side. That is (1) to close the valve on the incoming steam line to III LPH and IV LPH : (2) to close the non-return, quick-closing valve in the IV extraction piping ; (3) to close the electrical valve on the inter connection of the expander and III extraction : (4) Optical and acoustic signal ling of the performed action. Further manipulation for stopping III and IV LPH, and the expander on the steam side, and ensuring the draining of heating steam condensate from the V LPH is given in detail in the previous article.

99

03.10.05

CYCLE OF V STAGE HEATING

The heater has on its water side, an independent by-pass in case it is necessary to put it out of operation. During the normal operation, the condensate is heated by steam from V extraction of the turbine, as in case of lower loads, and during starting or at the fall-out of the turboset on home consumption, it is heated by the external steam from the starting steam mains (only if such provision is made). The impulses for opening or closing the electrical valve on the in-coming external steam line is given by two manostats mounted on the V extraction piping before the non-return, quick-closing extraction valve. On a fall of pressure in V extraction below 2.75 ata the electrical valve on the external heating opens to 50 % and simultaneously, the electrical valves and the non-return extraction valve on the V extraction close. On a rise of pressure of steam back to 3.0 ata in the V extraction, the valve on external heating line closes, and the electrical valve and the nonreturn extraction valve on the V extraction open. With the same impulse the 3-way valve on the gland steam is also operated when the valve on the external heating is open to V LPH,

which connects the sucking off of gland steam to the condenser ; and when the valve on the external heating is closed, it connects back the gland steam to V extraction. The change in the position of the valve is signalled at the fall out of generator. Impulse is given for hundred per cent opening of the electrical valve on the external heating line and to close the electrical valve on the non-return extraction valve on the V extraction. The condensate of the heating steam during normal operating conditions, is drained off through a regulating valve with electric drive to the IV LPH. The regulating valve is controlled by the differential pressure transmitter through an electronic regulator. The maximum opening of the regulating valve is optically signalled from a limit switch. In case of a defective functioning of regulation of drain, it is possible to manually regulate the drain by the by-pass regulating valve. When the III and IV LPHs are out of operation, it is necessary to close the valve on the drain of the heating condensate from V LPH to IV LPH, and to open 101

the valve for draining the condensate directly to the expander. The deaeration of the steam space of the heater is done through an orifice and a valve, to the condenser continuously. The valve which is provided on the deaeration piping is kept open during normal operation. On low loads when the pressure in the HPHs is low, so that the condensate of heating steam cannot be pushed up to the feed water tank, the condensate is led to V LPH. On crossing the upper limit of the regulating range in the V LPH by 10 cm, an impulse is given by level signalisers to open the electrical valve in the drain of condensate of heating steam from the HPH directly to the expander, and from the open position of the electrical valve, an impulse is given to close the electrical valve in the drain of condensate of heating steam from HP H to V LPH. The closing of the valves in the heating condensate drain from HPH to V LPH and to the expander is signalled. On u nonpermissible increase of level in the V LPH, a double impulse is given by two independent level signalisers to

(1) close the electrical valve in the incoming heating steam line to V LPH ; (2) close the non-return quick closing valve on the V extrac tion piping from the turbine ; (3) close the valve on the piping for heating V LPH by an external source steam (in case the external heating is in operation); (4) change-over the 3-way valve for sucking off of the gland steam to condenser directly ; (5) optical and acoustic signal of the above actions. By this the V LPH is put out of operation on the steam side. After the putting out of operation of the V LPH automatically, it is necessary to open the valve on the by-pass of main condensate, to close the valve on the piping of the deaeration of heater to condenser, and then to close the valves on the condensate side before and after the heaters.

