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II Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ -•’-üµ¿¢√®Ωç 3 -¢Ë’ 2006

Devanath: I bought this shirt for Rs 350/-. A


Ñ Sentences ™E passive verb forms É°æp-öÀ-
good bargain, isn't it?
´®Ωèπ◊ îª÷Æœ† verb forms (passive) èπ◊ Åü¿†ç.
(Ñ shirt ؈’ 350 ®Ω÷§ƒ-ߪ’-©èπ◊ éÌØ√o. 1) ... I have been cheated =
´’ç* ¶‰®Ω¢Ë’ éπü∆?) ¢Á÷ÆæTç-°æ-•-ú≈f†’ = ¢Á÷Ææ-§Ú-ߪ÷†’.
Raghunath: I'm afraid that it is too much for it.
2) Were charged = ´Ææ÷©’ îËߪ’-•-ú≈f´¤ =
I have a similar shirt. It cost me
just around Rs 250/-
F ü¿í∫_®Ω †’ç* ´Ææ÷©’ î˨»®Ω’.
3) is called =
(†’´¤y ´’K áèπ◊\´ °ö«d-´-†’-èπ◊çö«.
Ø√éÀ-™«çöÀ shirt ÖçC. ü∆Eo ؈’ 250 °œ©-´-•-úø’-ûª’çC/ °œ©’-≤ƒh®Ω’.
4) Wouldn't have been cheated = ¢Á÷Ææ-Tç-°æ-•-úË-
®Ω÷§ƒ-ߪ’-©èπ◊ éÌØ√o.) 4) I wouldn't have been cheated =
by whom (á´J îËûª) ÅØËC Ééπ\úø ûÁL-ߪ’-ôç-
Devanath: You mean I have been cheated? ¢√úÕo é¬ü¿’ = ¢Á÷Ææ-§Ú-ßË’-¢√úÕo é¬ü¿’ ؈’ ¢Á÷Ææ-Tç-°æ-•-úË-¢√-úÕo-é¬ü¿’. Ñ verb, ÉüË list
5) ... had been asked = ™‰ü¿’. Ææçü¿-®√s¥Eo •öÀd ´’†Íéç ûÁ©’-≤ÚhçC– FîËûª =
(Åçõ‰ ؈’ ¢Á÷Ææ-§Ú-ߪ÷-†Ø√?) ™ °j† verb No 1 äÍé class éπü∆-– have/ has/ by you ÅE. 鬕öÀd Active- You ûÓ begin
Cheat = ¢Á÷Ææç îËߪ’ôç/ ¢Á÷Ææ-í¬úø’ Åúø-í∫-•úÕ Öçõ‰/ ††o-úÕT Öçõ‰. had/ would have, etc + PP - Passive, DEéÀ
6) a) can be returned/ exchanged =
Å®·u, If you had asked me Å´¤-ûª’çC.
Cheater ÅØË ´÷ô ™‰ü¿’ active ᙫ Öçô’çC? ´’üµ¿u™ been BÊÆ-ߪ’çúÕ.
É™«Íí passive ™ by whom/ by what (á´J
Raghunath: If its price is Rs 350/-, you were AJT É´y-•-úø-í∫©/ ´÷®Ωa-•-úø-í∫© = AJT ÉîËaߪ’/ I wouldn't have been cheated = He/ they (the
îËûª/ üËE îËûª) ÅØËC ´’†ç Ü£œ«ç--éÓ-¢√L.
charged Rs 100 more. Where did ´÷®Ω’a-éÓ-í∫© shop fellow/ the shop fellows) would not
Passive ÆæJí¬ ¢√úÕ-†-îÓôx, by so and so, °∂晫-Ø√-
you buy it? b) has been used = have cheated me.
¢√∞¡x îËûª ÅØËC omit îËÆæ’hçö«ç. ÉC í∫´’-Eç*
(†’´y-†oô’x ÅC 350 ®Ω÷§ƒ-ߪ’-™„jûË, 100 ¢√úø-•-úÕçC/ ¢√ú≈ç. Ñ form of the verb Éçûªèπ◊´·çü¿’ ´’†ç îª÷Æœ† practice îËÊÆh, passive ™ èπÿú≈ ´’† conver-
®Ω÷§ƒ-ߪ’©’ áèπ◊\´ °ö«d´¤. áéπ\úø 7) should be taught a lesson = Imaginary past form éπü∆. sation effective í¬ Öçô’çC.
éÌØ√o´¤?) §ƒ®∏Ωç ØË®Ωp-•-ú≈L = §ƒ®∏Ωç ØË®√pL. 5) If I had been asked -
Practise the following in English.
Devanath: At the Fitwell readymade shop. 8) don't be cheated = ÉC èπÿú≈ verb No 4, verb No 1 ™«Íí ÖçC,
Express the passive equivalents of the
Raghunath: It is often called the cheatwell ¢Á÷Ææ-Tç-°æ-•-úøèπ◊/ ¢Á÷Ææ-§Úèπ◊ passive ™. DEéÀ active- had been asked ™,
following:
shop. Didn't you know that? 9) will be taken care of = ´’üµ¿u been BÊÆ-ߪ’-ô¢Ë’. If I had been asked
(ü∆Eo cheatwell shop Åçö«®Ωçü¿®Ω÷. (by you) = (Passive) = If you had asked me a) Xé¬∞¡-£æ«-ÆœhE ü¿éÀ~ù é¬Qí¬ °œ©’-≤ƒh®Ω’.
ñ«--ví∫-ûªh BÆæ’-éÓ-•-úø’-ûª’çC/ ñ«ví∫ûªh BÆæ’-èπ◊çö«.
Fèπ◊ ûÁL-ߪ’ü∆?) (Active) b) D§ƒ-´R ®ÓV† buildings †’ D§ƒ-©ûÓ Å©ç-éπ-
Devanath: You should have told me of it earli- 6) Verb b) has been used.
îª÷úøçúÕ: ÉC èπÿú≈ J-≤ƒh®Ω’.
er. Then I wouldn't have been verb No. 1, verb No. 4 Passive
™«í¬ØË, ™ c) ´’†ç *†o °œ©x-©†’ Ææ’©-¶µºçí¬ ÆæçûÓ-≠æ-°-ôd-
cheated. ÖçC. ÉC active has been used
鬢√-©çõ‰ ™ í∫©ç. (passive ™ îÁ§ƒpL).
(†’´¤y Ø√èπ◊ ´·çüË îÁ°æ¤pç-ú≈-LqçC. ¢Á÷Ææ- -Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 151 been BÊÆ-ߪ’-ô¢Ë’.It has been used (by me)=
I have used it (active) d) Ñ road Ææí∫¢Ë’ repair î˨»-Jç-ûª-´-®Ωèπ◊.
§Ú-ßË’-¢√úÕo é¬ü¿’.)
Raghunath: I would have, if I had been asked,
and if I had known that you were
going to that shop. Can't it be
returned or exchanged now?
(††o-úÕ-í∫’çõ‰, †’¢√y shop èπ◊ ¢Á∞«h´E
ûÁLÊÆh ؈’ îÁÊ°p-¢√-úÕØË. ü∆Eo°æ¤púø’ AJ-T
... I have been cheated?
-É´y-ö«-E-éÀ-í¬F ´÷®Ω’a-èπ◊-ØËç-ü¿’-èπ◊-í¬F ™‰ü∆?)
7) Verbs no 6 (a) can be e) ؈’ select Å®· ÖçúË-¢√úÕo 鬆’, time èπ◊
Devanath: How can it be, after it has been (°j ņ’-¢√-ü¿ç™ ¢Á·ü¿öÀC passive translation
returned, No. 7 should ÆæJí¬ Ø√ application ¢√∞¡}èπ◊ ¢Á∞¡x-èπ◊çú≈ Öçõ‰.
used? ûÁ©’-í∫’™, ü∆E °æéπ\† Ö†oC normal
be taught, No. 9 will
(ᙫ ´÷®Ω’a-éÓ-´ôç, ¢√úË-¨»†’ éπü∆?) (´÷´‚©’) ûÁ©’-í∫’™) f) Ç °æ¤Ææhéπç X Class èπ◊ text book í¬ pre-
be taken. ÉN ´‚úø’
Raghunath: Then stop worrying about it. Be All the verbs above, you notice, are in the be scribe 鬴a.
èπÿú≈ shall/ should/
careful in future. form + past participle (pp), so they are all in g) ÉC ¢ÁçôØË îËߪ÷L.
can/ could/ may/
the passive voice.
(Å®·ûË Éçéπ-ü∆Eo í∫’Jç* ¶«üµ¿-°æ-úøèπ◊. might/ must etc + 1st h) Åûªúø’ select 鬢√LqçC
Future ™ ñ«ví∫-ûªhí¬ Öçúø’) passive voice M. SURESAN
í∫’®Ω’hçC éπü∆? Éçûª-èπ◊-´·çü¿’ RDW passive form
èπ◊ i) Ñ road á°æ¤púÓ ¢Ëߪ÷-LqçC.
Devanath: The shop fellow should be taught a lessons ™ îÁ°œp† Ñ points: éπü∆. j) ÉC î√™« Ææ’©-¶µºçí¬ îËߪ’-´îª’a.
lesson. have/ has/ had/ shall have/ etc + past par- Verb No. 6 (a) can be returned/ exchanged
(Ç shop ¢√úÕéÀ ¶«í¬ •’Cl¥ îÁ§ƒpL.) ticiple, form ™ Ö†o active voice verbs èπ◊ (by me)/ Passive - I can return/ exchange it ANSWERS
Raghunath: In that attempt, don't be cheated Passive form: have/ has/ had/ shall have, (Active) a) Srikalahasti is called Dakshina Kasi/ The
once more. etc èπ◊, ü∆E ûª®√yûª ´îËa past participle èπ◊ Verb No. 7: Should be taught (by us) - ÉC Kasi of the south.
(Ç v°æߪ’-ûªoç™ ´’Sx ¢Á÷Ææ-§Úèπ◊) ´’üµ¿u™ been °ôd-úø¢Ë’. passive - We should teach him (the shop fel-
b) Buildings are decorated with lamps on
Devanath: No; I will take you this time. You act 1) (Do) you mean I have been cheated. ÉC low)- Active.
the day of Deepavali/ on the Deepavali
smart in these matters. passive. DEéÀ active- have/ has cheated Verb No.9: Will be taken care of (by me) - day/ on the occasion of Deepavali.
(Ñ≤ƒJ E†’o BÆæ’-Èé∞«h. †’Oy N≠æ-ߪ÷™x Å´¤-ûª’çC éπü∆? = Passive - I will take care of it (Active)
c) Children can be made happy easily
ûÁL-N-í∫-©-¢√-úÕN) (Do) you mean that the shop fellow has
Raghunath: It will be taken care of, don't worry. ˜ ˜ ˜ d) Only half of the road has been repaired.
cheated me?
(؈’ îª÷Ææ’-èπ◊ç-ö«™‰. ¶«üµ¿-°æ-úøèπ◊) In the case of the verbs above, we have e) I would not have been selected, if my
ÅüË shop people (≥ƒ°æ¤-¢√∞¡Ÿx) ņ’-èπ◊çõ‰, Å°æ¤púø’
Observe the use of passive forms in the seen the active equivalents of passive application had not reached in time. (This
(Do) you mean the shop fellows have cheat-
conversation above: forms. is imaginary past, isn't it?)
ed me? Ñ N≠æߪ’ç ñ«ví∫-ûªhí¬ í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ.
1) You mean I have been cheated? Passive sentences ™, °j† ´’†ç îª÷Æœ† f) The book may be prescribed as a text
2) you were charged Rs 100/- more: Ééπ\úø pas-
2) You were charged Rs 100/- more sentences ™ 'äéπ °æE á´-J-îËûª îËߪ’-•-úÕçC?— book for X class.
sive, were + pp. DEéÀ active- past doing word
3) It is often called the cheatwell shop. éπü∆? -Å°æ¤p-úø’ sentence, active ™ à´’-´¤-ûª’çC? ÅØËC ûÁL-ߪ’ôç ™‰ü¿’ éπü∆? eg: I have been g) This should be/ must be/ has to be done
4) I wouldn't have been cheated. The shop fellow charged you Rs 100/- more. cheated (¢Á÷Ææ-§Ú-ߪ÷†’) á´-J-îËûª ÅØËC clear at once.
5) ... if I had been asked. í¬ ûÁL-ߪ’ôç ™‰ü¿’. Å™«ç-öÀ-îÓôx ´’†ç Ææçü¿-®√s¥Eo
3) It is often called the cheatwell shop = h) He should have been selected (Imaginary
6) How can it be (returned/ exchanged) after it
ü∆Eo cheatwell shop Åçö«®Ω’ (v°æï©’). Ééπ\úø •öÀd Ü£œ«ç--éÓ-¢√L. Ñ Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x, Shop fellow past)
has been used.
Passive- is called, 鬕öÀd DEéÀ Active,
ÅE Ü£œ«ç--éÓ-´îª’a. Å°æ¤púø’, Passive †’ç* i) This road should have been laid long ago
7) The shop fellow should be taught a lesson active èπ◊ ´÷®Ω’a-éÓ-¢√-©çõ‰ shop fellow ûÓ sen-
I RDW/ II RDW éπü∆? (Past lessons ™E (Imaginary past)
8) ... don't be cheated once more tence begin îË≤ƒhç. Å™« î˨»ç éπü∆ Ééπ\úø?
tables îª÷úøçúÕ) É°æ¤púø’ DEéÀ active - people j) This can be done easily.
9) It will be taken care of call it the cheatwell shop. Å™«Íí If I had been asked - passive ™ ÖçC.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm


II Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ -¨¡-E-¢√®Ωç 6 -¢Ë’ 2006
Spandana: Oh, Chandana, what a relief? I'm Look at the following words and expres-
off. I'll be seeing you only after 10 sions from the dialogue between
days. Spandana and Chandana.
(Chandana, áçûª relief í¬ ÖçüÓ! ؈’ 1) What a relief! I'm off; 2) excited; 3) on a
¢Á∞¡Ÿ-ûª’Ø√o. ´’Sx 10 ®ÓV© ûª®√yûª E†’o holiday; 4) I've been dying to be back home;
éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊çö«.) 5) I've packed up; 6) I am eager; 7) envy;
relief= N´·éÀh / ØÁAh-O’-ü¿-†’ç* °ü¿l •®Ω’´¤ 8) anxious; 9) can't wait; 10) how impatient
Cç*-†-ô’xç-úøôç you are!; 11) laze about; 12) the nine month
Chandana: What are you so excited about? grind; 13) get even with you.
(Are you) on a holiday or what? Learn and practise these expressions
when you speak. Your English will be He is dying to become a minister=
(üËE í∫’Jç* Åçûª Öû√q-£æ«çí¬ ÖØ√o´¤? 5) I've packed up= ≤ƒ´÷†’x Ææ®Ω’l-éÓ-´ôç– v°æߪ÷-ù«-
ÂÆ©´¤-O’ü¿ ¢Á∞¡Ÿh-Ø√o¢√ à´’Ø√o?) very effective. ´’çvA 鬢√©E ûª£æ«-ûª-£æ«-™«-úø’-ûª’-Ø√oúø’ EéÀ, É©’x ´÷®Ω-ö«-EéÀ, etc.
On a holiday= ÂÆ©´¤-O’ü¿ ¢Á∞¡xôç 1) relief: He is very eager to become a minister= He
DE Å®Ωnç ´’†™ î√™«-´’ç-CéÀ ûÁ©’Ææ’– a) Pack up and get out= ≤ƒ´÷†’x Ææ®Ω’l-éÌE ¢ÁRx§Ú.
Spandana: Happy that I am (on a holiday). I (¶«üµ¿ †’ç* Å®·ûË) Ö°æ-¨¡-´’†ç. (¶«üµ¿u-ûª©’, •®Ω’- is anxious to become a minister= He can't
wait to become a minister= He is impatient b) He was packed up and is about to leave=
am going home, sweet home. All ´¤© †’ç* Å®·ûË) Núø’-ü¿©, Åçü¿’-´©x ´îËa
these days I have been dying to be £æ…®·. What a relief!. Å•s, áçûª £æ…®·í¬ ÖçüÓ! to become a minister. É´Fo äÍé Å®√n-Eo-≤ƒh®·. ≤ƒ´÷†’x Ææ®Ω’l-èπ◊E ¢Á∞¡x-ö«-EéÀ Æœü¿l¥çí¬ ÖØ√oúø’.
back home, and I've the chance Çߪ’† ´’çvûª-´-ö«-EéÀ áçûÓ Çûª%-ûªí¬ ÖØ√oúøE/ c) Time for us to pack up=
äéπ éπ≠d-¢æ Á’i† °æE °æ‹®Ωh-®·ûË, äé𠶫üµ¿uûª †’ç*
now. I've packed up and am leav- N´·éÀh §ÒçCûË, ´’†-éπ-E-°œçîË £æ…®·, relief. (Also, ûª£æ«-ûª-£æ«-™«-úø’-ûª’-Ø√o-úøE. ´‚ö«--´·™„x Ææ®Ω’l-éÌØË time ´*açC.
ing. relief from headache, fever, etc.) Ñ ´÷ô-© π◊ Éûª®Ω Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x Å®√n©’ îª÷ü∆lç. 7) envy= áEy– 'á— ØÌéÀ\ °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç= Ñ®Ω{u, äéπ-J-èπ◊†o
i) Dying - Éü¿ç-ü¿-Jéà ûÁ©’Ææ’ – î√´-¶-ûª’†o ü¿¨¡™ 
I'm off= I am off= I am going= ؈’ ¢ÁRx-§Ú-ûª’-
(ÂÆ©-´¤-©èπ◊ ¢Á∞¡Ÿh-Ø√o-†E ÆæçûÓ-≠æçí¬ ÖçC. ´Ææ’h´¤ ´’†èπ◊ ™‰éπ-§ÚûË ´îËa ¶«üµ¿– °æéπ\-¢√-∞¡xèπ◊
ÉçöÀ-Èé-∞¡ŸhØ√o. ÉçöÀ-Èé-°æ¤p-úÁ-°æ¤púø’ ¢Á∞«h´÷ Ø√o†’– ¢Á∞¡Ÿh-†o-°æ¤púø÷, ¢Á∞¡x-¶-ûª’-†o-°æ¤púø’ ¢√úË-´÷ô– Öçúøôç. 鬮Ω’çC, ´’†èπ◊ ™‰ü¿’– Å°æ¤púø’ We envy them.
ņ’-èπ◊ç-ô’çõ‰, É°æ¤p-úÌ-*açü∆ Å´-鬨¡ç. èπ◊x°æhçí¬ áèπ◊\´ Å®√nEo îÁ°æ¤hçC. Dying to do something= ûª£æ«-ûª-£æ«-™«-úø-ôç. (¢√∞¡xçõ‰ ´’†èπ◊ Ñ®Ω{u).
≤ƒ´÷-†xEo Ææ®Ω’l-èπ◊-Ø√o†’, ¢Á∞¡Ÿh-Ø√o†’.) The child is dying to see its mother= a) She envies her sister because she has more
He's off. If you want to tell him anything,
hurry up= ¢√úø’ ¢ÁRx-§Ú-ûª’-Ø√oúø’. àü¿Ø√o îÁ§ƒp-©-†’- ûªLxE îª÷úø-ö«-EéÀ Gúøf ûª£æ«-ûª£æ«™«úø’-ûÓçC. jewellery= sister
Ç¢Á’ èπ◊ áèπ◊\´ †í∫©’çúøôç
èπ◊çõ‰ ¢ÁçôØË îÁ°æ¤p. ii) eager= Çûª%-ûªí¬ Öçúøôç= anxious. Ç¢Á’èπ◊ Ñ®Ω{uí¬ ÖçC.
2) excited= you are excited when some thing a) The hero is eager to see/ anxious to see his b) I envy your health=
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 152 good happens to you/ when you are very son also as an actor= hero
actor
Ç èπ◊ ûª† éÌúø’-èπ◊†’ Fèπ◊ Ç®Óí∫uç ÖçC, Ø√èπ◊ ™‰ü¿’– Åçü¿’-´©x Ñ®Ω{u.
happy about something. èπÿú≈ í¬ îª÷ú≈-©E Çûª%-ûªí¬ ÖçC. 11) Laze (about)=
à °æF îËߪ’-èπ◊çú≈ lazy (≤Ú´’-J)í¬ Öçúøôç.
a) I like to laze about on the weekend=

What a relief! I'm off ¢√®√çûªç °æE-îË-ߪ’-èπ◊çú≈ ≤Ú´’-Jí¬ í∫úø-°æôç


Ø√éÀ≠dçæ .
b) He wastes money and time. He Lazes about:
Time, úø•’s ´%ü∑∆ îË≤ƒhúø’. ≤Ú´’-Jí¬ Öçö«úø’.
Chandana: I am eager to go home too, but I b) The patient is eager/ anxious to see the doc-
´’ç* ï®Ω’-í∫’-ûª’-†o-°æ¤púø’, c) Don't laze about. Do some work =
can't get leave until next month. tor=
ï®Ω-í∫-¶-ûª’-†o-°æ¤púø’ ´’†èπ◊
How I envy you! éπLÍí ÆæçûÓ≠æç, Öû√q£æ«ç. ®ÓT doctor †’ îª÷úø-ö«-EéÀ Çûª%ûª °æúø’-ûÓçC. ≤Ú´’-Jí¬ Öçúøèπ◊, àüÓ °æE-îÁß˝’.
Å®·ûË eager èπ◊ ™‰E Å®Ωnç, anxious èπ◊ Ö†o 12) The nine month grind:
(Ø√èπÿ ÉçöÀ-Èé-∞«x-©E Çûª%-ûªí¬ ÖçüË, é¬E a) They were excited
´îËa ØÁ©-ü∆é¬ ÂÆ©´¤ üÌ®Ω-éπü¿’. E†’o-îª÷ÊÆh when their favourite ÉçéÓ Å®Ωnç– ´÷†-Æœ-éπçí¬ ÇçüÓ-∞¡†-îÁç-ü¿-ôç. grind Åçõ‰– °œçúÕ-îË-ߪ’ôç ÅØËC ´÷´‚©’ Å®Ωnç.
áçûª Ñ®Ω{uí¬ ÖçüÓ!) hero talked to them= c) The mother is anxious about the child's con- a) We grind wheat into fine powder (flour) for
Spandana: I called mom and told her. She is ¢√∞¡x ÅGµ-´÷† hero dition making chapathis =
anxious to see me back. So is dad. ¢√∞¡x†’ °æ©-éπ-Jç-*-†-°æ¤púø’ M. SURESAN Ç ûªLx ûª† Gúøf °æJ-ÆœnA (Ç®Óí∫uç) í∫’Jç* íÓüµ¿’-´’†’ ´’†ç ƒ-B© éÓÆæç °œçúÕ îË≤ƒhç.
Still two hours for the train and I ¢√∞¡Ÿx î√™« ÆæçûÓ-≠æ-°æ-ú≈f®Ω’. ÇçüÓ-∞¡†-îÁç-ü¿’-ûÓçC. grind èπ◊ past tense, past participle- ground.
feel it's too long. I can't wait any b) He felt excited when he got the prize= Ééπ\úø anxious èπ◊ •ü¿’©’ eager ¢√úøç. Å®Ωnç b) He ground the wheat into flour =
longer. ¢√úÕéÀ prize ´*a-†°æ¤p-úø’ î√™« Öû√q-£æ«çí¬ äéπõ‰ Å´ü¿’. anxious èπ◊, worried ¢√úÌa. íÓüµ¿’-´’-©†’ °œçúÕ î˨»úø’ (´’®Ω™)
(Å´’tèπ◊ phone îËÆœ îÁ§ƒp. Ç¢Á’èπ◊ èπÿú≈ ÆæçûÓ-≠æçí¬ ÖØ√oúø’. d) The MD (Managing Director) is anxious flour = flower pronounce
™« îËߪ÷L– °∂æx-Å=
††’o îª÷ú≈-©E Çûª%-ûªí¬ ÖçC. Ø√†oèπ◊ c) The movie is exciting/ It's an exciting movie= about the loss in the profits of the company. °œçúÕ. wheat flour = íÓüµ¿’´’ °œçúÕ.
èπÿú≈ ÅçûË. Train ®√´-ö«-EéÀ Éçé¬ È®çúø’ movie. Company ™«¶µ«© ûªí∫’_-ü¿© í∫’Jç* MD ÇçüÓ-∞¡†
í∫çô-©’çC. áçûª-ÊƧÚ!)
î√™« ÇÆæ-éÀhE ÆæçûÓ-≥ƒEo éπL-TçîË é¬E Ééπ\úø grind èπ◊ Å®Ωnç – v¨¡´’, éπ%≠œ.
d) Nothing exciting about the movie. It's dull= îÁçü¿’-ûª’-Ø√oúø’= Çü¿’®√l °æúø’-ûª’-Ø√oúø’. Nine month grind - ûÌN’tC ØÁ©© v¨¡´’
Chandana: I see how impatient you are! So Anxiety= ÇçüÓ-∞¡† (´÷†-Æ œéπç)
would anyone be when they have a
Ç movie ™ Öû√q-£æ«-éπ-®Ω-¢Á’iç-üË-D-™‰ü¿’. î√™« ÅØ√- c) I need at least a week's break after this grind
chance. How are you going to
Ææ-éÀh-éπ-®Ωçí¬ ÖçC. (Dull= unexciting) e) She wants to see a psychiatrist about her
Éçûª v¨¡´’°æúÕçûª®√yûª -Ø√èπ◊ éπFÆæç ¢√®Ωç Nv¨»çA
e) Exciting news= ÇÆæ-éÀh-éπ®Ω N≠æߪ’ç. anxiety= ûª† ´÷†-Æœéπ ÇçüÓ-∞¡† N≠æߪ’ç í∫’Jç*
spend the days? Å´-Ææ®Ωç.
3) On a holiday= You are on a holiday, if you Ç¢Á’ ´÷†-Æœéπ ¢Ájü¿’uúÕo Ææçv°æ-Cç-î√-©-†’-èπ◊ç-öçC.
(áçûª ûÌçü¿-®Ω-°æ-úø’-ûª’-Ø√o¢Ó Å®Ωnç d) Put him through the grind =
have break from your work for a few days. iii) Can't wait= ¢Ë* îª÷ÊÆ ã®Ω’p ™‰éπ-§Ú-´ôç.
îËÆæ’éÓí∫©†’. á´-È®jØ√ ÅçûË™‰ Å´-鬨¡ç ¢√úÕo éπ≠d-°æ æúÕ °æE-îË-ߪ’F.
îË Ê Æ °æ E †’ç* éÌEo ®ÓV- © - § ƒô’ Nv¨»ç- A í¬, (wait ´÷´‚-©®Ωnç áü¿’-®Ω’-îª÷-úøôç)
´ÊÆh. àç îËߪ’-¶-ûª’-Ø√o´¤ Ñ 10 e) Every trainee has to go through daily grind of
NØÓ- ü ¿ ç í¬ í∫ ú Õ - ° œ û Ë , You are on a holiday. a) He can't wait to go to the US=
®ÓV©÷?/ ᙫ í∫úø-°æ-¶-ûª’-Ø√o´¤?) six hour =
Spandana: Just laze about. I don't want to do Holiday= ÂÆ©´¤, Holidays= ÂÆ©´¤©’– ´·êuçí¬ Å¢Á’-J-é¬èπ◊ á°æ¤p-úÁ-°æ¤púø’ ¢Á∞«l´÷ ņ’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√oúø’. v°æA trainee (Péπ~ù §ÒçüË-¢√úø’) ®ÓVèπ◊ Ç®Ω’-
anything. This nine month grind Nü∆u-®Ω’n© N≠æ-ߪ’ç™ b) He can't wait to meet his lover= ûª† v°œßª·-®√Lo í∫ç-ô© v¨¡´’ îËߪ÷Lq Öçô’çC.
has taken the life out of me. No a) They are on a holiday/ they have gone on a á°æ¤p-úÁ-°æ¤púø’ éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊ç-ü∆´÷ ÅE ÖØ√oúø’.
holiday= (éÌEo®ÓV©§ƒô’) °æE †’ç* N®√´’ç/ 13) get even = °æí∫ B®Ω’a-éÓ-´ôç/ ÆæJ-Ææ-´÷†´’´ôç.
leisure. I am fed up with work. Just
eat, sleep, watch the TV and go to Nv¨»çA §Òçü¿ôç. Ü∞¡Ÿx A®Ω’-í∫’ûª÷ NØÓ-ü¿çí¬ iv) ÅÆæ impatient= ´÷´‚©’ Å®Ωnç, ã®Ω’p ™‰éπ-§Ú-´ôç,
-£æ«-†çí¬ Öçúøôç (opposite of patient)
a) In most Indian movies the hero gets even
movies. That's what I am going to í∫úø-°æôç. with the villain =
a) He doesn't want to wait. He is impatient to
do. b) I haven't been on a holiday for the past one î√™« Indian movies ™ *´-®Ωèπ◊ hero, villain
go=
(àO’ îËߪ’†’. îËߪ÷-©E ņ’-éÓ-´-ôç-™‰ü¿’. year= O’ü¿ °æí∫ B®Ω’a-èπ◊ç-ö«úø’.
Ñ ûÌN’tC ØÁ©© °æE Ø√ v§ƒù«Lo ûÓúË- àú≈-Cí¬ Nv¨»çA/ N®√´’ç á®Ω-í∫†’. Åûª-úø’ Çí∫ô癉ü¿’/ Çí¬-©E ™‰ü¿-ûª-úÕéÀ – ¢ÁRx-§Ú-¢√-©E b) In the 1st match India defeated Pak; but in
ÆœçC, Nv¨»çA ÅØËC ™‰èπ◊çú≈. NÆœ-T-§Ú- Expression No 4: I've been dying, No. 6: I
ûÌçü¿-®Ω-°æ-úø’-ûª’-Ø√oúø’. the next match, Pak got even with India.
ߪ÷†’. A†ôç, Evü¿-§Ú-´ôç, TV îª÷úøôç, am eager, No.8: Anxious, No. 9: Can't wait, b) He was impatient at my replies=
¢Á·ü¿öÀ match ™ ãúÕ† Pak, È®çúÓ match ™
ÆœE-´÷-©-Èé-∞¡xôç– ÉD ؈’ îËߪ’-¶-ßË’C.) and No. 10: How impatient you are. Oô-Eo-öÀéÀ Ø√ Ææ´÷-üµ∆-Ø√-©-éπ-ûª-úø’ ã®Ω’p éÓ™p-ߪ÷úø’/ ÅÆæ-£æ«†ç India ûÓ Ææ´÷-†-¢Á’içC.
Chandana: Next month I am likely to get my Å®√n©’ ü∆ü∆°æ¤ äéπõ‰ – Çûª%ûª °æúøôç, Çûª%-ûªûÓ v°æü¿-Jzç-î√úø’. c) Next month when I go on a holiday, I get
break. I'll get even with you then. áü¿’®Ω’ îª÷úøôç, ûª£æ«-ûª-£æ«-™«-úøôç, ûªy®Ω-°æ-úøôç. ÉO Ñ Ø√©’í∫’ expressions NNüµ¿ Å®√n©’, even with you =
Bye then. See you. Dying= Ñ Ææçü¿-®Ωs ¥ç™ Dying èπÿ, ü∆E ¢√úø’éπ. OöÀE O’ conversation ™ practice
(´îËa ØÁ© Ø√èπÿ ´Ææ’hçC break. Å°æ¤púø’ ´÷´‚©’ Å®Ωnç– ´’®Ω-ù«-EéÀ Ææç•çüµ¿ç ™‰ü¿’. îËߪ’çúÕ. Å®Ωn-´ç-ûªçí¬ Öçô’çC. Ééπ N’í∫û√ ´îËa ØÁ© Ø√èπ◊ holiday ´*a-†-°æ¤púø’ FûÓ ÆæJ-
FûÓ Ææ´÷-†-´’-´¤û√. ¢ÁRx®√ Å®·ûË) Ééπ\úø dying Åçõ‰ ûª£æ«-ûª-£æ«-™«-úøôç. ´÷ô© Ææçí∫A îª÷ü∆lç. Ææ-´÷-†-´’-´¤-û√†’.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm


II Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ -≤Ú-´’¢√®Ωç 8 -¢Ë’ 2006
Vikranth: Any idea when Vijai is coming?
éπE î√™« ñ«ví∫-ûªhí¬ í∫´’-Eç-îªç-úÕ.
(Nïß˝’ á°æ¤p-úÌ-Ææ’h-Ø√oúÓ ûÁ©’≤ƒ?) Now look at the following sentences
Prasanth: Not in the least. I don't know where from the conversation above.
he is now.
1) Any idea when Vijai is coming?
(ÅÆæ©’ ûÁMü¿’. ÅûªúÁéπ\-úø’-Ø√oúÓ èπÿú≈ 2) Not in the least. I don't know where he is
ûÁL-ߪ’ü¿’) now.
Vikranth: I do not know what he wants from 3) I do not know what he wants from me.
me. He suddenly rang up yester-
4) He didn't make clear why he would see me.
day to tell me he was coming. He
5) I don't see why you didn't ask him when
didn't make clear why he would d)
exactly he wanted to come. ¢Á∞«x™ ûÁL-ߪ’úøç ™‰ü¿’. Åûª-ØÁ°æ¤púÌÆæ’h-Ø√oúÓ FÈé-´-®ΩØ√o îÁ§ƒp®√? =
see me.
6) We do not know whether to wait for him (Whether N’í∫û√ 'wh' words ™«çöÀC é¬ü¿’ Has any one told you when he will be com-
¢√úÕéÀ Ø√†’ç* àç 鬢√™ Ø√èπ◊ ûÁL- here or go about our work. choice express îËߪ’-ö«-EéÀ ¢√úË ´÷ô) ing?
ߪ’-úø癉ü¿’. Ö†o-ô’dçúÕ E†o Phone 7) I insisted that he tell me the purpose of his 8) I don't know why = Å™«Íí Ñ éÀçC 2 sentence èπÿ ûËú≈ îª÷úøçúÕ:
îËÆœ ´Ææ’h-Ø√o-†E îÁ§ƒpúø’. †ØÁoç-ü¿’èπ◊ meeting. áçü¿’éÓ ûÁMü¿’ 1 a) why did he go there? I want to know
éπ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-¢√-©-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√oúÓ Ææp≠ædçí¬ 8) I don't know why 9) Did you atleast ask him how he would be Ñ È®çúø’ sentences †÷ éπL°œ ņçúÕ:
îÁ°æp-™‰ü¿’ 9) Did you at least ask him how he would be coming = b) I want to know why he went there.
Prasanth: I don't see why you didn't ask him
coming. ᙫ ´≤ƒhúÓ ÅØÁjØ√ ÅúÕ-í¬¢√? a) sentence question 鬕öÀd why
™E ¢Á·ü¿öÀ
when exactly he wanted to come.
10) I don't see how you could be so indifferent = did he go?
Åçö«ç.
We have work now. We don't know
Åçûª E®Ωx-éπ~uçí¬ á™« Öçúø-í∫-L-í¬¢Ó Ø√éπ®Ωnç 鬴- b) È®çúø’ sentences éπL°œ Åçô’Ø√oç 鬕öÀd
whether to wait for him here or to go
úøç-™‰ü¿’ I want to know why he went there Åçö«ç.
about our work.
(ûª†’ correct í¬ á°æ¤p-úÌ-≤ƒhúÓ -Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 153 11) I didn't know which phone he was calling
from =
2 a) where did he buy it?
I wish to know
†’¢Áyçü¿’èπ◊ Åúø-í∫-™‰üÓ Ø√éπ®Ωnç 鬴ôç
™‰ü¿’. ´’†-Íé¢Á÷ °æ†’ç--C. ¢√úÕ éÓÆæç

Who knows what he has in his mind?


´’†N’éπ\úø wait îËߪ÷™ ´’† °æE O’ü¿
¢Á∞«x™ ûÁMúøç ™‰ü¿’)
Vikranth: I insisted that he tell me the pur-
pose of his meeting, but he would-
n't. I don't know why.
Prasanth: Did you atleast ask him how he 10) I don't see how you could be so indifferent à phone †’ç* îËÆæ’h-
would becoming? 11) I didn't know which phone he was calling Ø√oúÓ Ø√èπ◊ ûÁM-™‰ü¿’. Ñ È®çúø’ sentence†÷ éπL°œ äéπ sen-
(éπFÆæç ᙫ ´≤ƒhúÓ ÅúÕ-í¬¢√?) from. 12) I am not able to say tencesí¬ Åçõ‰ Å°æ¤p-úË-´’-´¤-ûª’çC? I wish to
Vikranth: No. 12) I am not able to say whose fault it is. whose fault it is = know where he brought it Åçö«ç.

Prasanth: I don't see how you could be so ´’†ç Éçûªèπ◊ ´·çü¿’ clauses †’ í∫’Jç* ÅC á´J ûª§Úp ؈’ É™«ç-öÀC ¶«í¬ practice îËߪ÷L ´’† con-
versation ¶«í¬ freeí¬, fluentí¬ Öçú≈©çõ‰
indifferent. you could have fixed a ûÁ©’Ææ’èπ◊Ø√oç éπü∆. ´’®Ó-≤ƒJ í∫’®Ω’h îËÆæ’-èπ◊çü∆ç. îÁ°æp-™‰-éπ-§Ú-ûª’-Ø√o†’.
time for his meeting us. A clause is a group of words with a verb. °j† underline îËÆœ† M. SURESAN ´·êuçí¬ É™«çöÀ Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’-éÓ-¢√-
(verbÖçúË group of words clause†’ clause ©Fo èπÿú≈ LqçC 'wh' words ûÓ v§ƒç¶µº-´’-ßË’uN á°æ¤púø÷
(Åçûª E®Ωx-éπ~uçí¬ á™« Öçúø-í∫-L-í¬¢Ó Å®Ωnç questions Å´-†-éπ\-®Ω-™‰-ü¿F, wh word ûÓ v§ƒ®Ωç-
鬴ôç ™‰ü¿’. Åûªúø’ ´’†Lo éπ©’-Ææ’-éÌØË Åçö«ç éπü∆.) 'wh' word clauses. Å®·ûË äéπ ´·êu N≠æߪ’ç
In most sentences above, they are clauses ÉN 'wh' words ûÓ v§ƒ®Ωç-¶µº-´’-´¤-ûª’Ø√o, ques- ¶µº-´’ßË’u clauses statement structure™
time Å®·Ø√ E®Ωg-®·ç* ÖçúÌa éπü∆?) èπÿú≈ Öçö«-ߪ’E.
beginning with 'wh' words (why, what, tions 鬴¤ ÅE í∫´’-Eç-î √L. Åçü¿’-éπØË ÅN
Vikranth: Look here, Prasanth. Not that I exercise: practise the following in English
when, where, which, who, whom, whose, question structure (wh+verb+subject/wh
could not ask him all that. I was Vilas: †’¢Áy-°æ¤úø’ AJ-íÌ-≤ƒh¢Ó Ø√èπ◊ correctí¬ îÁ°æp-
and how) word + Helping verb + Sub +Main verb)
about to. But then he disconnected.
™
Ñ 'wh' clauses ´’† daily conversation ™ ™‰´¤, Öçúø-èπÿ-úøü¿’. ÉN'wh' word ûÓ v§ƒ®Ωç-¶µº-¢Á’i- ™‰ü¿’.
(Åü¿çû√ Åúø-í∫-™‰Íéç é¬ü¿’. Åúøí∫¶ßË’-
very common. ûÁ©’-í∫’™ ´’†ç ´÷ö«x-úË-ô-°æ¤púø’ †-°æpöÀéÃ, statement ™ ¶µ«í¬™‰ éπü∆ Åçü¿’-éπE Kailas: á°æ¤p-úÌ-≤ƒhØÓ Ø√Íé correct idea ™‰ü¿’
™í¬ Phone °õ‰d-¨»úø’.) áçü¿’èπ◊, á´-JûÓ, áçûÓ, á´-JüÓ, ᙫíÓ, ÅØË -¢√- statement structure. statement ™ á°æ¤púø÷ Vilas: kumar FûÓ îÁ°æp-™‰ü∆ Ç°æ-EéÀ áçûª time °æúø’-
Prasanth: Why didn't you call him again?
öÀ-E sentences ™ ¢√úø’-ûª’çö«ç éπü∆. ÅC ´·çü¿’í¬ subject verb
ûª®Ω¢√ûª ´≤ƒh®·. ûª’çüÓ †E?
(´’Sx †’¢Áyç-ü¿’èπ◊ Phone îËߪ’-™‰ü¿’?) English ™ ´÷ö«xúËô°æ¤púø÷ Öçô’çC. Öü∆-£æ«-®Ω- Åçü¿’-éπE Ééπ\úø èπÿú≈ wh word claus-
ûÓ ´îËa Kailas: ¢√úÕéÀ phone îËߪ÷-©-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’Ø√o.
Vikranth: I didn't know which Phone he was ùèπ◊ °j ¢√öÀ™x I don't know where he is now esÅEoç-öÀ™ wh word sub+verb
ûª®Ω¢√ûª ¢√úÁ-éπ\-úø’-Ø√oúÓ Ø√èπ◊ ûÁMü¿’. ¢√úË Ø√èπ◊
calling from. I saw the number on ÅØËC BÆæ’èπ◊çü∆ç = ¢√úÁ-éπ\-úø’-Ø√oúÓ Ø√èπ◊ structure ™ Öçú≈L. phone îË≤ƒh-†-Ø√oúø’. Éçûª-´-®Ωèπ◊ áçü¿’èπ◊
my cell and called. He called from a ûÁMü¿’. Where he is Åûª-ØÁ-éπ\úø ÖØ√oúÓ. eg: Åûªúø’ É°æ¤p-úÁ-éπ\-úø’-Ø√oúÓ Ø√èπ◊ ûÁMü¿’. phone îËߪ’-™‰üÓ Å®Ωnç 鬴-ôç-™‰ü¿’.
public Phone. let us take the clauses which begin O’éÃ-§ƒ-öÀéÀ ûÁLÊÆ Öçô’çC. english™ word Vilas: ÆæÍ®. ¢√úÕéÀ phone îËÆ œ ´’Sx †’¢Áy-°æ¤púø’ ®√í∫-
(à Phone ™ç* ´÷ö«x-úø’-ûª’-Ø√oúÓ with 'wh' words in the other sentences: order °æü∆© Å´’-Jéπ sentence™ ûÁ©’í∫’ word ©¢Ó Ø√ûÓ îÁ°æ¤p. ´’†ç á°æ¤púø’ •ßª’-™‰l-®√™
Ø√èπ◊ ûÁL-ߪ’-™‰ü¿’. Cell ™ Ç number 1) Any idea when vijai is coming = order èπ◊ î√™«-´-®Ωèπ◊ oppositeí¬ Öçô’çC.
E®Ωg-®·ç-î√¢√?
îª÷Æœ phone î˨»†’. ÅC Public èπ◊úÕ áúø´’ Å´¤ûª’çC. 鬕-öÀd °j sentence ᙫ Kailas: ØËØÁ™« E®Ωg-®·ç-îª-í∫-©†’ ØËØÁ-°æ¤p-úÌ≤ƒhØÓ Ø√Íé
Nïß˝’ á°æ¤p-úÌ-≤ƒhúÓ FÍé-´’Ø√o idea Öçü∆?
Phone) begin îË≤ƒhç? I dont know ûÓ ûÁL-ߪ’-éπ-§ÚûË?
3) I do not know what he wants from me =
Prasanth: I am not able to say whose fault it I dont know when he will be here. (when will Vilas: Å®·ûË kumar èπ◊ ¢ÁçôØË phone îËÆ œ
is.
¢√úÕéÀ Ø√†’ç* àç 鬢√™ Ø√èπ◊ ûÁL-ߪ’úøç ™‰ü¿’. decide îÁ®·u.
he be here é¬ü¿’ éπü∆?) Éçé¬ îª÷úøçúÕ.
4) He didn't make clear why he would see me Answer:
(ÅC á´J §Ò®Ω-§ƒö ؈’ îÁ°æp-™‰-èπ◊çú≈ a) á´-J-E °œ©’-≤ƒh-úø-ØËC ¢√úÕéÀ Ææç•çCµç*† N≠æߪ’ç
¢√úø’- †-ØÁoç-ü¿’èπ◊ îª÷ú≈-©-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√oúÓ Ææp≠ædç Vilas: you haven't (have not) told me correct-
ÖØ√o†’) = who he is going to invite (whom - old fash- ly when you will return.
îËߪ’-™‰ü¿’. ioned) is his business. Kailas: I dont my self/ I myself have a
We are unable to decide what we (Ø√Íé)
5) a) I don't see why you didn't ask him = correct idea when I will return
have to do now. b) ¢√úÕ ´’†-Ææ’™ à´·çüÓ á´-JéÀ ûÁ©’Ææ’?
Vilas: Hasn't kumar told you how much time
†’¢Áyç-ü¿’èπ◊ Åúø-í∫-™‰üÓ Ø√éπ®Ωnç 鬴ôç ™‰ü¿’. who knows what he has in his mind?
it will take?
(É°æ¤púø’ ´’†ç àç îËߪ÷™ ûË©’a-éÓ-™‰-
(see = îª÷úøôç, éπ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-´ôç, Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’-éÓ- who knows question.
èπ◊çú≈ ÖØ√oç) (Ééπ\úø ¶µ«í∫ç Åçü¿’-éπE Kailas: I want to call him. I don't know where
Vikranth: Ah here he is! He has come.
´ôç) question mark.) he is. He said he would call me. I don't
b).... when exactly he wanted to come = c) Ç °æ¤-Ææhéπç áéπ\-úø’çüÓ Fèπ◊ ûÁ©’≤ƒ? = see why he hasn't phoned me.
(Ç.. ´î√aúËx)
á°æ¤púø’ correct í¬ ®√¢√-©-†’-èπ◊-Ø√oúÓ Vilas: OK. Phone him and tell me when you
Prasanth: What a relief! Do you know where the book is?
can come back again. Have you decid-
6) We do not know whether to wait him for or (´’Sx í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ where the book is = °æ¤Ææhéπç ed when we should return.
(Å•s ´î√aúø’ éπü∆!)
to go about our work = Kailas: when I don't know myself when I will
Ñ≤ƒJ †’ç* é¬Ææh advanced level of áéπ\úø ÖçC? ÅE é¬ü¿’ Å®Ωnç. '°æ¤Ææhéπç áéπ\úø
ÖçüÓ— ÅE return
conversational skills îª÷ü∆lç. Åçü¿’- ´’†ç ÅûªúÕ éÓÆæç îª÷ú≈™ ™‰ü∆ ´’† °æE-O’ü¿
Vilas: Then phone kumar and decide.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm


II Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ í∫’®Ω’¢√®Ωç 1 1 -¢Ë’ 2006
Saran: Congrats Varun. I really felt very happy
Clause Åçõ‰– Verb Ö†o group of words.
when I heard that our team had won the
match yesterday. I shall be delighted if I
´’†ç ´÷ö«x-úË-ô-°æ¤púø’ ´’† sentences ™
hear more such news.
O™„j-†çûª´®Ωèπÿ clauses ûªT_ç--èπ◊çõ‰ sentences
(´’† team E†o ÈíL-*ç-ü¿E N†-í¬ØË, Ææ®Ω-∞¡çí¬ Åçü¿-Jéà ŮΩnç ÅßË’u-ô’xç-ö«®·. Å®·ûË
î√™« ÆæçûÓ-≠æ-°æú≈f†’. É™«çöÀ ¢√®Ωh©’ é¬xV©’ ᙫ ´C-Lç--éÓ-´ôç? Infinitives ¢√úÕ.
Infinitive Åçõ‰? Éçûª-èπ◊-´·çü¿’ È®çúø’, ´‚úø’
Éçé¬ Nçõ‰ ؈’ ÆæçûÓ-≠œ-≤ƒh†’.)
Varun: Thank you, sir. We are glad that we
≤ƒ®Ω’x N´-Jç-î√ç -éπü∆? ´’Sx í∫’®Ω’h-îË-Ææ’hØ√oç.
always have your encouragement. í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ: Infinitive Åçõ‰, to + Ist RDW
(O’ v§Úû√q£æ«ç ´÷èπ◊ç-úøôç ´÷Èé-°æ¤púø÷ (Regular Doing Word)- to go, to come, to
walk, to learn, etc. infinitives.
É´Fo 2) I shall be delighted if I hear more such news
ÆæçûÓ-≠æ¢Ë’) 4) É™«çöÀ P©pç îª÷Æœ-†ç-ü¿’èπ◊ Ø√èπ◊ °æ¤©-éÀçûªí¬ ÖçC.
Infinitive = (delighted = ÆæçûÓ-≠æçí¬ Öçúøôç)
Saran: Boys, I was telling you all along that you èπ◊ Å®Ωnç-– I am thrilled that I have seen such a beauti-
should not lose confidence. 1) °∂晫† °æE-îÁ-ߪ÷u-©E (to go = ¢Á∞«x-©E) 3) We are glad that we always have your
ful statue =
(O’èπ◊ ؈’ îÁ•’-ûª÷ØË ÖØ√o†’ éπü∆, Çûªt- 2) °∂晫† °æE-îË-ߪ’ôç (to go = ¢Á∞¡xôç) encouragement =
I am really thrilled to have seen...
N-¨»yÆæç éÓ™p-èπÿ-úø-ü¿E.) 3) °∂晫† °æE-îË-ߪ’-ö«-EéÀ (to go = ¢Á∞¡x-ö«-EéÀ) We are glad to have your encouragement
É™«çöÀ examples †’ O’®Ω÷ practice îËߪ’çúÕ.
Varun: Thank you again sir. In fact we didn't a) I want to go = 4) I was telling you all along that you should not
Infinitive ´©xØË é¬èπ◊çú≈, ü∆çûÓ-§ƒô’ ÉçÍé
expect that we would win. But we lose confidence =
Ø√èπ◊ ¢Á∞«x-©E ÖçC. Nüµ¿çí¬ØÁjØ√ sentences †’ Ææ®Ω∞¡ç îËߪ’-ö«Eo
played to our capacity. The other team's I was telling you not to lose confidence
b) To go now is not safe = practice îËߪ’çúÕ.
mistakes helped us. 5) We didn't expect that we would win the
(´’Sx thanks. ÅÆæ©’ ¢Ë’ç Èí©’-≤ƒh-´’-†’-éÓ- É°æ¤púø’ ¢Á∞¡xôç Íé~´’ç é¬ü¿’.
match =
™‰ü¿’. Å®·ûË ´÷ ¨¡éÀh-éÌDl Çú≈ç, Å´-ûªL c) He stood up to go -
... expect to win
team §Ò®Ω-§ƒô’x ´÷èπ◊ Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç î˨»®·.) ¢Á∞¡x-ö«-EéÀ ™‰* E©’--Ø√oúø’.
6) I warned you that you shouldn't take things
î√™« Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x °ü¿l-°ü¿l clause ©èπ◊ •ü¿’©’,
lightly and that you should be aggressive = EXERCISE
Infinitive ¢√úÕ Ææç-¶µ«-≠æù Ææ®Ω∞¡ç îËߪ’-´îª’a.
I warned not to take things lightly and to be Practise the following aloud in
How we can do it is the matter of this lesson.
aggressive. English. Use only infinitives.
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 154 Let's now look at the following sentences
from the conversation above.
7) We.. that we have such encouragement and
Komal: †’´¤y foreign ¢Á∞¡Ÿ-ûª’-Ø√o-´E NE
advice from you =
Ø√èπ◊ î√™« džçü¿çí¬ ÖçC.
Syamal: †’´¤y èπÿú≈ ûªy®Ω™ØË Åéπ\-úÕ-éÌ-Ææ’h-

We are glad to have your.. Komal:


Ø√o-´E ûÁLÆœ ؈’ ÆæçûÓ-≠œ-Ææ’h-
Ø√o†’.
ØËØ√ v°æߪ’ûªoç O’ü¿ ÖØ√o-†E
ûÁLÊÆh ´÷ Å´÷t, Ø√Ø√o Eïçí¬
¶«üµ¿-°æ-úø-û√®Ω’. ¢√∞¡xèπ◊ ؈’
Saran: I warned you too that you should not We are delighted to have such encourage-
1) I really felt happy ™‰èπ◊çú≈ Öçúøôç éπ≠ædçí¬
take things lightly, and you should be ment and advice from you =
when I heard that our Öçô’çC.
aggressive. ...to have your encouragement and advice.
team had won the Syamal: ††’o ¢Á∞¡x-E-´yôç ´÷ Å´’tèπÿ
(-N’-´’t-Lo £«îªa-Jç-î√†’ èπÿú≈, üËFo ûËL- match. 8) We are thrilled that we have won this difficult
É≠ædç ™‰ü¿’. é¬F ØËØË †îªa-ñ„§ƒp†’.
match =
éπí¬ BÆæ’-éÓ-èπÿ-úø-ü¿F, ü¿÷èπ◊-úø’í¬ Öçú≈-©F.) 2) I shall be delighted if I Komal: ´÷ Å´’t ¢√∞¡xèπ◊ ؈’ ûªy®Ωí¬
aggressive= ü¿÷èπ◊-úø’í¬, îÌ®Ω-´í¬ Öçúøôç hear more such news. We are thrilled to have won this difficult
AJT ´îËa-≤ƒh-†E ´÷ô É≤ƒh.
M. SURESAN match
Varun: True sir. We are delighted that we have 3) We are glad that we ¢√∞¡xèπ◊ ûªy®Ω™ ÅC Å©-¢√-õ„j-
such encouragement and advice from always have your encouragement. 9) My only desire is that I should not hear about §Ú-ûª’çC.
you. We are thrilled that we have won the defeat of our college team =
4) I was telling you all along that you should not Syamal: Å®·ûË ´÷ Ø√†o ´÷vûªç î√™«
this difficult match. lose confidence. My only desire is not to hear the ... of our Ö§Òpç-T-§Ú-ߪ÷úø’ Ø√éà Ŵ-鬨¡ç
college teams
(Eï-´’çúÕ. Å™«çöÀ v§Úû√q£æ«ç, Ææ©£æ… 5) ...We didn't expect that we would win the ´*aç-ü¿E N†-ö«-EéÀ.
match. 10) I was a bit hurt when I heard some of our Komal: ؈÷ v°æߪ’-Ao≤ƒh.
O’®Ω’ ´÷éÀ-Ææ’h-†oç-ü¿’èπ◊ î√-™« ÆæçûÓ-≠æçí¬
lecturers talking low ... to hear some of our
ÖçC. Éçûª éπ≠d-¢æ Á’i† match ÈíL-î√-´’E 6) I warned you that you should not take things
lecturers ... ANSWER
°æ¤©-éÀç-ûªí¬ ÖçC.) lightly and that you should be aggressive
11) They will be surprised when they hear our Komal: I am very happy to hear that
Saran: My only desire is that I should not hear 7) ... We are delighted that we have such
team... = They will be surprised to hear... you are going abroad/ about
about the defeat of our college team in encouragement and advice from you
So, you have seen how an infinitive can your travel abroad.
any match. 8) We are thrilled that we have won this difficult
make your speech shorter, simpler and
Varun: You can be sure that we will always do match Syamal: I am happy too that to know
direct.
our best sir. 9) My only desire is that I should not hear about that you too are coming.
the defeat of our college team
°j† ´’†ç infinitive ûÓ replace îËÆœ† ¢√öÀ™x Komal: Mom and dad will be sorry to
(¨»ßª’-¨¡-èπ◊h™« ¢Ë’ç v°æߪ’ûªoç îË≤ƒh´’E áèπ◊\´ that clauses. (that ûÓ begin ÅßË’u know about my trials. It will
10) I was a bit hurt when I heard some of the
O’®Ω’ †¢Á·ta) clauses éπü∆) OöÀE ´·êuçí¬ infinitive ûÓ
lecturers talking low... be difficult for them to be
Saran: I was a bit hurt when I heard some of replace îËÆ œ, short îËߪ’-´îª’a.
11) They will be surprised when they hear our without me.
the lecturers talking low of our team. Éçé¬ îª÷úøçúÕ.
team too can win matches. Syamal: Mom didn't like to hear it first,
(´’† lecturers ™ éÌçü¿®Ω’ ´’† team 1) †’´¤y exam ™ fail Åߪ÷u-´E Nçõ‰ ؈’ ¶«üµ¿-
All the parts of sentences underlined but I convinced her.
í∫’Jç* ûªèπ◊\-´ -îËÆœ ´÷ö«x-ú≈-®ΩE ¶«üµ¿- °æ-úø-û√†’ =
above are clauses, aren't they? We are Komal: I will promise to mom and
°æ-ú≈f†’). I shall be sorry if I hear that you have failed
now going to simplify them by using dad to return early. Soon they
Varun: Let them sir. They will be surprised the exam =
infinitives in their places. will get used to it.
when they hear our team too can win I shall be sorry to hear that you have...
clauses ≤ƒn†ç™ infinitives ¢√úÕ sentences 2) ( get used = be used =
matches.
†’ É™« Ææ®Ω∞¡ç îËߪ’çúÕ.
Åçûª ûªy®Ωí¬ ¢Á∞«xLq ´*a-†ç-ü¿’èπ◊ ؈’ î√™« ¶«üµ¿-
(
´÷ö«x-úø-E-´yçúÕ, sir, ´’† team èπÿú≈ °æ-ú≈f†’ = Å©-¢√-ô’-°æ-úøôç)
1) I really felt happy when I heard our team had I was sorry that I had to leave so early =
matches Èí©-´-í∫-©-ü¿E ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊-†o-°æ¤púø’ Syamal: Dad was happy to hear that I
won the match.
I was sorry to leave so early
Ǩ¡a-®Ωu-§Ú-û√®Ω’). I really felt happy to hear that our team had got this opportunity.
Saran: OK boy, keep it up. ( Å™«-Íí-é¬F). 3) É™«çöÀ v°æ¨»çûª v°æüË-¨¡ç™ Ø√éÓ É©’xçõ‰ ÆæçûÓ-≠æ-
won the match... to hear about our team's °æ-úø-û√†’ = Komal: I'll try too.
English conversation, simple í¬, direct í¬ Öçõ‰ success.
I'd (I would) love it if I had a house in such
î√™« Ææ£æ«-ïçí¬ Öçô’ç-ü¿E ¢Á·ü¿-öÀ-†’ç* îÁ°æ‹hØË îª÷úøçúÕ áçûª simple Å®·-§Ú-®·çüÓ to hear a peaceful place = I'd (I would) love to have
ÖØ√oç. Ñ lesson ™ ÉC ´’®Ó-≤ƒJ îª÷ü∆lç. ûÓ infinitive ´©x. a house in...

