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Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL) is the largest Engineering and Manufacturing Enterprise of its kind in the public sector in India. It ranks among the top twelve organizations in the world, engaged in the manufacture of power generation equipment. The company provides products, systems and services in the fields of Energy, Industry and Transportation. BHEL has 14 manufacturing plants and 4 power sector repair divisions. A vital link to this chain of BHEL manufacturing units is the unit at Ramachandrapuram, Hyderabad. BHEL manufactures turbogenerators of ratings upto 200MW for industrial applications and for power generation to Thermal Power Stations. BHEL supplied sets account for nearly 56318 MW on 65% of total installed capability to produce thermal power plants upto 1000MW rating and gas turbines upto 240 MW. Cogeneration and combination cycle plants have been introduced. BHEL manufactures 235 MW nuclear turbine generator set and commenced production of 500 MW nuclear generator set. BHEL is a major producer of large size thyristor device and digital distributed control systems. BHEL supplies a wide range of transmission products & systems. HVDC systems are also supplied. The cumulative capacity of power generating equipment supplied by BHEL outside India is 3000 MW. Major BHEL manufacturing units are located in the following places namely HARIDHWAR, BHOPAL, JHANSI, TRICHY, HYDERABAD AND BANGALORE. BHEL Hyderabad is a vital link in country wide network . Here total quality management (TQM) is the hallmark, excellence in performance is the prime concern.

BHEL Hyderabad is manufacturing the following products: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Steam Turbines. Gas Turbines. Generators. Heat Exchangers. Boiler Feed Pumps. Pulverisers. Switch Gears. Centrifugal Compressers and Oil Rigs.

Here in BHEL, Electrical Machine- 02 Manufacturing department, manufactures a wide range of steam turbine generators and gas turbine generators with matching Brush less exciters. Keeping pace with the latest development in insulation systems to optimize the design, BHEL, Hyderabad has installed the micalastic (VPI) system of insulation. The Generators are manufactured here with the state of the Art technology of insulation i.e., VACCUM PRESSURE IMPREGNATION SYSTEM (or) RESIN POOR INSULATION SYSTEM upto a capacity of 125 MW and planning to reach capacity upto 235 MW.

INTRODUCTION: Power is the basic necessity for the economic development of a country. The production of electrical energy and its per-capita consumption is deemed as an index of the standard of living in a nation in the present day civilization. Development of heavy or large scale industries as well as medium scale industries, agriculture, transportation etc., totally depend on electric power resources of energy with utmost care and with maximum efficiency. It is the duty of engineers and scientists to find out ways and means to supply required power at cheapest rate. The per-capita consumption on average in the world is around 1200 KWH. The figure is very low for our country and we have to still go head in power generation to provide a decent standard of living for people. The need for immediate increase in the countrys power production is vital and it is our duty to utilize the available resources in a better possible manner. Broadly power plants may be classified as under: -


Steam (Thermal) Power Plant. Hydro Electric Power Plant. Nuclear Power Plant. Diesel Power Plant. Gas Turbine Power Plant.

Solar Power Plant. Wind Power Generation. Tidal Power Generation. Geo-Thermal Power Plant.yj7


The principal resource for power generation in our country is dominated by Coal. About 60% of power requirement is generated by thermal power plants in which steam is the working fluid. Steam is produced in a boiler using coal as fuel and is used to drive the prime mover, usually the steam turbine. In the steam turbine heat energy is converted in to mechanical energy, which is used for generating electric power. The combination is known as STG (Steam Turbine Generators). The construction procedure for gas and steam turbo generators remains the same. For STG the output terminals are down and for GTG the terminals are at the top. In generator construction, the bars are laid in the slots and end connections are made using bracing. The wounded stator is subjected to D.C test and carried to VPI plant for impregnation. After the VPI process the stator is again tested and is assembled with Rotor and exciter and all other auxiliary equipments.


A generator works on the principle of Faradays Law Of Mutual Induction. According to Faraday, when a conductor is moved in a magnetic field or when the magnetic field is moved across the stationary conductor, an EMF is induced in the conductor, when the conductor cuts the flux produced by the magnetic field. A current flows through the load when the circuit is closed.

A.C generators can be broadly classified in to two types. They are: SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES: Synchronous generators (or) Alternators are those in which the speed of the rotor and flux are in synchronism. ASYNCHRONOUS MACHINES: These are the machines in which the flux speed and rotor speed will not be same. Ex: Induction Motors. The 3 Phase Synchronous generators are the widely used machines for power production on large-scale basis. These when connected to various turbines, they are sometimes called as Turbo-alternators. Gas turbine generators and steam turbine generators are famous and widely used for power generating purpose. A 3 phase synchronous generator basically consists of two parts. Stator: Stationary part of the generator, used as the Armature. Rotor: The purpose of which is to generate the alternating flux. Synchronous generators can be classified in to various types based on the medium used for generation. They are: Turbo-Alternators Steam (or) Gas. Hydro Generators. Engine Driven Generators.

