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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH12 , LINEAR-KINETICS OF HUMAN MOVEMENT: ]

TEXT-BOOK: BIO-MECHANICS BY SUSAN-JHALL , 3rd edition.


6/19/2013 BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING GUIDE.INC MOHAMMAD-SIKANDER-KHAN-LODHI MY BLOG : www.medical-image-processing.blogspot.ca

[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-12 , LINEARKINETICS OF HUMAN MOVEMENT: ]


Contents
LINEAR-KINETICS-OF-HUMAN-MOVEMENT:- ............................................................................................... 3 MECHANICAL-BEHAVIOR-OF-BODIES-IN-CONTACT:- ............................................................................... 3 FRICTION-FORCE:- ..................................................................................................................................... 3 See in below Fig # 12.1 . ....................................................................................................................... 4 Fig # 12.2 [ GRAPHICAL-REPRESENTATION ] :- ..................................................................................... 5 NORMAL-REACTION-FORCE (R) :- ............................................................................................................. 7 Diagram : [ fig # 12.3 ] .......................................................................................................................... 7 COEFFICIENT-OF-FRICTION [ ]:- ............................................................................................................. 8

MOMENTUM :- ......................................................................................................................................... 9 IMPULSE :- ............................................................................................................................................... 10 IMPACT :.................................................................................................................................................. 11 1. PERFECTLY-ELASTIC-IMPACT:- ........................................................................................................ 11 Fig # 12.4 [Perfectly Elastic impact ]: .................................................................................................. 12 2. PERFECTLY PLASTIC IMPACT:- ....................................................................................................... 12 Fig # 12.5 [ perfectly Plastic Impact ]. ............................................................................................... 13 CASE-I : .................................................................................................................................................... 14 Fig # 12.6 [ Case- I ]: ............................................................................................................................ 15 Case-A : ................................................................................................................................................... 15 Case-B :.................................................................................................................................................... 16 Diagram: fig # 12.7 [1m = Drop-Hight , and some Bounced hight ] : .................................................. 18 WORK, POWER AND ENERGY RELATIONSHIP:- ...................................................................................... 21 WORK:- .................................................................................................................................................... 22 POWER :- ................................................................................................................................................. 22 Diagram:- [ fig # 12.8 ]........................................................................................................................ 24 ENERGY :- ................................................................................................................................................ 25 a. STRAIN-ENERGY:- ............................................................................................................................ 27

GENERAL-CONCEPT:- .............................................................................................................................. 28

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-12 , LINEARKINETICS OF HUMAN MOVEMENT: ] LINEAR-KINETICS-OF-HUMAN-MOVEMENT:MECHANICAL-BEHAVIOR-OF-BODIES-IN-CONTACT:Whenever a body which cause to connected with other body during motion then a friction force will be generated between these two bodies against the direction of motion. FRICTION-FORCE: The friction force will be produced when the two bodies will be contact during the motion and the direction of both bodies are opposite . Then , when these bodies will be contact with each other so, a force will be generated at the contacting surfaces of bodies , which is in the opposite direction of motion. The friction force cause to stop the motion force which cause to perform the motion.

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-12 , LINEARKINETICS OF HUMAN MOVEMENT: ]

See in below Fig # 12.1 .

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-12 , LINEARKINETICS OF HUMAN MOVEMENT: ]

Fig # 12.2 [ GRAPHICAL-REPRESENTATION ] :-

Consider a box which are lie on the horizontal plane that is a table in (above) fig #1 so, there are two forces act on it the first one is the box weight itself and the opposite force by the horizontal plane by table is reactant force [ R ] . These both forces are opposite in direction but equal in magnitude which act on that static position box and keeping the bok in static state then.

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-12 , LINEARKINETICS OF HUMAN MOVEMENT: ] Now see fig 12.1 (fig # 2 ) in this figure we applied a small external applied force [ Fa ] to the box , then this force will produced a opposite equivalent small friction force which cause to cancel their effect of small applied force [ Fa ]. In this way we increased the magnitude of the applied force [ Fa ] which cause to produce a opposite indirection but equal in magnitude of this static-friction force on the box . There is a point will be come where at that point (on above graph ) the value of this Static-friction force will become maximum, This point is known as Maximum-static-friction force point (on the above graph). Until this maximum-static friction point , the value of Applied external-force and value of the static friction force will directly proportional to each other, Then, after , when we increase the value of applied force just beyond the maximum-static-force-point ( maximum static friction force point ) than the value of friction force will be goes down and become a constant value but just below the maximum-static-friction-point. At that point the friction is the dynamic friction and its known as Kinetic-friction point so, in this kinetic-friction point , there is a movement will be occurs on the static box . Then, if we increased the external applied force then there is a constant kinetic-friction force which will act on the box continuously during the motion of the box .

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-12 , LINEARKINETICS OF HUMAN MOVEMENT: ] NORMAL-REACTION-FORCE (R) :Statement: The Reaction force which are the major factor which effecting the magnitude of friction force is called the Reaction-Force [ R ] . Process: When two bodies are come to contact with each other at rest , then the Reaction force * R + act on the contact surfaces of these two bodies . Key-point when an box is placed on smooth horizontal surface at rest then there is a weight of that box act on the horizontal smooth surface , also the equal in magnitude but opposite in direction , the reaction force [ R ] act on the box. Diagram : [ fig # 12.3 ]

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-12 , LINEARKINETICS OF HUMAN MOVEMENT: ] COEFFICIENT-OF-FRICTION [ ]: The Coefficient of friction * + define as ,when ever the two bodies come in contact during motion then there is a mechanical and molecular interaction will be occur between two contacting surfaces , this mechanical and molecular interaction is known as Coefficient of friction * + , so, according to above graph * friction [ y-axis] & applied force [ x-axis ] Graph ] . Inthis graph there are two types of friction are occur when we applied the external force. That is 1. Maximum-Static-Friction[ Fm + . 2. Kinetic-Friction [ Fk ]. There are two coefficient that is : a. Coefficient of static friction [ ].. b. Coefficient of Kinetic-friction [ ] . 1. The magnitude of maximum static friction force is depend upon the coefficient of static friction and reactant and weight force. That is a) Fm = max-static friction force => [ ]; b) Fk = Kinetic friction force => [[ ]; So, when ever the two bodies will come in contact with each other so, then [ ]; ------------------------finished-here-----------

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-12 , LINEARKINETICS OF HUMAN MOVEMENT: ] Q ) WHY KINETIC FRICTION FORCE ( FK ) IS ALWAYS SMALLER THAN MAXIMUM-STATIC-FRICTION-FORCE [ Fm + : Because the coefficient of kinetic friction [ ] is always smaller than the coefficient of static friction [ ] . Due to this the magnitude of kinetic friction force [ Fk ] , is always less than the magnitude of maximum static friction force [ Fm ]. Mathematically:When [ Than [ ]; ];

KEY-POINT the synovial-fluid which present in between the two articulated surfaces of two bones in the joint so this fluid cause to reduced the friction between the articulated surfaces of these bones . ----------------finished-here--------------MOMENTUM : The momentum is generally used to measured the motion of an any object so, will be measured of any object under the certain motion . By taking the product of the mass of that object which performed the certain motion & velocity of that object so , then we can calculated the momentum , its denoted by M . Momentum is a vector quantity , and momentum is used to measured the motion of any object. Mathematically:

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-12 , LINEARKINETICS OF HUMAN MOVEMENT: ] [ UNIT :[ ---------------finished------------IMPULSE :Its the product of forces and time interval over which the force act on any object . Mathematically :[ Unit : [ Example: [ [ [ [ [ Or [ ]; ]; ]; ]; ]; ]; ]; ]; ];

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-12 , LINEARKINETICS OF HUMAN MOVEMENT: ] {:. [ =change in Momentum } ];

The impulse is equal to the change in momentum . -------------finished-here---------IMPACT : Impact is defined as the collision of two bodies over a extremely small time interval , and during this interval this two bodies exerted relative large forces from each other . EXPLINATION: When two moving bodies come in contact with each other so, during the extremely small time interval at which they comes in contact these two bodies will exerted ( released ) forces on each other . There are two types of impact are present in bio-mechanics . That is : 1. Perfectly Elastic impact. 2. Perfectly Plastic impact.

1. PERFECTLY-ELASTIC-IMPACT:Whenever two bodies will be collied [or hit each other ] then they regain their velocity [I mean initial velocity before the

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-12 , LINEARKINETICS OF HUMAN MOVEMENT: ] impact ] which are present before the impact of these two bodies is called perfectly elastic impact *see in below fig # 12.4 +. Fig # 12.4 [Perfectly Elastic impact ]:

2. PERFECTLY PLASTIC IMPACT: When the two bodies will come in contact , then both or one of these two bodies , should be deforms from its original shape and they do not regain its original shape . And the velocity after the collision of these two bodies becomes zero , then this event is called as Perfectly Plastic-Impact .

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-12 , LINEARKINETICS OF HUMAN MOVEMENT: ] Fig # 12.5 [ perfectly Plastic Impact ].

COEFFICIENT-OF-RESTITUTION [ e OR c ] : Well the Coefficient-Of-Restitution *e or c + is the particle application of the perfectly plastic and perfectly elastic impact. This Coefficient-Of-Restitution * e or c + is the any number in between [ 0 to 1 ] . We can easily analysis that , if the Coefficient-Of-Restitution [ e or c + is near to 1 so, then this impact is called as PerfectlyElastic impact .

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-12 , LINEARKINETICS OF HUMAN MOVEMENT: ] if the Coefficient-Of-Restitution * e or c + is near to 0 so, then this impact is called as a Perfectly-Plastic impact . we have two condition in which the two object will come in contact in the Impact, which are explain in following Case-I , Case-A, Case-B and Case-II . that is : CASE-I : In this condition , the impact will occurred by the collision of two moving object , they were comes in contact . It will be calculated by as following formula in eq-A, also see fig # 12.6 below. [ Where : u1 and u2 = Velocity of object with mass m1 and m2 just before the Impact ( before the collision ) of these two object with mass m1 and m2 . V1 and V2 = velocity of that same object with mass m1 and m2 just after the Impact ( after the collosion) , of these two object with mass m1 and m2 . ];

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-12 , LINEARKINETICS OF HUMAN MOVEMENT: ]

Fig # 12.6 [ Case- I ]: Note :Case-A : The Coefficient of restitution of any Elastic-Impact is nearly to 1 , because in the Elastic-Impact the velocity of two bodies after the impact is approximately slightly lower then the velocity of these two bodies just before the impact .

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-12 , LINEARKINETICS OF HUMAN MOVEMENT: ] Let consider the two bodies in which one body is in motion with mass [ m1 ] and the other 2nd body lies in a resting state with mass [ m2 ]. The velocity of 2nd body with mass [ m2 ] which lies in the resting state , and its velocity is zero before the impact , its a fixed ridged body so it velocity tend to be zero just after the impact . When the 1st moving body with mass [ m1 ] which cause to hit [or collide ] with the 2nd stationary fixed body with mass [ m2 + , so, then if this impact is Perfectly Elastic so, then there Coefficient of restitution is near to 1 . Case-B : In this case there are two bodies , now if these both bodies will be collide ( impact ) then as the result of it the both or any one of these two bodies becomes deformed from its original shape and also there velocity just after the impact become to zero then it is the Perfectly-Plastic-Impact . The Coefficient-Of-restitution * e OR c + which cause to measure [ or examine ] what types of this impact its , so , if the velocity of these two bodies [ or any one body ] become zero just after the impact so, its coefficient of restitution is equal to nearly to zero *0+ and this type of impact is known as Perfectly Plastic-Impact . Now ,