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm


II Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ -¨¡-E¢√®Ωç 13 -¢Ë’ 2006
Sampurna: Here is the book you asked for yes-
terday
É°æpöÀ (present day) ¢√úøéπç (usage) ™ whom
(E†o †’´y-úÕ-T† °æ¤Ææhéπç ÉCíÓ) ¢√ú≈-Lq†îÓô who ¢√úË-Ææ’h-Ø√o®Ω’.
Who? = á´®Ω’?; whom? = á´-JE?
Prapurna: Happy it's here. Where did you find
a) Who did this? = ÉC á´®Ω’ î˨»®Ω’?
it?
b) Who sees such movies? =
(ÆæçûÓ≠æç. Fèπ◊ áéπ\úø éπE-°œç-*çC?) Å™«çöÀ ÆœE-´÷©’ á´®Ω’ îª÷≤ƒh®Ω’?
Sampurna: It was among the books you kept in
c) Whom do you know? = O’Èé-´®Ω’ ûÁ©’Ææ’?
the shelf.
d) With whom did you come?=
(shelf – Å™«t-®√™ †’´¤y °öÀd†
°æ¤Ææh鬙x ÖçC.) †’´¤y á´-JûÓ ´î√a´¤?
So we know the difference between who and
Prapurna: Oh I forgot to look for it there. b) He is a doctor. He charges high fees. (The books which you kept - old usage) =
whom, don't we?
Nirmala wanted it. fees shelf
Modern English ™ á´®Ω’? á´-JE? ÅØË È®çúø’ Çߪ’ØÓ ¢Ájü¿’uúø’. Åûªúø’ áèπ◊\´ BÆæ’-èπ◊ç-ö«úø’. †’´¤y ™ °öÀd† °æ¤Ææh-鬙x Öçü¿C.
(Åéπ\úø ¢Áü¿-éπôç ´’®Ω-*-§Úߪ÷. E®Ωt-©èπ◊ Å®√n-©-ûÓ†÷ who correct
¢√úË-Ææ’h-Ø√o®Ω’. ÅüË éπ©-°æçúÕ: 3) The girl I introduced to you
ÅC 鬢√Lq ´*açC.) èπÿú≈. He is a doctor who charges high fees. ؈’ Fèπ◊ °æJ-îªßª’ç îËÆœ† Å´÷t®·
Sampurna: Which Nirmala? c) She is a great doctor. Everyone likes her. (The girl whom (wrong)/ Who (right) I intro-
Study (°æJ-Q-Lç-îªçúÕ) the following:
Prapurna: The girl I introduced to you, the doctor. duced to you)
1. O’J-éπ\úø á´-JE éπ©-¢√-©-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o®Ω’? Ç¢Á’ íÌ°æp v°æA-¢√∞¡⁄x Ç¢Á’E É≠æd°æ-úø-û√®Ω’.
other day, on our way to the shop. 4) ... the girl you call college beauty? =
a) Whom do you want to meet here? éπ©-°æçúÕ:
(´’†ç ¢Á·ØÓo®ÓV† shop Èé∞¡Ÿh-†o-°æ¤púø’ She is a great doctor whom everyone likes. college beauty
(Old fashioned and incorrect. §ƒûª ¢√úø’éπ – ûª°æ¤p) †’´¤y ÅØË Å´÷t®·
Fèπ◊ ؈’ °æJ-îªßª’ç îËÆœ† Å´÷t®·.) b) Who do you want to meet here? 'whom'
Ééπ\úø correct,
äéπ-°æ¤púø’ whom É°æ¤púø’ ( the girl whom (wrong) / who (right) you call
The other day = ¢Á·ØÓo-®Ó-V† who college beauty?)
(Modern usage and correct. right).
É°æp-öÀ-¢√-úø’éπ – •ü¿’©’ ¢√úøû√ç.
Sampurna: Isn't that the girl you call the col- She is a great doctor who everyone likes. 5) ... but that (she) is also one you find to be
2. O’éÀ-éπ\úø á´®Ω’ ûÁ©’Ææ’? =
lege beauty? d) He is the person who I consult before taking very simple and humble =
a) Whom do you know here. (old fashioned
(†’´¤y college beauty ÅØËC Ç a decision. simple
and wrong) -E®Ωg-ߪ’ç BÆæ’-èπ◊-ØË-´·çü¿’ ؈’ í¬ Eí∫-Jyí¬ éπE-°œçîË Å´÷t®· èπÿú≈ ûªØË
Å´÷tßË’ éπü∆?) consult whom
îËÊÆC Çߪ’ØËo. (Ééπ\úø §ƒûª-•-úÕ- (she is also the girl whom (wrong)/ who
Prapurna: That she is. But that's also one you §Ú-®·çC.who correct.) (right) you find simple and humble)
find to be very simple and humble whom
Å®·ûË ã ´·êu¢Á’i† N≠æߪ’ç: É™«ç-öÀ-îÓôx 6) She is the one who all like =
too. ¢√úø-ôç-™‰ü¿’. ü∆E •ü¿’©’ who ¢√úø’-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’. Åçü¿®Ω÷ É≠æd-°æúË Å´÷t®· =
(Å´¤†’. Å®·ûË ÅüË Å´÷t®· î√™«
simple, Eí∫Jy èπÿú≈.)
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 155 É°æ¤púø’ È®çúÕç-öÀ™ àD ¢√úø-èπ◊çú≈ ´÷ö«x-úøôç
Ç¢Á÷-ü¿-ßÁ÷í∫uç.
She is the one all like (who
ûª°æ¤p)
Åéπ\-®Ω-™‰ü¿’, whom

humble= í∫®Ωyç ™‰èπ◊çú≈ Öçúøôç


Sampurna: She is the one who all like, you
said.
(Åçü¿®Ω÷ ¢Á’a-éÌ-ØËC Ç Å´÷t-®·ØË
ÅØ√o´¤ éπü∆ †’´¤y?)
Prapurna: She is getting married. Who do
Who do you know here?
you think she is going to marry?
(ûªy®Ω-™ØË Â°Rx îËÆæ’-éÓ-¶-ûÓçC. á´-JE b) Who do you know here? (Modern and correct) a) v°æA-¢√∞¡⁄x É≠æd-°æúË doctor 7) Who, do you think, she is going to marry? =
ņ’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o´¤?) 3. Ç¢Á’ á´JE Ææçv°æ-Cç-*çC? Ç¢Á’. Ç¢Á’ á´-JE °Rx îËÆæ’-éÓ-¶-ûÓç-ü¿-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o´¤?
Sampurna: Who do you take me for? Am I an (á´-JE ÅØ√o èπÿú≈ whom ®√ü¿’)
a) Whom did she consult? (Old fashioned She is a doctor every-
astrologer? How do I know unless 8) Who do you take me for? =
and wrong) one likes.
you tell me?
b) Who did she consult? (Modern and correct) îª÷¨»®√? Ééπ\úø every-
ØËØÁ-´-®ΩoE ņ’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o´¤?
(ØËØÁ-´-®Ωo-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o´¤? ñÆæ’u-úÕØ√ Now observe the following: (whom ®√ü¿’ – 'á´Jo— ņo-°æp-öÀéÃ)
one ´·çü¿’ who/
àN’öÀ? †’´¤y îÁ°æp-éπ-§ÚûË Ø√È陫 ûÁ©’- 1. 9) He is the one we sent pickles to =
O’®Ω’ ÆœE´÷èπ◊ á´-JûÓ ¢Á∞«}®Ω’? whom M. SURESAN (to whom
Ææ’hçC?) ™‰éπ-§Ú-´ôç. ÉD
Who did you go to the movie with? present usage.
´’†ç Ü®Ω-í¬-ߪ’©’ °æç°œ-†-ûª†’. ®√ü¿’)
Prapurna: My cousin Sravan.
(Old form and incorrect with whom did you b) EXERCISE
Sampurna: Do I know him? E®Ωgߪ’ç BÆæ’-èπ◊-ØË-´·çü¿’ ؈’ Ææçv°æ-CçîË ´uéÀh
go to the movie?)
(Åûªúø’ Ø√èπ◊ ûÁ©’≤ƒ?) 2.
Çߪ’†. Practise the following aloud in English
Prapurna: Yea. You met him last summer.
O’èπ◊ Ç Ææ´÷-î√®Ωç á´J †’ç* ´*açC? He is the person I consult before taking a
Who did you get the information from? Vasanth:E†o †’´¤y ´÷ö«x-úø’-ûª’-†o-üÁ-´-JûÓ?
Software engineer in the US. He is decision. (the person who/ whom I consult
(From whom did you get the information? Hemanth: †’´¤y ¢Á·†o chess ÇúÕ† ¨¡P-®˝ûÓ
the guy we sent pickles to, last who
ņ-ôç-™‰-C-°æ¤púø’. ¢√úÕûË ûª°æ¤p-™‰ü¿’)
wrong -old usage) Vasanth:´’ç* game Çúø-û√úø’. ؈’ ¢Á’a-éÌØË
month. Don't you remember? c) Secretary student
í¬ ¢√∞Îx-†’o-èπ◊-†oC Ç ØË.
3. †’´¤y á´-JE í∫’Jç* ´÷ö«x-úø’-ûª’-Ø√o¢˛? He is the student they have elected secretary
¢√∞¡x™ Åûª-ØÌ-éπúø’.
summer
(ûÁ©’Ææ’. §Ú®·† †’´y-ûª-úÕE Who are you talking about? Hemanth: î√™« ®Ω’èπ◊. Åûª†’ ÇúË game Å®Ωnç
îª÷¨»´¤. í∫’®Ω’hçü∆, éÀçü¿-öÀ-ØÁ© ÅûªúÕéÀ (student who/ whom who é¬ü¿’) ¢√úÌa.
(Old form and incorrect: About whom are d) teacher
îËÆæ’-éÓ-´ôç î√™« éπ≠dçæ . Å™«çöÀ game
´’†ç pickles = Ü®Ω-í¬-ߪ’©’ °æ秃ç) you talking?/ Whom are you talking about?)
؈’ ÅGµ´÷EçîË Çߪ’†
Çúø-û√-úø-ûª†’.
Sampurna: I remember him. He is the teacher I admire.
English con- Vasanth: †’´¤y î√™« ØË®Ω’a-éÓ-í∫© ¢√∞¡x™  Åûª-ØÌ-éπúø’.
´ ´ ´
ÉC î√™« ñ«ví∫-ûªhí¬ í∫’®Ω’hç--éÓ-¢√L (who/ whom who
é¬ü¿’. ¢√úø-´îª’a.)
versation ™. á´-JE ÅEquestions ÅúÕ-Íí-ô-III. Which Which
؈’ î√™« É≠æd-°æ-úË-¢√-∞¡x™ Åûª-ØÌ-éπúø’.
English conversation ™ whom, which Ö°æ- whom who
N≠æߪ’ç èπÿú≈ ÉçûË. èπÿú≈
Hemanth: ÅûªE ü¿í∫_-®Ωèπ◊ ͮ°-∞«l´÷?
ßÁ÷-í¬©’ î√™« interesting í¬ Öçö«®·.
°æ¤púø’ ™‰†õ‰x. ü∆E •ü¿’©’ ¢√úøôç È®çúø’ ´‚úø’ sentences äéπ-öÀí¬ éπ©-°æú≈EéÀ
correct. Vasanth: ÅûªE ´÷´’ Åçü¿®Ω÷ ¢Á’a-èπ◊ØË íÌ°æp
´·êuçí¬ questions. OöÀûÓ questions ÅúÕÍí a)
¢√úøû√ç.
lawyer. Çߪ’† Í®§Ò-Ææ’hØ√oúø’. ´’†ç
N≠æ-ߪ’ç™ î√™« ´÷®Ìp-*açC. ´’† conversa-
E†o †’´¤y á´-JûÓ ´÷ö«x-úø’-ûª’-Ø√o´¤? eg: He bought a car. It is blue.
Who were you talking to yesterday? Çߪ’† car éÌØ√oúø’. ÅC blue á©’xçúÕ ¢Á∞«lç.
tion, modern í¬ Öçú≈-©çõ‰ OöÀE áéπ\úø ¢√úø- (with/ to whom were you talking The car which he bought is blue. ANSWER
é¬ü¿’)
èπÿ-úøüÓ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-´ôç î√™« ´·êuç. b) Åûªúø’ á´-JE °Rx îËÆæ’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√oúø’? b) I gave you a book. It is my sister's.
I. Whom = á´-JE, á´-JéÀ (to ûÓ) – ÉC ´’†ç-ü¿-Jéà Who is he marrying? (FéÓ °æ¤Ææhéπç Éî√a†’. ÅC ´÷ sister C) Vasanth: Who were you talking to, yesterday?
ûÁ©’Ææ’. (Whom is he marrying? é¬ü¿’) The book which I gave you is my sister's. Hemanth: Sasir, you played chess with the day
1. Whom do you want to meet here? =
c) †’¢Áy-´-JéÀ Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç îËÆæ’h-Ø√o´¤? Modern conversation ™ °j sentences ™«çöÀ before.
O’J-éπ\úø á´-JE éπ©-¢√-©-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o®Ω’? Who are you helping?
2. Whom do you know here? = ¢√öÀ™x whom ™«í¬, which èπÿú≈ °æ‹Jhí¬ ´C-™‰- Vasanth: He plays a good game. He is among
(Whom are you helping é¬ü¿’) Ææ’h-Ø√o®Ω’. those I admire.
O’éÀ-éπ\úø á´®Ω’ ûÁ©’Ææ’? II. Who, whose, whom and which- ques-
3. Whom did she consult? =
OöÀE a) The car which he bought is blue = Hemanth: Quite smart/ sharp. Difficult to
tions sen-
understand the game he plays. He
Åúø-í∫-ö«-EÍé é¬èπ◊çú≈, È®çúø’ ´‚úø’
Ç¢Á’ á´-JE Ææçv°æ-Cç-*çC?
°j questions ™ ´’†Íéç N*vûªç ÅE-°œç-îªúøç tences sentence
†’ äéπ í¬ éπ©-°æ-ö«-EéÀ èπÿú≈ b) The car he bought is blue.
The book I gave you is my sister's plays such a game.
™‰ü¿’-éπü∆? Å´Fo questions. á´-JE ņ-ú≈-EéÀ ¢√úøû√ç.
sentences ØË Ñ lesson v§ƒ®Ωç-¶µºç™ Vasanth: He is one you can learn a lot from,
a) I saw a man. He was taller than six feet.
É™«çöÀ
English ™ whom ¢√úøû√ç. Å®·ûË Â°j Nüµ¿çí¬ and I like a lot.
Ææç°æ‹-®Ωgèπ◊, v°æ°æ‹-®Ωgèπ◊ ïJ-T† Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ îª÷úøçúÕ.
whom ûÓ questions Åúø-í∫ôç/ begin îËߪ’ôç ØËØÌéπ ´’E-≠œE îª÷¨»†’. Åûªúø’ Ç®Ωúø’-í∫’-©-éπçõ‰
Hemanth: Shall we go to him tomorrow?
áûª’h (í¬ ÖØ√oúø’). Ñ È®çúø’ sentences †’ äéπ- 1) Here is the book you asked for yesterday
°æ‹Jhí¬ old fashioned. English ÆæJí¬_ ´÷ö«x-úø’- Vasanth: His uncle is a lawyer everyone prais-
(The book which you asked for - old usage)
ûª’-†o-¢√-È®-´®Ω÷ Å™«çöÀ questions Åúø-í∫®Ω’. öÀí¬ îËü∆lç.
es. He is coming tomorrow. We will
á´-È®jØ√ Å™«çöÀ questions ÅúÕ-TûË Nçûªí¬ I saw a man who was taller than six feet = †’´¤y E†o-úÕ-T† °æ¤Ææhéπç ÉCíÓ.
(Ç®Ω-úø-í∫’-©-éπØ√o áèπ◊\´ áûªh-®·† ´’E-≠œE ؈’ îª÷¨»†’) 2) It was among the books you kept in the shelf. go the day after.
NE-°œ-Ææ’hçC speakers of modern English èπ◊.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm


II Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ -≤Ú-´’¢√®Ωç 15 -¢Ë’ 2006
Tarun: No bus is coming. No auto (is) in sight.
eg. a) To walk (†úø-´ôç) is good for health
So what are we going to do?
(Ç®Ó-í∫u-éπ®Ωç) = walking (†úø-´ôç) is good
(Bus àD ®√´ôç ™‰ü¿’. Auto Å®·Ø√ éπE-°œç- for health
îªôç ™‰ü¿’. àç îËü∆l-´’ç-ö«´¤?) b) To get up so early is not easy = getting
Kiran: Let's start walking. If we chance upon an up so early is not easy =
auto on the way we'll take it, or else I
don't mind walking the whole distance.
Åçûª ûªy®Ωí¬ Evü¿-™‰-´ôç Ææ’©¶µºç é¬ü¿’.
c) I hate to get up late =
(Å®·ûË †úø’ü∆lç. ´’üµ¿u™ Auto üÌJ-éÀûË Ç©-Ææuçí¬ Evü¿-™‰-´ôç ØËE-≠d-°æ æ-úø†’ =
ü∆E™ ¢Á∞«lç. ™‰èπ◊çõ‰ ¢Á·ûªhç ü¿÷®Ωç †úø-´-ö«-
Eéà Ø√éπ-¶µºuç-ûª®Ωç ™‰ü¿’.) I hate getting up late.
On the way = ü∆J™ d) He likes to swim in cold water = 6) I shall appreciate your walking =
2) I don't mind walking - verb mind ü∆E ûª®√yûª
Chance upon = ņ’-éÓ-èπ◊çú≈ éπE-°œç-îªúøç îªFo-∞¡x™ Ñü¿ôç Åûª-E-éÀ≠dçæ =
walking, '-ing' form. Mind Åçõ‰ Ŷµºuç-ûª®Ωç †’´¤y †úø-´ôç ؈’ ÆæçûÓ-≠œ-≤ƒh†’/ ¢Á’a-èπ◊ç-ö«†’.
Tarun:You talking of walking! That's surprising He likes swimming in cold water. appreciate + your walking ('-ing' form)
îÁ°æpôç.
since when did you start liking walking, í∫´’-Eçî√ç éπü∆ – Infinitive ¢√úË îÓôx '-ing'. I don't mind walking = She will appreciate your help =
buddy? °j sentences ™ äéπ N≠æߪ’ç ´·êuçí¬ †úø-´ôç Ø√éπ-¶µºuç-ûª-®Ωç-™‰ü¿’. F Ææ£æ…-ߪ÷Eo Ç¢Á’ £æ«J{-Ææ’hçC.
í∫´’-E≤ƒhç. sentences a), b) ™x Infinitive †÷, appreciate + help (noun)
(†’´¤y †úø’-ü∆l-´’ç-ô’-Ø√o¢√! Ǩ¡a-®Ωu¢Ë’! á°æp-öÀ- Mind ûª®√yûª á°æ¤púø÷ '-ing' form ´Ææ’hçC.
'-ing' form †÷ independent í¬ Åçõ‰ sen-
†’ç* †úøéπ O’ü¿ É≠ædç éπL-TçC Fèπ◊?) ™‰éπ-§ÚûË noun ´Ææ’hçC. Appreciate ûª®√yûª 'If' clause èπÿú≈ ¢√úøû√ç.
buddy = v°œßª’ N’vûª’-úÕE Ææç¶-CµçîË Nüµ∆†ç tence èπ◊ subject í¬ ¢√ú≈ç.
eg: I don't mind the expenditure = a) I shall appreciate if you walk
(American) ÅüË, c), d) ™x Infinitive †÷, '-ing' form †÷ b) I shall appreciate if you help me.
Kiran: Stop it. I've always liked walking. I avoid hate, like ™«çöÀ verbs ûª®√yûª ¢√ú≈ç éπü∆. Ç ê®Ω’a Ø√éπ-¶µºuç-ûª-®Ωç-™‰ü¿’ / ê®Ω’a N≠æߪ’ç
؈’ °æöÀdç--éÓ†’. Expenditure, noun éπü∆. a), b) ™x appreciate + 'if' clause.
walking only in hot sun or when I don't a), b) ™x ™«í¬ independent í¬ ¢√úË-ô-°æ¤púø’
infinitive †’ '-ing' form †÷ äéπ-ü∆E •ü¿’©’ '-ing' form ûÓ: I don't mind spending the 7) I hate backing out -
have the time.
ÉçéÌ-éπöÀ á°æ¤p-úÁjØ√ ¢√úÌa. money = ¢Á†-éπ-úø’í∫’ ¢Ëߪ’ôç Ø√éÀ-≠dçæ -™‰ü¿’ =
a) To waste time/ wasting time is never Ç úø•’s ê®Ω’a-°-ôdôç Ø√Íéç ¶«üµ¿-é¬ü¿’. I hate to back out (hate + infinitive). hate
good Mind °æéπ\† 'if' clause ´Ææ’hçC. ûª®√yûª È®çúø÷, Åçõ‰ Infinitive, '-ing' form

-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 156 b) To walk alone/ walking alone at midnight He doesn't mind if I use his bike = ¢√úø-´îª’a—
is not always safe = ÅûªúÕ bike ؈’ ¢√úø’-èπ◊çõ‰ ÅûªØËç ņ’-éÓúø’. 8) You waste time talking - Ééπ\úø èπÿú≈ waste
ûª®√yûª àC waste îË≤ƒh¢Á÷ ü∆Eo îÁ°œp, Ç ûª®√yûª
'ing' form´Ææ’hçC.
a) He wastes time talking about others =

She likes dancing Éûª-®Ω’-©†’ í∫’Jç* ´÷ö«x-úø’ûª÷


îË≤ƒhúø’.
b) He wastes money indulging in luxuries =
time waste

N™«-≤ƒ™x §ƒ™Ô_çô÷ üµ¿†ç ´%ü∑∆ îË≤ƒhúø’.


Ééπ\úø infinitive ®√ü¿’.
(Ééπ Ç°æ¤. Ø√èπ◊ †úø-éπçõ‰ á°æ¤púø÷ É≠æd¢Ë’. Å®Ωl¥-®√-vA-°æ‹ô äçô-Jí¬ é¬•öÀd 'mind'
°æéπ\† '-ing' form / noun/ 'if'
clause ´≤ƒh®·. infinitive ´÷vûªç ®√ü¿’. Practise the following aloud in English
¶«í¬ áçúøí¬ Ö†o-°æ¤púø’, Ø√èπ◊ time ™‰†-°æ¤úø’ †úø-´ôç Íé~´’ç é¬ü¿’.
´÷vûª¢Ë’ †úøéπ ´÷†-û√†’.) Å®·ûË (c), (d) © Sentence No 3 ™ 'avoid' ûª®√yûª èπÿú≈ 'ing' form Laxman: Hi Arjun,
àçöÀ N¨Ï-≥ƒ©÷?
Avoid = ´÷†ôç!/ îËߪ’-èπ◊çú≈ Öçúøôç ™«çöÀ sentences ™ é¬F, noun é¬F ´Ææ’hçC. infinitive ®√ü¿’. [avoid Arjun:
àüÓ Å™« ïJ-T-§Ú-ûÓçC. F îËA™ Ç
Tarun:Ok. Let's stop arguing. Come, let's enjoy éÌEo verbs °æéπ\ØË = (àüÁjØ√ °æE) îËߪ’-èπ◊çú≈ Öçúøôç] °æ¤Ææhéπç àçöÀ?
walking. As you said I shall appreciate infinitive, '-ing' form a) I avoid walking ('-'ing' form) = Laxman: àüÓ detective novel. Åô’-´ç-öÀN îªü¿-
your walking the whole distance. ´÷Ja ¢√úø-í∫©ç. éÌEo ؈’ †úø-´ôç ´÷†’-èπ◊çö«. ´ôç FéÀ-≠dçæ -™‰-ü¿’-éπü∆?
(ÆæÍ®x. ´’†ç ¢√Cç-îªúøç Ç°œ †úøéπ†’ enjoy Éûª®Ω verbs, expres- M. SURESAN b) He avoids Govind because he owes him Arjun: Correct. †’¢Áyç-ü¿’èπ◊ Å™«ç-öÀN îªü¿’-´¤ûª÷
îËü∆lç. †’´y-†oô’d Åçûª ü¿÷®Ω´‚ †úÕÊÆh sions °æéπ\† Infinitive money. time waste îËÆæ’-èπ◊ç-ö«´¤? ¢√öÀ-éπçõ‰
Ø√èπ◊ ÆæçûÓ-≠æ¢Ë’/ E†’o ¢Á’a-èπ◊çö«.) †’ ´÷vûª¢Ë’ é¬F, '-ing' form †’ ´÷vûª¢Ë’ é¬E (Åûªúø’ Govind èπ◊ Å°æ¤p-Ø√oúø’ 鬕öÀd îª÷úø-èπ◊çú≈ ´’ç* novels î√™« ÖØ√o®· éπü∆?
Appreciate = ÆæçûÓ-≠œç-îªôç/ ¢Á’a-éÓ-´ôç ¢√úø-í∫©ç. éÀçC verbs °æéπ\† È®çúø÷ ¢√úø-í∫©ç. ûª°œpç-èπ◊ A®Ω’-í∫’-ûª’-Ø√oúø’) Laxman: Eï¢Ë’. é¬F OöÀE îªü¿-´-ö«-EÍé ؈’ áèπ◊\´
Kiran: Come on. Let's start. I hate backing out. 1) Start 2) begin 3) like 4) dislike 5) love Ééπ\úø avoid = äéπ-JE îª÷úø-èπ◊çú≈ / éπ©’-Ææ’-éÓ- É≠æd-°æ-úø-û√†’. Serious novels îªü¿-´ôç
6) hate 7) remember 8) forget 9) propose, etc. èπ◊çú≈ Öçúøôç. ؈’ avoid îË≤ƒh†’. Åçûª concentrate
(°æü¿, •ßª’-™‰l-®Ωü∆ç. ¢Á†éÀ\ ûªí∫_ôç Åçõ‰ Ø√èπ◊
É≠ædç Öçúøü¿’.) 1) He started to sing/ started singing Why are you avoiding me? = îËߪ’-™‰†’ ؈’.
Tarun:You waste time talking. Show it in action. §ƒúøôç ¢Á·ü¿-©’-°-ö«dúø’ áçü¿’èπ◊ ††’o îª÷úø-èπ◊çú≈ ÖØ√o´¤? Arjun: Åçû√ Å©-¢√-ô’†’ •öÀd Öçô’çC. îªü¿-
Start walking 2) She began to run = she began running = Ééπ\úø avoid ûª®√yûª Govind ÅØËC noun éπü∆. ´ôç v§ƒ®Ωç-Gµç. ¢√öÀE É≠æd-°æ-úøôç ¢Á·ü¿-
(´÷ô-©ûÓ time ´%ü∑∆ îËÆæ’h-Ø√o´¤. Ωu™ °æ®Ω’í∫’ ¢Á·ü¿™„-öÀdçC Avoid ûª®√yûª '-ing form'/ noun ´≤ƒh®·. infini-
©-´¤-ûª’çC.
3) She likes to dance = She likes dancing = Laxman:
tive ¢√úøç.
îª÷°œç. †úøéπ v§ƒ®Ωç-Gµç) ÅD v°æߪ’-Aoç-î√†’. é¬E É≠æd-°æ-úø-™‰-éπ-§Ú-
Kiran: Ok. I am off. Whoever first stops walking Ø√ôuç îËߪ’ôç Ç¢Á’-éÀ≠dçæ c) she always avoids classes (noun) in the
ߪ ÷ †’.
shall stand the other a drink, ok? 4) She loves to cook = She loves cooking = Arjun:
after noon =
´’S} v°æߪ’-Aoç.
(ÉCíÓ •ßª’-™‰l-®√†’. †úøéπ á´®Ω’ Ç°æ¤-û√®Ó ´çô îËߪ’ôç Ç¢Á’èπ◊ î√™« É≠ædç Ç¢Á’ ´’üµ∆u£æ«oç ûª®Ω-í∫-ûª’-©èπ◊ á°æ¤púø÷ ®√ü¿’. ANSWER
¢√∞¡Ÿx Å´-ûª-L-¢√-JéÀ drink É°œpç-î√L, ÆæÍ®Ø√?) Å™«Íí N’í∫-û√-¢√-öÀûÓ èπÿú≈ Åçõ‰ 4) dislike Sentence 4) Stop arguing - stop ûª®√yûª èπÿú≈ Laxman: Hi Arjun, what news? / what's new?
stand a drink/ a dinner/ party, etc. = drink, 6) hate 7) remember 8) forget and 9) pro- noun/ ing form ´÷vûª¢Ë’ ´≤ƒh®·. infinitive ®√ü¿’.
Arjun: Just getting on. What's that book in
dinner, party, etc É°œpç-îªúøç) pose (v°æA-§ƒ-Cç-îªôç). Ç verbs °æéπ\† infini- a) He stopped singing - §ƒúøôç ÇÊ°-¨»úø’ your hand?
Tarun:I am game for it. tive, '-ing' form È®çúø÷ ´≤ƒhßË’¢Á÷ îª÷úøçúÕ. stopped + singing ('-ing' form) Laxman: Some detective novel. (Some= àüÓ).
(؈ç-ü¿’èπ◊ Æœü¿l¥¢Ë’.) Now look at the following sentences from b) He stopped the song in the middle = You don't like reading such books, do
J J J the conversation between Tarun and Kiran §ƒô ´’üµ¿u™ ÇÊ°-¨»úø’ you? / You don't like to read such
English verbs
™ ÅEo ¢√úøéπç äÍ陫 Öçúøü¿’. at the beginning of the lesson. stopped + the song (noun) books, do you?
éÀçü¿öÀlesson ™ îª÷¨»ç éπü∆– Infinitive ¢√úÕ 1) Let's start walking. Ééπ\úø èπÿú≈ 'stop' ûª®√yûª infinitive ®√ü¿’. Arjun: Correct. Why do you waste time
clauses †’ ´C-Lç--èπ◊çõ‰ ´’† conversation 2) I don't mind walking... Sentence No. 5 reading them? Aren't there better
î√™« simple natural
í¬, í¬ Öçô’ç-ü¿E. Å™«Íí 3) I avoid walking 'Enjoy' too is followed either by the '-ing' form books than they?
éÌEo éÌEo verbs ûª®√yûª '-ing' form ¢√úÕûË 4) Let's stop arguing or a noun, but not by the infinitive. Laxman: True. But I love reading / I love to
conversation, bookish (ví¬çC∑-éπç)í¬ é¬èπ◊çú≈ 5) Let's enjoy walking Let's enjoy walking - enjoy + walking ('-ing' read these. I avoid reading serious
¢√u´-£æ…-J-éπçí¬ N†-≤Òç-°æ¤í¬ Öçô’çC. form) novels. I cannot concentrate so
6) ... I shall appreciate your walking
éÌEo éÌEo Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x infinitive •ü¿’©’ '-ing 7) I hate backing out a) I enjoy music = ؈’ ÆæçU-û√Eo enjoy îË≤ƒh†’ much.
form (going, coming, walking ™«çöÀN) Arjun: It's all a matter of habit. Begin reading
enjoy + music (noun)
¢√úø-û√®Ω’. ÉN èπÿú≈ sentence §ÒöÀd îËߪ’-ö«-EéÀ 8) You waste time talking b) She enjoys reading books =
them/ Begin to read them. You begin
Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í∫-°æ-úø-û√®·. Infinitive (to + 1st RDW) èπ◊ Look at sentence No 1. The verb 'start' has 'ing' liking them./ You begin to like them.
Ö†o Å®√n™x äéπöÀ ®√ߪ’ôç, A†ôç, ØË®Ω’a-éÓ-´ôç after it. °æ¤Ææh-鬩’ îªü¿-´ôç Ç¢Á’-éÀ≠dçæ Laxman: I tried but I could not like them.
(to write, to eat, to learn) éπü∆. ÉüË Å®ΩnçûÓ 'start' ûª®√yûª infinitive Å®·Ø√, '-ing' form Å®·Ø√ enjoy + reading ('-ing' form). enjoy ûª®√yûª Arjun: Try once again.
'-ing' form ¢√úÌa. ¢√úÌa ÅE îª÷¨»ç éπü∆. infinitive ®√ü¿’.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm


II Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ -•’-üµ¿¢√®Ωç 17 -¢Ë’ 2006
Raghav: Hi Madhav, how are you? You appear 2) ... and I gave up smoking.
much better than last week. There is 3) So (do) you deny smoking any more?
surely some improvement in your 4) Do you think I am a fool to go on doing some
health. thing...
(ᙫ ÖØ√o´¤? í∫ûª ¢√®Ωç éπçõ‰ ¢Á’®Ω’í¬_ 5) ... I couldn't help feeling...
éπE-°œ-Ææ’h-Ø√o´¤. éπ*aûªçí¬ F Ç®Óí∫uç °æ¤çV- 6) I now practise swimming too.
èπ◊-†o-ô’dçC) O’®Ω’ í∫´’-Eç-î√®Ω’ éπü∆. °j sentences ™E
Madhav: You can say that. I feel much better verbs ÅEoçöÀ °æéπ\Ø√ '-ing' form ®√´ôç. ÉC
now. conversation ™ ®Ωéπ-®Ω-鬩 ¶µ«¢√-©†’ simple í¬
(Eï¢Ë’. É°æ¤púø’ î√™« ¶«í∫’-Ø√o†’, Éçûª-èπ◊- express îËߪ’-ö«-EéÀ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í∫-°æ-úø’-ûª’çC. O’ con-
´·ç-ü¿’-éπçõ‰) versation ™ practice îËߪ’çúÕ. b) Dushyanta denied seeing Sakuntala or lov- b) She cannot help spending this money, if she
You can say that = Å™« †’´¤y îÁ§Òpa = 1) I don't recollect seeing you = E†o™« îª÷úøôç ing her = ü¿’≠æuç-ûª’úø’ ¨¡èπ◊ç-ûª-©†’ îª÷úøôç é¬F, wants to learn music = Ç¢Á’ ÆæçUûªç ØË®Ω’a-éÓ-¢√-
†’´¤y éπ®ΩÍéd Ø√èπ◊ í∫’®Ω’hèπ◊ ®√´ôç ™‰ü¿’.(Remember = ´’†èπ◊ vÊ°N’ç-îªôç é¬F îËߪ’-™‰-ü¿-Ø√oúø’. ©çõ‰ ê®Ω’a-°-ôdúøç ûª°æpü¿’. (Spending
ê®Ω’a-
Raghav: What's that due to? I don't recollect í∫’®Ω’hèπ◊ ®√´ôç. Recollect/ recall = ´’†ç v°æߪ’- denied + seeing or loving - '-ing' forms. °-ôdúøç – '-ing' form).
seeing you earlier as fit as you are Aoç* í∫’®Ω’hèπ◊ ûÁa-éÓ-´ôç.) c) She denied the truth in his statement = Ç¢Á’ c) They cannot help the trip if they want to have
today. a) I remember seeing him somewhere = Åûª-úÕ-E ÅûªE ´÷ô™x Eïç ™‰ü¿çC. a darsanam = ü¿®Ωz†ç 鬢√-©çõ‰ ¢√∞¡xéà v°æߪ÷ùç
(àçöÀ 鬮Ωùç? É¢√∞¡ éπ†p-úø’-ûª’†oçûª ØËØÁ-éπ\úÓ îª÷Æœ-†ô’x í∫’®Ìh-≤ÚhçC. (´’† v°æߪ’ûªoç denied + truth - noun. ûª°æpü¿’. (cannot help + the trip (noun))
Ç®Óí∫uçí¬ Éçûª-èπ◊-´·ç-üÁ-°æ¤púø÷ îª÷Æœ-†ô’x ™‰ü¿’) d) The minister denies his statement = ´’çvA d) They cannot help going on the trip if they
í∫’®Ω’h-™‰ü¿’.) b) Let me recollect where I saw him = áéπ\úø ûª† ´÷ô©†’ é¬ü¿ç-ô’-Ø√o®Ω’ (ņ-™‰-ü¿ç-ô’-Ø√o®Ω’). want a darsanam = ü¿®Ωz†ç 鬢√-©çõ‰ v°æߪ÷ùç
recollect = í∫’®Ω’h ûÁa-éÓ-´ôç.fit = Ç®Óí∫uçí¬ îª÷¨»ØÓ í∫’®Ω’h ûÁa-éÓF (´’† v°æߪ’ûªoç). e) The minister denies the media reports = îËߪ’ôç ûª°æpü¿’. (cannot help + going on the
trip (-ing form))
Öçúøôç c) He recalled later that she owed him money = O’úÕߪ÷ ¢√®Ωh©†’ ´’çvA é¬ü¿ç-ô’-Ø√o®Ω’.
Madhav: Thanks to my doctor. He insisted on ûª†-鬢Á’ ¶«éà ֆoô’x Çߪ’† í∫’®Ω’h ûÁa-èπ◊-Ø√oúø’ denied + the reports (noun) 6) Practise
èπÿú≈ ÅçûË: Practise Åçõ‰ Ŷµºu-Æœç-îªôç.
my giving up smoking, and I gave up DE ûª®√yûªèπÿú≈ noun/ '... ing' form ´Ææ’hçC.
(Çߪ’† v°æߪ’ûªoç) 4) Do you think I am a fool to go on doing some-
smoking, though I found it difficult in thing... = ÅC îËÆæ÷h Öçúø-ö«-EéÀ ؈’ ´‚®Ω’^-úøo-†’- I practise swimming = Ñûª practise îË≤ƒh†’.
the beginning. èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o¢√? (practise + swimming - '-ing' form)
(Åçû√ ´÷ ú≈éπd®˝ ´©x. ؈’ smoking to go on = (ã °æE) îËÆæ÷h Öçúøôç. go on a) She practises running everyday = Ç¢Á’ ®ÓW
practise
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 157
´÷ØË-ߪ÷-©E °æô’d-•-ö«dúø’. ¢Á·ü¿öx éÌçîÁç ûª®√yûª èπÿú≈, îËÆæ÷h Öçúøôç ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ '–ing °æ®Ω’í∫’ îËÆæ’hçC.
éπ≠d-¢æ Á’i-†-°æp-öÀéà ´÷Ø˨».) form' ´÷vûª¢Ë’ ´Ææ’hçC. (practises + running - '-ing' form)
Thanks to my doctor = ´÷ doctor ´©x.
'´©x— ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ Thanks to ¢√úÌa, ´’ç*
ïJ-TØ√, îÁúø’ ïJ-TØ√. He died, thanks to
the doctor's negligence - ¢√úø’ îªE-§Ú-
ߪ÷úø’, doctor -E®Ωxéπ~uç ´©x
Raghav: So (do) you deny smoking anymore?
(Å®·ûË, †’´¤y smoking îËߪ’ôç ™‰ü¿ç-ô’-
Let me recollect where I..
Ø√o¢√?)
deny - é¬ü¿-†ôç/ ™‰ü¿-†ôç a) Though defeated, he b) She practises music = ÆæçUûªç Ŷµºu-Æœ-Ææ’hçC.
Å®·ûË 'Try to remember' ņôç ¢√úø’éπ, í∫’®Ω’h (practises + music - noun)
Madhav: Do you think I'm a fool to go on doing ûÁa-éÌ-ØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ v°æߪ’-Aoç, ÅØË Å®Ωnç™ Å°æ¤p-úø- goes on arguing ãúÕ-
something that costs my life? So, É™«çöÀ verbs ñ«ví∫-ûªhí¬ practice îËߪ’çúÕ.
°æ¤púø’ ´’†ç èπÿú≈ ÉC ¢√úø’-ûª’çö«ç éπü∆? Try §Ú-®·Ø√, ¢√C-Ææ÷hØË
EXERCISE
(Ø√ v§ƒù«-EÍé £æ…E éπL-TçîË °æE îËÆæ÷hç-úø- as I might, I am unable to remember if he
Öçö«-ú≈-ߪ’†.
ö«-EéÀ ØËØË-´’Ø√o ´‚®Ω’^-úÕØ√?) I don't came here that day = b) In spite of the doc-
áçûª v°æߪ’-Aoç-*Ø√
tor's advice, he goes Practise the following aloud in English:
fear death but I don't like dying of ñ«c°æéπç ûÁa-éÓ-™‰-éπ-§Ú-ûª’Ø√o, Åûª-Ø√-®ÓV Ééπ\-úÕ-éÌ-
cancer. ( ؈’ î√´¤èπ◊ ¶µºßª’-°æ-úø†’, é¬E on smoking = Doctor Mithun:
Åûª-EûÓ áçü¿’èπ◊ ´÷ö«x-úø-û√´¤? Åûª†’
î√aú≈, ™‰ü∆ ÅE. smoke
cancer ûÓ î√´ôç Ø√éÀ≠dçæ ™‰ü¿’) Recollect ûª®√yûª noun èπÿú≈ ¢√úøû√ç. '-ing'
´ü¿lØ√o, Åûª†’ M. SURESAN á´®Ω’ îÁ°œpØ√ N†úø’.
Raghav: Happy to hear that. Whenever I saw form ´÷vûª¢Ë’ é¬èπ◊çú≈.
îËÆæ÷hØË ÖØ√oúø’. Sachin: Ø√èπ◊ ûª°æpü¿’. ¢√úÕ ü¿í∫_®Ω Ø√ books
lighting a cigarette I couldn't help feel- c) He goes on talking, whether others listen to ÖØ√o®·. ÅN ´îËa-´-®Ωèπ◊ ¢√úÕûÓ friendly
I recollected the events of the day =Ç ®ÓV him or not = Åûª†’ îÁÊ°pC Éûª-®Ω’©’ Nçô’Ø√o
ing you were burning out your life í¬ØË Öçú≈L.
Ææç°∂æ’-ô-†©’ ؈’ í∫’®Ω’hèπ◊ ûÁa-èπ◊Ø√o. events =
(ÆæçûÓ≠æç. †’´¤y á°æ¤púø’ cigarette Ææç°∂æ’-ô-†©’ - Noun.
N†-éπ-§Ú-®·Ø√, ´÷ö«x-úø’-ûª÷ØË Öçö«úø’. Mithun: Å™«ç-öÀ-¢√-úøE ûÁLÆœ èπÿú≈ †’´¤y ¢√úÕéÀ
´·öÀdç-îªúøç îª÷ÆœØ√, †’´¤y F v§ƒù«Lo a) goes on + arguing ('-ing' form)
2) ... and I gave up smoking = ؈’ smoking
°æ¤Ææh-é¬-™„ç-ü¿’-éÀÆæ÷h Öçö«´¤?
b) goes on + smoking ('-ing' form)
ûªí∫-©-¶„-ô’d-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o-´ØË ¶µ«´ç Ø√™ Sachin: °æ¤Ææh-鬩’ BÆæ’-èπ◊çõ‰ AJ-T-´y-úøØË ´÷ô é¬ü¿-
´÷†’-èπ◊Ø√o. c) goes on + talking ('-ing' form)
ûªÊ°p-C-é¬ü¿’)
give up = ´÷ØË-ߪ’ôç/ ´ü¿-©’-éÓ-´ôç (°æü¿-´¤©’, d) They went on shouting and throwing stones
†ôç ™‰ü¿’. é¬F ¢√∞¡x†o Ø√èπ◊ ´’ç* friend.
Madhav: I now practise swimming too. Every Mithun: †’´¤y ¢√úÕûÓ ´÷ö«x-úøôç ´÷†’-èπ◊çõ‰ °æ¤Ææh-
morning I go swimming. Å©-¢√-ôx-™«çöÀ ¢√öÀE) at the police = ¢√∞¡Ÿx Å®Ω’-Ææ÷hØË ÖØ√o®Ω’, Police
give up ûª®√yûª èπÿú≈ '-ing' form é¬F, noun é¬F © O’ü¿ ®√∞¡Ÿx ®Ω’´¤y-ûª÷ØË ÖØ√o®Ω’. (Past) é¬-L-´y-éπ\-®Ω-™‰-ü¿’í¬. (give up ¢√úøçúÕ)
(É°æ¤púø’ Ñûª èπÿú≈ practise îËÆæ’hØ√o.
¢√úøû√ç. (noun Åçõ‰ ´’Sx í∫’®Ω’h ûÁa-èπ◊çü∆ç.. Went on (past of go on) + shouting and Sachin: ¢√∞¡x†o BÆæ’-èπ◊†o °æ¤Ææh-é¬-L-´y-ôç™ Éçûª
®ÓW ÑûªÈé∞¡ŸhØ√o)
à Ê°È®jØ√ noun.) throwing ('-ing' forms) Ç©Ææuç îËߪ’ôç Ø√èπ◊ í∫’®Ω’h-™‰ü¿’.
Raghav: Good. Though late you've given up
a) I gave up smoking = smoking ´÷†’-èπ◊-Ø√o†’. Å®·ûË go on ûª®√yûª 'with' ¢√úÕûË noun ´Ææ’hçC. Mithun: Éü¿l-Jéà §ÚL-Íé-™‰ü¿’.
smoking. Better late than never.
smoking '-ing' form a) She went on with her studies in spite of dis- ANSWER
(¶«í∫’çC. Ç©Ææuçí¬ØÁjØ√ smoking ´÷†’-
turbances = Disturbances
b) I gave up cigarettes = cigarettes ´÷†’-èπ◊Ø√o.- Ö†o-°æp-öÀéà ûª†
èπ◊-Ø√o´¤. ÅÆæ©’ ´÷†-èπ◊çú≈ Öçúøôç éπØ√o
îªü¿’´¤ é̆-≤ƒ-Tç-*çC. Mithun: Why do you talk to him? He never lis-
Ç©Ææuçí¬ ´÷†ôç †ßª’ç éπü∆.) cigarettes - noun. ten to anyone.
b) They go on with their work whatever the trou-
Better late than never = ÉC English™ ≤ƒüµ∆- c) Harischandra gave up his throne for the sake
ble = àtrouble ÖØ√o ¢√∞¡x °æE ¢√∞¡Ÿx îËÆæ’-èπ◊- Sachin: I can't help talking to him. He has my
®Ωùçí¬ Åçô’ç-ö«®Ω’. Å®Ωnç: äéπ °æE ÅÆæ©’ of truth : £æ«J-¨¡aç-vü¿’úø’ Ææûªuç éÓÆæç Æœç£æ…-Ææ-Ø√Eo books. Until I get them back, I have to
îËߪ’-èπ◊çú≈ ÖçúË-éπØ√o Ç©Ææuçí¬ îËߪ’ôç §Ú-û√®Ω’.
´C-™‰-¨»úø’. a) Went on with + studies (noun) be friendly with him.
´’ç*C éπü∆ ÅE. Throne = Æœç£æ…-Ææ†ç - Noun. Mithun: Why do you go on giving him books,
b) go on with their work [with + work (n)]
[[[ d) He was a fool to give up the job = job Ç 5) I could not help feeling... = ņ’-éÓ-´ôç ûª°æp- when you know that he is that type?
í∫ûª È®çúø’ ´‚úø’ lessons ™ ´’†ç infinitives, Job - noun.
´ü¿’-©’-èπ◊-Ø√o-úø-ûª†’ – ´‚®Ω’^úø’. ™‰ü¿’. Ñ expression é¬Ææh ñ«ví∫-ûªhí¬ í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ: Sachin: I don't deny his not returning the books
'-ing' forms í∫’Jç* îªJa-Ææ’hØ√oç éπü∆. We have 3) (Do) you deny smoking anymore? I cannot help going now = É°æ¤púø’ Ø√èπ◊ ¢Á∞¡xéπ he takes, but his brother is a good
seen how certain verbs are always followed
= †’´¤y Ééπ smoke îËߪ’ôç ™‰ü¿ç-ö«¢√? ûª°æpü¿’. (Ééπ\úø ¢√úÕ† help èπÿ, Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç ÅØË friend of mine. (I don't deny that he
by an Infinitive/ -ing form /noun/ an if clause,
deny + smoking. '-ing' form. cannot help
Å®√n-EéÀ Ææç•çüµ¿ç ™‰ü¿’– Ééπ\úø éπL°œ does not return the books he takes...)
or just by an '-ing' form.
Now let's see some more verbs followed by deny = é¬ü¿-†ôç/ ™‰ü¿-†ôç. DE ûª®√yûª èπÿú≈ '- ¢√úøû√ç– Å®Ωnç – 'ûª°æpü¿’— ÅE). Mithun: If you give up talking to him you need
ing' form é¬F, noun é¬F ´Ææ’hçC. That clause I could not help feeling = ņ’-éÓ-´ôç ûª°æp-™‰ü¿’. not lend him books.
the '-ing' form/ noun.
Ñ cannot help °æéπ\† èπÿú≈ '-ing' form é¬F, Sachin: I don't remember his brother delaying
Look at these following sentences from the èπÿú≈ ´Ææ’hçC.
noun é¬F ´Ææ’hçC.
conversation between Raghav and Madhav. a) He denied stealing the pen = ûª†’ Ç pen the return of books.
a) She cannot help the expenditure if she wants
1) I don't recollect seeing you earlier as fit as üÌçT-Lç-îª-™‰-ü¿-Ø√oúø’. Mithun: They are very unlike each other.
to learn music = ÆæçUûªç ØË®Ω’a-éÓ-¢√-©çõ‰ Ç¢Á’éÃ
you are now. denied + stealing - stealing '-ing' form.
(expenditure =
ê®Ω’a ûª°æpü¿’. noun).
ê®Ω’a –
Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
II Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ -¨¡Ÿ-véπ¢√®Ωç 19 -¢Ë’ 2006
Pranuthi: Hi Sumathi, (it's a) pleasure seeing We have been discussing the use of the
you, though after a long time. How's '-ing' form for some time now, haven't we?
everybody? We have seen so far the verbs which are
(î√™«-鬩ç ûª®√yûª®·Ø√ E†’o éπ©’-Ææ’- followed by the '-ing' forms.
èπ◊-†oç-ü¿’èπ◊ ÆæçûÓ≠æç. Åçû√ èπ◊¨¡-©-¢Ë’Ø√?) äéπ verbs ´÷vûª¢Ë’ é¬èπ◊çú≈, éÌEo Éûª®Ω expres-
Sumathi: Everybody is OK. (It's) nice seeing sions ûª®√yûª èπÿú≈ '-ing' forms ¢√úø’-ûª’ç-ö«®Ω’.
you too. ÉC ´’† conversations ÆæçéÀ~-°æhçí¬ Öçúø-ö«-EéÀ
(Åçû√ Íé~´’ç. E†’o îª÷úøôç èπÿú≈ Ø√èπ◊ ≤ƒßª’-°æ-úø’-ûª’çC.
džçü¿çí¬ ÖçC) Ç expressions éÌEo ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊çü∆ç.
Pranuthi: What's (What has) kept you away so Now, Look at the following sentences from the
long? dialogue between Pranuthi and Sumathi above. b) She had a lot of difficulty understanding what
a) He delayed taking a decision = E®Ωgߪ’ç
1. (It's a) pleasure seeing you, though after a he had said =Åûª†’ îÁ°œpçC Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’-éÓ-´ôç
(†’Ny-Eo-®Ó-V©’ áçü¿’èπ◊ ††’o éπ©-´-™‰ü¿’/ taking - '-ing' form
BÆæ’-éÓ-´ôç™ ñ«°æuç î˨»úø’.
long time. Ç¢Á’èπ◊ î√™« éπ≠d-´æ ’-®·çC.
îª÷úø-™‰ü¿’/ à¢Á’içCEo ®ÓV©’?) b) They delayed coming to an agreement =
Sumathi: You know I'd been very busy prepar- 2. (It's) nice seeing you too
ä°æpçü¿ç èπ◊ü¿’-®Ω’a-éÓ-´-ôç™ ñ«°æuç î˨»®Ω’. É™« difficulty ûª®√yûª '-ing' form ´Ææ’hçC.
ing for the civils. I sat the last exam 3. I've been very busy preparing for the civils
í∫ûªç™ îª÷¨»ç, delay ûª®√yûª noun èπÿú≈ ¢√úÌ-îªaE. (äéÌ\-éπ\-°æ¤púø’ difficulty + in + ing form èπÿú≈
the day before (yesterday). It's off my 4. I think you delayed taking the exams
c) The government delayed the project =
´Ææ’hçC. é¬F É°æ¤p-úÕC Å®Ω’ü¿’, 'in' ´C-™‰-Ææ’h-Ø√o®Ω’)
mind now. Oh, what a relief! 5. It's not easy preparing for the exam 9) ... the results are long coming =
(Fèπ◊ ûÁ©’-Ææ’í¬ Øˆ’ civils (= IAS, IPS, v°æ¶µº’ûªyç project †’ Ç©Ææuç îËÆœçC. long + coming ('-ing' form) = Ç©-Ææu-´’-´¤-û√®·.
6. ... there is no knowing what happens.. d) They delayed the completion of the bridge =
etc., exams) ûÓ BJé𠙉èπ◊çú≈ ÖØ√o†’. 7. Civils are always worth trying a) He was long/ He took long buying a house =
Bridge °æ‹-Jh-îË-ߪ’-ö«-Eo ¢√∞¡Ÿx Ç©Ææuç î˨»®Ω’.
¢Á·†o *´J exam ®√¨»†’. Å®·- 8. ... candidates have difficulty making it to the top. É©’x é̆ôç ñ«°æuç î˨»úø’.
(c), (d) ©™ delayed ûª®√yûª, project, com-
§Ú-®·çC. áçûª £æ…®·í¬ ÖçüÓ!) 9. Sometimes the results are long coming. b) I won't be long coming = ؈’ ®√´ôç Ç©Ææuç
Pranuthi: I think you delayed taking the exams. pletion, È®çúø÷ nouns éπü∆.
1. It's a pleasure seeing you, though after a
îËߪ’†’. (long + coming -ing form)
You should have attempted them last 5. It's not easy preparing for the civils =
long time. c) He took long deciding what to do àç îËߪ÷™
year itself. civils èπ◊ prepare Å´ôç Ææ’©¶µºç é¬ü¿’.
2. It's nice seeing you
E®Ωg-®·ç--éÓ-´-ö«-EéÀ î√™« time BÆæ’-èπ◊-Ø√oúø’.
Preparing- 'ing' form)
(†’´¤y Ç©Ææuç î˨»´¤. †’´¤y §Ú®·† too. pleasure/ ÉC modern English conversation ™ î√™«
a) It is easy convincing mother = Å´’tèπ◊ †îªa-
Ééπ\úø
Ææç´-ûªq-®Ω¢Ë’ ®√Ææ’ç-ú≈-LqçC.) nice °æéπ\†'-ing' form common.
(last year itself = í∫ûª Ææç´-ûªq-®Ω¢Ë’)
¢√úøéπç í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ. îÁ-°æpôç Ææ’©¶µºç= It is easy to convince moth- d) She wasn't long/ didn't take long marrying
er Åçõ‰ easy ûª®√yûª '-ing' form Å®·Ø√ ¢√úÌa, the young man she loved. ûª†’ vÊ°N’ç-*-†-ûª-úÕ-E
O’èπ◊ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-í∫ü∆, infinitive Å®·Ø√ ¢√úÌa.
pleasure meeting °Rx îËÆæ’-éÓ-´-ôç™ Ç¢Á’ Ç©Ææuç îËߪ’-™‰ü¿’.
you, nice meeting b) It wasn't easy operating the machine = Ñ expressions ÅEoçöÀ °æéπ\† '-ing' form
Ç machine †’ †úø-°æôç Ææ’©¶µºç ÅE-°œç-îª-™‰ü¿’ =
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 158 you °æ©-éπ-Jç°æ¤ ¢√úøôç É°æpöÀ ¢√úø’éπ. ¶«í¬ practice îËߪ’çúÕ.
It wasn't easy to operate the machine.
´÷ô-©E. M. SURESAN EXERCISE
Pranav: Hi Ramana, á°æ¤púø÷ àüÓ îËÆæ÷h BJéπ

