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COURSE MODULES FOR RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Module 1: Introduction to Research What is Research?

Business Research Types of Research Applied research Basic or Fundamental Research Manager & Research Scientific Investigation Purposiveness Rigor Testability Replicability Confidence Objectivity Generalizability The Building Block of Scientific Research The Hypothetico-Deductive Method The seven steps process in the Hypothectico-Dedective Method The Manager & Consultant Researcher How to contact Consultant Researcher Module 2: THE RESEARCH PROCESS STEPS 1 & 3 The Research Process for Applied and Basic Research Broad problem Area Preliminary Data Collection Nature of Date to Be Collected Literature Survey Problem Definition Example of well defined problem

Module 3:

The need for a Theoretical Framework Variables Theoretical Framework The components of a Theoretical Framework Developing a Theoretical Framework Hypotheses Development Definition of Hypothesis Null & Alternative Hypotheses Module 4:

The Research Design Types of Investigation Casual VS non-Casual Extent of Researcher Interference with the study Study setting: Contrived Non-contrived Unit of Analysis: Individuals, Dyads, Groups Time Horizon: Cross Sectional VS Longitudinal Studies

Module 5:
MEASURMENT OF VARIABLES How variable are Measurement Scales and Measurement Validity Reliability Module 6: DATA COLLECTION METHODS Data Collection Methods, and Sources of Data Questionnaires Personally Administered Questionnaires Mail Questionnaires Module 7: SAMPLING

Population, Element, Population Frame Sampling Reasons for Sampling Module 8: DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION Getting Data Ready for Analysis Editing Data Handling Blank Responses Coding Data Analysis: Programming Basic Objectives in Data Analysis Feel for the Data Testing Goodness of Data Validity Reliability Module 9: THE RESEARCH REPORT The written Report The written Report and its Purpose The Written Report and Its Audience The Written Report: Basic The Written Report: The Details Module 10: Integral parts of The Report The Title of the Research Report The Table of Contents The Synopsis/Abstract The Introductory Section Method Section Results Section Discussion Section Recommendations and Implementation.

Research can be described as a systematic and organized effort to investigate a specific problem that needs a solution. It is a series of steps designed and followed, with the goal of finding answers to the issues that are concern to us in the work environment. This means that the first step in research is to know where the problem areas are in the organization, and to identify as clearly and specifically as possible the problems that need to studied and rectified. Once the problem or problems that need attention are clearly defined, then steps can be taken to gather information, analyze the data, and explain the factors that are associated with the problem. By taking the necessary corrective action, the problem could be solved. This entire process by which we attempt to solve problems is called research. Scientific Research We can now define research as an organized, systematic, databased, critical, scientific inquiry or investigation into a specific problem, undertaken with the objective of finding answers or solutions to it. Research Methods: Research methods refer to the ways in which research studies are designed and the procedures by which data are analyzed. BUSINESS RESEARCH In business, research is usually primarily conducted to resolve problematic issues in, or interrelated among, the areas of accounting, finance, management, and marketing. In Accounting, budget control system, practices, and procedures are frequently examined, inventory costing methods, accelerated depreciation, time series behavior of quarterly

earnings, transfer pricing, cash recovery rates and taxation methods and some of the other areas that are researched. In Finance, the operations of financial institutions, ratios, mergers and acquisitions, and yield of mortgages. In Management, research could encompass the study of employee attitudes and behaviors, human resources management, the impact of changing demographics on management practices, production management, strategy formulation, and information systems. In Marketing, research could address issues of product making, advertising, sales promotion, distribution, packaging, pricing, after sales service, consumer preferences, and new product development.

Types of Research
Research can be undertaken for two different purposes. One is to solve a currently existing problem in the work setting; the other is to add or contribute to the general body of knowledge in a particular area of interest of the researcher. When research is done with the intention of applying the results of its findings to solving specific problems currently being experienced in the organization, it is called applied research. However, when research is being done chiefly to improve our understanding of certain problems that commonly occur in organizational settings and how to solve them, the research is called basic or fundamental research. It is also known as pure research. The findings form such research contributes to the building of knowledge in the various management areas. MANAGERS AND RESEARCH A manager is someone who carries out all the activities of a company/ organization. A manager is not himself doing research, but manager often need to understand, predict, and control events that are dysfunctional to the organization. The knowing about research and problem solving processes helps managers to identify the problems get out of control. Initial information gathering and analysis of the situation would solve most of the minor problems. However, if they do become serious enough then demand/warrant hiring outside researchers or consultants. This time manager needs to know about the research processes, design, and interpretation of data so as to be an intelligent and knowledgeable. A research may also enhance the knowledge of manager in the field of variable, changing factors, scientific procedures and report writing. There are several other reasons professional managers should be knowledgeable about research and research methods in business. First, such knowledge enhances the sensitivity of managers to the myriad/countless of variables operating in a

situation. Secondly, when managers understand the research reports on their organizations that are given to them by other professionals, they will be in a position to take intelligent, educated, calculated risks with known probabilities attached to the success or failure of their decisions. Research then becomes a useful decision-making tool rather than a mass of incomprehensive statistical information. Third, because managers become knowledgeable about scientific investigations, vested interests internal research group within the organization will not be able to prevail/ succeed. In sum, being knowledgeable about research and research methods helps professional managers to Identify and solve small problems in the work setting. Know how to differentiate well from bad research. Appreciate and constantly remember the multiple influences and multiple effects of factors impinging/impose on a situation. Take calculated risks in decision making, knowing full well the probabilities attached to the different possible outcomes. Prevent possible vested interests from operation in a situation. Relate to hired researchers and consultants more effectively. SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION As we know that, research as an organized, systematic, databased, critical, and scientific inquiry into a specific problem that needs a solution. It is necessary to understand what the term scientific means. Scientific research has the focused goal of problem solving and follows step-by-step logical, organized, and rigorous/careful method to identify problems, gather data, analyze the data, and draw valid conclusions there from. The term scientific research applies to both basic and applied research. Applied research may or may not be generalizable/ acceptable to other organizations. Owing to similarities or differences in such factors as size, nature of work, characteristics of the employee, and structure of the organization. Nevertheless/ however, applied research also has to be an

organized and systematic process where problems are carefully identified, data scientifically gathered and analyzed, and conclusions drawn in an objective manner.

THE MANAGER AND THE CONSULTANT-RESEARCHER A manager is responsible to find a researcher who will act as a consultant and offer useful information and alternative courses of action. It is important to know that how a manager might locate and select a researcher, what the manager researcher relationship should ideally be, and the advantages and disadvantages of internal and external consultants/ researchers. How to locate and select a Researcher Many organizational consulting firms are listed in telephone directories and can be used for consulting projects. In a board indication about what needs to be researched is offered, the consultant firm will introduce the individuals who have expertise in that particular area. The credential/ record of these individuals are also usually presented or can be obtained by asking them. Many colleges of business also have professors who do organizational consulting work. Some of them have vast experience working with several organizations. These individuals can also be contacted and utilized if they have the time and would agree to do the study in all cases, it is important to check the credential of the individuals and or the firm before hiring the researcher.

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH The main characteristics of scientific research can be listed as follows. Purposive ness (Purpose) Rigor (Carefulness) Testability (Test Hypotheses) Replicablility (Test and Repetition) Precision and Confidence (Reality & Accuracy) Objectivity (Based on Facts) Generalizability (Standard) Parsimony (Explaining) Brief description of each step: The researcher has started with a definite aim or purpose for the research. A good theoretical base and a sound methodological design would add rigor to a purposive study. A researcher develops certain hypotheses to test the research. The above hypotheses are tested again and again. Reality and accuracy in decisions/ prediction is an important factor in research. Research based on facts, resulting from the actual data and not on our own subjective or emotional values. Generalizability refers to the scope of applicability of the research findings in one organizational setting to other settings. Explaining of problem in simple way to find its solution.


Broad Problem BroadA research process consists of eight steps. Area

Theoretical Framework Problem Definition Variables Generation of Hypotheses Scientif ic Researc h Design


Preliminary Data Gathering/ Literature Survey


BROAD PROBLEM AREA Observation (Broad Area of Problem) Identifying the broad problem area through the process of observing and focusing on the actual problem, the broad problem area refers to the entire situation where one sees a Broad need for research and problem solving. possible Problem Area PRELIMINARY DATA COLLECTION The nature of information that would be needed by the researcher for the purpose could be broadly classified under three headings. 2.1. Background Information of the organization that is the relative factors. Managerial philosophy, company policies, and other structure aspects. Perceptions, Attitudes, and organizational members and client system. Behavioral responses of

Certain types of information such as the background details of the company can be obtained form available published records. Other types of written information such as company policies, procedure, and rules can be obtained from the organizations records and documents. Data gathered through such readily available source are called secondary data. Some secondary sources of data are government publications, information published, databases available form previous research and library record. Certain other types of information, such as the perceptions and attitudes of employees, are best obtained by talking to individuals by observing events, people and objects, or by administering questionnaire to individuals, such data gathered for research form the actual situation where events occur are called primary data. Background Information on the Organization.

It is important for the researcher or the research team to know some background information about the company or organization to be studied. The origin/basis, history of the company when it is started, business rate of growth, ownership and control etc. Size in terms of employees, assets etc. Charter/deed--- purpose and ideology/ principles. Location--- regional, national or other. Researcher human and others. Financial position during the last five to ten years. Information on Management Philosophy and Structural factors. Information on management philosophy, company policies, structure, and workflow can be obtained by asking direct questions of the management questions are directly at several managers individually. Questioning about managerial and company philosophy offers an excellent idea of the priorities and values of the company for example: Product quality is really important or not? Company based on short or long term goals? Company is people or profit oriented? Some of the structural factors Role and positions in the organization and number of employees. Extent of specialization. Communication channels. Control system. Coordination and span of control. Reward system. Workflow system. Perception, Attitude and Behavioral Responses. Employee perceptions of the work and the work environment, their attitudinal and behavioral responses can be tapped by talking to them, observing them and seeking their responses

through questionnaire. The above said information can also gather with the help of interview. Below are some of the structural factors. Nature of work Superior in the organization Participation in decision making Client systems Co-workers Rewards like pay and fringe benefits Opportunities for advancement Involvement in community Views on taking time-off the job. Behavioral factors includes actual work habits such as being industrious/ busy, extent of absenteeism, performance on the job etc. Questionnaire for collection of preliminary data Background Information on the Organization The basis of organization_________________ The history of organization ___________________ Ownership title_____________________________ Ownership Name___________________________ Ownership Control type________________________ Size of employees ____________________________ Nos of departments __________________________ Assets in term of Nos___________________________ Charter/ deed of trust____________________________ Location____________________________________ Financial position during five years ______________________ Information on Management philosophy and structure factors Product quality and its reality __________________________ Company strategies long or short________________________ Company goals___________________________________ Company mission__________________________________ Company vision____________________________________ Company orientation _______________________________

Name of key executives___________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________ Role and position_____________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ____ Each executive specifications_________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________ Communication channels____________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ _________________ Control system______________________________________________ _ Coordination and control system______________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ _________________ Rewardsystem________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ _______________________ Other compensation ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ __________________

Workflow system_____________________________________________ Perception, Attitude and Behavioral Responses Nature of work ___________________________________________________ ___________________ Work environment ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________ Physical support ___________________________________________________ ______ Work flow system ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ____________ Client system _____________________________________________ Co-workers ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ Pay and fringe benefits system ___________________________________________________ ______ Advancement opportunities ___________________________________________________ _____ Time off ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ __________ Maximum behavior of employees___________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ __________

Extent of absenteeism ___________________________________________________ _____ Performance on the job_________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ __________

Literature Survey Literature survey is the documentation of a comprehensive review of published and unpublished work from secondary sources of data in the area of specific interest to the researcher. The library is a rich storage base for secondary data and researchers usually spend several weeks and sometime months, going through books, journals, newspapers, magazines and doctorial dissertations, several government publications and financial marketing reports. Reasons for Literature Survey The purpose of the literature review is to ensure that no important variables are ignored that has in the past been found repeatedly to have had and impact on the problem. It is possible that some of the critical variables are never brought out in the interviews. If there are variables that are not identified during the interview but that influence the problem critically then doing research without considering them would be an exercise in futility/uselessness. A Good Literature Survey Thus ensure that Important variables that are likely to influence the problem situations are not left out of the study. A clearer idea emerges as to what variables would be most

important to consider, why they would be considered important, and how they should be investigated to solve the problem. Testability and replicablility of the findings of the current research are enhanced. The problem statement can be made with greater precision/care and clarity conducting the Literature Survey A literature reviews needs to be done on these variables. a. The first step in this process involves identifying the various published and un-published material that are available on the topic of interest. b. The second step is gathering the relevant information. c. The third step is writing up literature review.

Identifying the Relevant Sources Previously one had to go through several bibliographic indexes that are compiled periodically listing the journals, books, and other sources. Text databases such as Source, Dialog, Bibliographic Retrieval Services (BRS). Three forms of text databases are useful at this stage. Bibliographic dataset: Which displays only the bibliographic citation, i.e. name of the author, the articles, source of publication, year, and volume and page number? Abstract database: Like above with abstract or summary of the article. Full-text database: Which also provides full text of the article? Thus, entire article can be retrieved on-line, if necessary. Writing up the Literature Review


The documentation of the relevant studies citing the author and the year of the study is called literature review or literature survey.


Broad Problem SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT Area PROBLEM DEFINITION A problem does not necessarily mean that something is seriously wrong with a current situation, which needs to be rectified immediately. A Problem could simply indicate an interest in an issue where finding the right answer might help to improve an existing good situation. A problem can be simply defined as any situation where a gap exists between the actual and the desired ideal state. The researcher needs to identify the problem more accurately after talking to the employees and reviewing the literature.


Broad Problem SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT Area The Need for a Theoretical Framework/ Structure (based on previous research) After conducting the interviews, completing a literature survey, and defining the problem, one is ready to develop a theoretical framework. A theoretical framework is a conceptual model of how one theorizes the relationships among the several factors that have been identified as important to the problem. This is theory flows logically from the documentation of previous research in the problem area. Integrating ones logical beliefs with published research is essential in developing a scientific basis for investigating the research problem. In sum, the theoretical framework discusses the interrelationships among the variables that are believed to be integral/basic to the dynamics of the situation being investigated. Developing such a conceptual framework helps us to guess/ assume and test certain relationship so as to improve our understanding of the dynamics of the situation. Since the theoretical framework offers the conceptual foundation to proceed with the research and since a theoretical framework is nothing other than identifying the network of relationship among the variables. Define Variable. A variable is anything that can take on differing or varying values. The values can differ at various times for the same object or person, or the values can differ as the same time for different objects or persons. Examples are as given below Exam score: Ones score on exam one, two, and three for a particular subject could be different or the scores of different students for the same exam could be different. In both cases, the exam score has taken on different values and hence is a variable.


Absenteeism: Today three class members may be absent, tomorrow five students may not show up in class; the day after, there may be no one absent. Motivation: The level of motivation to learn among members in the class or in a work team might take on varying values ranging from very low to very high. An individuals motivation to learn from different classes or in different work teams might also take on differing values. Types of Variables Four main types of variables are as under. The dependent variable. The independent variable. The moderating/logical variable. The intervening/overriding variable. Dependent Variable The dependent variable is the variable of primary interest to the researcher. The researchers goal is to explain or predict the variability in the dependent variable. In other words, it is the main variable that lends/provide itself as a viable/workable. It is possible to find answers or solutions to the problem. The researcher is interested in quantifying and measuring this variable, as well as the other variables that influence this variable. Examples: * A manager is concerned that the sales of a new product introduced after market testing is not as high as he had expected. The dependent variable here is sales. Since the sales of the product can vary, like can be low, medium and high, it is a variable; since sales is the main factor or interest to the manager, it is the dependent variable. * A personnel manager is concerned that the employees are not loyal to the organization. In fact, switch their loyalties to other institutions. The dependent variable in this case would be organizational loyalty.

Independent-Variable An independent variable is one that influences the dependent variable in either a positive or a negative way. That is, when the independent variable is present, the dependent variable is also present, and with each unit of increase in the independent variable, there is an increase or decrease in the dependent variable also. Example: Research studies indicate that successful new product (Independent) development has an influence on the stock market price of the company. Here the development of a successful new product influences the stock market price (Dependent) and explains the variance/ difference in it. That is, the more successful the new product is believed to be the higher will be the stock market price of that firm. Therefore, the success of the new product is the independent variable, and stock market price is-the-dependent Broad variable. Problem SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT Area Independent Variable Dependent Variable Example 2. It is found that the success of a student in MBA examination influences the CGPA and explains the variance/ difference in it. So the success of a student in examination is the independent variable, and the increase of CGPA is the dependent variable. Five Basic Features of Theoretical Framework The variables considered relevant to the study be clearly identified and labeled. The discussion should state how two or more variables related each other that should be done for the important relationships that are theorized to exist among the variables.


If the nature and direction of the relationships can be theorized on the basis of the finding from previous research to see whether the relationships would be positive or negative. These should be a clear explanation of why we would expect these relationships to exist. The argument could be drawn from the previous research findings. A schematic diagram of the theoretical framework should be given so that the reader can visualize the theorized relationships. Broad Problem SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT Area Diagram of the theoretical framework with two variables Broad Problem SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT Area Diagram of the theoretical framework with three variables THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK The theoretical frameworks the foundation on which the entire research project is based. It is a logically developed, described, and elaborated/complex network of associations among variables that have been identified through such processes as interviews, observations, and literature survey. These variables are deemed/consider relevant to the problem situation. It becomes evident at this stage that to find good solutions to the problem, one should first identify the problem correctly and then identify variables that contribute to the problem. The importance of conducting good surveys and doing a careful literature review now becomes clear. After the identifications of the proper variables, the network of associations among the variables needs to be elaborated/complicated/complex so that relevant hypotheses can be developed and subsequently tested.


Broad Problem SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT Area HYPOTHESES DEVELOPMENT Once we have identified the important variables in a situation and established the relationships among them through logical reasoning in the theoretical framework. We are now in the position to test whether the relationships that have been theorized do in fact hold true or not. Formulating such testable statements is called hypotheses development. Definition of Hypotheses: A hypothesis is an educated guess about a problems solution. It can be defined as a logically assumption relationship between two or more variable expressed in the form of testable statements. In other words A hypothesis is a tentative statement that proposes a possible explanation to some phenomenon or event. A hypothesis should not be confused with a theory. Theories are general explanations based on a large amount of data. For example: if the administrator is given adequate training to handle stress and conflict situations, strike will be reduced. So hypothesis is a tentative/Unsure assumption based on personal knowledge which use as guide to find the facts, that facts or solution which are not yet known. Common examples of Hypotheses Chocolate may cause pimples. Salt in soil may affect plant growth. Plant growth may be affected by the color of the light. Bacterial growth may be affected by temperature. Ultra violet light may cause skin cancer. Temperature may cause leaves to change


Note: Hypothesis is just a guess and prediction about your topic/project.


Statement of Hypotheses formats IF Then statement: A hypothesis is a testable statement of the relationship among variables. A hypothesis can test whether there are differences between two groups (or among several groups) with respect to any variable or variables. The situation is check with the source of if-then statement. If I eat chocolate, then I will get pimples If leaf color change is related to temperature, then exposing plants to low temperatures will result in changes in leaf color. Exp1. Employees who are more healthy will take sick leave less frequently. Exp 2. IF employees are healthy, THEN, they will take sick leave less frequently. If in stating the relationship between two variables or comparing two groups terms such as positive or negative, more than, less than and the like are used then the hypotheses are directional. These are called directional hypotheses because these indicate the direction of the relationship between the variables (positive or negative). Exp 3. The greater the stress experienced in the job, the lower the job satisfaction of employees. Exp 4. Women are more motivated than men On the other hand, non-directional hypotheses are those that do assume a relationship or difference, but offer no indication of the direction of these relationships or differences.

Exp 5. There is a relationship between age and job satisfaction Exp 6. There is a difference between the work ethic values of American and Asian employees. Null Hypotheses The null hypothesis is a proposition/ plan, suggestion/ that states a definitive/perfect/ ultimate exact/accurate relationship between two variables. That is, it states that the population correlation/link between two variables is equal to zero. Exp 7. Ho: HM = HW Or Ho: HM Hw = 0 Where Ho represents the term null hypothesis HM is the mean motivational level of the men Hw is the mean motivational level of the women

Alternative Hypothesis. This is the opposite of null hypothesis. Exp 8. HA: HM < Hw = 0 Which is same as HA: HM > Hw = 0 Where HA represents the term alternative hypothesis and HM and Hw are the mean motivation levels of men and women respectively. Sources Of Hypothesis :General Culture ----- (from environment)




General Scientific theory Personal Experience Analogy --- (conducting two things and find solution) Hunch ---- (sixth sense----feelings) Something broad comes to mind. i) , ii) are the strong points , iii) , iv) are normal , v) are weakest point. Different names of Hypothesis:According to the nature different names are given to hypothesis. If hypothesis consist of two variables dependent and independent then it is named simple hypothesis If hypothesis consist of more than two variables is called complex hypothesis. If some one work on the hypothesis and go to the field so it is named as working hypothesis. Certain assumption comes to mind for solution of problem and go on for one of solution(more than one hypo, solution are in mind) so this hypothesis is named Alternative hypothesis. Every hypothesis are research hypothesis , but in research you not understand the (meaning of )assumption/solution and go for that assumption and solution for another research to understand the solution then it is named Research Hypothesis. If researcher prove the hypothesis through reasoning so it is named Logical Hypothesis. If researcher prove something in the shape of numerical strength then hypothesis named Statistical hypothesis. Criteria Of Good Hypothesis :1. It must be clear (the hypothesis is not vague.) e.g If he win Punjab he may win the Presidency .. so it is clear.. If he spend money he may win the Presidencyso it is not clear. 2. It must state relationship between the variables. 3. It must lie in accord with the fact e.g , If colors and taste change the production increase Presidency depends/lie on the members of Punjab. (not his personal wealth & words)

4. It must be specific. (it is not too gerneral) e.g Perception of people about female Education in NWFP (or in this area) so this sentences is specific for some fact Female education in Pakistan ---- so it is General 5. It must fit into one of the available Techniques i) Questionnaire ii) Interview iii) Observation Or iv) Scrutiny of Documents 6. It must be Value Free In research terminology there are families; is family ought family Fact wish Descriptive Will , Liking , Disliking 7. It must be Verifiable (subject verification) We develop hypothesis because hypothesis also gives us direction to our research Hypothesis conclude the solution from the four techniques Hypothesis enables us to fallow which of the techniques for research Hypothesis enables us to find conclusion for the research. STEP 6 Research Design The design is the structure of any HYPERLINK "" scientific work. It gives direction and organized the HYPERLINK "" research. The HYPERLINK "" method you choose will affect your results and how you HYPERLINK "" conclude the findings. Most scientists are interested in getting HYPERLINK "" reliable

observations that can help the understanding of a incident/event/phenomenon. Before you begin writing a grant proposal, take some time to map out your research strategy. A good first step is to formulate a research question. A Research Question is a statement that identifies the event/phenomenon to be studied. For example, What resources are helpful to new and minority drug abuse researchers? To develop a strong research question from your ideas, you should ask yourself these things: Do I know the field and its literature well? What are the important research questions in my field? What areas need further exploration? Could my study fill a gap? Lead to greater understanding? Has a great deal of research already been conducted in this topic area? Has this study been done before? If so, is there room for improvement? Is the timing right for this question to be answered? Is it a hot topic, or is it becoming obsolete/ past it? Would funding sources be interested? If you are proposing a service program, is the target community interested? Most importantly, will my study have a significant/important impact on the field? Research Design:It is the plan and strategy for conducting research. The research design which involves a series of rational decisions making choices was originally represented in a simplistic manner. The various issues involved in the research design. Research design relate to


Broad Problem Area

1. What types of study it would be (type of investigation) 2. The extent to which the researcher manipulates and controls the study (extent of researcher interference) 3. Where the study will be conducted (i.e. the study setting) 4. What level of data will be analyzed (unit of analysis?) 5. The duration of the study (time horizon) 6. As will as what the sample would be (sampling design)

7. What type of data will be required? 8. How the data would be collected (data collection method) 9. How variables will be measured 10. How variables will be analyzed to test the hypotheses (data analysis) It is important to note that the more sophisticated and rigorous the research design becomes, the greater the time, costs, and other resources expended on the study are likely to be. Hence, it is relevant to ask the question a t every decisions point whether the benefits that result from a more sophisticated design to ensure accuracy, confidence, genralizability and son, are worth the investment of more resources. 1. Types of Investigation: Casual versus Non-casual A researcher should determine whether a casual or non-casual study is needed to answer the research question. If the researcher merely/ purely/ simply wants to identify the important factors associated with the problem then a correlational study is called for. When the researcher wants to explain/ define the cause of a problem, then the study is called a casual study. When the researcher is interested in defining the important variables that are associated with the problem, it is called a noncasual/correlational/association study. The following examples illustrate the difference. A casual study question: Does smoking cause of cancer? A non-casual study question: Are smoking, drinking, and chewing tobacco associated with cancer? If so, which of these contributes most to the variance in the dependent variable?

2. Extent to Researcher Interference with the Study. The extent of researcher interference has a direct bearing/behavior on whether a casual or non-casual study is undertaken. A non-casual study is conducted in the natural environment of the organization with the researcher interfering minimally with the normal flow of events. For example, if a researcher wants to study the factors influencing training effectiveness, all that the individual has to do is to develop a theoretical framework and collect the relevant data and analyze them to come up with the findings. Though there is some disruption to the normal flow of events in the system as the researcher interviews employees and administers questionnaires, the researchers interference in the system is minimal as compared to that exercised during casual studies. 3. Study Setting: Contrived (Artificial) and Non-Contrived (Natural) As we know that, research can be done in the natural environment where events normally occur. That is, in noncontrived setting or in contrived settings. Correlational (NonCasual) studies are invariably/ever conducted in non-contrived lab settings. Correlational studies done in organizations are called field studies. Studies conducted to establish cause----effect relationship using the same natural environment in which employees normally functions are called field experiments. For example, a researcher wanting to study the effect of pay of pay on performance would ask the president of the company to raise the salary of employees in one department, decrease the pay of employees in another department, but leave the pay of the employees as it currently is. The researcher is tampering /interfering with or manipulated the pay system to establish a cause---effect relationship between pay and performance, but the experiment is still conducted in the natural setting and hence is called a field experiment. 4. Unit of Analysis Individuals, Dyads, Groups, Organizations, Cultures

The unit of analysis refers to the level of aggregation of the data during subsequent/following analysis. If for instance/example, the problem statement focuses on how to raise the motivational levels of employees in general, then we are interested in individual employees in the organization and would like to know what we can do to raise their motivation. Here obviously the unit of analysis is the individual. We will be looking at the data gathered from each individual and treating each employees response as an individual data source. If the researcher is interested in studying two person interactions, then several two groups, also known as dyads will becomes the unit of analysis. Analysis of husband-wife interactions in families and supervisorimmediate boss relationship in the workplace are good examples of dyads as the unit of analysis. However if the problem statement is related to group effectiveness, then obviously the unit of analysis would be at the group level and some time at whole organization level of analysis is required.

5. Time Horizon. Cross sectional Versus Longitudinal Studies Cross-Sectional Studies: A study can be done in which data are gathered just once, perhaps/maybe over a period of days or weeks or months, in order to answer a research question. Such studies are called one shot or cross-sectional studies. For example. Data were collected from bank employees between April and June of last year to investigate a research question. Data with respect to this particular research have not been collected before from these banks, nor will they be collected again. Longitudinal Studies: In some cases, however, the researcher might want to study people or events at several points in time in order to answer a

research question. Such studies are called longitudinal studies. That is, to answer the research question, data on the dependent variable have to be gathered at two or more points in time.


What is a sample? A sample is a finite part of a statistical population whose properties are studied to gain information about the whole (Webster, 1985). When dealing with people, it can be defined as a set of respondents (people) selected from a larger population for the purpose of a survey. A population is a group of individuals persons, objects, or items from which samples are taken for measurement for example a population of presidents or professors, books or students. What is sampling? Sampling is the act, process, or technique of selecting a suitable sample, or a representative part of a population for the purpose of determining parameters/constraints or characteristics of the whole population. What is the purpose of sampling? To draw conclusions about populations from samples, we must use inferential statistics which enables us to determine a populations characteristics by directly observing only a portion (or sample) of the population. We obtain a sample rather than a complete enumeration/list (a census) of the population for many reasons. Obviously, it is cheaper to observe a part rather than the whole, but we should prepare ourselves to cope with the angers of using samples. There would be no need for statistical theory if a census rather than a sample was always used to obtain information about populations. But a census may not be practical and is almost never economical. There are six main reasons for sampling instead of doing a census. These are; -Economy -Timeliness -The large size of many populations -Inaccessibility of some of the population Destructiveness of the observation -accuracy TYPES OF SAMPLES There are three primary kinds of samples: the convenience, the judgment sample, and the random sample. They differ in the manner in which the elementary units are chosen.

The convenient sample. A convenience sample results when the more convenient elementary/simple units are chosen from a population for observation. The judgment sample A judgment sample is obtained according to the judgment of someone who is familiar with the relevant characteristics of the population. The random sample This may be the most important type of sample. A random sample allows a known probability/possibility that each elementary unit will be chosen. For this reason, it is sometimes referred to as a probability sample. This is the type of sampling that is used in lotteries and raffles. For example, if you want to select 10 players randomly from a population of 100, you can write their names, fold them up, mix them thoroughly then pick ten. In this case, every name had any equal chance of being picked.


Measurement of Variables Measurement of the variables in the theoretical framework is an integral part of research and an important aspect of research design. How variables are measured. Objects that can be physically measured by some standardize instruments. For example, the length and width of an office table can be easily measured with a measuring tape or a ruler. Some of the questions can also easily obtained by asking employees, for example How long have you been working in this organization? How long have you been working on this particular assignment? What is your job title? What is your marital status. One can also check the company records to obtained or verify certain types of information. Even certain physiological phenomena related to humans such as blood pressure, heart rates, and body temperature, as well as certain types of attributes such as height, weight through the use of appropriate measuring instruments. When we get into the empire/kingdom of peoples subjective feelings, attitudes, and perceptions, however, the measurement of these factors or variables becomes difficult. There are at least two types of variable: one lends itself to some objectives and precise measurement: the other is more nebulous/vague/unformulated and does not lend itself to precise measurement because of its subjective nature. Scale and Measurement A scale is a tool or mechanism by which individuals are distinguished on the variables of interest to our study, in some form or the other .the scale or tool could be a gross one in the sense that it would only broadly categorize individuals on certain variables; or it could be a fine-tuned tool that would differentiate

individuals on sophistication.







There are four types of scales: 1. Nominal/ Supposed Scale 2. Ordinal Scale 3. Interval/ distance Scale 4. Ratio/ relation Scale

Nominal Scale A nominal scale is one that allows the researcher to assign subjects to certain categories or groups. For example, with respect to the variable of gender, respondents can be grouped in two categories: males and females. These two groups can be assigned code number 1 and number 2. These numbers serve as simple and convenient category labels with no basic value. The information that can be generated from nominal scaling is to calculate the percentage (or frequency) of males and females in our sample of respondents. For example, if we had interviewed 200 people, and assigned a code number 1 to all male respondents and number 2 to all female respondents, then computer analysis of the data at the end of the survey might expose that 98 of the respondents were men and 102 were women. This frequency distribution tells us that 49 percent of the surveys respondents are men and 51 percent women. Ordinal Scale An ordinal scale note only categorize the variables in such a way as to denote qualitative differences among the various categories, it also rank-orders the categories in some meaningful way. With any variable for which the categories are to be ordered according to some preference, the ordinal scale would be used. The preferences would be ranked (e.g. from best to worst; first to

last) and numbered 1,2, and so on. For example, respondents might be asked to indicate their preferences by ranking the importance thy attach to five distinct characteristics in a job that the researcher might be interested in studying. Such a question might take the following form. Job Characteristics Ranking of Importance The opportunity provided by the job to: Interact with others. -----------Use a number of different skills. ------------

Complete a whole task form beginning to end. -----------Serve others. Work independently: -----------------------

The ordinal scale will help the researcher to determine the percentage of respondents who consider interaction with others as most important, those who consider using a number of different skills as most important, and so on. We can say that ordinal scale provides more information than the nominal scale. Interval Scale An interval scale allows us to perform certain arithmetical operational on the data collected from the respondents. Interval scale allows us to compute the means and the standard deviations of the responses on the variables. For example, employees think that (1) it is more important for them to have a variety of skills in their jobs compared to doing a task form beginning to end, and (2) it is more important for them to be serving people than to be working independently on the job, then the interval scale would indicate whether the first preference is to the same extent, to a lesser extent or to a greater extent than the second.

The following opportunities offered by the job are very important to me:Strongly Disagree (1)Disagree (2)Neither Disagree Nor Agree (3)Agree (4)Strong Agree (5)1Interacting with other123452Using a number of different skills123453Completing a task from beginning to end123454Serving others123455Working independently12345 Goodness of Measures The use of better instruments will ensure more accurate results, which in turn will enhance the scientific quality of the research. Hence, in some way we need to assess the goodness of the measures developed, that is reliability and validity. Reliability: Reliability tests how consistently a measuring instrument measures whatever concept it is measuring. In other words, reliability is concerned with stability and consistency in measurement. Validity:

Validity tests how well an instrument that is developed measures the particular concept it is supposed to measure. In other words, it is concerned with whether we measure the right concept.

(1) Observation Broad area of Research (2) Preliminary Data Gathering Interviewing Literature (3) Problem Definition (4) Theoretical Framework (5) Generation of Hypotheses (6) Scientific Research Design (7) Data collection Analysis & Interpretation

(8) DEDUCTION Hypotheses Substantiated? Research question answered? RESEARCH PROCESS STEP 1. STEP 2. STEP 3 New Product Success stock market price Step 4: Step 5 Job Security Good Salary Package Benefits and other allowances Work Environment Job Satisfaction Dependent Variable Independent variables Job Security

Good Salary Package Benefits and other allowances Work Environment Job Satisfaction Dependent Variable Independent variables Interest in work Moderating variable Training Sampling Design Types of Data Data Analysis



Measurement of Variables

Types of Investigation

Study Setting

Time Horizon

Measurement of Variables

Types of Investigation

Data Collecti on Metho ds

Time Horizon


RESEARCH DESIGN Research Interface