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-12 , LINEARKINETICS OF HUMAN MOVEMENT: ] CASE-II : In this condition where a moving body with mass [ m1 ] cause to collide [ or hit ] on a stationary body with mass [ m2 ]. Before the impact [or collision ] the velocity of the moving body is u1 so, if the 2nd body with mass [ m2 ] is a fixed structure then we can calculated the Coefficient-Of-Restitution * e OR c + just after the impact by the square root on the ratio of bounced height over the drop height which is given below. [ Restitution * e OR c +. So, if the coefficient of restitution is nearly to be zero, so this impact is called as Perfectly-Plastic-Impact . So, if the Coefficient of Restitution is nearly to 1 then this impact is called as Perfectly-Elastic-Impact. [ ]; ]; its the formula of Coefficient-Of-

[ [ ];

];

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-12 , LINEARKINETICS OF HUMAN MOVEMENT: ] Diagram: fig # 12.7 [1m = Drop-Hight , and some Bounced hight ]:

Key point -> the increased the velocity before the impact and also increase the internal molecular temperature of the impacted bodies cause to increase the Coefficient of restitution* e OR c +. ------------finished-here------------COEFFICIENT OF RESTITUTION *e OR c + SAMPLE-PROBLEM:-

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-12 , LINEARKINETICS OF HUMAN MOVEMENT: ] Q) A basket ball is dropped from a height of about 2m on the floor, if the coefficient of restitution between the ball and the floor on the impact 0.9 , so, a. How , higher will the ball bounced ? b. also, explained what type of impact its ? c. and which condition it form the previously explained two condition ? SOLUTION :DATA :Drop-Height -> [ ]; ];

The Coefficient Of Restitution of the Impact is => * Also Required : Hb = Bounced Height = ? What type of Impact its = ? Which condition its = ? SOLUTION:

Its those condition in which there is a body is in static condition and the other 2nd body in the motion . On this condition we used the following formula to determined the coefficient of Restitution.

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-12 , LINEARKINETICS OF HUMAN MOVEMENT: ] FORMULA:[ So, Part-b :- [ what type of Impact its ]:Its given that the coefficient of restitution to the particular Impact is [ e = c = 0.9 ] , so As , we see that * e = 0.9 + is approximately nearly to 1 , so this type of Impact is called as Perfectly Elastic Impact . FOR PART-a How higher the ball will bounced? Solution: The ball bounced back nearly to the original falling position from where it [ ball ] drop on the floor. FOR Hb :Where : e = c = 0.9 , Hd = 2m , FORMULA : [ Put the value and get the answer . ]; ];

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-12 , LINEARKINETICS OF HUMAN MOVEMENT: ] [ [ [ [ .. [ +; its the bouncing height of the ball , so the Impact is called as Perfectly-Elastic in its nature. -----------finished-here------FACTOR THAT EFFECT THE COEFFICIENT OF RESTITUTION ( e OR c ) :1) The factor are the nature like Gravity-force, the body weight , size , shape and material characteristic of the both Impacted-Bodies. 2) Kinematics of moving system. 3) Kinetic . 4) Effect of increasing the temperature and velocity which cause to increase the coefficient of restitution *e OR c +. --------------finished-here----------WORK, POWER AND ENERGY RELATIONSHIP:]; ]; ]; ];

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-12 , LINEARKINETICS OF HUMAN MOVEMENT: ] WORK:The work is the product of force into displacement . FORMULA: [ Unit : Joules = N-meter = Newton-Meter. There are two types of work that is : 1) Positive-Work. 2) Negative-Work. = Force.displacement ];

1) POSITIVE WORK:- when we applied force on any object then this object move with in the direction of applied force , so this is called as Positive-Work. 2) NEGATIVE-WORK:- When we applied the force on any object then the object move in the opposite direction as compare to the direction of the applied force , this type of work is known as Negative-Work. ----------------finished-here-----------POWER :The power is the capacity of system , to produced the certain amount of mechanical work over the interval of time is known as the Power of that system. MATHEMATICALLY:

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-12 , LINEARKINETICS OF HUMAN MOVEMENT: ] [ [ ]; ];

FORMULA:[ ];

--------------finished-here-----------SAMPLE-PROBLEM: Q) A 580 N- person runs up to 30 stairs of riser, each stairs height is about (25cm) , so this person runs the total 30 stairs within 15 seconds, 1) How much work is done ? 2) How much Mechanical power is generated? ---------------A 580 V person runs up a flight of 30 stairs of riser ( height) of 25cm during a 15-second period a. How much mechanical work is done ? b. How much mechanical power is generated? ------------

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-12 , LINEARKINETICS OF HUMAN MOVEMENT: ] Diagram:- [ fig # 12.8 ]

Solution:DATA:[ [ [ ]; ]; ];

FOR MECHANICAL WORK :[ = Force.displacement ];

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-12 , LINEARKINETICS OF HUMAN MOVEMENT: ] {:. Displacement = d = ht = ht = 750 cm } { d = ht = 750 cm } { F = wt = 580 N } [ [ [ FOR MECHANICAL POWER:[ [ [ ]; ]; ]; = Force.displacement ]; ]; ];

------------finished-here--------------ENERGY :The energy is means that , the capacity ( or ability) of any body to performed work is known as energy . There are following types of energy are as followed that is 1. Mechanical-Energy . 2. Electrical Potential energy . 3. Thermal energy

1. MECHANICAL ENERGY :-

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-12 , LINEARKINETICS OF HUMAN MOVEMENT: ] The mechanical energy are those energy by which it can performed the some mechanical work, there are two types of mechanical energy are present. That is a. Kinetic-Energy . b. Potential-Energy.

a. KINETIC-ENERGY: As we know that Kinetic-energy will be developed when the body performed some kind of motion . If the body become in resting state where its [ body ] velocity is equal to be zero [ V = 0 ] then its motion will become zero. So, this body is not remain in the state of motion so, here the Kinetic-energy [ K.E ] of the body becomes zero [ K.E = 0 ]. As we know that the Kinetic energy is equal to the half of mass of body into and the velocity square . So, where the mass of body is a constant , there is only one factor that is velocity . If we (increased or decreased ) the velocity of the body so, it cause to increased or decreased the K.E of the body . FORMULA:[ ]; b. POTENTIAL-ENERGY [P.E]:-

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-12 , LINEARKINETICS OF HUMAN MOVEMENT: ] As we know that the potential energy is depend on the position of the body with respect to ground . If we want to increased the P.E so we displaced that object from the ground with certain height . At that height we can calculated the Potential-Energy of that object by the following formula. [ [ {:. F = m.a } [ ]; answer. ]; ];

----------------finished-here----------Where : Mass = constant of a body . Acceleration due to gravity = constant of the earth = 9.81 m/s2 = ag . h = variable . --------------finished-here----------There is a another type of potential energy is called that is : Strainenergy. a. STRAIN-ENERGY:The strain energy is a type of P.E its called as Elastic-energy . FORMULA:

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-12 , LINEARKINETICS OF HUMAN MOVEMENT: ] [ Where : k = Spring constant. x = distance over which material of spring is deformed. ------------------GENERAL-CONCEPT:Strain-energy is those energy in any elastic material which help it when these structure cause to deformed , so after that this body cause to return it Original-shape . ----------------finished-here------2. ELECTRICAL-POTENTIAL ENERGY:If those energy [ E.M.F ] which provide by the voltage source to unit positive test charge to flow through the circuit. 3. THERMAL-ENERGY :The Thermal-Energy is the heat energy of any object . Example : if we give the heat to any material or any gas so, then the internal molecular energy [ ] will be increased. ------------------finished-here------------------------------CH-12, ON BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING FINISHED-HERE----------------];

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