It's a pleasure seeing you


™‰èπ◊çú≈ Öçö«´¤
Ramana: àç îËߪ’†’? ´÷ ÉçöÀéÀ ®ÓW á´®Ó
äéπ®Ω’ ÅA-ü∑¿’-©’í¬ ´≤ƒh®Ω’. ¢√∞¡}-é¬\-¢√-Lq†
à®√p-ôxûÓ Ø√ time Åçû√ Å®·-§Ú-ûÓçC.
Pranav: Å®·ûË îªü¿’-´¤-éÓ-´-ö«-EéÀ time á°æ¤púø’
üÌ®Ω’-èπ◊-ûª’çüÓ?
Sumathi: True. But I felt I needed time. It's not c) It's always easy cheating an innocent man =
É™« °æ©-éπ-Jç°æ¤ Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x pleasure, nice ™«çöÀ Ramana: ÅüË Ø√ Ææ´’Ææu. îªü¿’-´¤-éÓ-´-ö«-EéÀ äéπ\
easy preparing for that kind of
´÷ô© ûª®√yûË é¬èπ◊çú≈ glad ûª®√yûª èπÿú≈ '-ing' Å´÷-ߪ’-èπ◊úÕo ¢Á÷Ææç îËߪ’ôç á°æ¤púø÷ Ææ’©-¶µº¢Ë’. EN’≠æç time üÌ®Ω-éπôç éπ≠dçæ í¬ ÖçöçC.
exams, is it? Ééπ\úø èπÿú≈ cheating •ü¿’©’, to cheat ¢√úÌa.
form ¢√úøôç í∫´’-EçîË Öçö«®Ω’. Pranav: É¢√Ld guests á°æ¤-úÁ-∞«h®Ω’?.
(Eï¢Ë’. é¬F Éçé¬Ææh time 鬢√-©-E-°œç- Glad meeting/ seeing you. (°æJ-îª-ߪ’-¢Á’i-†-°æ¤púø’, 6. There's no knowing what happens. Ramana: ÅC á´-Jéà ûÁL-ߪ’ü¿’– ¢√∞Îx-°æ¤p-úÁ-∞«h®Ó?
*çC Ø√èπ◊. / é¬-F time î√©-ü¿-E-°œç-*çC. Åçõ‰ introduction Å°æ¤púø’) àç ï®Ω’-í∫’-ûª’çüÓ á´-Jéà ûÁL-ߪ’ü¿’/ ûÁLÊÆ O©’-™‰ü¿’. Pranav: Exams ´Ææ’h-Ø√o®· éπü∆. ¢√öÀéÀ prepare
Å™«çöÀ exams èπ◊ prepare 鬴ôç Glad knowing you - (ÉC-èπÿú≈ introduction There is no knowing-
Å´ôç Åçûª Ææ’©¶µºç é¬ü¿’éπü∆?
Åçûª Ææ’©¶µºç é¬ü¿’-éπü∆.) Å°æ¤púø’ ¢√úË expression. ÉC English conversation frequent
™ î√™« Ramana: é¬Ææh ÉçöÀéÀ ü¿÷®Ωçí¬ room BÆæ’-èπ◊çö«.
Pranuthi: So how did you in the exams? There is no knowing = No
í¬ ¢√úø’-ûª’ç-ö«®Ω’.
Sumathi: To my satisfaction of course. But then
(Å®·ûË Ñ ´÷ô-©-EoöÀ ûª®√yûª, °æ©-éπ-Jç°æ¤, one knows/ No one can know.
Å°æ¤púŒ íÌúø´ ™‰èπ◊çú≈ îªü¿-¢Ìa.
there is no knowing what happens
°æJ-îªßª’ Ææçü¿-®Ωs¥ç™ '-ing' form •ü¿’©’, infini- a) That will happen, no doubt, but there is no
Pranav: ´’ç* idea. ÅC îËߪ’-ü¿-í∫_üË.
tive èπÿú≈ ¢√úø´îª’a. Ramana: ´÷ Ø√†o ÜJ-†’ç* AJT ®√í¬ØË Ç °æE
until the results are out. knowing when = ÅC ï®Ω’-í∫’-ûª’çC, ÆæçüË£æ«ç
Pleasure/ nice/ glad seeing you/ knowing îË≤ƒh. ´÷ Ø√†o Ç©Ææuç îËߪ’-èπ◊çú≈
(Ø√ ûª%°œh ¢Ë’®Ωèπ◊ ®√¨»†’. Å®·Ø√ °∂æL-û√©’ ™‰ü¿’. é¬E á°æ¤púø-ØËC á´®Ω÷ îÁ°æp-™‰®Ω’.
you/ meeting you = pleasure/ nice/ glad to AJ-íÌ-≤ƒh-úøØË ÇP-Ææ’hØ√o.
¢Á©’-´-úË-´-®Ωèπ◊ àO’ ûÁL-ߪ’ü¿’/ îÁ°æp™‰ç) b) There was no knowing why he did it at all =
see/ to know/ to meet you.
Pranuthi: Happy that you leave fared well. ÅÆæ©’ ¢√úøC áçü¿’èπ◊ î˨»-úø-ØËC á´-Jéà ûÁL-ߪ’ü¿’. ANSWER
Civils are always worth trying. 3) I'd been busy preparing for the civils = c) Ram: When is Laxman coming?
Pranav: Hi Ramana, you appear busy doing
(†’´¤y ¶«í¬ ®√Æœ-†ç-ü¿’èπ◊ ÆæçûÓ≠æç. civils ؈’ civils èπ◊ prepare Å´¤ûª÷ busy í¬ ÖØ√o/ Syam: There's no knowing when he will
something or the other.
BJ-éπ-™‰-èπ◊çú≈ ÖØ√o. come. (ûÁL-ߪ’ü¿’) Ramana: What can I do? We have some
á°æ¤púø÷ v°æߪ’-Aoç-îª-ü¿-í∫_¢Ë.)
(worth trying = v°æߪ’-Aoç-îª-ü¿-T†) Ééπ\úø busy °æéπ\†, à 鬮Ωùç ´©x busy 7. Civils are worth trying= civils v°æߪ’-Aoç-îª-ü¿-í∫_¢Ë. guests or the other everyday. I spend
Sumathi: They are, undoubtedly. But they are ņo-°æ¤púø’ ÅC '-ing' form ™ ¢√úøû√ç. worth = îËߪ’-ü¿-T†/ N©’´í∫©/ N©’´ îËߪ’ôç. the whole time attending on them. I
quite tough. Even brilliant candidates a) She is busy making arrangements for the worth ûª®√yûª '-ing' form noun
é¬F, é¬F am busy arranging for their stay.
have difficulty making it to the top dinner = ´Ææ’hçC. Pranav: When do you find the time for study?
ranks. dinner a) The movie is worth watching =
Ç¢Á’ à®√p-ôxûÓ BJ-éπ-™‰-èπ◊çú≈ ÖçC. Ramana: That's my problem. I have difficulty
(éπ*a-ûªçí¬. Å®·ûË Ñ exams î√™« b) They are busy inviting people to their daugh-
ÆœE´÷ îª÷úø-ü¿-í∫_üË (watching - ing form) finding a minute's time for study.
b) It is not worth spending so much time =
éπ≠dçæ . î√™« ûÁL-N-í∫© Ŷµºu-®Ω’n©’ èπÿú≈ °j ter's marriage = Pranav: When do today's guests go away?
ranks ûÁa-éÓ-´-ö«-EéÀ éπ≠d-° Åçûª time ¢Á*aç-îËçûª N≠æߪ’ç é¬ü¿C.
æ æ-úø’-ûª’ç-ö«®Ω’.) busy
¢√∞¡x-´÷t®· °Rx-°œ-©’-°æ¤-©ûÓ ¢√∞¡Ÿx í¬ ÖØ√o®Ω’. Ramana: There's no knowing when they go
tough = éπ≠dç æ (exams N≠æߪ’ç.) c) This second hand car is not worth Rs. 1 lakh
c) I was busy the whole of last week moving to away.
second hand car
quite = °æ‹Jhí¬/ ¶«í¬. our new home.
Ñ ©éπ~ ®Ω÷§ƒ-ߪ’© N©’´
í∫ûª ¢√®Ωç Åçû√ É©’x ´÷®Ω-ôçûÓ îËߪ’ü¿’. (Rs 1 lakh = Noun) Pranav: Exams are fast approaching. It's not
brilliant = î√™« ûÁL-¢Áj†. (ÅÆæ©’ Å®Ωnç = î√™« BJ-éπ-™‰-èπ◊çú≈ ÖØ√o/ É©’x ´÷®Ω-ôçûÓ ÆæJ-§Ú-®·çC. easy preparing for them.
d) The book is worth its weight in gold =
v°æé¬-¨¡-´ç-ûª-¢Á’i†) Å®·ûË busy with ûª®√yûª noun ´Ææ’hçC. Ç °æ¤Ææhéπç ü∆E •®Ω’-´çûª •çí¬®Ωç N©’-´-í∫-©C. Ramana: I want to take room some distance
Pranuthi: Still there is nothing wrong in hoping a) I was busy with the arrangements for the from home. I'll then be free from the
(worth its weight - noun)
for the best, you see. Sometimes the meeting. (meeting busy disturbance.
à®√p-ôxûÓ í¬ ÖØ√o– 8. Candidates have difficulty making it to the top
results are long coming. arrangements - noun.) rank
ûÁL-¢Áj† Ŷµºu-®Ω’n©’ èπÿú≈ Ö†oûª ©’ §Òçü¿- Pranav: A good idea. worth trying.
(Å®·Ø√ ´’ç*E ÇPç-îª-ôç™ ûªÊ°pç-™‰ü¿’. b) She is busy with the exams = °æK-éπ~-©ûÓ BJ-éπ- ö«-EéÀ éπ≠d-°æ æ-úø-û√®Ω’. Ramana: I'll do that after my father comes
äéÌ\-éπ\-°æ¤púø’ results ®√´-ö«-EéÀ time [busy with + the exams (noun)]
™‰-èπ◊çú≈ ÖçC. difficulty + making ('-ing' form) back. Hope he won't be/ take long
coming.
°æúø’-ûª’çC) 4. delayed taking the exams. Exams èπ◊ a) I had difficulty finding the address =
J J J J èπÿ®Óa-´ôç Ç©Ææuç î˨»´¤. Ç address ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-´-ö«-EéÀ Ø√èπ◊ éπ≠d-´æ ’-®·çC.
Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
II Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ -Ç-C¢√®Ωç 21 -¢Ë’ 2006
Chandan: Have you seen Pradhan, by any 1) I saw him driving an hour ago =
chance? í∫çô éÀçü¿ô Åûªúø’ car ™ ¢Á∞¡xôç ؈’ îª÷¨»†’.
(†’¢Ëy-´’Ø√o Pradhan
†’ îª÷¨»¢√? 2) In fact I see him drive down the road at this
By any chance = à¢Á’i-Ø√/- à-´’Ø√o îª÷úøôç time every day=
ûªô-Æœnç-*çü∆ ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ. ÅÆæ©’ v°æA ®ÓW ÉüË time èπ◊ Ñ ®ÓúÓx car ™
Nandan: I think yes. I saw him driving some ¢Á∞¡xôç ؈’ îª÷≤ƒh†’.
where an hour ago. I could have 3) I heard Pradhan say that he would go at that
stopped him, but I didn't like to. time every day... =
(Å´¤-†-†’-èπ◊çö«. í∫çô éÀçü¿ô car ™ ûª†’ ÅüË time èπ◊ Å™« ¢Á∞«h-†E Pradhan îÁ°æpí¬
áéπ\-úÕéÓ ¢Á∞¡xôç îª÷¨»†’. ÅûªúÕE Ç°œ NØ√o†’.
4) ... that's why. I find Pradhan becoming more 4) find:
ÖçúÌ-a -é¬F É≠ædç ™‰éπ-§Ú-®·çC.) É™« Ñ see, hear, find, observe, notice,
(driving = car ™ ¢Á∞¡xôç) and more active nowadays= a) The teacher found him working hard =
watch ™«çöÀ verbs °æéπ\-†-™«x '-ing' form/ 1st
Chandan: Is that so? He said he would see me active Åûªúø’ éπ≠d-°æ æúÕ °æE-îË-ߪ’ôç (îªü¿-´ôç) teacher
ÅD. É°æ¤púø’ v°æüµ∆Ø˛ í¬ Öçúøôç í∫´’- RDW/ that clauses (éÌEoîÓôx) ´≤ƒh®·. Å®·ûË
today. îª÷¨»úø’.
E-Ææ’h-Ø√o†’.
b) We always find him sleeping =
OöÀ ûª®√yûª ≤ƒ´÷-†uçí¬ 'that' clause ¢√úø-èπ◊çú≈
(Å™«í¬? †Fo-®ÓV éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊ç-ö«-†-Ø√oúø’.) 5) He observed his nephew losing weight... Öçúøôç better. '-ing form'/ I RDW effective í¬
Nandan: Not just today. In fact I see him drive (ÅûªúÕ nephew •®Ω’´¤ ûªí∫_ôç Åûªúø’ í∫´’-Eç-î√úø’) ¢Ë’ç á°æ¤púø÷ Åûªúø’ Evü¿-§Ú-ûª’ç-úøí¬ îª÷≤ƒhç. Öçô’çC.
down our road everyday at that time. 6) I have noticed you having a dig at him= c) The engineer has found the machine going
(Ñ ®Óñ‰ é¬ü¿’. ÅÆæ©’ v°æA-®ÓW ÅüË time †’´y-ûª-úÕE Çô °æöÀdç-îªúøç ؈’ í∫´’-Eç-î√†’. out of order often= NOW PRACTISE THE FOLLOWING
èπ◊ car ™ ÅüË ¢Áj°æ¤ ¢Á∞¡⁄h éπE-°œ-≤ƒhúø’ Look at the verbs in the sentences ûª®Ωîª÷ Ç machine îÁúÕ§Ú-´ôç Ç engineer ALOUD IN ENGLISH:
Ø√èπ◊/ car ™ ¢Á∞¡xúøç îª÷≤ƒh†’ ؈’.) above: 1 & 2. saw 3. heard 4. find îª÷¨»úø’. Namratha: Ææ’F-ûÁ-°æ¤púø÷ äÍé-®Ωéπç •ôd©’ ¢ËÆæ’-éÓ-´úøç
Chandan: You are right. I heard Pradhan say 5. observed 6. have noticed. Ñ find °æéπ\† 1st RDW ®√ü¿’. That clause ؈’ îª÷≤ƒh†’. ûª† •ôd© fashion ™
that he would go at that time every- í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ: °j† verbs ÅFo πÿú≈ îª÷úøôç/ ®√´îª’a.
éπE°œç-îªôç, N†ôç, í∫´’-Eç-îªôç, °æJ-Q-Lç-
day to attend yoga classes. 5) observe:
´÷Í®pç Öçúøü¿’.
îªôç ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ ÖØ√o®· éπü∆.
Charitha: ÅüËç ™‰ü¿’. ûª†’ ûËú≈í¬ ÖçúË •ôd©’
(†’´¤y îÁ°œpçC Eï¢Ë’. v°æA-®ÓW Ç a) The invigilator has
time èπ◊ ßÁ÷í¬ ûª®Ω-í∫-ûª’-©èπ◊ ¢Á∞¡-û√-†E observed the student
¢ËÆæ’-éÓ-´úøç ؈’ äéπöÀ È®çúø’≤ƒ®Ω’x
Åûªúø’ îÁ°æpí¬ NØ√o†’.) taking/ take a slip out í∫´’-Eç-î√†’.
Nandan: O... perhaps that's why I find him of his pocket= Namratha: OK, ûª† N≠æߪ’ç áçü¿’-èπ◊™‰.
becoming more and more active Åûªúø’ ñ‰•’-™ç* slip †’¢Áy-°æ¤-úøØ√o Ææ’v°œßª’ §ƒúøí¬ NØ√o¢√?
nowadays.
(ÅD Ææçí∫A. Åçü¿’-éπØË Åûªúø’ Ñ ´’üµ¿u -Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 159 •ßª’-ôèπ◊ Bߪ’úøç invig-
ilator í∫´’-Eç-î √úø’. M. SURESAN
Charitha: áçü¿’-éπ-úø’-í∫’-ûª’-Ø√o´¤?

active 鬴ôç í∫´’-E-Ææ’hØ√o.)


Chandan: He observed his nephew losing
weight after attending the yoga
classes. So he thought, 'why should-
n't I as well?' and joined the classes.
But I notice him gaining weight. He
is more active as you have said, but
I noticed her humming
has he lost any weight?
(ÅûªúÕ nephew (= son of a brother or Åçõ‰ É´Fo éπ∞¡Ÿx, îÁ´¤©’ ™«çöÀ ñ«cØËçvCߪ÷-©èπ◊ (Invigilator= °æKéπ~ rooms ™ 鬰‘-™«ç-öÀN Namratha:
î√™« ¶«í¬ §ƒúø’-ûª’çC. í∫ûª ¨¡E-¢√®Ωç
a sister) yoga classes èπ◊ ¢Á∞¡xôç ûª®√yûª Ææç•ç-Cµç-*-†N. ï®Ω-í∫-èπ◊çú≈ îª÷ÊÆ teachers) cinema music director Ç¢Á’ §ƒúøôç
•®Ω’´¤ ûªí∫_ôç í∫´’-Eç-î√úø’. Åûª-†-†’- OöÀ ûª®√yûª á°æ¤púø÷ '-ing' form é¬F, 1st Observe ûª®√yûª 'that' clause ´Ææ’hçC= í∫´’-Eç-î√úø’. Ç¢Á’èπ◊ ÆœE-´÷™x §ƒúË
èπ◊-Ø√oúø’, '؈÷ áçü¿’èπ◊ ûªí∫_-èπÿ-úøü¿÷?— Regular doing word (go, come, etc) é¬F, The invigilator observed that the student Å´-鬨¡ç ®√´îª’a.
ÅE. Yoga classes ™ îË®√úø’. é¬F that clause é¬F ´Ææ’hçC. àüÓ °æE-îË-Ææ’hç-úøôç/ was taking out a slip from his pocket. Charitha: ûª †’ èπÿE-®√-í¬©’ §ƒúøôç ؈’ í∫´’-Eç-
؈’ í∫´’-Eç-*ç-ü¿-ûª†’ •®Ω’´¤ °®Ω-í∫ôç. îËÆæ’hç-úøí¬ îª÷úøúøç, í∫´’-Eç-îªúøç, °æJ-Q-Lç-îªúøç b) I have observed him bunk/ bunking classes î√†’. é¬F Åçûª íÌ°æp í¬ßª’-èπ◊-®√-©-†’-éÓ-
†’´y-†oô’d ®Ω’í¬_ Å®·ûË Åߪ÷uúø’ é¬F, ïJ-Tç-ü¿ØÓ, àüÓ Åçô’ç-úøí¬/ Åçô’-çúøôç N†ôç quite often: ™‰ ü ¿ ’ .
•®Ω’-¢Ë-´’Ø√o ûªí¬_-úøç-ö«¢√?) ïJ-Tç-ü¿-ØÓ Å®Ωnç ´Ææ’hçC.
Nandan: Come now Chandan; Yoga might (Ñ see, hear, find, observe, notice- Oö-Eoç- ûª®Ωîª÷ Åûªúø’ classes áíÌ_-ôdúøç ؈’ í∫´’-Eç-î√†’. Namratha: Ç¢Á’ ÆœE-´÷-©èπ◊ §ƒúøôç ûªy®Ω-™ ØË
not have slimmed down, but he has- öÀE verbs of sense perception Åçö«ç.) c) She observed him looking/look at her = Nçö«ç.
n't certainly put on weight. Be fair to (´’† ñ«cØËçvCߪ÷©’– sense organs- eyes, Åûªúø’ ûª†-¢Áj°æ¤ îª÷úøôç Ç¢Á’ í∫´’-Eç-*çC. Charitha: ûª †’ ¨»Æ‘Yߪ’ ÆæçUûªç CD ©’ N†ôç
him. nose, ear, tongue, skin – OöÀéÀ Ææç•ç- 6) notice: í∫´’-Eç-îª-úøç/- ü¿%-≠œd™  °æúøôç ØË † ’ í∫´’-Eç-î√†’. (watch ¢√úøçúÕ)
(Chandan, Ééπ Ç°æ¤. ßÁ÷í¬ ÅûªúÕE ûªT_ç- Cµç-*-†N.) a) Suddenly I noticed them going/ go out Namratha: ûª † èπ◊ Åü¿%≠ædç éπ-LÆœ ®√¢√-©-E ÇPü∆lç.
îª-™‰-üË¢Á÷ é¬F, ™«´¤ ´÷vûªç °®Ω-í∫-™‰ü¿’. 1&2) saw: a) I see him always watching / together= ANSWER
ÅûªúÕ N≠æ-ߪ’ç™ é¬Ææh Ø√uߪ’çí¬ Öçúø’.) watch the TV / I see that he
¢√∞¡Ÿx éπLÆœ •ßª’-öÀéÀ ¢Á∞¡xôç -Ø√ -éπçô °æúÕçC. Namratha: I see Sunitha wear/ wearing the
come now = Informal conversation ™ always watch the TV =
b) I often notice her talking / talk to him= same style of dress/ dress of the
come now= Ééπ Ç°æ¤. Åûª-ØÁ-°æ¤púø÷ TV îª÷úøôç/ îª÷Ææ’hç-úøí¬ îª÷≤ƒh-ØËo†’/
fair= äéπ-J-°æôx Ø√uߪ’çí¬ Öçúøôç Åûª-ØÁ-°æ¤púø÷ TV îª÷Ææ÷h éπE-°œç-îË-¢√úø’ Ø√èπ◊. Ç¢Á’ Åûª-úÕûÓ ´÷ö«x-úøôç ؈’ ûª®Ωîª÷ same cut always. No change in the
Chandan: Do you mean he hasn't put on b) Åûªúø’ 11 í∫çô© Ææ´’-ߪ’ç™ •ßª’-öÀéÀ ®√´ôç/
í∫´’-E-≤ƒh†’./ Ç¢Á’ ûª®Ωîª÷ Åûª-EûÓ ´÷ö«x-úø’ûª÷ fashion of her clothes.
weight? police ©’ î√™«-≤ƒ®Ω’x îª÷¨»®Ω’/ Åûªúø’ 11 í∫çô© Ø√ éπçô °æúÕçC. Charitha: No. I have observed her wear dress-
(Å®·ûË ¢√úø’ ™«´´™‰ü¿ç-ö«¢√?) Ææ´’-ߪ’ç™ •ßª’-ôéÀ ´Ææ÷h éπE-°œç-î√úø’ police ©èπ◊= c) The police have noticed him visiting/ visit one es of different style once or twice.
put on weight= ™«´¤/ -•-®Ω’-¢Á-éπ\ôç The police saw him coming out/ come out at house in the old town at midnight= Namratha: OK. Why talk of her now?/ Let's not
Nandan: No, certainly not. I have noticed you 11 a number of times. A number of times the Ç ´uéÀh Å®Ωl¥-®√vA¢Ë∞¡ old town ™ äéπ ÉçöÀéÀ talk of her now. Have you ever
having a dig at him whenever you police saw that he was coming out at 11. ¢Á∞¡xôç í∫´’-Eç-î√®Ω’/ ¢√∞¡x éπçô-°æ-úÕçC. heard Sunitha sing/ singing?
find a chance. c) Ç restaurant Åçõ‰ Åûª-E-éÀ-≠dçæ í¬ Ö†o-ô’xçC. É™«çöÀ verb ÉçéÓöÀ 'watch' (í∫´’-Eç-îªôç) Charitha: Why do you ask?
(-à-´÷-vûªç -™‰-ü¿’. Å´-鬨¡ç üÌJ-éÀ-†-°æ¤p-úø™«x Åéπ\úø A†ôç î√™«-≤ƒ®Ω’x îª÷¨»†’= a) She watched him water / watering the garden Namratha: She sings very well. A film music
ÅûªúÕE Çô-°æ-öÀd-≤ƒh-´E ØËØÁ-°æ¤púÓ í∫´’-Eç-î√†’.) He seems to like the restaurant a lot. I saw patiently = director observed her sing/ singing.
have a dig at= Çô °æöÀdç-îª-úøç/- ÍíL îËߪ’ôç him eat/ eating there quite often. Very soon she may get an opportu-
Åûªúø’ ã°œí¬_ ûÓôèπ◊ F®Ω’-°-ôdúøç Ç¢Á’ í∫´’-Eç-*çC. nity to sing for movies.
Chandan: Nothing of the sort. I like him a lot. Å™«Íí hear ûª®√yûª èπÿú≈ '-ing' form / I RDW b) They have watched her dancing/ dance for
´≤ƒh®·. äéÌ\-éπ\-°æ¤púø’ that clause ®√´îª’a. Charitha: I noticed her hum/ humming (èπÿE-
(ÅüËç ™‰ü¿’. ¢√úøçõ‰ Ø√èπ◊ î√™« É≠ædç.) an hour=
3) heard: a) I heard her sing / singing = but I
Nothing of the sort = ÅüËç ™‰ü¿’
®√-í¬©’/ ûª†-™-ûªØË §ƒúø’-éÓôç)
Ç¢Á’ í∫çô-ÊÆ°æ¤ Ø√ôuç îËߪ’ôç ¢√∞¡Ÿx A©-éÀç-î√®Ω’. didn't think that she was a good
'-ing' forms ¢√ú≈-Lq† ´·êu-¢Á’i† Ææçü¿-®√s¥™ x, Ç¢Á’ §ƒúø’-ûª’ç-úøôç ؈’ NØ√o†’.
b) We heard them quarrelling / quarrel about c) The thief watched the inmates of the house singer.
´’J-éÌEo verbs ÖØ√o®·. Ñ verbs °æéπ\† going out/ go out, waited for some time,
á°æ¤púø÷ '-ing' forms é¬F, 1st RDW (go, something- Namratha: We can soon hear her sing/ singing
broke the lock and entered the house = for movies.
come, walk, etc) é¬F ´≤ƒh®·. ¢√∞¡Ÿx üËE N≠æ-ߪ’¢Á÷ §Úö«x-úø’-éÓ-´ôç ¢Ë’ç NØ√oç.
Now look at the following sentences from c) She heard him say / saying that he was Ç üÌçí∫ Éçöx-¢√∞¡Ÿx (inmates) •ßª’-ôèπ◊ ¢Á∞¡xôç Charitha: I've watched her listening/ listen to
the conversation between Chandan and going to buy a house = É©’x é̆-¶-ûª’-Ø√o-†E í∫´’-Eç-î√úø’. é¬ÊÆ-§ƒT û√∞¡ç •ü¿l-©’-éÌöÀd ™EéÀ classical music CD's.
Nandan: îÁ°æ¤hç-úøôç / îÁ°æ¤hç-úøí¬ Ç¢Á’ N†oC. v°æ¢Ë-Pç-î√úø’. Namratha: Let's wish her best of luck.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm


II Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ -•’-üµ¿¢√®Ωç 24 -¢Ë’ 2006
Anand: Hi Milind, congrats on your new bike. Anand: I feel happy with the one I have. My
How much is it? impression is that the new ones are a
bike
(éÌûªh congrats.
é̆oç-ü¿’èπ◊ áçûª-®·çC?) bit difficult to handle, because of their
Milind: The on road cost is Rs. 47250/-. How pickup.
do you find it? bike
(Ø√èπ◊†o Ø√èπ◊ ¶«í¬ØË ÖçC. É°æ¤p-úÌ-Ææ’h†o
(Road O’C-éÌ-îËa-ô-°æp-öÀéÀ 47,250 ®Ω÷§ƒ-ߪ’-™„jçC. bikes
éÌûªh ¢Ëí∫ç ûªy®Ωí¬ °æ¤çVéÓ-´úøç ´©x
ᙫ ÖçC?) ¢√öÀE Eߪ’ç-vAç-îªúøç éπ≠d-´æ ’E Ø√ ÅGµ-v§ƒßª’ç)
Anand: I find it quite sleek. Congrats on your Milind: Nothing of the sort. Ride one and feel
choice of colour. She is gleaming and for yourself. You'll get rid of your bike,
is a real beauty. What do you feel about I'm sure.
its performance? bike
(ÅüËç-™‰ü¿’. äéπ drive
†’ îËÆœ îª÷úø’, ii) I am unable to find out where he has gone
colour
(î√™« †’†oí¬ ¢Á’®Ω’-≤ÚhçC. F áç°œ-éπèπ◊ ņ’-¶µº-´çûÓ ûÁ©’-Ææ’éÓ. F §ƒûª bike †’ (¶«í¬ØË ÖçC. é¬F †’´¤y ´’K áèπ◊\´ trouble
Åûªúø’ áéπ\-úÕ-Èé-∞«xúÓ Øˆ’ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-™‰-éπ-§Ú-ûª’-Ø√o†’. BÆæ’-èπ◊-Ø√o-´-E-°œ-≤ÚhçC/ Ø√Íé-®Ωp-úÕ† ÅGµ-v§ƒßª’ç
iii) Find out where she was hidden the money
ÅGµ-†ç-ü¿-†©’. ÅC î√™« v°æé¬-¨¡-´ç-ûªçí¬, ´C-Lç--èπ◊ç-ö«´¤)
Åçü¿çí¬ ÖçC. °æ-E-B®Ω’ -á-™« -Å-E°œ-≤Úh-ç-C?) Nothing of the sort = ÅüËç-/ Å™«ç-öÀüËç ™‰ü¿’.
†’´¤y ´’K áèπ◊\´ trouble BÆæ’-èπ◊-Ø√o-¢Ë-¢Á÷-†E.
(Ç¢Á’ úø•’s áéπ\úø ü∆*çüÓ éπ†’éÓ\) c) His impression is that he was not treated
Sleek = †’†’-°æ¤í¬, polish îËÆ œ-†ô’x Öçúøôç = get rid of = ´ü¿-Lç--éÓ-´ôç – Å©-¢√-ôxèπ◊ èπÿú≈ îÁ§ƒhç
Be careful, you find her difficult to deal with properly.
sleek. ´·êuçí¬ vehicles èπ◊ ¢√úøû√ç. A sleek English ™ äéπJ ÅGµ-v§ƒßª’ç ûÁLÊ° °æü¿l¥-A™
bike/ a sleek car, etc. Vô’d Åçü¿çí¬ Eí∫-E-í∫-™«- Ææ’Eoûªç áèπ◊\´. ؈-†’-éÌçö«, à¢Á÷ îÁ°æp-™‰†’, ñ«ví∫ûªh. ÇNúøûÓ deal îËߪ’ôç Fèπ◊ éπ≠dçæ í¬ ûª††’ ÆæJí¬ îª÷úø-™‰-ü¿ØË ¶µ«´ç Åûª-E™ ÖçC.
úø’ûª÷ †’†’-°æ¤í¬ ü¿’Ny Öçõ‰ ÅC èπÿú≈ sleek †’¢Ëy-´’-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o´¤? É™«çöÀ ÅGµ-v§ƒ-ߪ÷©’ ÅE-°œç-îª-´îª’a). ÉD find èπÿ, find out èπÿ ûËú≈. °j´Fo ´’†-éπ-E-°œç-*-†N, ´’†-Íé-®Ωp-úÕ† ÅGµ-v§ƒ-ߪ÷©
hair. English ™ ¢√£æ«-Ø√-©†’ 'she' Åçö«®Ω’. 'I ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊ØË ´÷ô©’ î√™«ØË ÖØ√o®·. ÅN ᙫ Let's come back to 'find'. í∫’Jç* Åúø-í∫-ö«-EéÀ, îÁ°æp-ö«-EéÀ ¢√úË ´÷ô©’.
bought the car last week. Isn't she a real ¢√ú≈™ É°æ¤púø’ îª÷ü∆lç. 2) I find it quite sleek = (´’†ç éπ*aûªçí¬ É™« ņ’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o-´’E îÁÊ°pç-
beauty? =ØËØ√ 鬮Ω’†’ §Ú®·-†-¢√®Ωç éÌØ√o†’. Look at the following sentences from the î√™« polished í¬ Åçü¿çí¬ éπE-°œ-≤ÚhçC/ ü¿’èπ◊, I am/ he is/ they are sure/ certain
dialogue between Anand and Milind
Eïçí¬ ÅC Åçü¿çí¬ ™‰ü¿÷? ÅE-°œ-≤ÚhçC Ø√èπ◊. Åçö«ç ÅE ´’†èπ◊ ûÁ©’Ææ’)
Milind: I feel it is a good buy. It gives 75 kmph, 1) How do you find it? a) -Ç movie Ø√Íé-´’çûª ûª%°œhí¬ -™‰-ü¿’ = I don't find äéÓ\-≤ƒJ ´’† ÅGµ-v§ƒ-ߪ÷Eo éπ*a-ûªçí¬ ´uéπh-°æ-®Ω-
and carries a two year warranty. What 2) I find it quite sleek it satisfactory (ûª%°œhí¬ ÅE-°œçîªúø癉ü¿’.)
‰ç; ¢Á·£æ«-´÷ôç ´©x 鬴a, ã N≠æ-ߪ÷Eo
do you think? 3) What do you feel b) That's OK for me, but my friend doesn't find
í∫’Jç* ´’†èπ◊ °æ‹Jhí¬ Å´-í¬-£æ«† ™‰éπ-§Ú-´-ôç-´™«x
Litre it acceptable=
鬴a. Å™«ç-ô-°æ¤púø’, I can't say Åçö«ç.
(´’ç* ¶‰®Ω¢Ë’ ņ’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o†’. èπ◊ about its perform-
75 km. war- 5) I can't say.
´Ææ’hçC. ü∆E-ûÓ-¶«ô’ È®çúË∞¡x ance? Ø√éπC ûª%°œh-í¬ØË ÖçC/ †*açC. ´÷ friend èπ◊
ranty Kumar: What do you feel about Mallik? (Do
èπÿú≈ ÖçC. à´’ç-ö«´¤?) 4) What do you say?
you) think he is good?
´÷vûªç Ç¢Á÷-ü¿-ßÁ÷-í∫uçí¬ ÅE-°œç-îªôç ™‰ü¿’.
5) Can't say ÉD find ¢√ú≈-Lq† Ææçü¿-®√s¥©÷, B®Ω÷. (´’Lx-é˙†’ í∫’Jç* à´’-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o´¤? ¢√úø’
6) ... I have a feeling ... 3) What do you feel about its performance? = ´’ç*-¢√-úËØ√?)
7) I think you are right Kesav: Can't say. I've known him for just two
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 160
ü∆E °æE-B®Ω’ ᙫ ÅE-°œ-≤ÚhçC?
8) My impression is that... find = feel about = ÅE-°œç-îªôç/ éπE-°œç-îªôç. days
9) I'm sure. M. SURESAN
(îÁ°æp-™‰†’/ ᙫ îÁ°æp†’? Åûª†’ Ø√èπ◊ È®çúø’
®ÓV-©’-í¬ØË ûÁ©’Ææ’).
b) Murali: Do you think he can do the job?