COMPONENTS OF GENERATOR: The generator consists of the following components:

Stator Frame. Stator core. Stator Winding. Stator end covers.

Rotor Shaft. Rotor Winding. Rotor Retaining Rings. Field Connections.


The following additional auxiliaries are required for generator operation.


The stator is manufactured as a two-part structure, the Outer Casing and an Inner Frame-support for core and windings.


To facilitate manufacturing and assembly, the stator consists of the following main components.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Lower part of outer casing. Upper part of outer casing. Inner frame with core and windings. Labyrinth rings.

The outer casing is fabricated from structural steel and consists of a lower part and an upper part. The inner frame with the electrically active parts of the stator is supported resiliently in the lower part of the outer casing. A rigid outer casing is required due to the forces and torques arising during operation and transmitted to the foundation via. the welded stator feet. The inside surface of the welded outer casing is stiffened by means of a large number of radial and axial ribs. The arrangement and dimensioning of the ribs are determined by the cooling air passages and the required mechanical strength. Dimensioning is also indicated by the vibrational considerations, resulting partly in greater wall thicknesses than required from point of view of mechanical strength. Opening in the outer casing provide flow paths for the cooling air and serve for installing the terminal bushings at the exciter end. The opening in the end walls are sealed with LABYRINTH RINGS bolted in position at the ends.


The purpose is to provide Mechanical Support and Cooling Provision.

After stacking of the stator core, the insulated guide bars are installed in the respective slots. The required stiffness obtained by

welding rings to guide bars and pressure plates. All the three rings of the caged core are welded with feet and supported resiliently in the outer stator frame.


The stator frame is anchored to the foundation with slot plates and anchor bolts, the sole plates being solidly bolted to the foundation through the anchoring bolts. The stator frame is placed on the sole plates, aligned with slims and then rigidly connected to the sole plates by means of bolts. Different thermal expansions of the stator and foundation result in differential movements between the stator frame and machine sole, plates. The stator is therefore fixed n a position so that smooth running of the rotor will not be impaired. Davel pins located in the stator feet and machine sole plates secure the stator in position.

Cooling is one of the basic requirements of any generator. The effective working of generator considerably depends on the cooling system. The insulation used and cooling employed are inter-related. 1. 2. 3. 4. The various losses in the generator are broadly classified as below: Iron Losses / Core Losses / Magnetic Losses / Constant Losses. Hysterisis Losses. Eddy Current Losses. Copper Losses / I2R Losses / Windage Losses.

These losses in the generator dissipates as the heat, it raises the temperature of the generator. Due to the high temperature, the insulation

will be affected greatly. So the heat developed should be cooled to avoid excessive temperature rise. So, the class of insulation used depends mainly on the cooling system installed. There are various methods of cooling. They are: 1. 2. 3. 4. Air Cooling 60MW. Hydrogen Cooling 100MW. Water Cooling 500MW. H2 and Water Cooling - 1000MW. Hydrogen Cooling has the following advantages over AIR cooling: 1. 2. 3. 4. Hydrogen has 7 times more heat dissipating capacity. Higher specific heat. Since Hydrogen is 1/4th of air weight, it has higher compressibility. It does not support combustion.

1. It is an explosive when mixed with oxygen. 2. Cost of running is higher. Higher capacity generators need better cooling system. The two-pole generator uses direct air-cooling for the rotor winding and indirect air-cooling for the stator winding. The losses in the remaining generator components, such as iron losses, windage losses and stray losses are also dissipated through air. The heat losses arising in the generator interior are dissipated through air. Direct cooling of the rotor essentially eliminates hot spots and differential temperatures between adjacent components, which could result in mechanical stresses, particularly to the copper conductors, insulation and rotor body. Indirect air-cooling is used for the stator winding. The cooling air for the axial-flow ventilated generator is drawn by

axial-flow fans arranged on the rotor via lateral openings in the stator housing. Hot air is discharged via three flow paths after each fan.

It is directed into the rotor end winding space and cools the rotor winding, part of the cooling air flows past the individual coils for cooling the rotor end winding and then leaves the end winding space via. bores in the rotor teeth at the end of the rotor body. The other portion of the cooling airflow is directed from the rotor end winding space in to the slot-bottom ducts from where it is discharged in to the air gap via. a large number of radial ventilating slots in the coils and bores in the rotor wedges. Along these paths the heat of rotor winding is directly transferred to the cooling air.

