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( 551 479) () ()() ( )() Confucius(circa 551-479 BC) One of the most famous people in ancient China was a wise philosopher named Confucius. He sometimes went by the names Kong Zi though he was born - Kong Qiu - styled Zhong Ni. He was born in the village of Zou in the country of Lu. This Chinese man was a well-known leader in philosophy and he also made many wise phrases and theories about the law, life, and the government. Confucius is famous for his philosophy because he made many wise sayings in ancient China that helped many people learn about nature, the world, and the human behavior. He also helped the government and the emperor by teaching them lessons on how the emperor should rule his kingdom successfully. Confucius was born in a poor family in the year 551 B.C., and he was born in the state of Lu. His original name was K'ung Ch'iu. His father, commander of a district in Lu, died three years after Confucius was born, leaving the family in poverty; but Confucius nevertheless received a fine education. He was married at the age of 19 and had one son and two daughters. He worked as a keeper of a market. Then he was a farm worker who took care of parks and farm animals. When he was 20, he worked for the governor of his district. Key words: philosophy poor childhood ancient China

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Aristotle Aristotle (384-322 bc), Greek philosopher and scientist, who shares with Plato and Socrates the distinction of being the most famous of ancient philosophers. He was born at Stagira, in Macedonia, the son of a physician to the royal court. At the age of 17, he went to Athens to study at Plato's Academy. He remained there for about 20 years, as a student and then as a teacher. When Plato died in 347 bc, Aristotle moved to Assos, a city in Asia Minor, where a friend of his, Hermias, was ruler. There he counseled Hermias and married his niece and adopted daughter, Pythias. After Hermias was captured and executed by the Persians in 345 bc, Aristotle went to Pella, the Macedonian capital, where he became the tutor of the king's young son Alexander, later known as Alexander the Great. In 335, when Alexander became king, Aristotle returned to Athens and established his own school, the Lyceum. Because much of the discussion in his school took place while teachers and students were walking about the Lyceum grounds, Aristotle's school came to be known as the Peripatetic (walking or strolling) school. Upon the death of Alexander in 323 bc, strong anti-Macedonian feeling developed in Athens, and Aristotle retired to a family estate in Euboea (vvoia). He died there the following year. Perhaps because of the influence of his father's medical profession, Aristotle's philosophy laid its principal stress on biology, in contrast to Plato's emphasis on mathematics. Aristotle regarded the world as made up of individuals (substances) occurring in fixed natural kinds (species). Each individual has its built-in specific pattern of development and grows toward proper self-realization as a specimen of its type. Growth, purpose, and direction are thus built into nature. Although science studies general kinds, according to Aristotle, these kinds find their existence in particular individuals. Science and philosophy must therefore balance, not simply choose between, the claims of empiricism (observation and sense experience) and formalism (rational deduction). One of the most distinctive of Aristotle's philosophic contributions was a new notion of causality. Each thing or event, he thought, has more than one reason that helps to explain what, why, and where it is. Earlier Greek thinkers had tended to assume that only one sort of cause can be really explanatory; Aristotle proposed four. (The word Aristotle uses, aition,a responsible, explanatory factor is not synonymous with the word cause in its modern sense.) Key words: ancient Greek philosopher scientist

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P1ato 427 347 20 12 36 Plato Plato (428?-347 bc), Greek philosopher, one of the most creative and influential thinkers in Western philosophy. He was born to an aristocratic family in Athens. His father, Ariston, was believed to have descended from the early kings of Athens. Perictione, his mother, was distantly related to the 6th-century bc lawmaker Solon. When Plato was a child, his father died, and his mother married Pyrilampes, who was an associate of the statesman Pericles. As a young man Plato had political ambitions, but he became disillusioned by the political leadership in Athens. He eventually became a disciple of Socrates, accepting his basic philosophy and dialectical style of debate: the pursuit of truth through questions, answers, and additional questions. Plato witnessed the death of Socrates at the hands of the Athenian democracy in 399 bc. Perhaps fearing for his own safety, he left Athens temporarily and traveled to Italy, Sicily, and Egypt. In 387 Plato founded the Academy in Athens, the institution often described as the first European university. It provided a comprehensive curriculum, including such subjects as astronomy, biology, mathematics, political theory, and philosophy. Aristotle was the Academys most prominent student. Platos theory of Forms and his theory of knowledge are so interrelated that they must be discussed together. Influenced by Socrates, Plato was convinced that knowledge is attainable. He was also convinced of two essential characteristics of knowledge. First, knowledge must be certain and infallible. Second, knowledge must have as its object that which is genuinely real as contrasted with that which is an appearance only. Because that which is fully real must, for Plato, be fixed, permanent, and unchanging, he identified the real with the ideal realm of being as opposed to the physical world of becoming. One consequence of this view was Platos rejection of empiricism, the claim that knowledge is derived from sense experience. He thought that propositions derived from sense experience have, at most, a degree of probability. They are not certain. Furthermore, the objects of sense experience are changeable phenomena of the physical world. Hence, objects of sense experience are not proper objects of knowledge. Key words: Greek philosopher great tutor

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469 399 ) Socrates Socrates (469-399bc), Greek philosopher, profoundly affected Western philosophy through his influence on Plato. Born in Athens, the son of Sophroniscus, a sculptor, and Phaenarete, a midwife, he received the regular elementary education in literature, music, and gymnastics. Later he familiarized himself with the rhetoric and dialectics of the Sophists, the speculations of the Ionian philosophers, and the general culture of Periclean Athens. Initially, Socrates followed the craft of his father; according to a former tradition, he executed a statue group of the three Graces, which stood at the entrance to the Acropolis until the 2nd century ad. In the Peloponnesian War with Sparta he served as an infantryman with conspicuous bravery at the battles of Potidaea in 432-430 bc, Delium in 424 bc, and Amphipolis in 422 bc. Socrates believed in the superiority of argument over writing and therefore spent the greater part of his mature life in the marketplace and public places of Athens, engaging in dialogue and argument with anyone who would listen or who would submit to interrogation. Socrates was reportedly unattractive in appearance and short of stature but was also extremely hardy and self-controlled. He enjoyed life immensely and achieved social popularity because of his ready wit and a keen sense of humor that was completely devoid of satire or cynicism. Socrates' contribution to philosophy was essentially ethical in character. Belief in a purely objective understanding of such concepts as justice, love, and virtue, and the self-knowledge that he inculcated, were the basis of his teachings. He believed that all vice is the result of ignorance, and that no person is willingly bad; correspondingly, virtue is knowledge, and those who know the right will act rightly. His logic placed particular emphasis on rational argument and the quest for general definitions, as evidenced in the writings of his younger contemporary and pupil, Plato, and of Plato's pupil, Aristotle. Through the writings of these philosophers, Socrates profoundly affected the entire subsequent course of Western speculative thought. Key words: Greek philosopher

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17241804 16 73 40 5 5 3 9-10 Immanuel Kant Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), German philosopher, considered by many the most influential thinker of modern times. Born in Knigsberg (now Kaliningrad, Russia), April 22, 1724, Kant received his education at the Collegium Fredericianum and the University of Knigsberg. At the college he studied chiefly the classics, and at the university he studied physics and mathematics. After his father died, he was compelled to halt his university career and earn his living as a private tutor. In 1755, aided by a friend, he resumed his studies and obtained his doctorate. Thereafter, for 15 years he taught at the university, lecturing first on science and mathematics, but gradually enlarging his field of concentration to cover almost all branches of philosophy. Although Kant's lectures and works written during this period established his reputation as an original philosopher, he did not receive a chair at the university until 1770, when he was made professor of logic and metaphysics. For the next 27 years he continued to teach and attracted large numbers of students to Knigsberg. Kant's unorthodox religious teachings, which were based on rationalism rather than revelation, brought him into conflict with the government of Prussia, and in 1792 he was forbidden by Frederick William II, king of Prussia, to teach or write on religious subjects. Kant obeyed this order for five years until the death of the king and then felt released from his obligation. In 1798, the year following his retirement from the university, he published a summary of his religious views. He died February 12, 1804. The keystone of Kant's philosophy, sometimes called critical philosophy, is contained in his Critique of Pure Reason (1781), in which he examined the bases of human knowledge and created an individual epistemology. Like earlier philosophers, Kant differentiated modes of thinking into analytic and synthetic propositions. An analytic proposition is one in which the predicate is contained in the subject, as in the statement Black houses are houses. The truth of this type of proposition is evident, because to state the reverse would be to make the proposition http://www.manfen.net