How do you find it? (¢√ú≈ °æE îËߪ’-í∫-©-úøç-ö«¢√?)


Pramod: Difficult to say. He hasn't done this
type of job before.
(îÁ°æpúøç éπ≠dçæ / îÁ°æp™‰ç. É™«çöÀ °æE Éçûª-èπ◊-
´·ç-üÁ-°æ¤púø÷ îËߪ’-™‰-ü¿-ûª†’.)
Anand: Can't say. Long since I bought a bike. I ´’†ç àüÁjØ√ Ææp≠æd-¢Á’i† N≠æߪ’ç ûÁL-ߪ’-°æ-®Ω-îª-™‰-†-°æ¤púø’, Kundan: What do you feel about the food in the So, can't say, difficult to say- Åçõ‰ ´’†èπ◊
don't know much about the recent èπ◊çúø-•-ü¿l©’ éÌöÀd-†ô’x Eïç îÁ°æpôç ¢Á·£æ«-´÷ôç ´©x hostel? Ææp≠æd-¢Á’i† ÅGµ-v§ƒßª’ç ™‰ü¿-†o-´÷ô.
brands. But, if you don't mind, I have a É≠ædç ™‰éπ-§Ú-®·Ø√, Å´-ûª-L-¢√-∞¡x†’ ØÌ°œpç-îªôç É≠ædç-™‰-éπ- (Hostel food ᙫ ÅE-°œ-≤ÚhçC?/ ᙫ ÖçC?) Now practise the following aloud in English
feeling that nearly Rs. 50,000/- is rather §Ú-®·Ø√ °j expressions ¢√úøû√ç. Madan: I feel/ find it OK. Can get on. Mahesh: Hi Ganesh,
´·ç¶„j †’ç* á°æ¤púø’ AJ-íÌ-î√a´¤?
on the high side for a two wheeler. 1) How do you find it? ÉC üËE í∫’Jç-îÁjØ√ äéπJ ÅGµ- (°∂æ®Ω-¢√-™‰-ü¿-E-°œ-≤ÚhçC. Ææ®Ω’l-èπ◊-§Ú-´îª’a = ¶«üµËç-™‰ü¿’) Ganesh:
E†oØË.
bike
(îÁ°æp-™‰†’. ؈’ éÌE î√™« 鬩-´’- v§ƒßª’ç ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊-ØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ ÅúÕÍí ≤ƒüµ∆-®Ω-ù-¢Á’i† v°æ¨¡o. I feel it/ find it OK= I feel (that) it is OK/ I find Mahesh:
Åéπ\úø áçúø-™„™« ÖØ√oß˝’? (feel/ find
®·çC. Ñ´’üµ¿u ´*a† ®Ω鬩 í∫’Jç* Ø√éπç- What do you think of/ about it? / what's your (that) it is OK.
opinion? éπçõ‰ How do you find it? ÅØËüË
¢√úøçúÕ.)
ûªí¬ ûÁL-ߪ’ü¿’. é¬F †’¢Ëy´’†’-éÓ-éπ-§ÚûË, ü¿í∫_®Ω 4) What do you say? = †’¢Ëy-´’ç-ö«´¤?/ O’Í®-´’ç- Ganesh: £j«ü¿-®√-¶«ü˛™  éπçõ‰ Åüµ∆y-†oçí¬ ÅE-°œç-
ü¿í∫_®Ω ®Ω÷.50,000 é¬Ææháèπ◊\¢Ë ņ’-èπ◊ç-ô’Ø√o.) áèπ◊\-´í¬ NE-°œ-Ææ’hçC. ö«®Ω’? ÉC äéπJ ÅGµ-v§ƒ-ߪ÷Eo ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-´-ö«-EéÀ *çC. Ø√ ¶µ«´†, £j«ü¿-®√-¶«ü˛™ áçúø-™„-èπ◊\-
Can't say - ´’†ç àD îÁ°æp-™‰-†-°æ¤púø’/ à Yamuna: You went to the movie yesterday. ¢√úË Ææ®Ωy-≤ƒ-üµ∆-®Ω-ù-¢Á’i† v°æ¨¡o. ´-®·Ø√ îÁ´’ô °æôdü¿’. ®√vûª’∞¡Ÿ} xí¬ ÅE-
ÅGµ-v§ƒßª’ç ™‰†-°æ¤púø’ ¢√úË ´÷ô. How did you find it? = What do you say / does your father say? °œ-Ææ’hçC.
I have a feeling = I feel = Ø√éπ-E-°œ-≤ÚhçC, E†o †’´¤y îª÷Æœ† movie ᙫ ÅE-°œç-*çC Fèπ◊? – ÉC î√™« áèπ◊\-´í¬ Nçô’çö«ç éπü∆? Mahesh: Åéπ\úø Nü∆u-´-Ææ-ûª’©’ Ééπ\-úÕ-éπçõ‰ ¶«í∫’ç-ö«ßª÷?
rather on the high side = é¬Ææh áèπ◊\¢Ë. On the (Éçûª-éπçõ‰ simple, how was the movie yes- What do the students say / feel about/ How Ganesh: îÁ°æp-™‰†’, ØËF N≠æߪ’ç Åçûª °æJ-Q-Lç-îª-
high side = áèπ◊\¢Ë. rather = ´’†-éÀ≠dç æ ™‰EN terday? ÅØÌa, é¬F How did you find? ÅØËüË do the students find the new teacher? ™‰ü¿’. Ø√ ¶µ«´† Ééπ\úË ¢Á’®Ω’-í∫E.
é¬Ææh áèπ◊\´, ņ-ö«-EéÀ ¢√úøû√ç. The movie is ûª®Ω-îª’í¬ ¢√úø’-ûª’ç-ö«®Ω’.) = éÌûªh teacher í∫’Jç* students ÅGµ-v§ƒßª’ç Mahesh: áçü¿’-éÌ-*açC Fé¬ ÅGµv§ƒßª’ç?
rather dull = Ç ÆœE´÷ é¬Ææh NÆæ’Íí. She is Ganga: I found it very good/ very exciting. àN’öÀ? à´’-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o®Ω’? Ganesh: ؈’†o ®ÓV™x Åéπ\úø Ø√èπ◊ ûªT-L† ¢√∞¡xç-ü¿®Ω÷
rather short = Ç¢Á’ é¬Ææh §Òõ‰d. rather costly (6) & (8): I have a feeling/ My impression that:
(î√™« ¶«í∫’-†oô’d, Öû√q-£æ«-éπ-®Ωç-í¬†÷ ÅE-°œç-*çC. business ûª°æp ÉçéÓöÀ ´÷ö«x-úø-™‰ü¿’. Education
= é¬Ææh êKüË. (Ø√ ņ’-¶µº´ç) 6) I have a feeling = Ø√éπ-E-°œ-≤ÚhçC. èπ◊ Åçûª v§ƒüµ∆†uç É´y-†-ôd-E-°œç-*çC.
´’ç*-¢√-öÀF ´’†-éÀ-≠d-¢æ Á’i† ¢√öÀF, °∂æ®√y™‰ü¿’, ¶«í¬ØË Mom to saw it. She finds it good too. I have a feeling that Rs. 50,000 is too high Answer
ÖçC ņ-ö«-EéÀ, fairly ¢√úøû√ç. (´÷ Å´’t èπÿú≈ îª÷ÆœçC. Ç¢Á’ èπÿú≈ ¶«í¬ØË for a two wheeler = Mahesh: Hi Ganesh, When did you return from
The movie is fairly good. Ç ÆœE´÷ °∂æ®√y™‰ü¿’. Cyîªvéπ ¢√£æ«-Ø√-EéÀ 50000 ®Ω÷§ƒ-ߪ’-™„-èπ◊\-¢Ë-¢Á÷-†E Mumbai?
¶«í¬ØË ÖçC. The movie is rather dull. She is Öçü¿-†’-èπ◊ç-öçC) Ø√éπ-E-°œ-≤ÚhçC. Ganesh: The day before (yesterday).
fairly tall. (°∂æ®√y-™‰ü¿’. §Òúø’Íí). She is rather Ééπ\úÕ 'find' èπ◊ éπ†’-éÓ\-´ôç ÅØË Å®√n-Eéà a) She had a feeling that the doctor wasn't Mahesh: How did you find/ feel the summer/
short (é¬Ææh §Òõ‰d). Ææç•çüµ¿ç ™‰ü¿’. Find out= éπ†’-éÓ\-´ôç/ ûÁ©’-Ææ’- treating her properly = heat there?
Milind: You can't get any other brand at that éÓ- ´ôç.'Find' èπ◊ ÅE-°œç-îª-ôç-ûÓ-¶«ô’ éπE-°œç-îª-ôç/- ú≈éπd®Ω’ ûª††’ ÆæJí¬ îª÷úø-ôç-™‰-ü¿E Ç¢Á’-éÓ-¶µ«´ç Ganesh: I found it worse than in Hyderabad.
price for that mileage. üÌ- ®Ω-éπôç ÅE èπÿú≈ Å®Ωnç. ÖçúËC/ ÅE-°œç-*çC. My feeling is that though Hyderabad
(Åçûª ¢Á’i™‰@ ÉîËa à Éûª®Ω v¶«çú˛ èπÿú≈ Ç a) Where did you find the book? = b) Why do you have the feeling we don't like you? is hot, we don't sweat here. We feel
†’´yçõ‰ ´÷èπ◊ É≠ædç-™‰-ü¿E áçü¿’-éπ-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o´¤? the nights are cool.
üµ¿®Ωèπ◊ ®√ü¿’) Fé¬ °æ¤Ææhéπç áéπ\úø éπE-°œç-*çC? Mahesh: Did you find educational facilities bet-
Anand: I Think you're right. My opinion is out- I had been searching for it. I couldn't find it= ÉN What's you feeling? ÅØË question èπ◊
answers Å´¤-û√®·. ter there than here?
dated. You change bikes often. You ü∆E-éÓÆæç ¢Áûª’-èπ◊-ûª÷ØË ÖØ√o†’. Ø√èπ◊ éπE-°œç-îª- Ganesh: (I) can't say/ difficult to say. I didn't
must know. 8) My impression is that... Ø√èπ◊†o/ Ø√Íé-®Ωp-úÕ†
™‰ü¿’/ üÌ®Ω-éπ-™‰ü¿’. pay attention to it I have a feel that
(†’´¤y correct ņ’-èπ◊çö«. Ø√ ÅGµ-v§ƒ- b) Find out= éπ†’-éÓ\-´ôç/ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-´ôç. ÅGµ-v§ƒßª’ç... ÅE Å®Ωnç. they are better here.
bikes
ߪ÷©’ é¬-©ç -îÁ-Lx-†N. †’´¤y ûª®Ω i) The police have find out important information a) Dhiraj: Well, you have seen the arrange- Mahesh: Why did you/ do you feel so?
´÷®Ω’-Ææ’hç-ö«´¤ FÍé ûÁL-ߪ÷L.) ments. What do you feel? Ganesh: All those I met there during my stay
about the thief=
Milind: Why don't you go for a new bike? For (à®√p-ôxFo îª÷¨»-´¤í¬) à´’-E-°œ-≤ÚhçC? talked only of business. My impres-
one like mine? üÌçí∫†’ í∫’Jç* police î√™« ´·êu N≠æ-ߪ÷©’ Niraj: OK. But my impression is that you have sion was that they didn't give impor-
(éÌûªh bike äéπöÀ BÆæ’-éÓ-èπÿ-úøü¿÷ Ø√™«ç-öÀüË?) éπ †’-íÌ-Ø√o®Ω’/ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊-Ø√o®Ω’. taken too much trouble. tance to studies.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm


II Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ -¨¡Ÿ-véπ¢√®Ωç 26 -¢Ë’ 2006
Prasanth: Meena, You remember Sekhar. don't
Clause Åçõ‰ í∫’®Ω’hçC éπü∆? A group of words
you?
with a verb. È®çúø’ sentences *†o *†oN
Fèπ◊ Sekhar í∫’®Ω’h-Ø√oúø’ éπü∆? NúÕ NúÕí¬ ¢√úË •ü¿’©’ äÍé sentence é¬Ææh
(sentence *´®Óx don't you? ÅØËC °ü¿lC ¢√úÕ conversation effective í¬ îËÆæ’-éÓ-
question tag. ûÁ©’Ææ’ éπü∆? î√™«-é¬©ç ´ôç ´’ç*C.
éÀçü¿õ‰ ´’†ç Ñ columns ™ OöÀE îª÷úøçúÕ: He is the same teacher. He taught
í∫’Jç* ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊Ø√oç. éπü∆? é¬ü∆? us this lesson. He taught us it interestingly.
åØ√? ™‰ü∆? ÅØË Å®√n-©ûÓ ´Ææ’hçC.) Ñ sentences îª÷ÊÆç-ü¿’èπ◊ *†o-Ní¬, Ææ’©-¶µºçí¬
Meena: Of course. Isn't he that police offi- ÖØ√o®·. é¬F ´÷öÀ-´÷-öÀéà He, repeat Å´ôç
cer? He helped us a lot when we ᶄs-ô’dí¬ ™‰ü¿÷. ÅüË Å®Ωnç ´îËaô’x éÀçC sen- His brother who came here yesterday has
had an accident last year? Conversation ™ç* BÆœ† sentence groups ™
tence îª÷úøçúÕ. just left.
1st group
í∫’®Ω’h ™‰éπ-§Ú-´-ô-¢Ë’çöÀ? (= ofcourse). Ç He is the same teacher who taught us this les- E†o ´*a† ÅûªúÕ brother É°æ¤púË ¢Á∞«xúø’.
îª÷ü∆lç.
police officer éπü∆? ´’†èπ◊ í∫ûª Ææç´- 1) Isn't he the police officer? He helped us a lot
son interestingly. c) This is the book. I gave it to him yesterday.
ûªq®Ωç accident Å®·-†-°æ¤púø’ î√™« when we had an accident last year.
(Ñ §ƒ®∏Ωç interesting í¬ îÁ°œpçC ÅüË teacher). ÉC °æ¤Ææhéπç. ÅC ؈-ûª-úÕéÀ E†o Éî√a†’ – ÉC
Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç î˨»úø’. éπ©’-°æ¤ü∆ç: Isn't he the police officer who
°j sentence ™ àç î˨»ç? Åçûª-èπ◊-´·ç-ü¿’†o áçûª ᶄs-ô’dí¬ ÖçC? Ñ È®çúø’ ¢√é¬u-©†’
Prasanth: That's he. My cousin Govind is a helped us a lot when ...
´‚úø’ sentences †÷, 'who' ûÓ éπL-Ê°≤ƒç. äéπ-öÀí¬ 'which' ¢√úÕ éπ©’-°æ¤ü∆ç. (a) , (b) ™x
good friend of his. He has phoned
É°æ¤púø’ äÍé sentence Å®·uçC. so, éÌçîÁç ´’†’-≠æfl©’ 鬕öÀd who ¢√ú≈ç. °æ¤Ææhéπç ´Ææ’h´¤ 2) My cousin Govind is a good friend of his. He
me Mr. Sekhar has come here. So I
advanced level conversation ™, who, éπü∆? Åçü¿’-éπE which ¢√ú≈L. has phoned me Sekhar is here =
went and invited him.
which, that, whose ©ûÓ, Å°æ¤p-úø-°æ¤púø’ 'whom' My cousin Govind who is a good friend of his
´÷ cousin Govind Åûª-úÕéÀ ´’ç* This is the book which I gave him yester-
has phoned me ...
ûÓ éπ©-°æ-´îª’a. day=
friend. Sekhar Ééπ\úÕéÀ ´î√a-®ΩE ᙫíÓ îª÷ü∆l´÷? 3) Mr. Sekhar had a doctor friend in the hospi-
Phone î˨»úø’. ØË-†’ ¢ÁRx dinner èπ◊ E†o ؈-ûª-úÕ-éÀ-*a† °æ¤Ææhéπç ÉC.
°œL-î√†’. d) Here is the dog. It tried to bite me. tal. That doctor friend attended on us imme-
Meena: You've done a good thing. Ç èπ◊éπ\ Ééπ\-úø’çC. ÅC ††’o éπ®Ω´ú≈EéÀ diately.
Mr.Sekhar had a doctor friend in the Mr. Sekhar had a doctor friend who
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 161
v°æߪ’-Aoç-*çC. éπL-°œûË,
hospital. That doctor friend attended Ééπ\úø èπÿú≈ 'which' join îËߪ’çúÕ. attended on us immediately at the hospital.
on us immediately, because of
Mr.Sekhar. Mr.Sekhar had been a
stranger to us till then. Surprising he
took such an interest in us.
î√™« ´’ç* °æE î˨»®Ω’. ¨Ïê®˝èπ◊ hospi-
tal ™ ã doctor friend ÖØ√oúø’. ¨Ïê®˝
´©x Çߪ’† ´’†èπ◊ ¢ÁçôØË ¢Ájü¿uç î˨»úø’.
This is
. the book which I Here is the dog 4) Mr. Sekhar was really God sent that day. He
Åçûª-´-®Ωèπ◊, ¨Ïê-®˝èπ◊ ´’†-¢Á’´®Ó ûÁL-ߪ’ü¿’. Now look at the following sentences from
´’† -N-≠æ-ߪ’ç-™ Çߪ’† Åçûª interest which tried to bite saved our lives that day.
the dialogue above.
BÆæ’-éÓ-´ôç Ǩ¡a-®Ωu¢Ë’. 1) Isn't he the police officer? He helped us a lot me. Mr. Sekhar who was really God sent helped
Prasanth: Mr. Sekhar was really God sent that when we had an accident last year. e) This is Hari. His par- us that day.
day. He saved our lives. But for him 5) My brother has just sent us a basket of man-
2) My cousin Govind is a good friend of his. He ents are here.
there is no knowing what would goes. We will serve them to Mr. Sekhar.
has phoned me Sekhar is here. Éûªúø’ £æ«J. ÅûªE ûªLx-
have happened to us.
3) Mr. Sekhar had a doctor friend in the hospi- ü¿ç-vúø’-L-éπ\-úø’-Ø√o®Ω’. M. SURESAN Join the sentences: My brother has just sent
Ç®ÓV ´’†èπ◊ ¨Ïê®˝ üË´¤úË °æç°œ-†ô’x tal. That doctor friend attended on us imme- us a basket of mangoes which we will
´î√a®Ω’. ´’† v§ƒù«Lo 鬧ƒ-ú≈®Ω’. Çߪ’ØË éπ©-°æçúÕ. This is Hari whose parents are
diately because of Mr. Sekhar. here. Ééπ\úø ûªLx-ü¿ç-vúø’-©’-†o-ûª†’ £æ«J. served to Mr. Sekhar.
™‰éπ-§Ú®· Öçõ‰ ´’†-Íé-´’-ߪ·uç-úËüÓ 4) Mr. Sekhar was really God sent that day. He
ûÁL-ߪ’ü¿’. äéÌ\-éπ\-°æ¤púø’ who/ which •ü¿’©’ that èπÿú≈ É™« who, whom, whose, which and that ûÓ
saved our lives that day. éπLÊ° sentences N´-®√©’ î√™« ÖØ√o®·.
Meena: My brother has just sent us a basket ¢√úøû√ç.
5) My brother has just sent us a basket of man-
of mangoes from his garden. We
goes from his garden. We will serve them to Now practise the following aloud in English ANSWER
will serve Mr.Sekhar those man-
Mr. Sekhar. (OôEoöÀ™ who, whose, which and that ûÓ Pramila: Where is the book which/ that
goes. We will serve him to Jangri.
Let's try to reduce the length of the each éπL-°œ† sentences ¢√úøçúÕ.) you brought yesterday?
I made it yesterday. Pramila: Pratyusha: Are you talking of the book
group of sentences above. We can do so by †’´¤y EØÓo °æ¤Ææhéπç ûÁî√a´¤. ÅC àC?
´÷ ņoߪ’u/ ûª´·túø’ É°æ¤púË ûÓô™ Pratyusha: Åçõ‰ ØËEoØÓo °æ¤Ææhéπç v°æ´-Réπ ü¿í∫_®Ω which/ that I brought from
joining them with who, whose, which and
†’ç* ´÷N’-úÕ-°æç-úø’x °æç°œç-î√úø’. ¢√öÀE †’ç* ûÁî√a†’, ü∆Eo í∫’JçîËØ√ Pravalika.
that.
¨Ïê-®˝èπ◊ ´úÕfü∆lç. Çߪ’-†èπ◊ ñ«çvT èπÿú≈ †’´y-úÕ-ÍíC? Pramila: Pravalika gave you the book which
But before that OöÀ Å®√n©’, Ö°æ-ßÁ÷í∫ç îª÷ü∆lç: she borrowed
´úÕfü∆lç. E†oØË î˨». Pramila: v°æ´-Réπ Ç °æ¤Ææhéπç v°æÆæ÷† ü¿í∫_®Ω †’ç* (Å®Ω’´¤ ûÁ*açC)
a) The man who wrote the book is my friend. that book) from Prasuna.
Prasanth: He deserves all hospitality. He ûÁ*açC. ÅC FéÀ-*açC. (
saved our lives. Let's do our best to á´®√ °æ¤Ææhéπç ®√¨»®Ó Åûªúø’ Ø√ ÊÆo£œ«-ûª’úø’ – Ñ Pratyusha: v°æÆæ÷† Åçõ‰ Ç English novels Pratyusha: Is Pravalika the girl who always
reads English novels?
satisfy him. Å®Ωnç ÆæÈ®j-†üË. é¬F ´÷´‚©’ ûÁ©’-í∫’™ É™« ņç- ûÁí∫ îªC¢Ë Å´÷t-ßË’Ø√?
éπü∆. Åçü¿’èπ◊ •ü¿’©’: Ç °æ¤Ææhéπç ®√Æœ-†-ûªúø’ Ø√ Pramila: Å´¤†’. Ç Å´÷t-®·Íé Ñ ´’üµ¿u Pramila: Yea. That's the girl who got the
Çߪ’† áçûª-öÀ ÇA--ü∑∆u-E-ÈéjØ√ Å®Ω’|úË. ´’† English essay writing ™ Ist prize Ist prize in English essay writing
ÊÆo£œ«-ûª’úø’ – -Å-E -Åç-ö«ç.
v§ƒù«©’ 鬧ƒ-ú≈úø’. Çߪ’Eo ûª%°œh-°æ-®Ω-îª-ö«- competition.
DEo È®çúø’ sentences éπ©-®·-éπí¬ èπÿú≈ Å®Ωnç ´*açC.
-v°æ-¨¡o: i) Future perfect tense †’ à Nüµ¿çí¬ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-
EéÀ ÅEo v°æߪ’-û√o©’ îËü∆lç.
Meena: OK then. I will be on the job.
îËÆæ’-éÓ-´îª’a: The man wrote the book. He is ¢√úø’ É©’x îËJ Öçö«úø’ – Åçõ‰ í∫çô-™-°æ™‰ ¢√úÕ©’x
my friend - ÉC Åçü¿çí¬ Öçü∆? ™‰èπ◊çõ‰ The
ÆæÍ® Å®·ûË– ØËØ√ °æE O’üË Öçö«. Tç-î√L?ii) Vocabulary & word power †’ îË®Ωôç Å®·-§Ú-ûª’çC.
man who wrote the book is my friend, ÅØËC ᙫ °ç-éÓ-¢√L?iii) Helping verb
J J J b) They will have come back by this time
O™„j-†ç-ûª-´-®Ωèπ◊ conversation simple í¬ easy í¬ Åçü¿çí¬ Öçü∆? ûª®√yûª to infinitive Öçú≈™«? ™‰ü∆ tomorrow = Í®°‘-§ƒ-öÀéÀ ¢√∞¡Ÿx AJ-íÌ-aç-
The man wrote the book. He is my friend plain (bare) infinitive Öçú≈™« ? time
– ñ„.®√V, ñ„j†÷®˝, -Ç-C™«-¶«ü˛
Öçúøôç éπ*a-ûªçí¬ ÅGµ-©-≠æ-ùÃ-ߪ’¢Ë’. Å®·ûË ÅC ö«®Ω’. (Åçõ‰ Ñ èπ◊ – Í®°æ¤ – ´·çüË
-ï-¢√-•’: i) Future ™ äéπ Ææ´’-ߪ÷-EéÀ
ÅEo≤ƒ®Ω÷x ≤ƒüµ¿uç é¬éπ-§Ú-´îª’a éπü∆. ÅDé¬èπ◊çú≈ ÉC éÌçîÁç Nçûª-í¬ØË ÅE°œ-Ææ’hçC NØËç-ü¿’èπ◊. AJ-T-®√-´ôç Å®·-§Ú-ûª’çC)
Åçü¿’-éπE The man who wrote the book is my ii) You can improve your vocabulary by
Å´-ûªL¢√∞¡Ÿx é¬Ææh éπ≠d-¢æ Á’i† sentences ´÷ö«x-úÕûË °æ‹®Ωh®· Öçô’ç-ü¿ØË °æEéÀ future regular reading - of English newspa-
´’†ç Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’-éÓ-í∫-©-í¬L éπü∆. Åçü¿’-éπE Ñ≤ƒJ friend - ÉC £æ›çü∆í¬ NE°œ-Ææ’hçC.
perfect ¢√úøû√ç. shall have + pers, books, etc. That's the only way.
†’ç* conversation ™ èπÿú≈ é¬Ææh extended b) His brother came here yesterday. He has just
past participle/ will have + past iii) Help ûª®√yûª to infinitive/Plain infinitive
sentences ¢√úøôç practice îËü∆lç. Åçõ‰ É°æp- left.
participle - àüÁjØ√ correct.
öÀ-†’ç* ´’†ç advanced level conversation/ ÅûªúÕ brother E†o ´î√aúø’. Åûªúø’ É°æ¤púË ¢Á∞«xúø’ a) In an hour from now, he will/ have reached a) He helped me to get the tickets = He helped
Spoken English practice îËÆæ’h-Ø√o-´’-†o-´÷ô. Ñ 2 sentences •ü¿’©’, É™« ņçúÕ. home = äéπ í∫çô Ææ´’-ߪ÷-E-éÀ/- í∫çô í∫úÕ-îË-™°æ¤ me get the tickets - both right.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm


II Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ -Ç-C¢√®Ωç 28 -¢Ë’ 2006
Kedar: Isn't it Nikhil who called? Kailas: He is certainly a good one. His boys too
Phone îËÆœçC Nikhil éπü∆? are well trained.
Kailas: Yes. Our mechanic repaired my bike Åûªúø’ Eïçí¬ ´’ç* mechanic. ÅûªúÕ
last week, you know. Nikhil wants him. èπ◊v®√∞¡Ÿx èπÿú≈ ¶«í¬ Péπ~ù Ö†o¢√∞Ïx.
Å´¤†’. §Ú®·-†-¢√®Ωç bike †’ ´’† Kedar: I have a number of friends. He has
mechanic repairî˨»úø’ í∫ü∆. Nikhil
èπ◊ repaired their bikes. They are all happy.
ûª†’ 鬢√-©ô. He repaired my cousin's bike six
Kedar: Why? (Is) something wrong with his months ago. It has not given him any
bike? trouble since then.
áçü¿’èπ◊? ÅûªúÕbike èπ◊ à´’Ø√o JÊ°®√? friends
Ø√ bikes
î√™«-´’çC repair
Éûª-úø’
Kailas: Obviously. But my surprise is he got it cousin bike
îËÊÆh Ææç-ûª%°œh -îÁç-ü∆®Ω’. ´÷ Ç®Ω’ 3) He got repaired the day before. It has trouble 6) He is sending his boy. He will fetch the bike.
repaired it only the day before. It has repair now.
ØÁ©© éÀçü¿ î˨»úø’. Å°æpöÀ†’ç* ÅüËç ûª† èπ◊v®√-úÕE °æç°œ-Ææ’h-Ø√oúø’. Åûªúø’ bike †’
trouble now again. Few mechanics are trouble É´y-™‰ü¿’.
sentences effective
¢√úø’ ü∆Eo ¢Á·†o repair îË®·ç--èπ◊-Ø√oúø’. BÆæ’éÌ-≤ƒhúø’.
honest. Few know their job well. È®çúø’ ´‚úø’ †’ éπL°œ
sentence practice
í¬ ´÷®Ωaúøç îËÆæ’hØ√oç éπü∆ É°æ¤p-úøC trouble É≤ÚhçC. Ééπ\úø Ñ È®çúø’ sen- Fetch= äéπîÓôèπ◊ ¢ÁRx BÆæ’-èπ◊-®√-´ôç
ÅçûË-éπü∆. é¬F Ǩ¡a®Ωuç àN’ôçõ‰ Åûªúø’ tences †’ üËEûÓ éπ©-§ƒL? ´Ææ’h´¤ 鬕öÀd
ü∆Eo ¢Á·†oØË repair îË®·çî√úø’. ´’Sx Who, whom, whose, which and that ûÓ éπL°œ. bring = ´’†ç Ö†o îÓô’ †’ç* BÆæ’-èπ◊-®√-´ôç
practice conversation 'which'. îª÷úøçúÕ. = He is sending his boy who will fetch the
É°æ¤púø’ ü∆EéÀ trouble. Eñ«-ߪ’B Ö†o ÉC áçûª áèπ◊\´ îËÊÆh
mechanics ü∆ü∆°æ¤ ™‰®Ω’. °æE ûÁL-Æ œ† ™ ´’K *†o *†o sentences repetition
ûÓ The bike (it) which he got repaired the day bike.
mechanics èπÿú≈ ü∆ü∆°æ¤ ™‰®Ω’. ™‰èπ◊çú≈ é¬Ææh £æ›çü∆í¬ Öçô’çC. Åçü¿’Íé É°æ¤púø’ before has trouble now. 7) Our Mechanic does his job well. His knowl-
Obviously - evidently = clearly = ûÁ©’-Ææ÷hØË/ ´’†ç advanced level of conversation ™ ¢Á·†o repair îË®·ç--èπ◊†o bike èπ◊ É°æ¤púø’ edge of mechanism is sound.
éπE°œ-Ææ÷hØË/ îª÷ÊÆhØË Å®Ωnç ÅßË’u™« ÖçC. ÖØ√oç ÅE í∫’®Ω’hîËÆæ’-éÓçúÕ. trouble ÖçC. ´’† mechanic ¶«í¬ØË îË≤ƒhúø’. Åûª-úÕéÀ
Few = ü∆ü∆°æ¤ ™‰®Ω’/ ™‰ü¿’ Look at the following sentences from the
4) His shop is next to the fast food joint. It is Mechanism ™ ´’ç* ñ«c†ç ÖçC.
A few - à éÌCl-´’çüÓ/ à éÌØÓo. dialogue above.
1) Isn't it Nikhil who called? close to his rooms. Ñ È®çúø’ sentences †’ È®çúø’ Nüµ∆-©’í¬
ÉC îª÷úøçúÕ. Few Mechanics are honest, éπ©-§Òa 'who', 'whose' ¢√úÕ.
fewer (mechanics) still know their job.. 2) Our mechanic repaired my bike last week. ÅûªúÕ shop, Ç öÀ°∂œØ˛ centre èπ◊ ü¿í∫_Í®. ÅC ÅûªúÕ
(È®çúÓ-≤ƒJ fewer ûª®√yûª mechanics îÁ°æp- Nikhil wants him. í∫CéÀ ü¿í∫_Í®. fast food joint - ÉC correct a) Our Mechanic who does his job well has
éπ\-®Ω™‰ü¿’. ü∆ü∆°æ¤ à mechanic èπÿ Eñ«-ߪ’B 3) He got it repaired the day before. It has trou- English, öÀ°∂œØ˛ English é¬ü¿’ ÅE Éçûªèπ◊ a sound knowledge of...
™‰ü¿’. Åçûª-éπØ√o ûªèπ◊\´ (Fewer) ¢√∞¡xèπ◊ °æE ble now. ´·çü¿’ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊Ø√oç éπü∆. ¶«í¬ îËÊÆ ´’† Mechanic èπ◊ Mechanism
ûÁ©’Ææ’. É™«çöÀ expression ¶«í¬ practice 4) His shop is next to the
fast food joint. It is very
É°æ¤púø’ éπ©-°æçúÕ, °j È®ç-úÕçöÀF. which éπü∆, ñ«c†ç ¶«í¬ ÖçC.
îËߪ’çúÕ for effective conversation. ´Ææ’h´¤ 鬕öÀd. b) Our Mechanic whose knowledge of
close to his rooms.
His shop is next to the fast food joint which mechanism is sound does his job well
5) ... he is out with
another customer. He is close to his rooms. = Mechanism ™ ´’ç* knowledge Ö†o
is buying a bike. He ÅûªúÕ í∫CéÀ ü¿í∫_-®Ωí¬ Ö†o fast food joint °æéπ\ØË Ç ´’† Mechanic ¶«í¬ îË≤ƒhúø’.
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 162 wanted this mechan-
ic's opinion. M. SURESAN
shop. 8) I have a number of friends. He repaired their
bikes. They are happy.
Ø√èπ◊ î√™« ´’çC friends ÖØ√o®Ω’. Åûªúø’ ¢√∞¡x
bikes repair î˨»úø’. ¢√∞¡Ÿx ÆæçûÓ-≠æçí¬ ÖØ√o®Ω’.