It is directed over the stator end winding to the cold air ducts and into the cold air compartments in the stator frame between the generator housing and rotor core. The air then flows into the air gap through slot in the stator core where it absorbs the heat from the stator core and stator winding.

It is directed in to the air gap via. the rotor-retaining ring. The air then flows past the clamping fingers via. ventilating slot in the stator core into the hot air compartments in the stator frame being discharged to the air cooler. The flow path mainly cools the rotor retaining rings, the ends of the rotor body and the ends of the stator core. Flows 2&3 mix in the air gap with 1 leaving the rotor. The cooling air then flows radially outward through ventilating slots in the core with in the range of hot air compartments for cooling of the core and winding. The hot air is discharged to air cooler.

The purpose of stator core is to Support The Winding and Carry the Flux. So, the selection of material for building up of core plays a vital role. The losses i.e., magnetic losses are mainly of two types Hysterisis Losses: Due to the residual magnetism in the material. Eddy Current Losses: Due to the EMF produced in the core of the stator. In order to minimize the Hysterisis losses, Silicon alloyed steel sheets are used for building up of core. The sheets has following composition: Steel 95.8%. Silicon 4.0%. Impurities 0.2%. The sheets are 4% SILICON ALLOYED COLD ROLLED NONGRAIN ORIENTED SHEETS (CRNGO). To reduce the eddy current losses, the core is build up of 0.5 mm thickness laminations, which are insulated from each other. The sheets are insulated by CLASS-B type of varnish.

The core is built up of 6 sectors, each of 60C cut according to the specifications. The cut steel is punched for slots and deburred upto 5 micron. Depending on the temperature withstandability of the machine the laminations are insulated by varnish.


90 105 120 130 155 180 >200

The insulation used is ALKYD PHENOLIC VARNISH dried at suitable temperature. The lamination sheets are passed through a conveyer, which has an arrangement to sprinkle the varnish, and the coat of varnish is obtained. The sheets are dried by series of heaters at a temperature of around 260-350C. Two coatings of varnish are provided in the above manner till 12-18 micrometer thickness of coat is obtained. Each lamination should be dried for around 90 sec at constant speed. The prepared laminations are passed for various tests. Xylene Test For proper coat of varnish. Mandrel Test- When wound around mandrel there should be no cracks. Viscosity Test- It should be 40-45cp. IR value test- For 20 layers the insulation resistance should have a minimum value of 1 Mega Ohm. Hardness Test-Minimum 7H pencil hardness. Uniformity Test- Coating Uniformity. The core is stacked with lamination segments in individual layers while being supported on the pressure plate with its welded clamping fingers. The segments are staggered from layer to layer so that a core of high mechanical strength and uniform permeability to magnetic flux is obtained. Stacking mandrels and bolts are inserted in to the windings slot bores during stacking provide smooth slot walls. To obtain the maximum compression and eliminate under setting during operation, the laminations are hydraulically compressed and heated during the stacking procedure when certain heights of stacks are reached. The complete stack is kept under pressure and located in the frame by means of clamping bolts and pressure plates.

The clamping bolts running through the core are made of nonmagnetic steel and are insulated from the core and the pressure plates. The pressure is transmitted from the pressure plates to the core by clamping fingers. The clamping fingers extended up to the ends of the teeth, thus ensuring a firm compression in the area of the teeth. The stepped arrangement of the laminations at the core ends provides for an efficient support of the tooth portion and in addition contributes to a reduction of eddy current losses and local heating in this area due to end leakage flux. The clamping fingers are made of nonmagnetic steel to avoid eddy current losses. After compression and clamping of the core, the core key bars are inserted into the slots provided in the back of the core and welded to the pressure plates. All key bars, except one are insulated from the core. To provide the grounding of the core along its entire length, a copper rope is inserted between one grooved key bar and core. To remove the heat, spacer segments are placed at intervals along the core length, which divide the core into sections to provide wide radial passages for cooling airflow. In the core end portion, the cooling air ducts are spaced more closely to account for the higher losses and to ensure more intensive cooling of the narrow core sections. The core building or assembling method depends on the insulation system used. 1.For Resin Rich system, the laminations are stacked in the frame itself. 2.For Resin Poor system (or) VPI system, cage core (or) open core design is usually employed.


The three-phase stator winding is a fractional pitch two layer type consisting of individual bars. Each stator slot accommodates two bars.

It is a double layer lap winding with 60 degree phase spread fractional windings, used to reduce higher order harmonics and pitch of the winding is so selected that 5th and 7th harmonics are greatly reduced. The slot bottom bars and top bars are displaced from each other by one winding pitch and connected at their ends to form coil groups. The coil groups are connected together with phase connecters inside the stator frame. This arrangement and shape of the bars at the ends result in a cone shaped winding having particularly favorable characteristics both in respect of its electrical properties and resistance to magnetically induced forces. The bars afford maximum operating reliability since; each coil consists of only one turn insulation and the main insulation identical. 1.CONDUCTOR CONSTRUCTION: The bar consists of large number of separately insulated copper strands, which are transposed to reduce the skin effect losses.