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self-contradictory. Such propositions are called analytic because truth is discovered by the analysis of the concept itself. Synthetic propositions, on the other hand, are those that cannot be arrived at by pure analysis, as in the statement The house is black. All the common propositions that result from experience of the world are synthetic. Key works: German philosopher great thinker 15611626 Francis Bacon Francis Bacon (1561-1626), English philosopher and statesman, one of the pioneers of modern scientific thought. Bacon was educated at Trinity College, University of Cambridge. Elected to the House of Commons in 1584, he served until 1614. He wrote letters of sound advice to Elizabeth I, queen of England, but his suggestions were never implemented, and he completely lost favor with the queen in 1593, when he opposed a bill for a royal subsidy. He regained the respect of the court, however, with the accession of James I to the English throne in 1603. Bacon proposed schemes for the union of England and Scotland and recommended measures for dealing with Roman Catholics. For these efforts he was knighted on July 23, 1603, was made a commissioner for the union of Scotland and England, and was given a pension in 1604. His Advancement of Learning was published and presented to the king in 1605. Two years later he was appointed solicitor general. In the last session of the first Parliament held (February 1611) under James I, the differences between Crown and Commons grew critical, and Bacon took the role of mediator, despite his distrust of James's chief minister, Robert Cecil, 1st earl of Salisbury. On Salisbury's death in 1612, Bacon, in order to gain the king's attention, wrote several papers on statecraft, particularly on relations between Crown and Commons. In 1613 he was appointed attorney general. In 1616 Bacon became a privy councillor, and in 1618 he was appointed lord chancellor and raised to the peerage as Baron Verulam. In 1620 his Novum Organum was published, and on January 26, 1621, he was created Viscount Saint Albans. In the same year he was charged by Parliament with accepting bribes. He confessed but said that he was heartily and penitently sorry. He submitted himself to the will of his fellow peers, who ordered him fined, imprisoned during the king's pleasure, and banished from Parliament and the court. After his release, he retired to his family residence at Gorhambury. In September 1621 the king pardoned him but prohibited his return to Parliament or the court. Bacon then resumed his writing, completing his History of Henry VII and his Latin translation of The Advancement of Learning (De Augmentis). In March 1622 he offered to make a digest of the laws, with no further consequence despite repeated petitions to James I and James's successor, Charles I. He died in London on April 9, 1626.

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Bacon's philosophy emphasized the belief that people are the servants and interpreters of nature, that truth is not derived from authority, and that knowledge is the fruit of experience. Bacon is generally credited with having contributed to logic the method known as ampliative inference, a technique of inductive reasoning. Previous logicians had practiced induction by simple enumeration, that is, drawing general conclusions from particular data. Bacon's method was to infer by use of analogy, from the characteristics or properties of the larger group to which that datum belonged, leaving to later experience the correction of evident errors. Because it added significantly to the improvement of scientific hypotheses, this method was a fundamental advancement of the scientific method. Bacon's Novum Organum successfully influenced the acceptance of accurate observation and experimentation in science. In it he maintained that all prejudices and preconceived attitudes, which he called idols, must be abandoned, whether they be the common property of the race due to common modes of thought (idols of the tribe), or the peculiar possession of the individual (idols of the cave); whether they arise from too great a dependence on language (idols of the marketplace), or from tradition (idols of the theater). The principles laid down in the Novum Organum had an important influence on the subsequent development of empiricist thought. Key words: philosopher statesman

Groegor Mendel1822-1884 1844-1848 Diebl1770-1859 1848 CDoppler1803-1853 AEttinghausen FUnger1800-1870 Gregor Mendel Gregor Mendel (1822-1884), Austrian monk, whose experimental work became the basis of modern hereditary theory. Mendel was born on July 22, 1822, to a peasant family in Heinzendorf (now Hynice, Czech Republic). He entered the Augustinian monastery at Brnn (now Brno, Czech Republic), which was known as a center of learning and scientific endeavor. He later http://www.manfen.net
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became a substitute teacher at the technical school in Brnn. There Mendel became actively engaged in investigating variation, heredity, and evolution in plants at the monastery's experimental garden. Between 1856 and 1863 he cultivated and tested at least 28,000 pea plants, carefully analyzing seven pairs of seed and plant characteristics. His tedious experiments resulted in the enunciation of two generalizations that later became known as the laws of heredity. His observations also led him to coin two terms still used in present-day genetics: dominance, for a trait that shows up in an offspring; and recessiveness, for a trait masked by a dominant gene. Mendel published his important work on heredity in 1866. Despite, or perhaps because of, its descriptions of large numbers of experimental plants, which allowed him to express his results numerically and subject them to statistical analysis, this work made virtually no impression for the next 34 years. Only in 1900 was his work recognized more or less independently by three investigators, one of whom was the Dutch botanist Hugo Marie de Vries, and not until the late 1920s and the early '30s was its full significance realized, particularly in relation to evolutionary theory. As a result of years of research in population genetics, investigators were able to demonstrate that Darwinian evolution can be described in terms of the change in gene frequency of Mendelian pairs of characteristics in a population over successive generations. Mendel's later experiments with the hawkweed Hieracium proved inconclusive, and because of the pressure of other duties he ceased his experiments on heredity by the 1870s. He died in Brnn on January 6, 1884. Key words: father of genetics 1930- 1953 1995 1964 1970 1972 A B 1986 Yuan Longping1930- "I saw rice plants as tall as Chinese sorghum, said Yuan Longping of a dream he once had, each ear of rice as big as a broom and each grain of rice as huge as a peanut. I could hide in the shadow of the rice crops with a friend." Born into a poor farmer's family in 1931 and a graduate from the Southwest Agriculture Institute in 1953, Yuan began his teaching career at an agriculture school in Anjiang, Hunan Province. He came up with an idea for hybridizing rice in the 1960s, when a series of natural disasters and inappropriate policies had plunged China into an unprecedented famine that caused many deaths. Since then, he has devoted himself to the research and development of a better rice breed. In 1964, he happened to find a natural hybrid rice plant that had obvious advantages over others. Greatly encouraged, he began to study the elements of this particular type. In 1973, in cooperation with http://www.manfen.net
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others, he was able to cultivate a type of hybrid rice species which had great advantages. It yielded 20 percent more per unit than that of common ones. The next year their research made a breakthrough in seeding. They successfully developed a set of technologies for producing indica (long-grained non-glutinous) rice, putting China in the lead worldwide in rice production. For this achievement, he was dubbed the "Father of Hybrid Rice." In 1979, their technique for hybrid rice was introduced into the United States, the first case of intellectual property rights transfer in the history of new China. Key wordsagriculturist father of hybrid rice 1928- 1928 6 13 14 20 50 30 1994 John Nash1928- When the young Nash had applied to graduate school at Princeton in 1948, his old Carnegie Tech professor, R.J. Duffin, wrote only one line on his letter of recommendation: "This man is a genius". It was at Princeton that Nash encountered the theory of games, then recently launched by John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern. However, they had only managed to solve non-cooperative games in the case of "pure rivalries" (i.e. zero-sum). The young Nash turned to rivalries with mutual gain. His trick was the use of best-response functions and a recent theorem that had just emerged - Kakutani's fixed point-theorem. His main result, the "Nash Equilibrium", was published in 1950 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. He followed this up with a paper which introduced yet another solution concept - this time for two-person cooperative games - the "Nash Bargaining Solution" (NBS) in 1950. A 1951 paper attached his name to yet another side of economics - this time, the "Nash Programme", reflecting his methodological call for the reduction of all cooperative games into a non-cooperative framework. His contributions to mathematics were no less remarkable. As an undergraduate, he had inadvertently (and independently) proved Brouwer's fixed point theorem. Later on, he went on to break one of Riemann's most perplexing mathematical conundrums. From then on, Nash provided breakthrough after breakthrough in mathematics.

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In 1958, on the threshold of his career, Nash got struck by paranoid schizophrenia. He lost his job at M.I.T. in 1959 (he had been tenured there in 1958 - at the age of 29) and was virtually incapicated by the disease for the next two decades or so. He roamed about Europe and America, finally, returning to Princeton where he became a sad, ghostly character on the campus - "the Phantom of Fine Hall" as Rebecca Goldstein described him in her novel, Mind-Body Problem. The disease began to evaporate in the early 1970s and Nash began to gradually to return to his work in mathematics. However, Nash himself associated his madness with his living on an "ultralogical" plane, "breathing air too rare" for most mortals, and if being "cured" meant he could no longer do any original work at that level, then, Nash argued, a remission might not be worthwhile in the end. As John Dryden once put it: Great wits are sure to madness near allied, And thin partitions do their bounds divide. Key words: economist illness Nobel price winner 1791 -- 18671791 9 22 13 1813 3 10 . 10 1832 Faraday, Michael 1791 -- 1867 Physicist and chemist. Born September 22, 1791, in Newington, Surrey. The family soon moved to London, where young Michael, one of 10 children, picked up the rudiments of reading, writing, and arithmetic. At the age of 14, he was apprenticed to a bookbinder and bookseller. He read ravenously and attended public lectures, including some by Sir Humphry Davy. Faraday's career began when Davy, temporarily blinded in a laboratory accident, appointed Faraday as his assistant at the Royal Institution. With Davy as a teacher in analytical chemistry, Faraday advanced in his scientific apprenticeship and began independent chemical studies. By 1825, he discovered http://www.manfen.net
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benzene and had become the first to describe compounds of chlorine and carbon. He adopted the atomic theory to explain that chemical qualities were the result of attraction and repulsion between united atoms. This proved to be the theoretical foundation for much of his future work. Faraday had already done some work in magnetism and electricity, and it was in this field that he made his most outstanding contributions. His first triumph came when he found a solution to the problem of producing continuous rotation by use of electric current, thus making electric motors possible. Hans Oersted had discovered the magnetic effect of a current, but Faraday grasped the fact that a conductor at rest and a steady magnetic field do not interact and that to get an induced current either the conductor or the field has to move. On August 29, 1831, Faraday discovered electromagnetic induction. During the next 10 years, Faraday explored and expanded the field of electricity. In 1834, he announced his famous two laws of electrolysis. Briefly, they state that for any given amount of electrical force in an electrochemical cell, chemical substances are released at the electrodes in the ratio of their chemical equivalents. He also invented the voltammeter, a device for measuring electrical charges, which was the first step toward the later standardization of electrical quantities. Faraday continued to work in his laboratory, but his health began to deteriorate and he had to stop work entirely in 1841. Almost miraculously, however, his health later improved and he resumed work in 1844. He began a search for an interaction between magnetism and light and in 1845 turned his attention from electrostatics to electromagnetism. He discovered that an intense magnetic field could rotate the plane of polarized light, a phenomenon known today as the Faraday effect. In conjunction with these experiments, he showed that all matter conducts the magnetic line of force. Objects that were good conductors he called paramagnetics, while those that conducted the force poorly he named diamagnetics. Thus, the energy of a magnet is in the space around it, not in the magnet itself. This is the fundamental idea of the field theory. Faraday was a brilliant lecturer, and through his public lectures he did a great deal to popularize science. Shortly after he became head of the Royal Institution in 1825, he inaugurated the custom of giving a series of lectures for young people during the Christmas season. This tradition has been maintained, and over the years the series have frequently been the basis for fascinating, simply written, and informative books. Faraday died in London on August 25, 1867. The admiration of physicists for Faraday has been demonstrated by naming the unit of capacitance the farad and a unit of charge, the faraday. No other man has been doubly honored in this way. His name also appears frequently in connection with effects, laws, and apparatus. These honors are proper tribute to the man who was possibly the greatest experimentalist who ever lived. Key words: physicist chemist 1903 1905 1867 4 16 1871 8 19 http://www.manfen.net
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O1899 3 1899 3 1900 1902 3 1903 1 12 17 12 59 260 1904 2 1905 3 8 1905 10 16 1908 5 6 1908 5 100 25 60 7 1 2 20 1909 The Wright Brothers (Wilbur and Orville) Aviation pioneers, inventors. Wilbur was born near Millville, Indiana, and Orville (1871--1958) was born in Dayton, Ohio. The sons of a minister of the United Brethren Church, the Wright brothers showed mechanical genius from boyhood, although neither graduated from high school. In 1892 they opened a bicycle sales and repair shop in Dayton and soon were making and selling their own bicycles. Reading about experiments with gliders spurred their interest in flight, and they built their first glider in 1899, a biplane kite with wings that could be twisted mechanically. The brothers made their first trip to Kitty Hawk, North Carolina in 1900 to conduct glider experiments on the sand hills there. Back in Dayton they built the first wind tunnel and prepared their own tables of lift-pressures for various wing surfaces and wind speeds. They also built a powerful four-cylinder engine and an efficient propeller, and in September 1903 they returned to Kitty Hawk. Bad weather delayed the testing of this aircraft until December 17, 1903, when Orville piloted it on a flight of 12 seconds and 120 feet; Wilbur flew later in the day, staying aloft for 59 seconds to cover 852 feet. The brothers built two sturdier, more reliable planes over the next two years and in 1906 received a U.S. patent for a powered aircraft. Initially they sold their plane to the British and French governments, but in 1908 the U.S. War Department contracted for a Wright flying machine for the army. In 1909 they formed the American Wright Company and proceeded to manufacture their improved planes and to train pilots. Wilbur, a bachelor as was his brother, died of typhoid in May 1912. In 1915, Orville - who had continued to test fly all his planes - retired from the aircraft manufacturing business to pursue his own research interests. During World I he accepted a commission as a major to serve as a consultant to the army air service and he served for many years on the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. Key words: inventor http://www.manfen.net
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18471942 1847 3 3 , 1862 1869 22 20 18 ?1875 6 2 28 21 Bell, Alexander Graham 1847 1922 Inventor and educator. Born March 3, 1847, in Edinburgh, Scotland. Bell is best known for perfecting the telephone to transmit vocal messages by electricity. The telephone inaugurated a new age in communication technology. Bells father, Alexander Melville Bell, was an expert in vocal physiology and elocution; his grandfather, Alexander Bell, was an elocution professor. After studying at the University of Edinburgh and University College, London, Bell became his father's assistant. He taught the deaf to talk by adopting his father's system of visible speech (illustrations of speaking positions of the lips and tongue). In London he studied Hermann Ludwig von Helmholtz's experiments with tuning forks and magnets to produce complex sounds. In 1865, Bell made scientific studies of the resonance of the mouth while speaking. In 1870, the Bells moved to Brantford, Ontario, Canada, to preserve Alexander's health. He went to Boston in 1871 to teach at Sarah Fuller's School for the Deaf, the first such school in the world. He also tutored private students, including Helen Keller. As professor of vocal physiology and speech at Boston University in 1873, he initiated conventions for teachers of the deaf. Throughout his life he continued to educate the deaf, and he founded the American Association to Promote the Teaching of Speech to the Deaf. From 1873 to 1876, Bell experimented with a phonautograph, a multiple telegraph, and an electric speaking telegraph (the telephone). Funds came from the fathers of two of his pupils; one of these men, Gardiner Hubbard, had a deaf daughter, Mabel, who later became Bell's wife. Key words: inventor educator http://www.manfen.net
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(1853-1890) 1881 1886 1888 1890 37 Gogh, Vincent Willem van (1853-1890), Dutch postimpressionist painter, whose work represents the archetype of expressionism, the idea of emotional spontaneity in painting. Van Gogh was born March 30, 1853, in Groot-Zundert, son of a Dutch Protestant pastor. Early in life he displayed a moody, restless temperament that was to thwart his every pursuit. By the age of 27 he had been in turn a salesman in an art gallery, a French tutor, a theological student, and an evangelist among the miners at Wasmes in Belgium. His experiences as a preacher are reflected in his first paintings of peasants and potato diggers; of these early works, the best known is the rough, earthy Potato Eaters (1885, Rijksmuseum Vincent van Gogh, Amsterdam). Dark and somber, sometimes crude, these early works evidence van Gogh's intense desire to express the misery and poverty of humanity as he saw it among the miners in Belgium. 15641616 13 1586 1597 16 17 37 154 14 15921593 1593 1594 14 15921598 Shakespeare, William 1564 1616 Born in 1564, in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire, England (historians believe Shakespeare was born on April 23, the same day he died in 1616). The son of John Shakespeare, a glover, and Mary Arden, of farming stock. Much uncertainty surrounds Shakespeare's early life. He was the http://www.manfen.net
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eldest of three sons, and there were four daughters. He was educated at the local grammar school, and married Anne Hathaway, from a local farming family, in 1582. She bore him a daughter, Susanna, in 1583, and twins, Hamnet and Judith, in 1585. Shakespeare moved to London, possibly in 1591, and became an actor. From 1592 to 1594, when the theatres were closed for the plague, he wrote his poems "Venus and Adonis" and "The Rape of Lucrece." His sonnets, known by 1598, though not published until 1609, fall into two groups: 1 to 126 are addressed to a fair young man, and 127 to 154 to a "dark lady" who holds both the young man and the poet in thrall. Who these people are has provided an exercise in detection for numerous critics. The first evidence of his association with the stage is in 1594, when he was acting with the Lord Chamberlain's company of players, later "the King's Men'. When the company built the Globe Theatre south of the Thames in 1597, he became a partner, living modestly at a house in Silver Street until c.1606, then moving near the Globe. He returned to Stratford c.1610, living as a country gentleman at his house, New Place. His will was made in March 1616, a few months before he died, and he was buried at Stratford. The modern era of Shakespeare scholarship has been marked by an enormous amount of investigation into the authorship, text, and chronology of the plays, including detailed studies of the age in which he lived, and of the Elizabethan stage. Authorship is still a controversial subject for certain plays, such as Titus Andronicus, Two Noble Kinsmen, and Henry VI, part I. This has involved detailed studies of the various editions of the plays, in particular the different quarto editions, and the first collected works, The First Folio of 1623. It is conventional to group the plays into early, middle, and late periods, and to distinguish comedies, tragedies, and histories, recognizing other groups that do not fall neatly into these categories. Key words: playwright poet. 1685-1750 19 J.S. J.S. J.S. Johann Sebastian Bach 1685-1750 Bach was born on March 21, 1685 in Eisenach, Germany. His career is among the wonders of http://www.manfen.net
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music. Bach wrote hundreds of compositions and is considered the greatest genius of baroque music. Bach was a devout Lutheran and his religious views are reflected in his works. He felt that everything people do and believe has to do with religion. Bach, and many other composers of his time, believed that baroque music helped protect people from the advance of doubt bred by Renaissance ideas of scientific, rational inquiry. Bach believed he could best serve his church, and the people around him, through his music. There's nothing remarkable about it. All one has to do is hit the right keys at the right time and the instrument plays itself. Key words: musician . .190019901900 13 1921 1924 19351944 1925 1930 19331935 1938 1942 1944 1936 1942 70 Aaron Copland19001990 Aaron Copland was born on November 14, 1900 in New York City. His musical works ranged from ballet and orchestral music to choral music and movie scores. For the better part of four decades Aaron Copland was considered the premier American composer. Copland learned to play piano from an older sister. By the time he was fifteen he had decided to become a composer. His first tentative steps included a correspondence course in writing harmony. In 1921 Copland traveled to Paris to attend the newly founded music school for Americans at Fontainebleau. He was the first American student of the brilliant teacher, Nadia Boulanger. After three years in Paris he returned to New York with his first major commission, writing an organ concerto for the American appearances of Madame Boulanger. His "Symphony for Organ and Orchestra" premiered in at Carnagie Hall in 1925. Copland's growth as a composer mirrored important trends of his time. After his return from Paris he worked with jazz rhythms in his "Piano Concerto" (1926). His "Piano Variations" (1930) was strongly influenced by Igor Stravinsky's Neoclassicism. In 1936 he changed his orientation toward a simpler style. He felt this made his music more meaningful to the large music-loving audience http://www.manfen.net
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being created by radio and the movies. His most important works during this period were based on American folk lore including "Billy the Kid" (1938) and "Rodeo" (1942). Other works during this period were a series of movie scores including "Of Mice and Men" (1938) and "The Heiress" (1948). In his later years Copland's work reflected the serial techniques of the so-called 12-tone school of Arnold Schoenberg. Notable among these was "Connotations" (1962) commissioned for the opening of Lincoln Center. After 1970 Copland stopped composing, though he continued to lecture and conduct through the mid-1980s. He died on December 2, 1990 at the Phelps Memorial Hospital in Tarrytown (Westchester County), New York. Inspiration may be a form of super-consciousness, or perhaps of subconsciousnessI wouldn't know. But I am sure it is the antithesis of self-consciousness. Key words: musician educator (18401926) 19 20 Edouard Manet(18401926) Manet was born on January 23, 1832 in Paris. He is often identified with the "Impressionists," and was influenced by them. However, because of the Paris art world's generally hostile regard for "Impressionism," he chose not to exhibit with them. He preferred to show his work in the more conservative exhibitions sponsored by the French government. Manet learned to paint in the traditional style, but his work became more spontaneous after his exposure to Claude Monet and the other "Impressionists." He used expressive outline, severe http://www.manfen.net
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Manet scandalized the people of Paris with a number of works containing nudes painted in bold poses with direct, outward gazes. While it was popular during his time to paint scenes from the Bible and ancient history, Manet painted scenes from 19th Century history, including one work featuring the execution of Emperor Maximillian of Mexico in 1867. Key words: painter impressionists (1452 1519) 1452 1519 " " 5 14 1513~1516 Leonardo da Vinci(1452 1519) Leonardo da Vinci was born in April 15, 1452 in Vinci, Italy. Leonardo's mastery in art, science and engineering have earned him a place among the most prolific geniuses of history. He was one of the most important artists of the Italian Renaissance, a period when the arts and sciences flourished. At age 17, Leonardo and his father moved to Florence, where he apprenticed to Verrocchio. His brilliance soon eclipsed that of his master. In 1472 Leonardo became a member of the painter's guild of Florence, where he had contact with other great Florentine artists including Michelangelo Buonarroti. In 1481 Leonardo left Florence for Milan to offer his service to the local Duke. During this period he painted the Virgin of the Rocks and the Last Supper. In 1499 Leonardo left Milan, traveling through Mantua, to the court of Isabella d'Este; to Venice, where he consulted on architecture from 1495 to 1499; and in 1502 and 1503 was military engineer for Cesare Borgia. After his service to the Borgias, Leonardo returned to Florence. It was during the period between 1503 and 1506, while working primarily in Florence, that he had his greatest following and painted such classics as the "Mona Lisa." Leonardo left Florence for Milan in 1506, although he returned in 1507-8 to fight for his inheritance from his Uncle. In 1509 he returned to Milan and devoted much of his time to http://www.manfen.net
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scientific studies, and to engineering projects such as channeling the course of the Adda river. In 1512 Leonardo left Milan again, and from 1513 to 1516 was in Rome under the protection of Giuliano de Medici, the brother of Pope Leo X. Here Leonardo came into contact with Michelangelo, and another young rival, Raphael. After the death of Giuliano dei Medici, Leonardo accepted an invitation from French friends and moved to the castle of Cloux near Amboise, where he stayed with his faithful pupil Melzi until the end of his life. Leonardo died on May 2, 1519, and was buried in the cloister of San Fiorentino in Amboise. Iron rusts from disuse; stagnant water loses its purity and in cold weather becomes frozen; even so does inaction sap the vigor of the mind. Key words: versatility

1930- IBM IBM 60 EDS 80 IT NEXT EDS 1992 19% Ross Perot1930- Ross Perot, born in 1930, American business executive, philanthropist, and independent candidate for the United States presidency in 1992. Henry Ross Perot was born in Texarkana, Texas. In 1953 he graduated from the United States Naval Academy. Perot did not excel scholastically at the academy. However, fellow students elected him best all-around midshipman and class president for life. Perot served in the Navy at sea from 1953 to 1957. Upon receiving his discharge from the Navy, Perot worked in Dallas, Texas, as a computer salesman for International Business Machines Corporation (IBM). In 1962, after meeting his annual quota for computer sales in the first three weeks of January, Perot left IBM to start an electronic data processing business, Electronic Data Systems (EDS). Through the 1960s, he built his business by serving the vast data processing needs of medical insurance companies. In 1968 Perot profited enormously when EDS stock began to trade publicly. In 1984 Perot sold the company to General Motors (GM) for $2.5 billion and secured a seat on GM's board of directors. Differences with GM executives led to his departure from the board two years later. In 1988 Perot launched a new data processing service company, Perot Systems Corporation. A self-avowed patriot, Perot received substantial media attention in 1969 when he attempted to deliver food, medicine, mail, and clothing to United States prisoners of war in Vietnam. In 1979 he organized a dramatic commando rescue of two EDS employees jailed in Iran after that http://www.manfen.net
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country's revolution, further burnishing his reputation as a man of action. Perot cemented this reputation when he declared his availability for the presidency on Larry King Live, a television talk show, in 1992. At that time, Perot expressed his dissatisfaction with the performance of the Republican and Democratic parties on issues such as the federal deficit, reform of term limits for members of Congress, and campaign finance reform. Perot accused the two major political parties of pandering to the American people and refusing to ask citizens to make difficult choices necessary to move forward on the major issues of the day. He presented his own economic plan, in a series of paid, 30-minute infomercials on television. The plan proposed to deal with the problem of the national budget deficit by sharply increasing gasoline taxes, increasing taxes on benefits of wealthier Social Security recipients, and limiting deductions for mortgage interest. Key words: business executive philanthropist independent candidate 18391937 12 50 900 1.7 23 1870 8 4 95 1882 12 26 19741977 John D.Rockefeller18391937 John Davidson Rockefeller was born in Richford, New York in 1839. He attended the Cleveland Central High School and at 16 he became a clerk in a commission house. Determined to work for himself, Rockefeller saved all the money he could and in 1850 went into business with a young Englishman, Maurice Clark. The company, Clark & Rockefeller Produce and Commission, sold farm implements, fertilizers and household goods. Rockefeller's company was fairly successful but did not bring him the wealth he desired. In 1862 Rockefeller heard that Samuel Andrews had developed a better and cheaper way of refining crude petroleum. Rockefeller sold his original business and invested it in a new company he set up with Andrews called Standard Oil. One of the business problems that Rockefeller encountered was the high cost of transporting his http://www.manfen.net
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oil to his Cleveland refineries (40 cents a barrel) and the refined oil to New York ($2 a barrel). Rockefeller negotiated an exclusive deal with the railway company where he guaranteed sixty car-loads a day. In return the transport prices were reduced to 35 cents and $1.30. The cost of his oil was reduced and his sales increased dramatically. Within a year four of his thirty competitors were out of business. Eventually Standard Oil monopolized oil refining in Cleveland. Rockefeller now bought out Samuel Andrews for a million dollars and turned his attentions to controlling the oil industry throughout the United States. His competitors were given the choice of being swallowed up by Standard Oil or being crushed. By 1890 Rockefeller's had swollen into an immense monopoly which could fix its own prices and terms of business because it had no competitors. In 1896 Rockefeller was worth about $200 million. In November 1902, Ira Tarbell, one of the leading muckraking journalists in the United States, began a series of articles in McClure's Magazine on how Rockefeller had achieved a monopoly in refining, transporting and marketing oil. This material was eventually published as a book, History of the Standard Oil Company (1904). Rockefeller responded to these attacks by describing Tarbell as "Miss Tarbarrel". President Theodore Roosevelt, who had been elected on a program that included reducing the power of large corporations, attempted to use the Sherman Anti-Trust Act to deal with Rockefeller's monopoly of the oil industry. This was largely ineffective and it was not until 1911 that the Supreme Court dissolved the Standard Oil monopoly. The various press campaigns against Rockefeller had turned him into one of America's most hated men. A devout Baptist, Rockefeller began giving his money away. He set up the Rockefeller Foundation to "promote the well-being of mankind". Over the next few years Rockefeller gave over $500 million in aid of medical research, universities and Baptist churches. He was also a major supplier of funds to organizations such as the Anti-Saloon League that was involved in the campaign for prohibition. By the time that he died died on 23rd My, 1937, John Davidson Rockefeller had become a popular national figure. Key words: businessman founder of Standard Oil - 1918- - http://www.manfen.net
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- 1918- Contrary to popular belief, Sam Walton (the founder of Wal-Mart) was not from Arkansas. He was actually born in Kingfish, Oklahoma on March 29, 1918. He was raised in Missouri where he worked in his father's store while attending school. This was his first retailing experience and he really enjoyed it. After graduating from the University of Missouri in 1940, he began his own career as a retail merchant when he opened the first of several franchises of the Ben Franklin five-and-dime franchises in Arkansas. This would lead to bigger and better things and he soon opened his first Wal-Mart store in 1962 in Rogers, Arkansas. Wal-Mart specialized in name-brands at low prices and Sam Walton was surprised at the success. Soon a chain of Wal-Mart stores sprang up across rural America. Walton's management style was popular with employees and he founded some of the basic concepts of management that are still in use today. After taking the company public in 1970, Walton introduced his "profit sharing plan". The profit sharing plan was a plan for Wal-Mart employees to improve their income dependent on the profitability of the store. Sam Walton believed that "individuals don't win, teams do". Employees at Wal-Mart stores were offered stock options and store discounts. These benefits are commonplace today, but Walton was among the first to implement them. Walton believed that a happy employee meant happy customers and more sales. Walton believed that by giving employees a part of the company and making their success dependent on the company's success, they would care about the company. By the 1980s, Wal-Mart had sales of over one billion dollars and over three hundred stores across North America. Wal-Mart's unique decentralized distribution system, also Walton's idea, created the edge needed to further spur growth in the 1980s amidst growing complaints that the "superstore" was squelching smaller, traditional Mom and Pop stores. By 1991, Wal-Mart was the largest U.S. retailer with 1,700 stores. Walton remained active in managing the company, as president and CEO until 1988 and chairman until his death. He was awarded the Medal of Freedom shortly before his death. Walton died in 1992, being the world's second richest man, behind Bill Gates. He passed his company down to his three sons, daughter and wife. Wal-Mart Stores Incorporated (located in Bentonville, Arkansas) is also in charge of "Sams Club". Wal-Mart stores now operate in Mexico, http://www.manfen.net
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Canada, Argentina, Brazil, South Korea, China and Puerto Rico. Sam Walton's visions were indeed successful. In Walton's biography, Made in America : My Story he outlines what he feels are the ten commandments of business: 1.Commit to your goals 2. Share your rewards 3. Energize your colleagues 4. Communicate all you know 5. Value your associates 6. Celebrate your success 7. Listen to everyone 8. Deliver more than you promise 9. Work smarter than others 10. Blaze your own path Key words: businessman founder of Walmart 19021984 50 50 20 50 8 8 1961 270 1968 Raymond Albert Kroc19021984 Kroc's first job was with his uncle, Earl Edmund Sweet, in a soda fountain the summer before he started high school. The next summer Ray dropped out of school, and he used the money he made the previous summer to rent a building with two friends. They sold sheet music and small instruments, but after a few months the business failed. In the early 1940s, Kroc became the exclusive distributor of a multimixer that could mix five milk shakes simultaneously. Two of his best customers were the McDonald brothers, Richard and Maurice (Mac), who bought eight of the mixers for their fast-food restaurants. The McDonalds had started with a group of hot-dog carts, and now had a chain of restaurantsfor which Richard McDonald designed the "golden arches" logo and the "number-of-hamburgers-sold" sign. In 1954, Kroc went to San Bernardino, California, to see the McDonald brothers' restaurant, which http://www.manfen.net
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used an assembly-line format to prepare foods. Kroc decided to set up a chain of drive-in restaurants based on the McDonalds' format and convinced the brothers to sell him the rights to franchise McDonald's restaurants nationwide. His first restaurant opened on April 15, 1955, in Des Plaines, Illinois. Kroc also began selling franchises on the condition that the owners managed their restaurants. Kroc was known for his obsessive cleanliness, and he wanted the restaurants kept very clean. In 1961, Kroc bought out the McDonald brothers for $2,700,000. At this time he had established 228 restaurants, and sales had reached $37,000,000. By 1963 more than 1 billion hamburgers had been sold. Key words: businessman founder of Mcdonald's 1875-1940 18 20 33 1910 12000 6000 1912 2.5 1915 5 50 1920 3 25 4 58 1925 27 1926 5 1927 4 1928 1929 1930-1934 Walter P. Chrysler1875-1940 Walter Percy Chrysler is the founder of what is today known as the third largest North American automaker: the Chrysler Corporation. Walter Chrysler was born on April 2, 1875, in Wamego, Kansas. Several years later the Chrysler family moved to the western Ellis, Kansas. His father worked for the railroad industry as an engineer. It was at the shops of the Kansas Pacific Railroad, where he spent much time with his father as a young boy, that he developed an acute interest in the workings of a locomotive. Walter attended the public school system of Ellis where he finished high school. He then became a machinist's apprentice at the Union Pacific Railroad. At the age of eighteen he designed and built a miniature steam locomotive that ran on an eighth of a mile track that he also built. He made many of his own possessions because it was not enough to just know how to use his tools but how to make them as well. Mechanical engineering became a way of life http://www.manfen.net
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not just a profession. The young machinist was well on his way to making a name for himself. Walter P. Chrysler's automotive career started in 1911, as a Works Manager for Buick in Flint, Michigan. Buick was the cornerstone on which William C. Durant built General Motors in 1908. W. C. Durant had lost the presidency of General Motors in 1910. Mr. Chrysler went to work resolving many engineering and production problems at Buick. His reputation quickly included a tremendous ability in automaking and sound management. In 1916, W.C. Durant regained the presidency of General Motors and fired Charles W. Nash who became the president three years earlier. Walter Chrysler was made President and General Manager of Buick. Durant found out that Mr. Chrysler was considering an offer to take over Packard Motors. Durant offered him a raise from his salary of $50,000 a year to $500,000 a year to stay at Buick. He accepted. He was also named General Motors' Vice President in charge of production. Now the other divisions within GM had the fortune of Mr. Chrysler's expertise. His next promotion put him in the office of Executive Vice President of General Motors. He now worked closely with W. C. Durant. He became troubled with Durant's style of business: constant over-expansion. Mr. Chrysler felt this was a path to imminent corporate disaster. It was this disagreement in business philosophy that lead Mr. Chrysler to retire from General Motors in 1920. His reputation in the automotive industry now was immense. He had regained Buick's name as a synonym for soundness and quality. He had increased production from forty cars a day to over five hundred cars a day. This all helped GM reach a profit of almost fifty million dollars annually. Later, William C. Durant was forced to resign by the bankers that held General Motors' eighty million-dollar debt. Walter P. Chrysler retired from the automotive industry in 1920, at the age of forty-five, financially independent and since then his great career began. 1901 - 1966 1901 12 5 1966 12 15 20 1928 () 1932 1938 8 (1940) (1940) (1941) (1942) (1950) (1951) (1959) 1932 ()() Walt Disney1901 - 1966 Disney was born on December 5, 1901 in Chicago, Illinois. Disney is the creator of the world-famous cartoon character, Mickey Mouse. The small animation company started in Hollywood, California by Disney and his brother Roy, has grow into one of the world's most powerful media conglomerates. http://www.manfen.net
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Besides Mickey Mouse, Disney created such cartoon characters as Donald Duck, Goofy, and Pluto. Winner of a record 30 Academy Awards, he created the first full-length animated feature films, beginning with "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs" in 1937, and including "Pinocchio" in 1938 and "Bambi" in 1942. He also made "true-life" adventure films including "Seal Island" in 1948 and "Davy Crockett" in 1955. He also produced the first color television series, "Disney's Wonderful World of Color" beginning in 1961. In addition to animation and movies, Disney launched two amusement parks: Disneyland in California and Walt Disney World in Florida. Since his death in 1966 the Disney company has opened Disneyland Paris in France, and produced a new series of animated feature films. Just this year Disney purchased Capital Cities/ABC Television. If you can dream it, you can do it. Key words: animator bussinessman

1869-1948 1887 1893 4 21 Mahatma Gandhi 1869-1948 Gandhis campaign of nonviolent civil resistance to British rule of India led to Indias independence in 1947. A member of the merchant caste, Mohandas K. Gandhi, later called Mahatma (Sanskrit for great soul), studied law in London. As a lawyer, and later as a political activist, he effectively fought discrimination with his principles of truth, nonviolence, and courage. Gandhi became the international symbol of a free India. He lived a spiritual and ascetic life of prayer, fasting, and meditation. His union with his wife became, as he himself stated, that of brother and sister. Refusing earthly possessions, he wore the loincloth and shawl of the lowliest http://www.manfen.net
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Indian and subsisted on vegetables, fruit juices, and goat's milk. Indians revered him as a saint and began to call him Mahatma (Sanskrit, great soul), a title reserved for the greatest sages. Gandhi's advocacy of nonviolence, known as ahimsa (Sanskrit, noninjury), was the expression of a way of life implicit in the Hindu religion. By the Indian practice of nonviolence, Gandhi held, Britain too would eventually consider violence useless and would leave India. Gandhi's death was regarded as an international catastrophe. His place in humanity was measured not in terms of the 20th century but in terms of history. A period of mourning was set aside in the United Nations General Assembly, and condolences to India were expressed by all countries. Religious violence soon waned in India and Pakistan, and the teachings of Gandhi came to inspire nonviolent movements elsewhere, notably in the U.S. under the civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. 1918- ( Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela 1 Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela1918- Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was born on 18 July 1918 in the small village of Mvezo, on the Mbashe River, district of Umtata in Transkei, South Africa. His Father named him Rolihlahla, which means "pulling the branch of the tree", or more colloquially "troublemaker." The name Nelson was not given until his first day at school. Nelson Mandela's father, Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa, was the chief "by blood and custom" of Mvezo, a position confirmed by the paramount chief of the Thembu, Jongintaba Dalindyebo. Although the family is descended from Thembu royalty (one of Mandela's ancestors was paramount chief in the 18th century) the line had passed down to Mandela through lesser 'Houses', rather than through a line of potential succession. The clan name of Madiba, which is often used http://www.manfen.net
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as a form of address for Mandela, comes from the ancestral chief. In 1962 Nelson Mandela was smuggled out of South Africa. He first attended and addressed the conference of African nationalist leaders, the Pan-African Freedom Movement, in Addis Ababa. From there he went to Algeria to undergo guerrilla training, and then flew to London to catch up with Oliver Tambo (and also to meet members of the British parliamentary opposition). On his return to South Africa, Mandela was arrested and sentenced to five years for "incitement and illegally leaving the country". At the end of his four hour statement to the court Nelson Mandela stated: "During my lifetime I have dedicated myself to this struggle of the African people. I have fought against white domination, and I have fought against black domination. I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is an ideal which I hope to live for and to achieve. But if needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die." These words are said to sum up the guiding principles by Key words: politician national revolution (14121431) Jeanne d'Arc Jeanne la Pucelle 1337 -1453 1429 7 16 1430 1431 5 30 1456 1920 Jeanne d'Arc(1412-1431) Joan of Arc, Saint, in French, Jeanne d'Arc (1412-1431), called the Maid of Orlans, national heroine and patron saint of France, who united the nation at a critical hour and decisively turned the Hundred Years' War in France's favor. Joan was born of peasant parentage in Domrmy (now Domrmy-la-Pucelle). When she was 13 years old, she believed she heard celestial voices. As they continued, sometimes accompanied by visions, she became convinced that they belonged to St. Michael and to the early martyrs St. Catherine of Alexandria and St. Margaret. Early in 1429, during the Hundred Years' War, when the English were about to capture Orlans, the voices exhorted her to help the Dauphin, later Charles VII, king of France. Charles, because of both internal strife and the English claim to the throne of France, had not yet been crowned king. Joan succeeded in convincing him that she had a divine mission to save France. A board of theologians approved her claims, and she was given http://www.manfen.net
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troops to command. Dressed in armor and carrying a white banner that represented God blessing the French royal emblem, the fleur-de-lis, she led the French to a decisive victory over the English. At the subsequent coronation of the Dauphin in the cathedral at Reims, she was given the place of honor beside the king. Although Joan had united the French behind Charles and had put an end to English dreams of hegemony over France, Charles opposed any further campaigns against the English. Therefore, it was without royal support that Joan conducted (1430) a military operation against the English at Compigne, near Paris. She was captured by Burgundian soldiers, who sold her to their English allies. The English then turned her over to an ecclesiastical court at Rouen to be tried for heresy and sorcery. After 14 months of interrogation, she was accused of wrongdoing in wearing masculine dress and of heresy for believing she was directly responsible to God rather than to the Roman Catholic church. The court condemned her to death, but she penitently confessed her errors, and the sentence was commuted to life imprisonment. Because she resumed masculine dress after returning to jail, she was condemned againthis time by a secular courtand, on May 30, 1431, Joan was burned at the stake in the Old Market Square at Rouen as a relapsed heretic. Key words: saint revolution Wangari Muta Maathai1940 4 1 2004 1977 1990 2002 Wangari Muta Maathai Wangari Muta Maathai was born in Nyeri, Kenya (Africa) in 1940. The first woman in East and Central Africa to earn a doctorate degree. Wangari Maathai was active in the National Council of Women of Kenya in 1976-87 and was its chairman in 1981-87. It was while she served in the National Council of Women that she introduced the idea of planting trees with the people in 1976 and continued to develop it into a broad-based, grassroots organization whose main focus is the planting of trees with women groups in order to conserve the environment and improve their quality of life. However, through the Green Belt Movement she has assisted women in planting more than 20 million trees on their farms and on schools and church compounds. In 1986, the Movement established a Pan African Green Belt Network and has exposed over 40 individuals from other African countries to the approach. Some of these individuals have established similar tree planting initiatives in their own countries or they use some of the Green Belt Movement methods to improve their efforts. So far some countries have successfully launched such initiatives in Africa (Tanzania, Uganda, Malawi, Lesotho, Ethiopia, Zimbabwe, etc). In September 1998, she launched a campaign of the Jubilee 2000 Coalition. She has embarked on new challenges, playing a leading global role as a co-chair of the Jubilee 2000 Africa Campaign, which seeks cancellation of the unpayable backlog debts of the poor countries in Africa by the http://www.manfen.net
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year 2000. Her campaign against land grabbing and rapacious allocation of forests land has caught the limelight in the recent past. Wangari Maathai is internationally recognized for her persistent struggle for democracy, human rights and environmental conservation. She has addressed the UN on several occasions and spoke on behalf of women at special sessions of the General Assembly for the five-year review of the earth summit. She served on the commission for Global Governance and Commission on the Future. She and the Green Belt Movement have received numerous awards, most notably The 2004 Nobel Peace Prize. Others include The Sophie Prize (2004), The Petra Kelly Prize for Environment (2004), The Conservation Scientist Award (2004), J. Sterling Morton Award (2004), WANGO Environment Award (2003), Outstanding Vision and Commitment Award (2002), Excellence Award from the Kenyan Community Abroad (2001), Golden Ark Award (1994), Juliet Hollister Award (2001), Jane Adams Leadership Award (1993), Edinburgh Medal (1993), The Hunger Project's Africa Prize for Leadership (1991), Goldman Environmental Prize (1991), the Woman of the World (1989), Windstar Award for the Environment (1988), Better World Society Award (1986), Right Livelihood Award (1984) and the Woman of the Year Award (1983). Professor Maathai was also listed on UNEP's Global 500 Hall of Fame and named one of the 100 heroines of the world. In June 1997, Wangari was elected by Earth Times as one of 100 persons in the world who have made a difference in the environmental arena. Professor Maathai has also received honorary doctoral degrees from several institutions around the world: William's College, MA, USA (1990), Hobart & William Smith Colleges (1994), University of Norway (1997) and Yale University (2004). Key words: Nobel price winner green belt movement 17291796 17621796 1729 5 2 1796 11 17 - 1745 8 1762 7 9 60 D. 1767 1775 1785 17681779 17871791 17881790 http://www.manfen.net
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17721793 1795 3 67 1789 Catherine II (Catherine the Great) (1729 1796) Empress of Russia (1762-96). Born Sophie Friederike Auguste von Anhalt-Zerbst, on May 2, 1729, in Stettin, Prussia (now Szczecin, Poland). At the age of 16, she married Grand Duke Peter of Holstein, the grandson of Peter the Great and the heir to the Russian throne (later Peter III). Their marriage was an unhappy one, and Catherine (now baptized into the Russian Orthodox Church under that name) spent much of her time preparing for her future reign and engaging in extramarital affairs. Supported by the Russian military, Catherine overthrew Peter III in 1762. Eight days later, Peter III was assassinated and Catherine was proclaimed empress of Russia under the title Catherine II. During her 34-year reign, Catherine carried out an energetic foreign policy. She extended the Russian Empire to the Black Sea as a result of two successful wars against Turkey (which lasted from 1768-1774 and from 1787-1792), while also bringing about the three partitions of Poland. Despite pretensions to enlightened ideas, Catherines domestic policies achieved little for the mass of the Russian people, though great cultural advances were made among the nobility. In 1774, she suppressed the popular rebellion led by Yemelyan Pugachev, and later actively persecuted members of the progressive-minded nobility. Catherines private life was dominated by a long series of lovers, most notably the Russian field marshal Grigoriy Potemkin. Catherine died from an unexpected stroke on November 17, 1796, at the age of 67. She was succeeded by her son Paul. 1732 -- 1799 1732 1753 1758 1758 1774 1775 6 6 2 1775 6 1797 3 1799 12 http://www.manfen.net
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Washington, George 1732 -- 1799 First U.S. president. Born February 22, 1732, in Westmoreland County, Virginia. His father, a prosperous planter and iron foundry owner, died when he was 11, and Washington moved in with his elder half-brother Lawrence, who owned the plantation Mount Vernon. In 1748 Washington did some surveying for Lord Fairfax, a relative of Lawrence by marriage, meanwhile reading widely in Mt Vernon's library. In 1751, he accompanied the ailing Lawrence to Barbados; on his death the next year, Washington was left guardian of Lawrence's daughter at Mt Vernon, which Washington would inherit in 1761 after her death. Having studied military science on his own, in 1753 Washington began several years' service with the Virginia militia in the French and Indian Wars, taking command of all Virginia forces in 1755 and participating in several dangerous actions. Commissioned as aide-de-camp by General Edward Braddock in 1755, he barely escaped with his life in the battle that took Braddock's life. He resigned his commission in 1758, following his election to the Virginia House of Burgesses (1759--74). In 1759, Washington married the wealthy widow Martha Custis, thus securing his fortune and social position. They had no children together but raised her two children, and later her two grandchildren. After a period of living the sociable life of a gentleman farmer, however, Washington risked it all by casting his lot with those rebelling against British rule, although his original motives probably had less to do with high principles and more to do with his personal annoyance with British commercial policies. In 1774, Washington participated in the First Continental Congress and took command of the Virginia militia; by the next year the Second Congress, impressed with his military experience and commanding personality, made him commander in chief of the Continental army (June 1775). With remarkable skill, patience, and courage, Washington led the American forces through the Revolution, struggling not only with the British but with the stingy Continental Congress and also on occasion with resentful fellow officers. Notable among his achievements were his bold crossing of the Delaware to rout enemy forces at Trenton on Christmas night of 1776 and his holding the army together during the terrible winter encampment at Valley Forge in 1777--8. His victory over the British at Yorktown (1781) effectively ended the war, but for almost two more years he had to strive to keep the colonists from splintering into selfish enterprises. Washington returned to Mount Vernon in 1783, but maintained his presence in the debate over the country's future. He solidified that role when he chaired the Philadelphia Constitutional Convention of 1787. In 1789, the first electors unanimously voted Washington as president; he was reelected in 1793. A natural leader rather than a thinker or orator, he had great difficulty coping with an unruly new government, futilely resisting the growing factionalism that resolved into the forming of Hamilton's Federalist Party - to which Washington finally gravitated - and Jefferson's liberal Democratic-Republican Party. In 1796, Washington announced he would not run again (thus setting a precedent for only two http://www.manfen.net
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terms) and retired from office the next year. In 1798, he accepted command of a provisional American army when it appeared there would be war with France, but the threat passed. The following year, Washington died at Mount Vernon and was mourned around the world. He immediately began to attain almost legendary status, so that succeeding generations throughout the world could bestow no higher accolade than to call their own national hero, "the George Washington" of their country. Key words: first president general

2001 6 29 2006 7 1 5072 4000 960 550 Qinghai-Tibet railway The highest railway in the world ,due to begin test runs in July 2006,crosses the famously bleak Tanggula Pass in western China to connect the Tibetan capital of Lhasa with Golmud in Qinghai. The highest point of Qinghai-Tibet railway tops 5000m the highest railway. the government says the railway will bring prosperity to isolated Tibetans. Tibetans say it will serve merely as a means of carting off the region' s mineral riches and ,perhaps more worryingly, of bringing in soldiers. Environmentalists, meanwhile, fret about the railway's impact on the fragile ecosystem of the Tibetan plateau. This is the source of China's five major river systems and home to several rare species including the Tibetan antelope. To avoid disturbing the local animal habitation, 25 special routeways are built for wildlife move in the nature reserves including Keke Xili and Three Rivers Nature Reserve which Qinghai-Tibet Railway run through, especially for the Tibetan antelopes. These routeways show diversity according to the habits of Tibetan antelopes. Holes under the railway are for child antelopes passing by. Even bridges covered with greensward are put up the railway, just like man-made hillsides for Tibetan antelopes migration. The Spread of Computer Worm Experts on cyberspace say the much feared code red computer worm continues to spread through the internet. But so far, the electronic bug that was being considered a global threat to internet traffic seems to have had little impact.No significant disruptions to traffic on the web have been reported since the code red bug was unleashed early Wednesday. But experts warn the threat may be far from over. Bill Jones, the spokesman of California's Keynote Systems, which helps http://www.manfen.net
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businesses with e-commerce. But the FBI says the code red worm is still spreading and has the potential to infect internet sites and cause significant disruption to traffic on the world wide web. Bill Jones said, "I would expect that the worm has probably not run its course. I would think that because it is a geometric progression, as it infects machines and they infect other machines, you have the opportunity to see a slowdown over time. To have expected something immediately at 0000 UTC Wednesday I think was unrealistic but over the next 24 hours and next few days we could certainly see a slowdown." Last month, the worm attacked more than 350,000 computer systems running on Microsoft operating systems - including the White House website - and prompted the Pentagon to shut down sites then as well. But it seems that the advice issued by the FBI and cyber industry leaders for internet users to take precautions may have paid off. So far, more than a million people have downloaded a so-called patch from Microsoft's website that prevents computers from being infected. U.N. Committee Split Over Treaty to Ban Human Cloning The U.S. drive to enact a broad global ban on human cloning has suffered a severe setback at the United Nations. It also reveals a deep split within the world body on the cloning issue. The U.S. and Costa Rican proposal calling for drafting an anti-cloning treaty had nearly 50 co-sponsors, and was expected to pass easily. But it is fiercely opposed by many in the scientific community, who argue there is a need for therapeutic cloning for research and medical purposes. A rival resolution sponsored by Belgium and supported by Britain, France, and Germany, among others, would have banned only the cloning of babies. After the vote, Deputy U.S. Representative James Cunningham said he was disappointed that countries opposing a total ban had used a technicality to derail the will of a majority of the international community. "It is particularly regrettable that it was by a margin of only one vote that we will be prevented from formally registering that more than 100 members of the Untied Nations favor the pursuit of the goal, of a total ban on human cloning," he said. The vote effectively puts off for two years any work on drafting an international treaty banning human cloning. Several European diplomats regretted that the move leaves the issue of cloning in 9)limbo. But one Belgian diplomat told reporters, many who voted no believe it may be better not to push forward on drafting a comprehensive treaty at a time when the world, and even the scientific community, is so deeply divided on the question. Insightful Men Voluntarily Protect American Rivers From Pollution James Holland calls himself the eyes and ears of the Altamaha River. The 220 kilometer river he watches is relatively undisturbed by channels, dredging or major reservoirs. Its swamps and refuges are home to dozens of rare or endangered plants and animals including some found http://www.manfen.net
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James Holland has spent a lifetime on the river as a crab fisherman, but blames the decline of fisheries, and the failure of his business, on poor water quality. Now as an advocate for the Altamaha, the 60 year old retired crabber responds to reports of erosion, loss of wetlands, and the illegal dumping of pollutants from agriculture and industry. "I view it as my job to end pollution where I see it, when I see it, said James Holland" James Holland finds garbage stashed in tree trunks and pools of diesel fuel and abandoned trucks at 13)logging operations near the river. A recent complaint on hog waste from a processing plant in the watershed led him to take a closer look. "In doing so I found the County making preparations for paving a road," he said. "They were widening it and making improvements. And, in doing so they destroyed wetlands. They didn't have enough erosion control to prevent erosion. I went further on from the spray field and from the area where I could view the spray field, the guy up there was draining wetlands. I found a ditch where he was draining wetlands. I also found right there standing in one spot where he destroyed two wetlands in the last two or three years. It's just a whole hot of things. It's unreal is what it is." While James Holland leads the fight for the Altamaha, he isn't alone. Altamaha Riverkeeper Executive Director Deborah Sheppard says the group has inspired an increasing number of citizen volunteers. "And I know we're making a difference because every day people communicate with us about problems that would not have been addressed if they hadn't talked to us," said Deborah Sheppard. "And that's probably one of the best things that the River keeper movement has done around the country is begin the process of helping people understand that if we have a law in place to protect the environment, we all have a responsibility to help it be enforced." Riverkeeper James Holland agrees. He sees the Altamaha differently from his days as a crab fisherman. He says he doesn't think anymore what he can take from the river, but what he can give back. China Celebrate Its Entry Into WTO Beijing is hailing a World Trade Organization agreement to admit China to the global trade body. China's membership, which took 15 years to negotiate, will bring down market barriers and open up trade with the world's most populous country. A working party for the 142-member WTO in Geneva agreed Monday to the final terms of China's entry. WTO trade ministers are expected to adopt the deal at their next round of talks, scheduled for November in Qatar. The agreement on Beijing's entry still needs to be approved by China's legislature, but formal membership is scheduled for early next year. Mr. Zhu said China's membership is an important strategic goal in the building of the country's socialist market economy. He said China is committed to fulfilling all of its market-opening commitments. http://www.manfen.net
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Some of the changes China has promised to make under the agreement include: cutting import tariffs on cars from 100 percent today to 25 percent in five years; cutting duties on agricultural imports and capping subsidies to farmers; allowing foreign insurance companies to own a hundred percent of certain operations; and permitting foreign banks to conduct domestic currency business with Chinese companies in two years. Chinese leaders expect that WTO entry will step up the pressure on inefficient state firms to reform, and increase foreign investment in the country. But foreign competition is also likely to cause much higher unemployment, as state firms lay off millions of workers.

Watergate Scandal Watergate, designation of a major United States political scandal that began with the burglary and wiretapping of the Democratic Partys campaign headquarters, later engulfed President Richard M. Nixon and many of his supporters in a variety of illegal acts, and culminated in the first resignation of a U.S. president. The burglary was committed on June 17, 1972, by five men who were caught in the offices of the Democratic National Committee at the Watergate apartment and office complex in Washington, D.C. Initially, the break-in garnered little media attention. But persistent investigation by two reporters for the Washington Post, Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein, eventually helped uncover a White House-sponsored plan of espionage against political opponents and a trail of complicity in attempts to cover up how the burglary was planned and financed. The reporters relied heavily on anonymous sources, including a key source who became known as Deep Throat. It was not until 2005 that Deep Throat was revealed to be W. Mark Felt, the deputy director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) at the time of the Watergate investigation. The Posts reports and those by other newspapers and media outlets eventually pointed to involvement by many of the highest officials in the land, including former U.S. Attorney General John Mitchell, White House Counsel John Dean, White House Chief of Staff H. R. Haldeman, White House Special Assistant on Domestic Affairs John Ehrlichman, and President Nixon himself. On April 30, 1973, nearly a year after the burglary and arrest and following a grand jury investigation of the burglary, Nixon accepted the resignation of Haldeman and Ehrlichman and announced the dismissal of Dean. U.S. Attorney General Richard Kleindienst resigned as well. The new attorney general, Elliot Richardson, appointed a special prosecutor, Harvard Law School professor Archibald Cox, to conduct a full-scale investigation of the Watergate break-in. In May 1973 the Senate Select Committee on Presidential Activities opened hearings, with Senator Sam Ervin of North Carolina as chairman. A series of startling revelations followed. Dean testified that Mitchell had ordered the break-in and that a major attempt was under way to hide White House involvement. He claimed that the president had authorized payments to the burglars to keep them quiet. The Nixon administration vehemently denied this assertion.

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