He is sending his boy who will .. 'Whose' ¢√úÕ éπ©’-°æ¤ü∆ç. Å®Ωnç, á´J bikes
Å®·ûË Åûªúø’ repair î˨»úÓ... ņo-ô’xí¬ ´Ææ’hçC.
ûÁ©’-í∫’™ Å™« ņç.
I have a number of friends whose bikes he
6) He is sending his boy. He will fetch the bike 5) He is out with another customer. He is buy- has repaired, and they are all happy.
Kedar: But What happened to his mechanic?
to the shop. The mechanic will attend to it. ing a bike. He wanted this mechanic's opin- 9) He repaired my cousin's bike six months
His shop is next to the fast food joint. It
7) Our mechanic does his job well. His knowl- ion. ago, it hasn't given him trouble ever since.
is very close to his rooms.
é¬F ÅûªúÕ mechanic à´’-ߪ÷uúø’? Ç edge of mechanism is sound. Åûªúø’ ÉçéÓ customer ûÓ ¢Á∞«xúø’. Ç customer éπ©’-°æ¤ü∆ç – Ééπ\úø èπÿú≈ which ûÓ éπ©’-§Ò-a-
öÀ°∂œØ˛ centre Shop. Nikhil
°æéπ\ØË ÅûªúÕ 8) I have a number of friends. He repaired their bike éÌçô’-Ø√oúø’. Åûª-úÕéÀ ¢Á’é¬-Eé˙ ÅGµ-v§ƒßª’ç éπü∆?
¢√∞¡x rooms èπ◊ ü¿í∫_®Ω. bikes. They are all happy. 鬢√L. My cousin's bike which he repaired six
(Rooms = Bachelors ™«çöÀ-¢√∞¡Ÿx ÅüÁlèπ◊ 9) He repaired my cousin's bike. It hasn't given Combine the above. Use 'who' - ´’†’-≠æfl©’ months ago hasn't given him any trouble
BÆæ’èπ◊E ÖçúË í∫CE rooms Room
Åçö«®Ω’. ÅE him any trouble since then. 鬕öÀd. ever since.
Singular ™ ¢√úø®Ω’ Ñ Å®ΩnçûÓ) Oô--Eoç-öÀF ´’†ç who, which, whose and that He is out with another customer who is buy- Åûªúø’ Ç®Ω’ ØÁ©© éÀçü¿ repair îËÆœ† ´÷ cousin
Kailas: It seems he is out with another cus- ûÓ éπL°œ *†o sentences í¬ ´÷®Ω’ü∆lç. ing a bike and wanted his opinion. bike Å°æpöÀ†’ç* à trouble É´y-™‰ü¿’.
tomer. He is buying a bike. He wanted 1) Isn't it Nikhil who/ that called? Bike éÌçô’†o ÉçéÓ customer ÅûªúÕ ÅGµ- Ever since = Å°æpöÀ†’ç*
this mechanic's opinion. ÉC ûª®Ω-îª’í¬ conversation ™ ¢√ú≈-Lq†/ ´’†èπ◊
customer
v§ƒßª’ç 鬢√-©-†-úøçûÓ ûª†’ (¢Á’é¬-Eé˙) Åûª-úÕûÓ ÉN ´÷ô™x ¶«í¬ practice -îË-ߪ’çúÕ.
Åûªúø’ ÉçéÓ ûÓ •ßª’-öÀéÀ NE-°œçîË expression - ¢Á∞«xúø’.
bike
¢Á∞«xúø’. Åûª-ØËüÓ éÌçô’-Ø√oúø’. Ñ E"™¸ é¬ü∆ °œL-*çC? ÅØË Å®Ωnç™ E"™¸ éπü∆
mechanic ÅGµ-v§ƒßª’ç ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊-ØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ °œL-*çC? = Is it Nikhil who/ that called? EXERCISE ANSWER
Åûª-úÕE BÆæ’-Èé-∞«xúø’. È®çúÕç-öÀéà not ûËú≈. Ééπ\úø who/ that È®ç-úÕçöÀ™ Practise the following aloud in English.
Kedar: So what are you going to do? Preethi: Hi Prema, how's your brother?
àüÁjØ√ ¢√úÌa. Å®·ûË v§ƒùç-™‰E ´Ææ’h-´¤© (éÀçC ¢√öÀ™xwho, which, whose, that ¢√úøçúÕ)
Å®·ûË †’¢Ëyç îËߪ’-¶-ûª’-Ø√o´¤? Prema: OK. I took him to the doctor who
N≠æ-ߪ’ç™ who ®√ü¿’, that ´÷vûª¢Ë’ ´Ææ’hçC. Preethi: Hi Prema, O’ ûª´·t-úÁ™« ÖØ√oúø’?
Kailas: I've already called our mechanic and practises by the temple. The medi-
Which èπÿú≈ ´Ææ’hçC. Prema: ¶«í¬ØË ÖØ√oúø’. í∫’úÕ °æéπ\†practice
told him of it. He is sending his boy. He cines which he gave had a good
eg. Isn't it the book that / which you want? îËÊÆdoctor ü¿í∫_-®ΩÍé BÆæ’-Èé-∞«x†’. Çߪ’†
will fetch the bike to the shop. The effect. He is better now.
mechanic will attend to it. (Fèπ◊ 鬴-©-Æœ† °æ¤Ææhéπç ÉC é¬ü∆?) Å®·ûË Ééπ\úø É*a† ´’çü¿’©’ ¶«í¬ °æE-îË-¨»®·. É°æ¤úø’
Preethi: He is the doctor who treats all of us.
mechanic Phone who, which etc ûÓ join îËߪ÷-Lq† Å´-Ææ-®Ωç-™‰ü¿’. é¬Ææh èπ◊™«-≤ƒí¬ ÖØ√oúø’.
The medicines which he prescribes
Ø√ èπ◊ îËÆœ îÁ§ƒp†’. ¢√∞¡x Preethi: ´÷Èé-°æ¤púø÷ ¢Ájü¿uç îËÊÆ ú≈éπd®Ω’ Çߪ’ØË.
èπ◊v®√-úÕE °æ秃úø’. Åûªúø’ •çúÕ BÆæ’-èπ◊-´ÊÆh 2) Our mechanic repaired my bike. Nikhil wants
Çߪ’† prescribe îËÊÆ ´’çü¿’©’ ¶«í¬ work. He is one of those whose diag-
mechanic ü∆Eo repair îË≤ƒhúø’. him
°æE-îË-≤ƒh®·. ¢√uCµ E®Ωgߪ’ç (diagnosis) nosis does not go wrong.
Kedar: Our mechanic does his job well. His ´’† mechanic §Ú®·† ¢√®Ωç Ø√ bike repair ûª°æ¤p-§ÚE doctors ™ Çߪ’-ØÌ-éπúø’ Prema: He was the only one who did not
knowledge of mechanism is sound. î˨»úø’, Nikhil èπ◊ ûª†’ 鬢√L. (whose ¢√úøçúÕ)
mechanic treat my brother till yesterday in this
´’† ¶«í¬ØË îË≤ƒhúø’. Ééπ\úø who/ that ¢√úÕ Ñ È®çúø’ sentences †’ Prema: ´÷ ûª´·túÕo E†oöÀ ´®Ωèπ◊ treat îËߪ’E
Mechanism area. The others in the area have all
°æôx Åûª-úÕéÀ Ö†o Å´-í¬-£æ«† éπ©-°æ-´-a-éπü∆, É™« îª÷úøçúÕ. áçûª effective í¬ doctor Çߪ’-ØÌ-éπ\úË. Ñ area ™ N’í∫û√
´’ç*üË. treated my brother.
Öçô’çüÓ. Doctors Åçü¿®Ω÷ ´÷ ûª´·t-úÕE îª÷Æœ-†-
Sound = good; Sound Health - ´’ç* Ç®Óí∫uç Nikhil wants our mechanic who/ that ¢√∞Ïx. Preethi: You must take still greater care of
sound knowledge - ´’ç* knowledge repaired my bike last week. Preethi: ÅûªúÕ Ç®Óí∫uç °æôx Éçé¬ v¨¡ü¿l¥ ´£œ«ç-î √L him.
sound sleep - Prema: That's our worry.
´’ç* Evü¿ Ø√ bike †’ repair îËÆœ† ´’† mechanic Nikhil O’®Ω’.
sound financial position - ´’ç* ÇJnéπ °æJ-ÆœnA. Prema: ÅüË ´÷¶«üµ¿.
èπ◊ 鬢√L.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm


II Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ -´’çí∫-∞¡¢√®Ωç 30 -¢Ë’ 2006
Neeraj: What's wrong Suraj? Your head looks
rather odd. Let me see. Ah... it's your
ߪ’†ç îËÆæ’hçC.)
deal with/deals with (Present)
haircut.
dealt with (Past tense & past participle)
(àçöÀ §Ò®Ω-§ƒô’? F ûª™‰üÓ N*vûªçí¬ éπ†- Neeraj: There are two or three books here. I
°æ-úø’-ûÓçC. îª÷úøF.. Ç Å®Ωn-¢Á’içC... †’´¤y find them interesting. Shall I take
îË®·ç--èπ◊†o hair cut) them? I promise to return them prompt-
(rather - ´’†-éÀ-≠dç æ -™‰E N≠æߪ’ç éÌClí¬ ly within ten days.
áèπ◊\´ ÅEpç-*-†-°æ¤púø’ rather Åçö«ç. Éçûª- (Ééπ\úø È®çúø’ ´‚úø’ °æ¤Ææh-鬩’ Ø√èπ◊ ÇÆæéÀh éπL-Tç-
èπ◊-´·çü¿’ lessons ™ DFo îªJaçî√ç. îË-Ní¬ ÖØ√o®·. ؈’ ¢√öÀE BÆæ’-éÓØ√?10
îª÷úøçúÕ. Odd-´÷´‚©’ éπçõ‰ ¢ËÍ®/ N*-vûª- ®ÓV™x ûª°æpéπ AJT ÉîËa≤ƒh†E ´÷öÀ-Ææ’hØ√o.)
¢Á’i† (Ééπ\úÕ Å®√n©’) Odd Number = ¶‰Æœ Sentence group No. 7: show me - You didn't show me the books you
Suraj: Who's (who is) stopping you?
Ææçêu Rs. Two thousand odd = È®çúø’ ¢Ë© This book is different. It deals with the bought yesterday.
®Ω÷§ƒ-ߪ’© *©x®Ω (üµ¿®Ω, ê®Ω’a ™«çöÀN ¢√úË- E-ØÁo´®Ω’ Ç°æ¤-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’?(Åçõ‰ BÆæ’éÓ ÅE. future of Kashmir= (Ñlast sentence which
™ èπÿú≈ ™‰éπ-§Ú-´úøç
°æ¤púø’) ÆæçûÓ-≠æçí¬ é¬F éÓ°æçí¬ é¬F, E-ØÁo´®Ω’ Ç°æ- This book which deals with the future of correct - í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ).
Suraj: You are talking about my hair cut! My
õ‰xü¿’. àç îËߪ÷-©-†’-èπ◊ç-ö«¢Ó îË®·, ÅE) Kashmir is different. 6) These are the books I bought them at a dis-
barber is an expert hair stylist. He O’ conversation™ practice îËߪ’çúÕ. N’í∫û√Sentence groups who (whom
†’ •ü¿’- count of 30% to 40% each. = These are the
always gives me the latest in hair cut. Neeraj: Thank you.
©’í¬Who) lessons
¢√úø-û√-®ΩE í∫ûª ™ ûÁ©’-Ææ’- books which I bought at a discount of 30% to
Any thing looks odd if it is the latest lesson
éÀçü¿öÀ ™ ´’†ç ØË®Ω’a-èπ◊†o who, èπ◊Ø√oç. 40% each =
hair cut what, whom, whose These are the books I bought at a discount
2) You should have gone to my barber.
(†’´¤y Ø√ †’ í∫’Jç* ´÷ö«x-úø’-ûª’- ûÓ, N†-ö«-EéÀ é¬Ææh ᶄs-
Ø√o¢√? ´÷ barber î√™« E°æ¤-ù’úø’. Ø√Èé- -ôdE-°œçîË §ÒöÀd §ÒöÀd Sentences äéπ Everyone likes him. of 30% to 40% each.
latest hair cut Sentence í¬ éπ-©°æ-úøç ØË®Ω’a-èπ◊Ø√oç. ´’J-éÌEo sentences which drop
°æ¤púø÷ îË≤ƒhúø’. éÌûªhüËüÁj† barber
(v°æA¢√∞¡Ÿx á´-JE É≠æd°æúøû√®Ó Ç ü¿í∫_-JéÀ *´J ™– î˨»ç.
¢Á·ü¿ô Nçûªí¬ØË éπ†-°æ-úø’-ûª’çC.) N´-®√©’ É°æ¤púø’... †’¢Áy-∞«x-LqçC. ´÷´‚©’ ûÁ©’-í∫’™ DEéÀ •ü¿’©’– Å®·Ø√ éπÈ®Íéd.
Hair stylist - barber Look at the following sentences from the v°æA-¢√∞¡⁄x É≠æd-°æúË ´÷ barber ü¿í∫_-JéÀ... ÅE 8) The author is a great historian. All scholars
Neeraj: It does perhaps. But I still feel you conversation above. Åçö«ç. Å°æ¤púø’ á´-JE ņ-ö«-EéÀ èπÿú≈ whom respect =
should have gone to my barber. Every 1) My barber is an expert hairstylist. He •ü¿’©’ who É™« ¢√-úø’û√ç.) The author is a great historian who all schol-
one likes him a lot. His shop is just always gives me the latest in hair cut You should have gone to my barber who ars respect=
across the road from your man's (£«®·®˝ éπöÀçí˚™ ´÷ barber î√™« E°æ¤-ù’úø’. everyone likes. The author is a great historian all scholars
(Å´¤-ûª’ç-üË¢Á÷. Å®·Ø√ †’´¤y ´÷barber Hair cut™ latest fashion îË≤ƒhúø’.) 3) My barber gave me respect.
ü¿í∫_-®Ω-Èé-∞¡Ÿxç-ú≈-Lqç--C -Å-E -Å-†’-èπ◊ç--ô’Ø√o.) 2) You should have gone to my barber. a hair cut. I am satis- (who èπÿú≈ ™‰èπ◊Ø√o last sentence correct)
Suraj: Look here My barber gave me this hair Everyone likes him. fied with it. My bar- 9) There are two or three books here. - I find
cut. I am satisfied with it. I don't know (´÷ hair dresserü¿í∫_-JéÀ †’´¤y ¢Á∞¡Ÿxç-ú≈-LqçC. ber gave me a hair them interesting =
your hair stylist.Why should I go to him v°æA äéπ\®Ω÷ ÇûªEo É≠æd-°æ-úø-û√®Ω’.) cut which I am satis- There are two or three books here which I
at all? He is just across the road from your man's fied with. find interesting =
(îª÷úø÷. ´÷ barberÉ™« î˨»úø’. Ø√èπ◊ shop.)
(O’ ¶«®Ωs®˝ áü¿’-®Ω’-í¬ØË ÅûªúÕ É™«çöÀ Ææçü¿-®√s¥™ x There are two or three books here I find
3) My barber gave me a hair cut. I am satis- which èπÿú≈ ´C-™‰- M. SURESAN interesting. (which correct).
™‰èπ◊Ø√o
Ææçûª%-°œhí¬ ÖçC. O’¢√úÁ-´®Ó Ø√éπÆæ©’
fied with it. ߪ’ôç ¢√úø’-Èéj-§Ú-®·çC. É°æ¤p-úø’ ´’Sx îª÷úøçúÕ.
1) ؈’ †´’t-éπ-¢Á’i† ´uéÀh-éÓÆæç îª÷Ææ’h-Ø√o†’ =

The author is a great historian who...


(؈’ á´-J-ØÁjûË †´’t-í∫-©ØÓ Å™«çöÀ ´uéÀh-éÓÆæç
îª÷Ææ’h-Ø√o†’.) =
I am looking for a person who (whom
•ü¿’©’) I can trust (trust = †´’túøç).
= I am looking for a person I can trust.
2) The man who (whom she wants is
•ü¿’©’)
here = The man she wants is here =
(Ø√ barber Ø√èπ◊ îËÆœ† éπöÀçí˚ Ææçûª%-°œhí¬ îª÷úøçúÕ!
★ My barber gave me a haircut I am satisfied
Ǣ˒ 鬢√-©-†’-èπ◊†o -Åûª†’ Ééπ\-úø’-Ø√oúø’.
3) Fèπ◊ ؈’ E†o É*a† pen áéπ\úø?=
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 163
ÖçC.) with.
4) I don't know your hairstylist. Why should I Where is the pen which I gave you yes-
(with it
ûª®√yûª ´’Sx ®√ü¿’).
go to him at all? terday? =
4) I don't know your hair stylist why should I go
hair dresser Where's the pen I gave you yesterday?
to him at all.
4) ؈’ ¢Áûª’èπ◊-ûª’†o °æ¤Ææhéπç ÉüË =
(F (ÉC èπÿú≈ ¢√úøû√ç) Ø√èπ◊ éπ©’-°æ¤ü∆ç:
Why should I go to your hair stylist who
ûÁ-L-ߪ’-ü¿’. ØËØÁç-ü¿’èπ◊ ¢Á∞«xL ÅûªúÕ ü¿í∫_-JéÀ?) ûÁL-ߪ’ü¿’. ØËØÁç-ü¿’-Èé-∞«xL Åûª-E-ü¿-í∫_®Ωèπ◊?)
Neeraj: Come, Suraj. Don't be cross with me. 5) You bought some books yesterday. You This is the book which I've been searching
(whom é¬ü¿’) I don't know at all?
There are more interesting things to didn't show them to me. for=
(ÉC §Ú©açúÕ. Why should I go to a hair styl-
talk about, aren't there? You bought (E†o †’´¤y éÌEo °æ¤Ææh-鬩’ éÌØ√o´¤. ¢√öÀE ist I don't know at all- who
Ééπ\úø èπÿú≈ ´C-™‰- This is the book I've been searching for.
some books yester day.You didn't show Ø√èπ◊ îª÷°œç-îª-™‰ü¿’.) ߪ’ôç í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ). practice
鬕öÀd ñ«ví∫-ûªhí¬ who (whom),
îËÊÆh
them to me at all. 6) These are the books. I bought them at dis- 5) You bought some books. You didn't show which sentences join
¢√úø-èπ◊ç-ú≈ØË îËߪ’-´îª’a.
(Ææ÷®Ωñ ¸ éÓ°æp-úÌü¿’l. Éçûª-éπçõ‰ ÇÆæ-éÀh-éπ-®Ω-¢Á’i† count of 30% to 40% each. them to me = Å™« îËÊÆh ´’† conversation î√™« Åçü¿çí¬,
N≠æ-ߪ÷-©’-Ø√o®· éπü∆? E†o †’´¤y é̆o (ÉO Ç °æ¤Ææh-鬩’. OöÀE ؈’ äéÓ\-ü∆Eo 30 You bought some books which you didn't modern í¬ Öçô’çC.
°æ¤Ææh鬩†’ Ø√èπ◊ îª÷°œç-îªØË ™‰ü¿’) †’ç* 40 ¨»ûªç ´®Ωèπÿ Discount ™ éÌØ√o†’)
Suraj: These are the books. I bought at a dis- 7) This book is different. It deals with the EXERCISE Answer:
count of 30% to 40% each at the book future of Kashmir. Practise the following aloud in English. Saran: Who was the man I saw you with yes-
fare. They are interesting books. Kashmir terday? (whom who
(-Ñ °æ¤Ææhéπç -v°æ-ûËuéπ-¢Á’i-†-C. ÉC ¶µºN- Saran: E†o FûÓ Ö†o ÅûªØÁ-´®Ω’? •ü¿’©’ ¢√úË ™‰èπ◊çú≈).
(Ç °æ¤Ææh-é¬-LN. v°æ-B-C 30 †’ç* 40 ¨»ûªç ûª†’ -N-¨Ïx-≠œç-*ç-C.) Varun: Åûªúø’ Ø√ friend Tarun. Majority students Varun: My friend Tarun. He is a student leader
ûªT_ç°æ¤ üµ¿®Ω™ éÌØ√o†’) 8) The author is a great historian. All scholars majority of students support.
Neeraj: What are they about? support îËÊÆ student leader Åûªúø’.
respect him. Saran: I read his article in
(°ævA-éπ™x ®√ÊÆ ¢√uÆæç)
( ÅN üËE í∫’Jç*?) Saran: ؈’ àüÓ °ævA-éπ™  Åûªúø’ ®√Æœ† ¢√uÆæç îªC-
some paper. I saw his photo in it. That's
(®Ωîª-®·ûª íÌ°æp îªJvûªé¬®Ω’úø’. °æçúÕ-ûª’-©-ûª-úÕE
Suraj: All of them are fiction. But this book is íı®Ω-N-≤ƒh®Ω’.) ¢√†’ Åéπ\úø ؈-ûªúÕ photo îª÷¨». Åçü¿’-éπE why I am asking.
different. It deals with the future of 9) There are two or three books here. I find ÅúÕí¬.
Kashmir. It's interesting. The author is a Varun: The articles he writes are interesting
them interesting. Varun: Åûªúø’ ®√ÊÆ ¢√u≤ƒ©’ î√™« interesting í¬,
great historian. Great Scholars respect and thought provoking. (Thought pro-
(OöÀ™E È®çúø’ ´‚úø’ °æ¤Ææh-鬩’ Ø√èπ◊ ÇÆæ-éÀh-éπ-
him
Ç™- Í®Èé-Ahç-îË-Ní¬ Öçö«®·. voking = Ç™-îª-†©’ Í®Èé-AhçîË)
®Ωçí¬ ÖØ√o®·.)
fictions - Saran: ÅC ؈’ í∫´’-Eç-î √†’. Åûªúø’ Lecturers Saran: I've observed that. I think he is a student
(Å´Fo éπü∑∆ °æ¤Ææh-鬩’. éπü∑¿©’. Sentence groups No 1, and No 9 ©†’ äéπ-
(éπLpç-*-†N 鬕öÀd) Fiction - éπLpûªç. öÀí¬ éπ©-°æ-ú≈-EéÀ, who and which ©†’ ûª°æp-E-Ææ- èπÿú≈ É≠æd-°æúË student ņ’-èπ◊çö«. the lecturers like too.
Å®·ûË ÉC ´÷vûªç ûËú≈. ÅC Kashmir Jí¬ ¢√ú≈-LqçüË. Varun: ÆæçüË-£æ«´÷? ´’ç* book reader. Åûªúø’ Varun: Why doubt? He is a book reader too.
deal with =
¶µºN≠æuûª’h†’ îªJa-Ææ’hçC. äéπ Sentence group No 1 îªC¢Ë books î√™« serious books. Ñ The books he reads are serious ones.
subject/
°æ¤Ææhéπç/ äéπ ã Ö°æ-Ø√uÆæç/ã Ö°æ- My barber is an expert hairstylist. He This is a book he has advised me to
etc.
°æ¤Ææhéπç Åûªúø’ îªü¿-´-´’E Ææ©£æ… É*açüË.
Ø√u-Ææ-èπ◊úø’ îªJaç-îªôç.) always gives me the latest in hair cut= read.
Eg: Zoology deals with animals = Saran: Å™«çöÀ students †’ Å®Ω’-ü¿’í¬ îª÷≤ƒhç
(ïçûª’- My barber is an expert hair stylist who gives Saran: Such students are rare, aren't they?
¨»ÆæYç ïçûª’-´¤-©†’ í∫’Jç* îªJa-Ææ’hçC/ Åüµ¿u- me...
éπü∆?