The individual copper bars are transposed 360 to equalize the induced EMF in all strands, to minimize the circulating currents and skin effect also gets minimized and it gives a good rigidity to the bar. This bar winding is called as roebel bar winding having two bars in each slot. The roebel bar consists of large number of conductors insulated from each other and transposed for 360 or in multiples of 180 connected to each other in parallel. The conductors are put in two layers along the width of the stator slot. The conductor in a roebel bar is so twisted that each one of them occupies all possible positions along the height of the slot. This roebel transposition greatly reduces the eddy current losses in conductors.

2.HIGH VOLTAGE INSULATION: A generator designed for high voltages required a high level of slot insulation. BHEL hyderabad has the facility for the following two methods of insulation. RESIN RICH SYSTEM. RESIN POOOR SYSTEM (OR) VPI METHOD. Actually resin rich system became obsolete, since VPI system is giving good insulation at lower cost and with less process time cycle. 3.RESIN POOR SYSTEM: In this method the transposed bars are wrapped with dry mica glass fabric tape applied from end to end. The tape is a composite tape built up from a thin, high strength backing material to which mica is bonded by a small amount of epoxy, as an adhesive for further processing. The bent bars are then provided with a final protective wrapping of highly flexible glass fabric tapes in order to obtain a smooth surface.

ICP Also called Inner Potential grading on the stack of the bars to avoid inner discharges. To optimize insulation thereby voltage stress grading. Provided with conductive fleece tape with a copper strip.

OCP On the outer surface of the insulated stator bars. Conductive fleece tape. To provide effective path for outer corona discharges.

ECP Semi conductive tape on both ends of the straight part of the bars. to dampen the voltage surges through additoral surface capacitance.

4.BAR LAYING IN STATOR SLOTS: After forming stator core with laminations, the Assembled core is placed in Stator Winding Room Before laying of the coil in stator slot. The slots are cleaned with compressed air to remove any foreign materials present with in the slots. Before placing of the Bottom bar in the stator slot the bar is pressed for 15-20 minutes in a hydraulic press. A conductive fleece material is placed and then insulated conductive bar is placed in the slot and then the bar is adjusted with coil pitch and it is tied to the end ring. In overhang portion, the successive coils are separated by placing the spacers. Then spacers are taped by insulating tape and then tied to holders. An insulating layer is placed on the bottom bar, and then top coils are laid in the stator slots same as bottom bars. Wedging is done in the stator slots by planting the wedge of HGL (Hardened Glass Laminate) material. This gives a good strength to the coils.


After laying all the coils in the insulated slots, bracing is done in overhang portions. Electromagnetic force is produced in the stator overhang due to attraction between conductors carrying current in the same direction and due to repulsion between conductors carrying in the opposite direction. Under normal conditions the electromagnetic forces produced by current carrying conductors are negligible. But during sudden Short Circuit at the line terminals, the current in the winding may rise to about 15 times the full load current and the electromagnetic forces being proportional to square of current may rise to about 250 times the force under normal full load conditions. These forces may be either tangential or radial. Conductors in the same phase tend to bunch themselves together, while conductors in different phases may suffer repulsion. Any movement of overhang tends to pull the slot conductors outwards and may result in cracking of insulation at the core ends. Thus the conductors in the overhang must be braced i.e., their mechanical strength be raised.

A method, which is still widely used, employs one or two circular insulated rings to support the overhang against radial forces. There, 4-6 steel brackets in turn support rings. The use of steel rings and supporting brackets have the following disadvantages. The steel rings have to be heavily insulated with mica. There is a large core loss in the steel rings produced by the leakage flux especially in the large generators with large pitches due to this loss the rings get overheated, damaging the ring insulation.


The insulated bars are placed in the slots of the stator core. All gaps and spaces due to the design and manufacturing are filled with pads of glass fabric mat capable of being impregnated. After installation of the bars DC tests are performed to promptly identify and correct any weak point in the insulation. In the slot section of the stator core, the bars are secured in position with slot wedges outside the slot section. The bars are shaped so that the windings are placed in the slots, cone shaped end windings are obtained. A small cone taper is used to keep the strain losses to minimum. In the end winding areas, the involute shaped individual bars are arranged in parallel and uniform spacing. To obtain a short circuit proof structure, the bars are lashed to winding supports and support rings over pads of dry glass fabric mat with dry glass fabric tapes. Both the bottom bars and top bars thus form a cone shaped layer each of which ensures mutual support of the bars.

Brazing makes the electrical connection between the top and bottom bars. One top bar strand each is brazed to one strand of associated bottom

bar so that beginning of each strands is connected without having any electrical contact with the remaining strands. This connection offers the advantage that circulating current losses in the stator bars are kept small. The strands are insulated from each other at the brazed joints. The coils connected are wrapped with dry mica/glass fabric tapes applied half overlapped. The thickness of wrapper depends on the machine voltage. The gaps between the individual coil connections being sufficiently large, no additional insulation is required.

The phase connecters consist of flat copper sections, the cross section of which results in a low specific current loading. The connections to the stator winding are of revetted and soldered tape and are like-wise wrapped with dry mica/ glass fabric tapes. The phase connecters are firmly mounted on the winding support, using clamping pieces and glass fabric tapes.


The beginning and ends of the three phase windings are brought out from the stator frame through terminal bushings, which provides for high voltage insulation. The bushings are bolted to the stator frame at the exciter end by their mounting flanges. Bushing type current transformers for metering and relaying may be mounted on the bushings outside the stator frame. The generator main leads are connected to the terminal connectors outside the stator frame.


The bushing conductor consists of high conductivity copper buses.

All connection flanges are silver-plated to minimize the contact resistances of the bolted connections. The supporting insulator of glass silk cloth is impregnated with epoxy resin. The copper buses are attached to the insulator only at one end and are thus free to expand. Flexible connectors allow for thermal expansion between terminal bushing and the phase connectors. To prevent eddy current losses and inadmissible overheating, the mounting flange is made of glass silk cloth as well.


To dissipate the heat, the terminal bushings are directly cooled with cold air. Cold air from the discharge end of the fan is pressed in to the insulator. The hot air is returned to the suction in take of the fan via. the passage between the two copper buses.


In Electrical Machines insulation is most important requirement to sustain high voltages and basically insulation is the heart for electrical machines. Insulation is the property, which has enormous resistance to the conductivity. Basically, in insulating materials the forbidden gap between valency and conduction bands is very large. The property of good insulating material is non-conductive towards electricity and conductive towards heat. A good insulating material needs the following properties: The basic function of insulation is to provide isolation to live wire or live wire to earth. It should be good conductor to heat and bad conductor to electricity. It should withstand the designed mechanical stress. It should have good chemical and thermal resistivity and environmental resistivity.

In order to achieve good insulation properties the following process are vogue in BHEL. 1. THERMOPLASTIC PROCESS OF INSULATION. 2. THERMOSETTING PROCESS OF INSULATION. BHEL is practicing only thermosetting process of insulation, basically of two types. RESIN RICH SYSTEM OF INSULATION. RESIN POOR SYSTEM OF INSULATION.


Resin rich system of insulation for all electrical machines in Insulator, employed in olden days contains nearly 40% of EPOXY RESIN. So it gives good thermal stability. Resin Rich Insulation consists of the following materials in percentage. 1. MICA PAPER TAPE- 40-45%. 2. GLASS PAPER TAPE-20%. 3. EPOXY RESIN-40%. The bars are insulated (or) taped with RESIN RICH TAPE and placed in the pre-assembled stator core including stator frame. An insulator should satisfy the following properties for any electrical system. 1. ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES. 2. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES. 3. THERMAL PROPERTIES. 4. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES. In resin rich system of insulation Mica paper will give a good

dielectrical strength and Glass fiber tape will give good mechanical strength and Epoxy Resin can withstand upto 155C. So, it gives good thermal properties. Resin rich and Resin poor insulating materials are characterized by the contact of the Epoxy resin. In Resin rich system, the contact of Epoxy resin tape is 40% whereas in Resin poor system, it is only 8%. By VPI Impregnation process, the required amount is added to the conductor bars after assembling the core and placing the windings in the core. In resin rich system before placing of coils in the stator slots, the resin rich tape will be wrapped over the bars. But this system has the following disadvantages: 1. This system is very time consuming and very long procedure. 2. Total cost of system is more. In order to minimize the overall cost of machine and to reduce the time cycle of the system, the VACCUM PRESSURE IMPREGNATION SYSTEM is being widely used. The process is very simple, less time consuming and lower cost. BHEL Hyderabad is equipped with the state of the art technology of VACCUM PRESSURE IMPREGNATION.


GENERAL: The VPI system was brought by Dr.MEYER with the collaboration of WESTING HOUSE in the year 1956. The Resins used were of Polyester. SIEMENS developed the present VPI system with Epoxy resin and treated accelerator on tapes. The Mica tapes used for VPI system are ROG275, ROG275.1 and ROG292. ROG275 tapes are with Glass cloth backing upto 13.8KV voltage level. ROV292 mica papers are with polyester fleece above 13.8KV machines. The advantage of fleece is, for better and more penetration of resin. ROG275.1 tape is special glue

varnish for tropical countries like India and Brazil to resist higher humidity. The glue being used for main insulation tape is X2026 and for conductor insulation is X2027.VPI system can be useful for manufacture of insulation and also windings are guaranteed to expected quality. BHEL, Hyderabad had installed the state of the art technology of VACCUM PRESSURE IMPREGNATION SYSTEM for cage stators up to 125MW capacity, which is largest of its kind in India. This system conforms to the latest insulation system adopted by KWU-SIEMENS technology. The stator coils are taped with porous resin poor mica tapes before inserting in the slots of cage stator. Subsequently wounded stator is subjected to a special VPI process, in which first the stator is vacuum dried and then impregnated in a resin bath under pressure of Nitrogen gas. Then the stator is cured in an oven. The main characteristics of this insulation system are: 1. Better heat transfer resulting from penetration into minute air gaps in between laminations and bar insulation. 2. Low dielectric loss resulting in increased life of insulation and so of the machine. 3. High resistance against the effect of moisture. 4. Reduction of time cycle of insulation. The Resin used for VPI is ET884, a mixture of epoxy resin E1023 (leekuthermx 18) and hardener H1006 in 1:1.2 ratio by weight. E1023: The Resin is in drums of 220 kg by weight. It is in crystal form at a temperature of 20C. The container is not completely filled with resin. In practice 200 or 190 kgs. Resin is available in the drums. The reason is that after heating in the furnace, the Resin in liquid state shall not come out of the container. The Drums are kept in Oven and heated upto 100C for about 18 hours. Every drum is to be weighted and looked into for the state of condition of resin before and after heating. If resin is not fully in liquid condition, it can be heated upto 125C. The storage tank is filled with resin first depending upon the volume and ratio of mixture at a

temperature of 60C through noise pipes. Resin filling is being done by creating 0.2 bar vacuum in the tank.

The mixing ratio of resin to hardener is 50:50 parts. No warming up of hardener is required. The Resin mixture required for the BHEL impregnation tank is 9000 lts.


The size of the tank is 4000 mm diameter and 9000 mm in height.


Three storage tanks each of resin capacity 9000lts are in operation for setting the resin mixture. Cooling and Heating cycle is by circulating the resin through heat exchangers. Brine solution heated by steam is being used for heat exchangers.

The Micalastic post-impregnation process ensures a mechanically firm bond between all winding components and between the winding and the stator, which is capable of withstanding the various temperature rises occurring during operation. The Micalastic system thus provides for reliable insulation, applied continuously from end to end on stator bars providing effective protection against over voltages arising during normal operation and against the high stresses that may occur at the slot ends when high-test voltages are applied. 1. Micalastic has a long electrical life as determined on hundreds of experimental bars and verified on numerous full size bars. 2. Micalastic is a good conductor of heat by reason of its high mica content and the void free synthetic resin. Efficient heat transfer is particularly important for dissipation of the upper losses in machines that require thick insulation because of the high voltages and are not designed with direct cooled windings.

3. Micalastic feature a high thermal stability. The resin impregnation and cured insulation permits the machine to be operated continuously under conditions corresponding to those for class F insulation. 4. Micalastic insulation shows only a small dissipation factor tip-up with increasing temperature, which is also affected by the loss attributable to the voltage grading material applied at the slot ends. 5. Micalastic features an elastic response to thermo mechanical stresses. Alternate heating and cooling with large difference in temperature are endured without detrimental effects on quality. The Micalastic insulation remains firmly bonded to the copper conductors and the stator. This confirmed by the dissipation factor measured with rising voltage within operating temperature range. 6. Micalastic owes its insensitivity to high temperatures and temperature changes to cured synthetic resin. This favorable performance under thermal stress is particularly advantageous for machines subject to frequent load change, e.g. generators driven by gas turbines or peak load generators in steam power plant. 7. Micalastic does not burn. The insulation features such a low flammability that even on arcing it does not continue to burn once the arc has been extinguished. Fire extinguishing system such as CO2 bottle racks is therefore not necessary for Micalastic insulated windings. 8. Micalastic provides protection against moisture due to its impregnation with synthetic resin which seals the winding completely. 9. Micalastic is highly resistant to chemical action. Corrosive gases, vapor, lubricating oil, weak acids or alkalis to which, the windings may be exposed under unfavorable conditions do not attack the insulation. The impregnating Resin does not react with chemicals.


Here in BHEL, they are using Horizontal Impregnation chamber for higher capacity stators of steam turbine (or) Gas turbine generators and vertical impregnation chamber for smaller capacity systems such as Permanent Magnet Generator stators for brush less excitation systems, coil insulation of small pumps and armature of motors etc., In the following steps Vacuum Pressure Impregnation of stator winding has been discussed.


The completed stator is placed in impregnation vessel and this vessel is kept in an oven for a period of 12 hours at a temperature of 60C. Six thermocouples are inserted at the back of the core to measure the temperature. The temperature should not exceed 85C. The smaller stator can be directly installed in impregnation chamber.


The preheated job next will be placed in the impregnation chamber by opening the lid of the chamber by hydraulic mechanism. The vessels are kept clean. Resin available in the vessel is wiped out. Methylene, traces of resin are not allowed on the inner side of the tank. It reacts with humidity and scale formation will takes place. These pieces at the time of main resin flow will mix and block the penetration of Resin in to component and obstruct the filters also. The resin at the time of cleaning is carefully removed by rubbing with rubber sheets. The inner vessels are also cleaned by keeping the vessel slant position on the ground. After ensuring the perfect cleaning, the tank should be allowed for further operations. The impregnation vessel containing the preheated

job will be placed in the impregnating chamber. The lead of the chamber is allowed to close by hydraulic motor. The inside temperature of the impregnation chamber should not be less than 60C. The inside temperature is measured by placing the thermocouples at the backside of the core. The cooling and heating of the impregnation chamber was done through heat exchangers. The fluid used in heat exchangers is Brine solution. When the lid of the chamber is closed, silicon Grease is applied on the surface of the chamber where the lid is touching. A rubber gasket is also provided on the rim not to allow any leakage. Air pipes are closed and vacuum pumps will be started.

After inserting the warm tub with job in to the impregnation chamber by keeping the RTD elements on the job, the lid of the chamber will be closed. The vacuum is created in the chamber up to 0.2mbar for duration of 17 hours by using air suction pumps. Vacuum is created in the chamber to remove any moisture present in the stator core and chamber, because this is the most important factor considered during the manufacture and operation of generator as it greatly affects the dielectric strength of insulation. The job temperature is to be maintained always above 60C. If found less, the tank can be heated up. In practice the vacuum can be created in 15-17 hours. During this time the Resin cooling is being carried out to reach 10C and heated up automatically to 60C. The chamber is heated up automatically by circulating the hot Brine solution through the surface of the impregnation chamber. Heat exchangers will heat up the Brine solution. Cooling is also done by the same Brine solution.

The resin mixture is to be heated to 60C. Every time the sample is taken to laboratory tests, viscosity will be measured at 60C. It should not be more than 45cp 10%. A new resin will be at 15cp. A new resin and hardener mixture is to be added if the viscosity is more. In this process, the resin filling in the vessels and taking back to the resin tanks is done by the pressure difference inside and outside of the chamber. The impregnation vessel is filled with resin by pressure difference. The resin in the resin tank is at atmospheric level and the chamber is maintained at 0.2mbar pressure. The resin flows from higher pressure to lower pressure. So, no pumps are required to fill the resin in to the impregnating vessel. The resin filling will be completed in 25-30 minutes. During this time there is a change in pressure inside the chamber. This should not be less than 0.06 mbar. If it is less than 0.06mbar, the vacuum will be created in the chamber up to 0.2mbar. The level of the resin in the impregnating vessel should be 100mm above the job. This can be seen through mirrors arranged above the chamber. Otherwise, there is a control and record of this resin in the control room.

After filling the resin in the impregnating vessel up to 100mm above the job, the Resin is to be allowed to settle for 10-15 minutes. The total job is flooded with epoxy resin with a hydrostatic pressure of the resin. Only surface of the insulation can be filled with resin. To have an effective penetration up to the end of the copper barrier, pressure is to be created to 4bar. It could be maintained constantly for 4 hours.


The resin is pressurized as per the pressure cycle, by which the opening of the valves will allow the resin to combine to the storage tank. The job also shall be allowed to dry for about 10 minutes.

After allowing for dripping, the job is taken outside from the tank and arrangements are to be made for accelerator spray on job. Accelerator is similar to catalyst in polymerization process. Due to polymerization between resin and hardener, the total mass becomes hard. The accelerator spray consists of following ratio: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Epoxy Resin Hardener Epoxy Resin Hardener Trichloro Ethylene E1023 H1006 E1025.1 H1001 1.0 parts 1.4 parts 0.5 parts 1.0 parts 1.0 parts 1.0 parts 1.0 parts

In BHEL, they are using Epoxy Resin MY 790 Hardener HY1102BD

It is manufactured by M/S CIBA Company, SWITZERLAND.

After completion of all the above operations, the job is to be post cured. The process of post curing is carried out at 140C for duration of 20 hours in order to avoid the unpolymerised Resin.


The Resin mixture is a combination of epoxy Resin and hardener. The containers of resin and hardener are placed in cool, dry place. They

are closed until processing for protecting against humidity. The impregnating resin mixture is in the ratio of 100 parts of Epoxy resin to

100 parts of Hardener in a resin tank of the impregnation unit. The epoxy resin and hardener are heated in an oven at 125C and sample is taken from every drum to test before release. The resin mixture is sensitive to moisture and therefore it is stored under vacuum below 20C but chilled not below 8C. After thorough mixing, the Resin mixture is tested.


Before beginning impregnation and after a stand still period of more than 5 days, the resin mixture is tested in the following manner.
1) The resin mixture is tested for its viscosity at 60C and limiting

value of viscosity is 50m poise above which the resin is rejected. 2) The resin again tested for the increase in its viscosity at 60C after 20 hours. Heating at 100 degrees centigrade, the maximum value at this point is 9m poise. 3) The resin again tested for its saponification number, whose specified Value is 33113 MgKOH/gram. 4) After this is tested for the ester number, which is difference between saponification number and total acid number. Its maximum limiting value is 10. In case it exceeds 10 necessary addition to resin or hardener is done. According saponification number the resin mixture is released after each test for use.



The different tests which are carried out after laying the bars in the stator slots. They are: 1. Complete bottom layer high voltage test.

2. Complete top layer high voltage test. 3. Winding resistance measurement. In addition to these above-mentioned tests they carry some other tests, they are: 1. A.C High voltage test. 2. Mechanical Run test.


After laying the bottom bars high voltage test is conducted with 1.15 Up for 1 minute. Where Up=2Un+1, Up-Final test voltage UnRated voltage of generator.


After laying the top bars high voltage test is conducted with 1.1 Up for 1 minute, where Up=2Un+1, Up-Final test voltage Un-Rated voltage generator.


After completion of connecting, Winding and baking High voltage is conducted with 1.05 Up for 1 minute. When one phase is under testing, the other phases are earthen measurement of resistance of individual phases give the checking of interconnection.


After laying the top and bottom bars high voltage test with A.C is carried out by connecting all other phases to ground.


Dynamic test is carried out to find various losses, they are 1. Mechanical losses. 2. Iron losses. 3. Copper losses.


AFTER IMPREGNATION: After impregnation of the stator core by VPI process the following tests are conducted. 1) TAN test 2) High Voltage A.C test.

After impregnation and curing of the winding a dissipation factor Vs voltage measurement as stipulated in the applicable national and international standard specification is performed for each bar between all individual phase windings to ground. Guiding values for the dissipation factor and its rise with the voltage merely given in the KEMA specifications. According to these specifications, the maximum value shall not exceed 0.001 at 20% of rated voltage and 0.008 per 20% of rated voltage up to a rated voltage. Windings manufactured by the vacuum pressure impregnation process comply with these limits. The above test results are specified in the following graphs. First graph shows that voltage Vs tan curve, it shows different tan values at

different percentage of rated voltage 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 100% of rated voltage respectively. The second graph is a electric field Vs Life of Insulation material.

It shows that resin poor system of insulation has very long life compared to resin rich insulation. At 10 KV the resin poor system insulation has a lifetime of 849 years. Any good machine has life span of 25-30 years. By using this insulation we will get a very long life withstandable machine.

High voltage AC Test

AC High voltage test is conducted on VPI system after impregnation to verify proper impregnation and dielectric strength of insulation. This test was conducted at 105% of winding test voltage i.e. Up=2Un+1 KV Where Up-winding test voltage Un-Rated voltage of machine

Advantages of Resin poor system of Insulation:

1.It has got better Dielectric strength 2.Heat transfer coefficient is much better. 3.Maintainance free and core and frame are independent 4.It gives better capacitance resulting in less dielectric losses due to which the insulation life will be more. 5.The cost will be less and it is latest technology. 6.Reduction in time cycle and consumption for MW also less and it gives high quality.


1.If any short circuit is noticed, the repairing process is difficult and need of excess resin from outside. 2.Dependability for basic insulation materials on foreign supply.

Considering the manifold advantages of VPI system of insulation of stator winding the leading manufactures of world are going to adopt this system for generators up to 400 MW with Hydrogen gas cooling. BHEL has plans to fall in the line of state of Hydrogen gas cooling. BHEL has plans to fall in the line of state of the art technology. However as the size of generator for VPI system increases there will be need to store more amount of resin. The reliability of the generators with this insulation system favors its use, due to better thermal, electrical, mechanical and chemical life. In view of the above, in the coming decades the Indian grids will use more of such generators in operation. In the scenario of world market, which demands generators with less cost at the best possible tome with better reliability, VPI system of insulation will provide most viable solution.