102

03.10.06

CYCLE OF VI STAGE HEATING

The slearn from the sixth extraction of the turbine is used for heating up the deaerator of the feed water tank through a reduction station which maintains a constant pressure of 6 ata. On low loads, that is when the pressure in V] extraction is not enough, the steam is admitted through a second reduction station from the VI11 extraction of the turbine. The level regulation in the feed water tank consists of the automatic addition of de-mineralised water to the condenser, in case the level in the feed water tank falls, and during the level rise in the tank, the condensate from the delivery of condensate pumps is partially drained back to the demineralised water tanks. At non-permissible level rise in the feed water tank an impulse is given to close the non-return, quick closing valve which is simultaneously signalled. On the attainment of minimum level in the feed water tank, an impulse is given for stopping the feed water pump which is also signalled.

The deaerator with the feed water tank is not a part of supply of turboset, so that its operation and service is controlled by the operating instructions of the respective supplier and the operating instruction of the entire block.

103

03,10.07

CYCLE OF VII STAGE HEATING

The first HPH is heated by steam from the VII extraction of the turbine. On the water side the heater has a common by-pass with the II HPH, in case a fault with any one of the HP heaters, arises, in which case both have to be put out of operation together. The heating steam is admitted at the lower part of the heaters and flows through the space of the desuperheater, and then on to the condensing surface with the spiral tubes. The condensate of heating steam from the desuperheating space (which forms only during start-up and sudden variations in load) is led through a siphon to the bottom space of the heater, from where all the condensate of heating steam is drained to the feed water tank. During low loads, say about 65 MW, when the pressure in the heater is not sufficient to push up the condensate to the feed water tank, the condensate is drained to the V LPH. If the V LPH is out of operation, the condensate is drained is off directly to the expander. The regulation of the draining of condensate takes place through two regulating valves with electric drive, operated by the differential pressure transmitters with elect-

ronic regulator. In case of improper functioning of regulation of drains, it is possible to manually regulate the draining of condensate by the valves, on the by-pass of the second regulating valve, which drains the condensate to VLPH. The first regulating valve drains the condensate to the feed water tank. At the maximum full opening of the first regulating valve, an impulse is given through a limit switch at its servomotor, to open the second regulating valve to drain the condensate of heating steam to the LP regenerative system. Further, the valve on the cascading of condensate to V LPH is opened, and if this is out of operation the valve for draining the condensate directly to the expander is opened automatically. All the actions, and changes in the position of valves and the regulating valves are signalled. In the case of condensate being drained off to the LP regenerative system, the regulating valve for draining the condensate to the feed water tank remains open, and the non-return flap mounted on this piping near the deaerator ensures this branch against the back flow of steam to the I HPH. 105

The maximum opening of regulating valve to the LP regenerative system is signalled by the limit switch at the servomotor. On the attaining of a faulty level of condensate in the heater, a double impulse by two independent level signalisers, is given: (1) to close the electrical valves on the incoming heating steam line to 1 and IF HPHs; (2) to close the non-return, quick closing valves on the seventh and eigth extractions of the turbine ; (3) to open the electrical valve on the by-pass of the feed water line of I and II HPH; (4) to close the electrical valves on the inlet of feed water to I HPH, and outlet of feed water from II HPH; (5) to open the electrical valve on the emergency drain of condensate of heating steam from I and II HPH to the HP drains flash tank; (6) to give optical and acoustical signals of the faulty level. The electrical valves on the incoming heating steam to I and TI HPH get the impulse for 106

closing, likewise at the tripping of the set from the grid, along with quick closing extraction valves. The steam space of the I HPH is deaerated during normal operation, continuously through an orifice plate, a valve, and the non-return flap to the expander of working condensate at the level of III extraction. For deaeration of the HP heaters, if they are out of operation, the valves on the branch of the deaerating piping to the atmosphere is utilised. The valve on the branch between HPH and the expander is closed then.

03.10.08

CYCLE OF VIII STAGE HEATING

The second high pressure heater is heated by steam from the VIII extraction. On the water side the heater has a Common bypass with I HPH because of which, in case of a fault in any one of the HP heaters, it is necessary to put out of operation both the HP heaters. The heating steam is admitted at the bottom of the heater and flows around the tube bundle supplying superheat, on to the main condensing area of spiral tubes. The condensate from the tube bundle for desuperheating is led through a siphon to the bottom space of the heater. From this space, the condensate of heating steam is drained from the II HP H to I HP H. The drain of heating steam condensate is regulated by the electrical regulating valves, which are operated by differential pressure transmitters, through an electronic regulator. On attaining the maximum nonpermissible level in the II HPH, a double impulse by the two independent level signalisers is given, to put out of operation, both the HP Heaters on the steam side and water side, along with optical and acoustical signalisation. All the other actions are

the same as the one that happen at the non-permisible level rise of condensate in the I HPH which has been given in detail in the previous article. The deaeration of the II HPH is performed during manual operation continuously through an orifice plate and a valve to the I HPH. At the cutting off of the HP Heaters from operation, the valve on the deaeration piping to the I HPH is closed, and the deaeration is done by opening the second valve in the branch direct to the atmosphere.

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TESTING OF SIGNALISATION AND PROTECTION SYSTEM OF HEATERS

The non-permissible level rise in the steam space of the heaters and the expanders can have the result of water entering the turbine and creating a major havoc. Therefore, maximum attention is to be paid to al! the protective instruments and electrical circuits at the heaters. During operation when a signal is given immediately, or the level in the level gouge rises, which does not correspond to the normal condition for the particular loading of the machine, it is necessary to check the respective circuits (the position of the corresponding valves on the condensate side, as well as on the deaeration, functioning of booster pump) and as far as possible, to maintain the level in the normal heights by manual operation of the by-pass of the respective level regulator, or by switching on the standby booster pump till the defect is attended to. If it is ascertained that the function of level regulator is correct, and that the valve en the by-pass also has to be opened in addition for maintaining the level at the normal height, it is necessary to assume damage of the heating tubes, and the respec-

tive circuit of condensate heating must be put out of operation ; firstly on the steam side, and after ascertaining the leakage of tube bundle, on the water side also. If the rise of level during operation is so fast, that the attainment of the maximum permissible level occurs earlier than any attempt to reduce the level could be made, the protection at the heater puts the heaters out of operation as follows : (a) in case of HP heaters automatic isolation on the steam side and water side; (b) in case of III, IV and V LP heaters; automatic isolation on the steam side; (c) in case of I and II LP heaters: automatic isolation on the steam side by tripping the turboset; (d) in case of chimney steam and gland steam condenser, auto matic isolation on the steam side. Isolation on the water side for all low pressure heaters, gland and chimney steam condensers have to be done manually. 109

In such cases, it is necessary to check and ensure the correct position of fittings automatically controlled by the protections, and in case of LP heaters, the respective heater is put out of operation on the water side also by opening corresponding by-passes. Operation of the protections at the increased level may be prevented by regular checks of levels in all the heaters, condensers and expanders by the gauge level glasses, and by manual operation carried out in time. Especially in the case of I and II LP heaters it is desirable to put the heaters out of operation on the water side before the protection acts, because the same would cause the tripping of the turboset. Before starting the turboset, each time, it is necessary to carry out the tests of all the signalling and protective circuits step by step in the regenerative system, by artificially closing the appertaining electric circuit directly in the primary apparatus. The entire circuit, including the sensitive element proper, must be tested before the first starting of the set, and before the starting takes place after the overhaul, by gradually filling the steam space upto the respective levels with 110

the demineralised water (for e.g. through the connection for the safety valve). This method cannot be applied for LHP I and II, and therefore the functioning of the built-in level regulators is to be checked by manually connecting their contacts. The protections on the regenerative system, except that of I and II LPH, can be tested even during operation at a reduced load of about 60 MW, by slowly closing the respective fittings manually for the drain of condensate from the heaters. During these tests, it is necessary to carefully follow the levels in the individual heaters and the proper functioning of the various fittings regulated by the impulses from the protections and their signalisation. The method of testing the individual protections in the regenerative system during operation is given under " Survey of instruments which give protection".