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm


II Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ í∫’®Ω’¢√®Ωç 1 -W-Ø˛ 2006
Rajita: Hi Likhita, the bakery we buy our cakes 4) The time I told our friends to come at is 5.30
from is closed. What shall we do now. ؈’ ´’† friends †’ ®Ω´’t†o time 5.30
(´’†ç ´÷´‚-©’í¬ cakes éÌØË bakery 5) The time we are left with is rather short
´‚Æœ ÖçC. àç îËü∆lç?) (´’†èπ◊ N’T-L† time î√™« ûªèπ◊\´)
Likhita: I'm afraid. We have to make do with 6) Two of the guests we have invited have
the cakes we have at home. called...
(´’†ç Éçöx Ö†o cakes ûÓ Ææ®Ω’l-éÓ-¢√-LqçüË) ´’†ç °œL-*† guests ™ Éü¿l®Ω’ phone î˨»®Ω’.
Rajita: But are they enough for all the friends 7) ... The two girls you like so much.
we are going to have for the party? (†’¢ÁyçûÓ É≠æd-°æúË -É-ü¿l®Ω-´÷t®·-©’)
(é¬F party éÌîËa friends îª÷úøçúÕ, °j sentences ÅEoçöÀ™ ¢Á·ü¿öÀ
Åçü¿-Jéà ÅN c) Ñ Channel ™ØË ØËØ√ programme É™« O™„j-†Eo Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x, ´’†ç English ´÷ö«x-úË-
îª÷ÆœçC=
ÆæJ-§Ú-û√ߪ÷?) ¶µ«í∫ç/ clause (English ™ *´J clause) Å®Ωnç This is the channel on which I saw the pro- ô-°æ¤púø’, whom ¢√úøéπç °æ‹Jhí¬ ´÷ØË-¨»®Ω’.
Likhita: Let's see if the bakery at the other end Åçü¿’èπ◊ •ü¿’©’ á´-JE ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ èπÿú≈ 'who'
ᙫ ´Ææ’hçüÓ: gramme. (old fashioned). On which ¢√úø-èπ◊çú≈-–
of the street is open. 1) ´’†ç cakes éÌØË bakery = (´’†ç à bakery This is the channel I watched the pro- 'that' ¢√úø’-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’. Å™«Íí which èπÿú≈ drop
(OCµéÀ Ñ *´®Ω Ö†o bakery ûÁJ* ™ cakes éÌçö«¢Á÷ ÅC ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ) = gramme on. Å®·ûË Ééπ\úø í∫´’-Eç-îª-ü¿í∫_ N≠æߪ’ç, îËÊÆ-Ææ’h-Ø√o®Ω’.
ÖçüË¢Á÷ îª÷ü∆lç) The bakery we buy cakes from = (the bakery preposition 'on' ´C-™‰-ߪ’-èπÿ-úøü¿’. Whom •ü¿’©’ who , that èπÿ-ú≈ ¢√úøôç
Rajita: The time I told our friends to come at is from which we buy cakes ÅE ÅÆæ©’ clause - d) Ñ room ™ØË Åûªúø’ £æ«ûªuèπ◊ í∫’È®jçC. = ™‰C-°æ¤púø’. Å™«Íí which èπÿú≈ ™‰ü¿’. ÉN
5.30. It's already 4.30. The time we are é¬F modern English spoken form ™ É™« This is the room in which he was murdered ™‰èπ◊ç-ú≈ØË, we can join two/ more sentences
left with is rather short. Let's hurry. ņúøç ™‰ü¿’.) É™«çöÀ îÓôx from which ™«çöÀ (in which- old fashioned) into one ÅE °j examples ™ îª÷¨»ç éπü∆.
(´’† friends †’ ؈’ ®Ω´’t†o time 5.30 expressions ´÷ØË-¨»®Ω’.) Modern: This is the room he was murdered a) v°æA ¢√∞¡⁄x ¢Á’a-èπ◊ØË Ø√ߪ’-èπ◊-úø-ûª†’=
É°æp-öÀÍé 4.30 Å®·-§Ú-®·çC. ´’†èπ◊ 2) ´’† Éçöx Ö†o cakes ûÓ = in. ('In' sentence *´®Ω ®√´ôç í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ) He is the leader every one admires.
N’T-L† time áèπ◊\´ ™‰ü¿’. ûªy®Ωí¬ °æü¿) With the cakes we have at home e) †’´¤y °æ∞¡Ÿx éÓÆœ† éπAh °æü¿’-ØÁjçC= (Who everyone admires é¬ü¿’).
Likhita: Two of the guests we've invited have (modern for with the cakes which we have at The knife with which b) v°æA-¢√∞¡⁄x îª÷úø-ü¿í∫_ *vûª-´’C=
called to tell me they aren't coming. home - which present day English you cut the fruits is
™ ¢√úøôç That is a movie every one must see.
(´’†ç °œL-*† ¢√∞¡x™ Éü¿l®Ω’ ®√´-ôç-™‰-ü¿E ™‰ü¿’/ NE-°œç-îªü¿’) sharp. (with which - (Which every one must see é¬ü¿’)
Phone î˨»®Ω’.) 3) ... The friends we are going to have = old fashioned)
c) Åûªúø’ v°æߪ÷-ùÀçîË car î√™« êK-üÁjçC=
Rajita: Who are they? (¢√∞Îx-´®Ω’) friends (modern for Modern: The knife you
´’†èπ◊ ®√¶-ûª’†o Åçü¿-Jéà The car he travels by is expensive.
Likhita: Hasya and Lasya, the two girls you like 'the friends who/ that (whom = we •ü¿’©’) cut the fruits with is
(The car by which he travels,- old fashioned)
so much. One is down with a fever and are going to have - Spoken English
É°æpöÀ sharp. ('with' fruits
the other doesn't like to come alone.
Å®·ûË Ééπ\úø 'by' ÅØË preposition ´ü¿-©-èπÿ-úøü¿’.
™ who/ that drop whom
îËߪ’ôç °æJ-§ƒöÀ. ûª®√yûª ®√´ôç í∫´’-Eç-
(†’´¤y ¶«í¬ É≠æd-°æúË Éü¿l-®Ω-´÷t-®·©’ £æ…Ææu, îªçúÕ). M. SURESAN Åçü¿’-éπØË, the car he travels by ÅE by ¢√úøû√ç.
ÅÆæ©’ NE-°œç-îªúøç ™‰ü¿’)
™«Ææu. äéπ-J-Íé¢Á÷ ïy®Ωç, ÉçéÌ-éπ-J-Íé¢Á÷ äçô-
Jí¬ ®√´ôç É≠ædç ™‰ü¿’)
Rajita: That's disappointing. How much more
cake do we need?
(ÅC E®√-¨»-éπ®Ωç. ´’†-éÀç-Èéçûª
鬢√L?)
cake
This is the pen I like a lot
Likhita: (It) depends on the number of guests
EXERCISE ANSWER
we expect. My estimate is atleast 40.
That means we need at least a Kg Practise the following aloud in English Praneeth: The fish I ate yesterday wasn't
more.
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 164 Praneeth: E†o ؈’ A†o fish Åçûª ®Ω’*í¬ ™‰ü¿’.
Vineeth: áéπ\úø AØ√o´¤.
tasty.
Vineeth: Where did you eat?
(ÅC ´’†ç ´≤ƒh-®Ω-†’-éÌØË Ç£æ…y-E-ûª’©
Praneeth: †’´¤y ûª®Ω-îª’í¬ ¢Á∞Ïx, †’´¤y á°æ¤púø’ Praneeth: The restaurant you frequently go
4) ؈’ ´’†
Ææçêu†’ •öÀd Öçô’çC. Ø√ ÅçîªØ√ éπFÆæç
40, Åçõ‰ ÉçéÓ éÀ™ 鬢√L) friends time =
†’ ®Ω´’t†o ´÷ö«xúË restaurant ™. to, and talk so much about.
The time I told our friends to come at (the time Vineeth: Åéπ\úø complain îËߪ’-ö«-EéÀ Ø√Íéç Vineeth: I haven't found anything to com-
Rajita: Ah... here we are. Thank god. This bak-
at which I told them to come - at which ™«çöÀ plain about there.
ery is open. éπEpç-îª-™‰üË?
expressions old fashioned - 鬕öÀd Å™« ņç.
(Ç... Å´’tߪ÷u. Ñ bakery ûÁJîË ÖçC.) Praneeth: ؈’ §Ò®Ω-§ƒô’ î˨»†’. E†o ؈’ Praneeth: I made a mistake. I should have
The time I told our friends to come at ÅØË
Thank god = •AéÀ-§Úߪ÷ç = üË´¤-úÕéÀ üµ¿†u-¢√-ü∆©’ E†’oèπÿú≈ BÆæ’èπ◊ ¢Á∞«xLqçC. Å°æ¤úø’ taken you there yesterday. You
Åçö«ç.)
would then have known the quality
Likhita: They aren't good at making cakes 5) Two of the guests we have invited have †’´¤y ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊-†’ç-úË-¢√-úÕN ¢√∞¡Ÿx ´úÕfçîË
called = of food they serve.
here. cakes
(Ééπ\úÕ ¢√∞¡Ÿx ÆæJí¬_ îËߪ’®Ω’) ǣ慮Ωç íÌ°æp.
guests phone Vineeth: Ñ®ÓV BÂÆ\∞¡Ÿx. îª÷ü∆lç. Vineeth: Take me today and let's see.
Rajita: We have to buy here for now. No help- ´’†ç °œL-*† ™ Éü¿l®Ω’ î˨»®Ω’.
ing it. (Ééπ\úø É¢√-RdéÀ éÌØ√LqçüË. ûª°æpü¿’) (Two of the guests who/ that (whom •ü¿’©’) Praneeth: É¢√∞¡ Ø√ ü¿í∫_-®Ω’†o úø•’s î√©ü¿’. Praneeth: The money I have today isn't
we invited have called - who/ that old Ééπ\úø enough. Whose money do you
í∫ûª éÌEo lessons í¬ who (whom •ü¿’-©’í¬) fashioned -
Å®·Ø√ á´J úø•’s-†’¢√úÕ †’´¤y ®Ω’V´¤
É°æ¤púø’ ¢√úøôç ™‰ü¿’) wish to use to prove your point.
which ûÓ short sentence éπ©-°æôç practice
7) ... †’´¤y Åçûª É≠æd-°æúË Ç Éü¿l-®Ω-´÷t-®·©’
îËߪ÷-©-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o´¤.
Vineeth: †’¢Ëy-í∫ü∆ complain îËÆ œçC. Vineeth: It's you who complained.
= The two girls you like so much (The two
îËÆæ’hØ√oç éπü∆.
ÉçéÓ N≠æߪ’ç. î√™« Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x who (whom Praneeth: Åçü¿’èπ◊ •ü¿’©’ Ç restaurant èπ◊ Praneeth: I'd rather stop going to the restau-
girls who/ that (whom •ü¿’©’) you like so
•ü¿’©’) & which ûÓ sentences join îËÊÆ-ô-°æ¤púø’ rant.
much- old fashioned. Who/ that É°æ¤úø’ drop ¢Á∞¡xôç ´÷ØË-≤ƒh†’.
who (whom) and which E ´C-™‰Æ œ èπÿú≈ join îËÊÆ-Ææ’h-Ø√o®Ω’.)
îÁßÁ·-uîªaE îª÷¨»ç– í∫’®Ω’hçC éπü∆? ÉC ´’†-Ææ’™ °j† ´’†ç í∫´’-Eç-*† N≠æߪ’ç – È®çúø’ ´‚úø’
Öç-éÌE °j conversation ™ Ñ sentences short sentences †’ äéπ-öÀí¬ îËJa ´÷ö«xúËô°æ¤púø’ -v°æ-¨¡o: i) The uses of adversity are sweet. verb - are Ñ sentence ™ object ™‰ü¿’.
modern spoken form ™ whom èπ◊ ≤ƒn†ç ™‰ü¿’. ii) âØ˛-Æ‘dØ˛ ≤ƒÊ°éπ~ Æœü∆l¥ç-û√Eo v°æA-§ƒ-Cç-î√úø’. Verb, 'be', form Å®·ûË object Öçúøü¿’ - 'are',
†’ study îËߪ’çúÕ.
ÅC ûª°æpéπ ¢√ú≈-Lq-´ÊÆh who/ that ¢√úøû√ç. -Ñ È®çúø’ ¢√é¬u-©èπ◊ subject, object, 'be' form.
1) The bakery we buy our cakes from is closed
a) Police ņ’´÷-Eç-îËC Åûª-úÕE= verb ûÁ©-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’. (ûÁ©’í∫’, ÉçTx-≠ˇ™x) ii) Einstein propounded the theory of relativity
(´’†ç cakes éÌØË bakery ´‚ÊÆÆœ ÖçC) He is the man who/ that the police suspect. iii) simple, complex, compound a) subject - Einstein b) verb- pro-
2) ... We have to make do with the cakes we Å®·ûË É™« ņúøç Éçé¬ better. í∫’Jç* ´’Jçûª Ææ´÷-î√®Ωç ÅçCç-îª- pounded
have at home. He is the man the police suspect. (who/ that
í∫©®Ω’. c) object - the theory of relativity
cakes èπÿú≈ drop îËÊÆ-Ææ’hØ√oç). É™«Íí which èπÿú≈.
– ®Ω¢Ë’-≠ˇ-¶«•’, π◊´’-®Ω-üË-´®Ωç
(´’† Éçöx Ö†o ûÓ Ææ®Ω’l-éÓ-¢√-LqçüË)
3) ... are they enough for all the friends we are b) ؈’ áèπ◊\-´í¬ É≠æd-°æúË pen ÉC=
ûÁ©’í∫’ - subject - Einstein, verb - v°æA-
going to have for the party? = This is the pen which I like a lot (old fash- -ï-¢√-•’: §ƒ-Cç-î√úø’, object - ≤ƒÊ°éπ~ Æœü∆l¥çûªç.
iii) Simple, compound, complex sentence †’
´’† party éÀ ®√¶-ûª’†o friends ioned). Which É°æ¤púø’ ´·êuçí¬ spoken
Åçü¿-JéÀ ÅN i) The uses of adversity are sweet.
English ™ ¢√úøôç ™‰ü¿’. Ç Ê°®Ω’x ¢√úø-èπ◊çú≈ N´-J-Ææ÷hØË ÖØ√oç, clause ™
ÆæJ-§Ú-û√ߪ÷? subject - the uses of adversity.
= This is the pen I like a lot (which ™‰èπ◊çú≈) Éçü¿’™ N´-Jç-*-†-°æ¤p-úø™«x – ¢√öÀE îª÷úøçúÕ.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm


II Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ -¨¡-E¢√®Ωç 3 -W-Ø˛ 2006
Pranai: Are you going to meet Sekhar today?
Ééπ\úÕ È®çúø’ clauses:
(†’´¤y Ñ ®ÓV ¨Ïê-®˝†’ éπ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-¶-ûª’-Ø√o¢√?) 1) If he comes here= Åûª-E-éπ\-úÕéÀ´ÊÆh (If clause)
Vinai: If he is in town, I will meet him.
2) They will discuss the matter with him =
(Åûªúø’ Ü∞x Öçõ‰, ؈’ éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊ç-ö«†’) Ç N≠æߪ’ç ¢√∞¡x-ûª-úÕûÓ îªJa-≤ƒh®Ω’. (Main clause)
Pranai: He is in town, ofcourse. He has been
b) If he walks fast, he will reach on time.
here since yesterday.
(Åûªúø’ Ü∞xØË ÖØ√oúø’. E†oöÀ †’ç* Ééπ\úË ÖØ√oúø’) (Åûªúø’ ûªy®Ωí¬ †úÕÊÆh, Ææ´’-ߪ÷-EéÀ îË®Ω’-èπ◊ç-ö«úø’)
Vinai: If I had known it, I would have met him
Éçü¿’™E È®çúø’ clauses.
1) If he walks fast Åûªúø’ ûªy®Ωí¬ †úÕÊÆh –
yesterday itself.
('If' clause)
(ÅC Ø√èπ◊ ûÁL-Ææ’çõ‰ E†oØË éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊-ØË-¢√-úÕE)
2) He will reach on time = 6) If only today were a holiday, I would take you Verb Combination: If clause - were/ past
Pranai: If you want to go, I will tell him you want
Ææ´’-ߪ÷-EéÀ îË®Ω’-èπ◊ç-ö«úø’ – (main clause) to him. doing word.
to see him.
°j È®çúø’ sentences ™†÷, main clause 7) If I could, I would. (îËߪ’-í∫-L-TûË, îË≤ƒh†’ = Main clause, would/ should/ could/ might.
(†’´¤y ¢Á∞«x-©-†’-èπ◊çõ‰, Åûª-úÕûÓ †’´¤y éπ©’-Ææ’-
verbs: will discuss, will reach - Åçõ‰ ÉN îËߪ’-™‰†’, îËߪ’†’) a) If I were the CM, I would make you the
éÓ-¢√-©-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o-´E îÁ•’û√.)
future tense. 'If clause verbs - comes, walks 8) If you take me to him, I shall be grateful. Finance Minister.
Vinai: If you do that, I will be happy.
- present tense. (†’´y-ûªúÕ ü¿í∫_®Ωèπ◊ ††’o BÆæ’-èπ◊-¢Á-RûË, ؈’ éπ%ûª-Vc-úÕE) (؈’ É°æ¤púø’ CM Å®·ûË, (鬆’) E†’o Finance
(†’´yC îËÊÆh ؈’ ÆæçûÓ-≠œ-≤ƒh†’) É™«çöÀ verb combination Ö†o sentence îÁÊ°p Minister îË≤ƒh†’. (îËÊÆ Å´-鬨¡ç ™‰ü¿’)
9) If my boss grants me leave, I will take you.
Pranai: I'll ofcourse. But if I were you, I would-
n't try to meet him.
N≠æߪ’ç ïJÍí Å´-鬨¡ç ÖçC. (probable) (´÷ boss Ø√èπ◊ leave ÉÊÆh, E†’o BÆæ’èπ◊-¢Á-∞¡-û√) b) If he were here, I would consult him.
Sentence No.1 ™ Åûªúø’ ´îËa Å´-鬨¡ç ÖçD, Ééπ\úø Sentences No 1, 3, 8 and 9 É´Fo èπÿú≈ ¢√úÕ-éπ\úø É°æ¤púø’ ™‰úø’, Öçõ‰ consult îË≤ƒh†’.
(ØËØ√-°æE îË≤ƒh†’. é¬F F ≤ƒn†ç™ ؈’çõ‰
-Å-ûªúÕE éπ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-´-ö«-EéÀ v°æߪ’-Aoç-’.) ¢√∞¡x-ûª-úÕûÓ îªJaçîË Å´-é¬-¨¡´‚ ÖçC. ´’†ç Éçûª-èπ◊-´·çü¿’ îª÷Æœ† 'probable present' (îËÊÆ Å´-鬨¡ç ™‰ü¿’)
Sentence No. 2 ™ Åûªúø’ ûªy®Ωí¬ †úø-´-†÷- situations- Åçõ‰ Ç sentences ûÁLÊ° N≠æ-ߪ÷©’ Look at sentence No 5:
Vinai: Why wouldn't you? (áçü¿’èπ◊?)
´îª÷a, Ææé¬-™«-EéÀ îË®Ω’-éÓ-- ïJÍí Å´-鬨¡ç ÖçC. If I had his power, I would help every one
Pranai: You are very hopeful of his help, but †÷-´îª’a. Sentence No 2 ™ situation, Imaginary past
I am afraid he is not the helping type. (ÅûªúÕ ¨¡éÀh Ø√èπ◊ -Öçõ‰ – É°æ¤púø’ – Ø√èπ◊ ™‰ü¿’; Öçõ‰,
É™« ïJ-ÍíC Ææ綵º´ç - DEo èπÿú≈ ´’†ç Éçûªèπ◊´·çü¿’ îª÷¨»ç. ÉC Åçü¿-Jéà ≤ƒßª’ç îË≤ƒh. If clause verb - had - past
(ÅûªúÕ Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç éÓÆæç †’´¤y î√™« Ǩ¡ûÓ (probable) 鬕öÀd °j Å®·-§Ú-®·† N≠æߪ’ç, ´÷®Ωa™‰ç, ÜJÍé ņ’- tense, main clause verb - would help.)
ÖØ√o´¤, é¬F Åûªúø’ Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç îËÊÆ ®Ωéπç é¬ü¿’) È®çúø’ sentences ™E èπ◊çö«ç. É™«çöÀ sentences èπÿú≈ ´’†ç Éçûªèπ◊ eg: If he consulted me, I could advise him
Vinai: If I had his power, I would help every- situation, probable ´·çü¿’ îª÷Æœ ÖØ√oç.
one that came to me. present
(Åûªúø’ †Eo-°æ¤púø’ Ææçv°æ-Cç-îªúøç Åçô÷ ïJ-TûË
Åçö«ç. ÉC Now, look at the sentences No 4, 5, 6 and 7 (–ÅC ï®Ω-í∫ü¿’) ؈-ûª-úÕéÀ Ææ©£æ… É´y-í∫-©†’. = Åûª†’
(Ø√éπ-ûªúÕèπ◊†oçûª ¨¡éÀh Öçõ‰ Ø√ ü¿í∫_-®Ω-éÌîËa v°æA- Éçûªèπ◊´·çü¿’ lessons and notice the verbs in the 'if' clauses and
¢√-∞¡xèπÿ ØË-†’ Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç îË≤ƒh†’.) ™ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊Ø√oç. M. SURESAN the main clauses in them.
††’o Ææçv°æ-Cç-îªúø÷, ؈’ Ææ©£æ… É´y†÷ ™‰†’.)
Sentence No 6
If today were a holiday - É-¢√y-∞¡ ÂÆ©´¤ ®Óï-®·ûË
(é¬E É¢√y∞¡ ÂÆ©´¤ é¬ü¿’.) I would take you to

If I could, I would him (ÅûªúÕ ü¿í∫_-®Ωèπ◊ BÆæ’-èπ◊-¢Á-∞¡û√.) = É¢√y∞¡ ÂÆ©´‹


é¬ü¿’, ؈’ E†o-ûªúÕ ü¿í∫_-®Ωèπ◊ BÆæ’èπ◊ ¢Á∞Ïx Å´-é¬-¨¡´‚
™‰ü¿’.
Sentence No 7
If I could, I would. ؈’ îËߪ’í∫-L-TûË (é¬F îËߪ’-
4) If I were you, I wouldn't try to meet him. (ØË-ØË
É™« îÁÊ°p sentences ™ verb combination. †’´y-®·ûË, Åûª-úÕE éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊ØË v°æߪ’ûªoç îËߪ’†’) ™‰†’), I would (îË≤ƒh†’– é¬E îËߪ’-™‰†’ 鬕öÀd îËÊÆ
If clause - Present tense, 5) If I had his power, I would help every one.
Å´-鬨¡ç ™‰ü¿’)
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 165 Main clause - will/ shall/ can/ may ÅûªúÕ ¨¡éÀh Ø√èπ◊çõ‰, ؈ç-ü¿-Jéà ≤ƒßª’ç îË≤ƒh†’.
Ééπ\úø èπÿú≈ É°æpöÀ °æJ-ÆœnA (present situation)
í∫’Jç* ´÷ö«x-úø’-ûª’-†o-°æp-öÀéÃ, 'if' clause ™ 'could'
ÉC v°æÆæ’hûªç Ææ綵º´ç Ŵa. 鬕öÀd DEE prob- 6) If only today were a holiday, I would take you ¢√úøéπç í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ.
able present Åçö«ç.
Pranai: If I didn't know him so well, I wouldn't to him. (É¢√y∞¡ ÂÆ©´¤ ®Óï-®·ûË, ؈’ E†o-ûªúÕ Å™«Íí main clause ™ would ®√´ôç í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ:
Look at the following:
tell you all this. ü¿í∫_®Ωèπ◊ BÆæ’-Èé-∞Ïx-¢√-úÕØË) É°æ¤púø’ ÉC îª÷úøçúÕ:
a) If he had studied well, he would have
(ÅûªúÕ í∫’Jç* Ø√èπ◊ ¶«í¬ ûÁL-ߪ’-éπ-§ÚûË, 7) If I could, I would- îËߪ’-í∫-L-TûË, îË≤ƒh†’. Improbable Present:
passed.
FéÀ-ü¿çû√ îÁ°æp†’)
b) If he had come here, I would have told him of it
°j Ø√©’í∫’ sentences èπÿú≈ v°æÆæ’hûªç ï®Ω-í∫E 'If' clause - verb - were/ Past Doing Word,
Vinai: Thank you. Then I won't go to him. But °æ†’-©†’ ûÁ©’-°æ¤-û√®·. Åçü¿’-éπE Ñ sentences Main clause verb - would/ should/ could/
unfortunately he is the only man who a) Å®Ωnç: ¢√úø’ ¶«í¬ îªCN Öçõ‰, (îªü¿-´-™‰ü¿’), pass
ÅßË’u-¢√úË (pass Å´-™‰ü¿’) ™E situation †’, improbable present (ï®Ω-í∫E might.
can help me. v°æÆæ’hûªç) Åçö«ç. ÉC ûÁ©’í∫’™ Å®Ω’ü¿’. Åçü¿’-
(Å®·ûË Øˆ-ûªúÕ ü¿í∫_-®Ωèπ◊ ¢Á∞¡x†’. ü¿’®Ω-ü¿%-≠d-´æ -¨»ûª’h Ñ situation, í∫û√-EC (past) ïJ-TçC. ïJ-T-§Ú- éπE ûªy®Ωí¬ English conversation ™éÀ ®√ü¿’. Now Practise the following aloud in English
®·çC. ÅC Éçéπ ´÷®Ωü¿’, ´’†ç ÜJÍé ņ’- Raghu:
Ø√èπ◊ ≤ƒßª’çîËߪ’-í∫-©-¢√úø’ ûªØÌ-éπ\úË.)
èπ◊çö«ç– Å™« Å®· Öçõ‰, É™« Å®· -Öç-ô’ç-ü¿E. é¬F English ™ î√™« frequent í¬ ¢√úø-û√®Ω’. ©éπ~ tù‰ í∫†éπ É°æ¤p-úÕ-éπ\úø Öçõ‰ ´’†ç ÅûªúÕE
Pranai: I know another friend of mine who can Åçü¿’-éπE Spoken English éÀC -î√™« ´·êuç. Ææçv°æ-C≤ƒhç.
help you. If only today were a holiday, I b) Å®Ωnç: Åûª-E-éπ\-úÕéÀ ´*a Öçõ‰, ØËF N≠æߪ’ç
´’Sx í∫’®Ω’hç--éÓçúÕ. Ñ sentences ™ N≠æ-ߪ÷©’ Ram: Å´¤†’. Ñ N≠æߪ’ç Åûª-úÕéÀ ûÁLÊÆh ¢ÁçôØË
would take you to him. Can't you wait ÅûªúÕéÀ îÁÊ°p-¢√-úÕE (Åûªúø’ ®√™‰ü¿’, ؈’ îÁ°æp-™‰ü¿’)–
till tomorrow. ÉC èπÿú≈ past. ´’†ç ´÷®Ωa-™‰-EC. É°æ¤púø’ (present ™) ï®Ω-í∫-EN. ´≤ƒh-úÕ-éπ\-úÕéÀ.
Raghu: Å®·ûË Åûª-úÕéÀ F cellûÓ phone îÁ®·u.
Ñ È®çúø’ situations, ´’†ç Ü£œ«ç--èπ◊ØË í∫ûªç– Sentence 4: If I were you = ؈’ †’´y-®·ûË
(Ø√éÀçéÓ ÊÆo£œ«-ûª’-úø’-Ø√oúø’. Fèπ◊ ≤ƒßª’ç îËߪ’-í∫- Ram: Ø√èπ◊ cell Öçõ‰, F ü¿í∫_-®Ω-èπ◊- ®√†’éπü∆?
Imaginary past Åçö«ç. (É°æ¤púø’)– ؈’ †’´y-´úøç ï®Ω-í∫-ü¿’-í∫ü∆– ؈’ †’´y-
©-¢√úø’. É¢√y∞¡ ÂÆ©´¤ ®Óï-®·ûË E†’o ؈-ûªúÕ Raghu: F cell à¢Á’içC?
ü¿í∫_-®Ωèπ◊ BÆæ’-Èé-∞Ïx-¢√-úÕØË. Í®°æöÀ´®Ωèπ◊ Çí∫-™‰¢√?) Ñ È®çúø’ (probable present, imaginary past) ®·† °æJ-Æœn-A™, I wouldn't try to meet him =
Ram: ÅC §Ú®·çC.
Vinai: If I could, I would, but the matter is situations ûÁLÊ° sentences †’ Éçûª-èπ◊-´·çü¿’ Åûª-úÕE éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊ØË v°æߪ’ûªoç îËߪ’†’.
lessons ™ N¨¡-ü¿çí¬ N´-Jçî√ç éπü∆. Raghu: ÉC ´‚úÓ cell †’´¤y §ÚíÌ-ô’d-éÓ-´ôç.
urgent. If you take me to him today, 1) ÉC present situation Å®·-†-°æp-öÀéà 'If' clause ™
Now look at the following sentences from were ®√´ôç í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ.
†’´¤y ñ«ví∫-ûªhí¬ Öçõ‰, cells §Ú´¤ éπü∆?
I shall be grateful.
the dialogue between Pranai and Vinai: Ram: v°æߪ’-Ao-≤ƒh†’.
(ÇÍí °æJ-ÆœnûË Öçõ‰/- Ç-í∫-í∫-L-TûË Çí∫’-û√†’. é¬F 2) 'I' singular Å®·-†-°æp-öÀéÃ, plural verb were ¢√úøôç
î√™« urgent. †’Oy-®ÓV ††o-ûªúÕ ü¿í∫_-®Ωèπ◊ 1) If he is in town, I will meet him. í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ. (N’í∫û√ Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x I was Åçö«ç) Answer
(Probable present)
BÆæ’èπ◊¢ÁRûË, ؈’ Fèπ◊ éπ%ûª-Vc-úÕí¬ Öçö«.) v°æÆæ’hûªç ï®Ω-í∫E °æEE îÁÊ°p-ô°æ¤púø’ á°æ¤púø÷, 'If' Raghu: If Laxman were here, we would consult
Pranai: Ok. Let me see. If my boss grants me 2) If I had known it, I would have met him yes- clause™, were é¬F, past doing word (came, him.
leave, I will take you. terday itself
went, sang, tried ™«çöÀ verbs) ´≤ƒh®·. Ram: If he knew about this, he would imme-
(Å®·ûË îª÷≤ƒh. ´÷ boss Ø√èπ◊ leave ÉÊÆh, (ÅC ûÁL-Ææ’çõ‰, E†oØË éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊ØË¢√úÕo– Imaginary eg: a) If I were CM = ØËE-°æ¤púø’ CM Å®·ûË, diately come here.
past)
E†’o BÆæ’-èπ◊-¢Á-∞¡û√.) (ØËE-°æ¤púø’ CM ÅßË’u Å´-é¬-¨¡¢Ë’ ™‰ü¿’) Raghu: Call him over your cell then.
éÌçûª-鬩ç éÀçü¿ô ´’†ç Conditional Clauses 3) If you want to go, I will tell him you want to
b) If she were here. (Ç¢Á’ É°æ¤p-úÕ-éπ\úø ™‰ü¿’/ ÖçúË O-™‰xü¿’) Ram: If I had my cell, I wouldn't come to you.
see him.
Raghu: What's happened to your cell?
îªJaçî√ç, í∫’®Ω’hçC éπü∆. àüÁjØ√ ≠æ®Ω-ûª’†’ ûÁLÊ°
clause conditional clause éπü∆. ´’†ç (†’´¤y ¢Á∞«x-©-†’-èπ◊çõ‰, Ç N≠æߪ’ç Åûª-úÕûÓ îÁ§ƒh– c) If I bought a car = (ØËE-°æ¤púø’ car éÌçõ‰– éÌØË
Ram: I have lost it.
Éçûªèπ◊´·çü¿’ È®çúø’ ®Ω鬩 conditional clauses Probable present) °æJ-ÆœnA é¬ü¿’.)
´’Sx í∫’®Ω’hç--éÓçúÕ. É™«çöÀ situations ™– Raghu: This is the third cell you have lost. If
îª÷¨»ç. ¢√öÀ examples. 4) If I were you, I wouldn't try to meet him.
you were careful, you wouldn't lose
a) If he comes here, they will discuss the mat- (؈’ †’´y-®·ûË, Åûª-úÕE éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊-ØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ v°æߪ’- N≠æߪ’ç v°æÆæ’hûªç (present) Å®·Ø√, If clause
them.
ter with him. Aoç-’) ™, past doing ¢√úøû√ç/ subject, singular
Ram: I will try.
(Åûª-E-éπ\-úÕéÀ ´ÊÆh, ¢√-∞«xN≠æߪ’ç Åûª-úÕûÓ îªJa-≤ƒh®Ω’.) 5) If I had his power, I would help every one. Å®·Ø√ èπÿú≈, were ¢√úøû√ç.
Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm