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UNIVERSIDAD AUTÓNOMA DEL ESTADO DE HIDALGO ESCUELA SUPERIOR DE CD. SAHAGÚN LICENCIATURA EN CONTADURÍA ENGLISH V

UNIVERSIDAD AUTÓNOMA DEL ESTADO DE HIDALGO

ESCUELA SUPERIOR DE CD. SAHAGÚN

LICENCIATURA EN CONTADURÍA

ENGLISH V

LIC. ALBA CECILIA GARRIDO MELÉNDEZ

JUANA ISABEL AGUILAR BLANCAS

C.E.-DIC. 2012 – ENE. 2013

07/12/2012

  • 1. PRONOUNS

  • 2. ADJETIVES

  • 3. ARTICLES

  • 4. WH-QUESTIÓNS

  • 5. SIMPLE PAST

  • 6. SIMPLE PRESENT

  • 7. SIMPLE FUTURE

  • 8. PAST PERFECT

INDEX

  • 9. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOS

10.PAST PERFECT PROGRESIVE 11.PAST CONTINUOS 12.SIMPLE PRESENT VS PAST PERFECT 13.PRESENT PERFECT PAST PERFECT CONTINUOS 14.PRESENT CONTINUOS

15.MODALS

16.AUXILIARY

17.PREPOSITIONS

18.COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES 19.PREFIXES AND SUFIXES 20.FIRST CONDITIONAL 21.SECOND CONDITIONAL 22.USED TO 23.RELATIVE CLAUSES 24.LINKING WORDS OR CONNETING WORDS 25.NUMBERS CARDINALS AND NUMBERS ORDINALS

26.MONTS

27.DAYS OF WEEK 28.SEASON OF THE YEAR 29.GIVING DIRECTIONS 30.FAMILY MEMBERS

31.OCUPATIONS

32. VERBS IRREGULARS

1. - PRONOUNS

SINGULAR

 

PLURAL

 
 

subjective

objective

possessive

subjective

objective

possessive

1

st

I

Me

my, mine

we

us

our, ours

person

 

2

nd

you

You

your, yours

you

you

your, yours

person

 

3

rd

he

Him

 

his

they

them

their, theirs

person

she

her

her, hers

it

it

its

Example:

I am twenty-nine years old. You live in Barcelona. She has got a dog. He makes the bed every morning. We sing a good song at the disco. They write an e-mail to the teacher. We are going to tell the truth to the women.

 

Exercise

1)

is dreaming. (George)

 

2)

is green. (the blackboard)

 

3)

are on the wall. (the posters)

 

4)

is running. (the dog)

 

5)

are watching TV. (my mother and I)

 

6)

are in the garden. (the flowers)

 

7)

8)

He It They It We He They She she you
He
It
They
It
We
He
They
She
she
you

is riding his bike. (Tom)

is from Bristol. (Victoria)

 

9)

has got a brother. (Diana)

 

10) Have

got a computer, Mandy?

 

Bibliographic

 

Pronouns.

(s.f.).

Recuperado

 

el

04

de

Diciembre

de

2012,

de

2. - ADJETIVES

Adjectives are words used to describe people, things, events etc. They are used in connection with nouns and pronouns.

Adjectives can be used in two ways:

1) before nouns: (attributive position) Examples:

A nice day an old song A blue sky A young man

2) in the complement of a sentence -after some verbs like is , seem, look, and

a few other verbs- Examples:

She is beautiful He is old It seems all right They look tired

(predicative position)

Exercise

1) He quickly reads a book. 2) Mandy is a pretty girl. 3) The class is terribly loud today. 4) Max is a good singer. 5) You can easily open this tin. 6) It's a terrible day today. 7) She sings the song well. 8) He is a careful driver. 9) He drives the car carefully. 10) The dog barks loudly.

Bibliographic

http://www.englischhilfen.de/en/exercises/adjectives_adverbs/adjective_adverb.ht

m

3. - ARTICLES

If the following word begins with

a vowel,

we

speak [

],
],

if

the

following word

begins with a consonant, we speak [ ].

begins with a consonant, we speak [ ].

 
[ ]
[
]
[ ]
[
]

the following word starts with a spoken consonant

the following word vowel

starts

with a spoken

the girl

the English girl

 

the book

 

the orange book

 

the school

 

the old school

 

the unit

The uncle

 

Here a [

Here a [ ] is pronounced at the Here a [ ] is pronounced at the

] is pronounced at the

Here a [ ] is pronounced at the beginning

Here a [ ] is pronounced at the beginning

beginning of the word.

 

of the word.

We use an if the following word starts with a vowel.

the

following

word

starts

with

a

the following word starts with a vowel

consonant

 

a boy

an aunt

a school

 

an old school

a girl

an American girl

Mind the pronunciation of the following word.

a unit

an uncle

This u sounds like a consonant, so we use a.

This u sounds like a vowel, so we use an.

Exercise The articles a/an and the in Englisch Fill in the article >a<, >an< or >the< where necessary. Choose >x< where no article is used.

the the 1) I like blue T-shirt over there better than red one. an 2) Their
the
the
1) I like
blue T-shirt over there better than
red one.
an
2) Their car does 150 miles
hour.
the
3) Where's
USB drive I lent you last week?
x
4) Do you still live in
Bristol?
the
5) Is your mother working in
old office building?
an
6) Carol's father works as
electrician.
a
7) The tomatoes are 99 pence
kilo.
x
8) What do you usually have for
breakfast?
a
9) Ben has
terrible headache.
an
10) After this tour you have
whole afternoon free to explore the city.

Bibliographic

Learning-English.online. (s.f.). Recuperado el 04 de Diciembre de 2012, de

4.- QH-QUESTIONS

Quistión Word

Function

 

Example

 
 

asking

for

information

about

   

what

something

 

What es yogur ñame?

 

asking

for

repetition

or

What? I can't hear you.

confirmation

 

Yo dad wat?

 
   

What

did

you

do

that

what

for

asking for a reason, asking why

for?

when

asking about time

 

When did he leave?

 
 

asking

in

or

at

what

place

or

 

where

position

Where do they live?

which

asking about choice

 

Which

colour

do

you

 

want?

 

asking what or which

person or

who

people (subject)

 

Who opened the door?

 

asking what or which

person or

 

whom

people (object)

 

Whom did you see?

   

Whose are these keys?

whose

asking about ownership

Whose turn is it?

 
 

asking

 

for

reason,

asking

 

why

what

...

for

Why do you say that?

why don't

making a suggestion

 

Why don't I help you?

 

how

asking about manner

 

How does this work?

 
 

asking about condition or quality

How was your exam?

 

how + adj/adv

asking about extent or degree

see examples below

 
   

How far is Pattaya from

how far

Distance

Bangkok?

how long

length (time or space)

 

How long will it take?

 
   

How

many

cars

are

how many

quantity (countable)

there?

   

How

much

money

do

how much

quantity (uncountable)

you have?

how old

Age

How old are you?

 

how

(informal)

come

is the

asking for reason, asking why

concert?

the right option.

her?

How

come

I

can't see

What

Who

Why

 

When

 

is Cristiano Ronaldo from?

How

When

Where

 

Why

are you so happy? I'm getting ma rried!

 

When

How

What

 

Why

is your brother? He is still sick.

 

Why

How

Where

 

What

are you late? Because of the traffic.

 

Where

When

Why

 

How

Exercises Open Questions

What - When - Where - Why - Who – How. Choose

1)

2)

3)

4)

5)

Bibliographic

English

Club

15

years.

(n.d.).

Retrieved

Diciembre

04,

2012,

from

5. - SIMPLE PAST

 

Positive

Negative

Question

no differences I spoke.

I did not speak.

Did I speak?

For irregular verbs, use the past form (see list of irregular verbs, 2nd column). For

regular verbs, just add “ed”.

Exceptions in Spelling when adding ‘ed’

Exceptions in spelling when adding ed

Example

after a final e only add d

love – loved

final consonant after a short, stressed vowel

admit – admitted

or l as final consonant after a vowel is doubled

travel – travelled

final y after a consonant becomes i

hurry – hurried

Use of Simple Past

action in the past taking place once, never or several times

Example: He visited his parents every weekend.

actions in the past taking place one after the other

Example: He came in, took off his coat and sat down.

action in the past taking place in the middle of another action

Example: When I was having breakfast, the phone suddenly rang.

Exercise

Put the verbs into the correct form (simple past).

spent w as great. traveled
spent
w as
great.
traveled

Last year I (spend)

It(be)

my holiday in Ireland.

I(travel)

around by car with two friends and we(visit)

interesting places.

visited
visited

lots of

w ent In the evenings we usually (go) to a pub. learned One night we even
w ent
In the evenings we usually (go)
to a pub.
learned
One night we even (learn)
some Irish dances.
We (be) w ere
very lucky with the weather.
It(not / rain) did not rain a lot.
saw
But we (see)
some beautiful rainbows.
Where (spend / you)
did you spe your last holiday?

Bibliographic

English

Grammasr

4U

ONLINE.

up/grammar/simple-past/exercises

(s.f.).

Obtenido

de

http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-

6. - SIMPLE PRESENT

FORM

[VERB] + s/es in third person

Examples:

You speak English.

Do you speak English?

You do not speak English

USE 1 Repeated Actions

Use the Simple Present to express the idea that an action is repeated or usual.

The action can be a habit, a hobby, a daily event, a scheduled event or something

that often happens. It can also be something a person often forgets or usually does

not do.

Examples:

I play tennis.

She does not play tennis.

Does he play tennis?

The train leaves every morning at 8 AM.

The train does not leave at 9 AM.

USE 2 Facts or Generalizations

The Simple Present can also indicate the speaker believes that a fact was true

before, is true now, and will be true in the future. It is not important if the speaker is

correct about the fact. It is also used to make generalizations about people or

things.

Examples:

Cats like milk.

Birds do not like milk.

Do pigs like milk?

California is in America.

New York is a small city. IT IS NOT IMPORTANT THAT THIS FACT IS UNTRUE.

USE 3 Scheduled Events in the Near Future

Speakers occasionally use Simple Present to talk about scheduled events in the

near future. This is most commonly done when talking about public transportation,

but it can be used with other scheduled events as well.

Examples:

When do we board the plane?

The party starts at 8 o'clock.

When does class begin tomorrow?

USE 4 Now (Non-Continuous Verbs)

Speakers sometimes use the Simple Present to express the idea that an action is

happening or is not happening now. This can only be done with Non-Continuous

Verbs and certain Mixed Verbs.

Examples:

I am here now.

She is not here now.

He needs help right now.

He does not need help now.

He has his passport in his hand.

Do you have your passport with you?

ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always,

only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

Examples:

You only speak English.

Do you only speak English?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE

Examples:

Once a week, Tom cleans the car. ACTIVE

Once a week, the car is cleaned by Tom. PASSIVE

Exescise

1.

2.

go visit
go
visit

I usually

They

(go) to school.

(visit) us often.

  • 3. You

play

  • 4. Tom

w orks

  • 5. He always

  • 6. She never

tells helps sw im
tells
helps
sw im

(play) basketball once a week.

(work) every day.

(tell) us funny stories.

(help) me with that!

  • 7. Martha and Kevin

(swim) twice a week.

dance
dance

(dance) a lot.

  • 8. In this club people usually

takes care leaves
takes care
leaves
  • 9. Linda

10. John rarely

(take care) of her sister.

(leave) the country.

Bibliographic

Englishpage. (s.f.). Recuperado el 04 de Diciembre de 2012,

http://www.englishpage.com/verbpage/simplepresent.html

http://www.really-learn-english.com/simple-present-exercises.html#01

Form of will Future

7. - SIMPLE FUTURE

 

positive

negative

question

no differences I will speak.

I will not speak.

Will I speak?

Use of will Future

A spontaneous decision

Example: Wait, I will help you.

An opinion, hope, uncertainty or assumption regarding the future

Example: He will probably come back tomorrow.

A promise

Example: I will not watch TV tonight.

An action in the future that cannot be influenced

Example: It will rain tomorrow.

Conditional clauses type I

Example: If I arrive late, I will call you.

Exercise

They / call / us

Positive: They will call us.

Negative: They will not call us.

Question: Will they call us?

She / remember / us

Positive: She will remember us.

Negative: She will not remember us.

Question: Will she remember us?

You / be / in Australia

Positive: You will be in Australia.

Negative: You will not be in Australia.

Question: Will you be in Australia?

Bibliographic

English Grammasr 4U ONLINE. (s.f.). Obtenido de http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-

up/grammar/simple-past/exercises

8. - PAST PERFECT

Form of Past Perfect Simple

 

Positive

Negative

Question

no differences I had spoken.

I had not spoken.

Had I spoken?

Exceptions in Spelling when adding ed

Exceptions in Spelling when Adding ed

Example

after final e, only add d

love – loved

final consonant after a short, stressed vowel

admit – admitted

or l as final consonant after a vowel is doubled

travel – travelled

final y after a consonant becomes i

hurry – hurried

Use of Past Perfect

Action

taking

place

before

a

certain

time

in

the

past

(putting emphasis only on the fact, not the duration)

 

Example: Before I came here, I had spoken to Jack

 

Exercise

Put the verbs into the correct form (past perfect simple).

 

The storm destroyed the sandcastle that we had built.( Built)

He had not been to Cape Town before 1997. (not/be)

 

When she went out to play, she had already done her homework.

(do / already)

My brother ate all of the cake that our mum had made. (make)

 

The doctor took off the plaster that he had put on six weeks before.

(put on)

(put on)

The waiter brought a drink that I had not ordered. (not / order)

I could not remember the poem we had learned the week before. (learn)

The children collected the chestnuts that had fallen from the tree. (fall)

Had he phoned Angie before he went to see her in London? (he / phone)

She had not ridden a horse before that day. (not / ride)

Bibliographic

(s.f.). Obtenido de http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/past-perfect-

simplehttp://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/past-perfect-simple/exercises

9.- PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS

 

Form

A: He had been talking.

N: He had not been talking.

Q: Had he been talking?

 

Use

action taking place before a certain time in the past

sometimes interchangeable with past perfect simple

puts emphasis on the course or duration of an action

Exercise

Put the verbs into the correct form (past perfect progressive).

We had been sleeping for 12 hours when he woke us up.

(sleep)

They had been waiting at the station for 90 minutes when the train finally arrived.

(wait)

We had been looking for her ring for two hours and then we found it in the

bathroom. (look for)

I

had not been walking for a long time, when it suddenly began to rain. (not /

walk)

How long had she been learning English before she went to London?

(learn /

 

she)

Frank Sinatra caught the flu because he had been singing in the rain too long.

 

(sing)

He had been driving less than an hour when he ran out of petrol.

He had been driving less than an hour when he ran out of petrol. (drive)

(drive)

 

They were very tired in the evening because they had been helping on the farm

 

all day. (help)

I

had not been working all day; so I wasn't tired and went to the disco at night.

(not / work)

They had been cycling all day so their legs were sore in the evening. (cycle)

Bibliographic

11.- PAST CONTINUOS

12.- SIMPLE PRESENT VS PAST PERFECT

Form

 

Simple Past

Present Perfect Simple

 

irregular verbs: see 2nd column of

irregular verbs: form of 'have' + 3rd column of

irregular verbs

irregular verbs

Example: I spoke

Example: I / you / we / they have spoken

 

he / she / it has spoken

 

regular verbs: infinitive + ed

regular verbs: form of 'have' + infinitive + ed

 

Example: I worked

Example:I / you / we / they have worked

 

he / she / it has worked

 

Exceptions

 

Exceptions when adding 'ed':

when the final letter is e, only add d

Example:

love - loved

after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubled

Example:

admit - admitted

final l is always doubled in British English (not in American English)

Example:

travel - travelled

after a consonant, final y becomes i (but: not after a vowel)

Example:

worry - worried

but: play - played

Certain time in the past or just / already / yet?

Simple Past

Present Perfect Simple

certain time in the past

just / already / not yet

Example:

Example:

I phoned Mary 2 minutes ago.

I have just phoned Mary.

Certain event in the past or how often so far?

Simple Past

Present Perfect Simple

certain event in the past

whether / how often till now

Example: He went to Canada

Example: Have you ever been to Canada? / I have

last summer.

been to Canada twice.

Emphasis on action or result?

Simple Past

Present Perfect Simple

Emphasis on action

Emphasis on result

Example: I bought a new

Example: I have bought a new bike. (With this sentence

bike. (just telling what I did in the

I actually want to express that I have a new bike now.)

past.)

Exercise

Put the verbs into the correct tense (simple past or present perfect simple).

  • 1. I have just finished my homework. (just / finish)

  • 2. Mary has already written five letters. (already / write)

  • 3. Tom moved to this town in 1994. (move)

  • 4. My friend was in Canada two years ago.

(be)

  • 5. I have not been to Canada so far. (not / be)

  • 6. But I have already travelled to London a couple of times. (already / travel)

  • 8. I can't take any pictures because I have not bought a new film yet.

buy)

(not /

  • 9. Did they spend their holiday in New Zealand last summer? (they / spend)

  • 10. Have you ever seen a whale? (you / ever / see)

Bibliographic

http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/simpas-preper/exercises?ex08

PRESENT PERFECT

Form of Present Perfect

 

Positive

Negative

Question

I / you / we / they

I have spoken.

I have not spoken.

Have I spoken?

he / she / it

He has spoken.

He has not spoken.

Has he spoken?

Exceptions in Spelling when Adding ‘ed’

Exceptions in spelling when adding ed

Example

after a final e only add d

love – loved

final consonant after a short, stressed vowel

admit – admitted

or l as final consonant after a vowel is doubled

travel – travelled

final y after a consonant becomes i

hurry – hurried

Use of Present Perfect

puts emphasis on the result

Example: She has written five letters.

action that is still going on

Example: School has not started yet.

action that stopped recently

Example: She has cooked dinner.

finished action that has an influence on the present

Example: I have lost my key.

action that has taken place once, never or several times before the moment

of speaking

Example: I have never been to Australia.

Exercise

Write sentences in present perfect simple.

They / ask / a question - They have asked a question.

He / speak / English - He has spoken English.

I / be / in my room - I have been in my room.

We / not / wash / the car - We have not washed the car.

Annie / not / forget / her homework - Annie has not forgotten her homework.

Write questions in present perfect simple.

They / finish / their homework - Have they finished their homework?

Sue / kiss / Ben - Has Sue kissed Ben?

The waiter / bring / the tea - Has the waiter brought the tea?

Marilyn / pay / the bill - Has Marilyn paid the bill?

You / ever / write / a poem - Have you ever written a poem?

Ask for the information in the bold part of the sentence.

They have talked about art at school. - Where have they talked about art?

Jane has got a letter. - What has Jane got?

Oliver has cooked dinner. - Who has cooked dinner?

Caron has read seven pages. - How many pages has Caron read?

You have heard the song 100 times. - How often have you heard the song?

Bibliographic

(s.f.). Obtenido de http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/present-perfect-

simple http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/tests/present-perfect-simple-1

13.- PRESENT PERFECT

14.- PRESENT CONTINUOUS

15.- MODALS

1) can

Use Examples

ability to do sth. in the present (substitute form: to be able to)

I can speak

 

English.

permission to do sth. in the present (substitute form: to be allowed to)

Can I go

to the cinema?

request

Can you wait a moment, please?

 

offer

I can lend you my car till tomorrow.

suggestion

Can we visit Grandma at the weekend?

possibility

It can get very hot in Arizona.

2) could

Use Examples

ability to do sth. in the past (substitute form: to be able to)

I could speak English.

permission to do sth. in the past (substitute form: to be allowed to) I could go to the

cinema.

polite question *

Could I go to the cinema, please?

polite request *

Could you wait a moment, please?

polite offer * I could lend you my car till tomorrow.

 

polite suggestion * Could we visit Grandma at the weekend?

possibility *

It could get very hot in Montana.

3) may

Use Examples

possibility

It may rain today.

permission to do sth. in the present (substitute form: to be allowed to)

May I go

to the cinema?

polite suggestion

May I help you?

4) might

Use Examples

possibility (less possible than may) *

It might rain today.

hesitant offer *

Might I help you?

5) must

Use

Examples

force, necessity

I must go to the supermarket today.

possibility

You must be tired.

 

advice, recommendation

You must see the new film with Brad Pitt.

6) must not/may not

Use Examples

prohibition

You mustn't work on dad's computer.

You may not work on dad's computer.

7) need not

Use Examples

not necessary

I needn't go to the supermarket, we're going to the restaurant

tonight.

8) ought to

Use Examples

adviceYou ought to drive carefully in bad weather.

obligation

You ought to switch off the light when you leave the room.

9) shall

instead of will in the 1st person

Use Examples

suggestion

Shall I carry your bag?

10) should

Use Examples

adviceYou should drive carefully in bad weather.

obligation

You should switch off the light when you leave the room.

11) will

Use Examples

wish, request, demand, order (less polite than would) Will you please shut the

door?

prediction, assumption

I think it will rain on Friday.

promise

I will stop smoking.

spontaneous decision

Can somebody drive me to the station? - I will.

habits She's strange, she'll sit for hours without talking.

12) would

Use Examples

wish, request (more polite than will)

Would you shut the door, please?

habits in the past

Sometimes he would bring me some flowers.

Exercise

Choose the right modal verb

There is plenty of tomatoes in the fridge. You needn't buy any.

It's a hospital. You mustn't smoke.

He had been working for more than 11 hours. He must be tired after such haed

work. He may prefer to get some rest.

I could speak Arabic fluently when I was a child and we lived in Morocco. But after

we moved back to Canada, I had very little exposure to the language and forgot

almost everything I knew as a child. Now, I canjust say a few things in the

language.

The teacher said we can read this book for our own pleasure as it is optional. But

we can read it if we don't want to.

Can you stand on your head for more than a minute? No, I can't.

If you want to learn to speak English fluently, you need to work

Take an umbrella. It might rain later.

hard.

.

You shouldn't leave small objects lying around . Such objects may be swallowed

by children.

People mustn't walk on grass.

Drivers must stop when the traffic lights are red.

May I ask a question? Yes, of course.

You needn't take your umbrella. It is not raining.

Can you speak Italian? No, I can't.

Bibliographic

http://www.myenglishpages.com/site_php_files/grammar-exercise-modals.php

16.- AUXILIAR

Auxiliary Verbs are the verbs be, do, have, will when they are followed by another

verb (the full verb) in order to form a question, a negative sentence, a compound

tense or the passive.

The verb "be"

The verb be can be used as an auxiliary and a full verb. As an auxiliary we use this

verb for compound tenses and the passive voice. Note that be is an irregular verb:

Simple Present:

I am, he/she/it is, we/you/they are

Simple Past:

I/he/she/it was, we/you/they were

Past Participle:

been

You can tell that in the following sentences be is an auxiliary because it is followed

by another verb (the full verb). (For progressive forms use the "-ing" form of the full

verb; for passive voice, use the past participle of the full verb.)

Progressive Forms

Present Progressive:

He is playing football.

Past Progressive:

He was playing football.

Present Perfect Progressive:

He has been playing football.

Past Perfect Progressive:

He had been playing football.

Simple Present/Past:

The house is/was built.

Present/Past Perfect:

The house has/had been built.

Future I:

The house will be built.

"be" as a full verb

The verb be can also be a full verb. In this case, it's not followed by another verb. If

be is used as a full verb, we do not need an auxiliary in negative sentences or

questions.

positive sentence:

They are fifteen years old.

negative sentence:

They are not fifteen years old.

question:

Are they fifteen years old?

The verb "have"

The verb have, too, can be used both as an auxiliary and as a full verb. As an

auxiliary we use this verb to form compound tenses in active and passive voice.

(Use the past participle of the full verb.)

Compound Tenses - Active Voice

Present Perfect Simple:

He has played football.

Past Perfect Simple:

He had played football.

Present Perfect Progressive:

He has been playing football.

Past Perfect Progressive:

He had been playing football.

Compound Tenses - Passive Voice

Present/Past Perfect:

The house has/had been built.

Note that have is an irregular verb, too:

Simple Present:

I/we/you/they have, he/she/it has

Simple Past:

I/he/she/it/we/you/they had

Past Participle:

had

"have" in positive sentences

As a full verb have indicates possession. In British English, however, we usually

use have got (have being the auxiliary, got the full verb).

 

full verb:

I

have a car.

auxiliary verb:

I

have got a car.

"have" in negative sentences and questions

When we use have as a full verb, we must use the auxiliary do in negative

sentences and questions. If we use have got, however, we do not need another

 

auxiliary.

have as a full verb:

I

do not have a car.

Do I have a car?

have as an auxiliary verb:

I

have not got a car.

Have I got a car?

The verb "will"

The verb will can only be used as an auxiliary. We use it to form the future tenses.

The auxiliary verb "will"

Future I:

He will not play football.

Future II:

He will have played football.

The verb will remains the same for all forms (no "s" for 3rd person singular). The

short form for negative sentences is won't.'

Examples:

I will, he will

I will not = I won't

The verb "do"

The verb do can be both an auxiliary and a full verb. As an auxiliary we use do in

negative sentences and questions for most verbs (except not for be, will, have got

and modal verbs) in Simple Present and Simple Past. (Use the infinitive of the full

verb.)

The auxiliary "do" in negative sentences

Simple Present:

He does not play football.

Simple Past:

He did not play football.

The auxiliary "do" in questions

Simple Present:

Does he play football?

Simple Past:

Did he play football?

The verb do is irregular:

Simple Present:

I/we/you/they do, he/she/it does

Simple Past:

I/he/she/it/we/you/they did

The full verb "do"

As a full verb we use do in certain expressions. If we want to form negative

sentences or questions using do as a full verb, we need another do as an auxiliary.

positive sentence:

She does her homework every day.

negative sentence:

She doesn't do her homework every day.

question:

Does she do her homework every day?

Sentences without the auxiliary "do"

In the following cases, the auxiliary do is not used in negative sentences/questions:

the full verb is "be"

Example:

I

am not angry. / Are you okay?

the sentence already contains another auxiliary (e.g. have, be, will)

 

Example:

They are not sleeping. / Have you heard that?

the sentence contains a modal verb (can, may, must, need, ought to, shall, should)

 

Example:

We need not wait. / Can you repeat that, please?

the question asks for the subject of the sentence

 

Example:

Who sings that song?

 

Exercise

Is the bold verb an auxiliary or a full verb?

I

am hungry. full verb

They will help you. auxiliary verb

We do not know his address. auxiliary verb

My friend Amy does a lot of sports. full verb

How much is it? full verb

I

am reading an interesting book at the moment. auxiliary verb

Will you be there? auxiliary verb

She has never been to London. auxiliary verb

Does he speak English? auxiliary verb

They have a cat and a dog. full verb

Bibliographic

http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/auxiliary-verbs

http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/auxiliary-verbs/exercises?default

17.- PREPOTITIONS

Prepositions are short words (on, in, to) that usually stand in front of nouns

(sometimes also in front of gerund verbs).

Even advanced learners of English find prepositions difficult, as a 1:1 translation is

usually not possible. One preposition in your native language might have several

translations depending on the situation.

There are hardly any rules as to when to use which preposition. The only way to

learn prepositions is looking them up in a dictionary, reading a lot in English

(literature) and learning useful phrases off by heart (study tips).

The following table contains rules for some of the most frequently used

prepositions in English:

Prepositions – Time English Usage

Example

on days of the week

on Monday

in

months / seasons

time of day

year

after a certain period of time (when?)

in August / in winter

in the morning

in 2006

in an hour

at

for night

for weekend

a certain point of time (when?)

at night

at the weekend

at half past nine

since

from a certain point of time (past till now)

since 1980

for

over a certain period of time (past till now)

for 2 years

ago

a certain time in the past

2 years ago

before

earlier than a certain point of time

before 2004

to

telling the time

ten to six (5:50)

past

telling the time

ten past six (6:10)

to / till / until

marking the beginning and end of a period of time

from Monday to/till Friday

till / until

in the sense of how long something is going to last

He is on holiday until Friday.

by

in the sense of at the latest

up to a certain time

I will be back by 6 o’clock.

By 11 o'clock, I had read five pages.

Prepositions – Place (Position and Direction)

English UsageExample

in

room, building, street, town, country

book, paper etc.

car, taxi

picture, world

in the kitchen, in London

in the book

in the car, in a taxi

in the picture, in the world

at

meaning next to, by an object

for table

for events

place where you are to do something typical (watch a film, study, work)

at the door, at the station

at the table

at a concert, at the party

at the cinema, at school, at work

on

attached

for a place with a river

being on a surface

for a certain side (left, right)

for a floor in a house

for public transport

for television, radio

the picture on the wall

London lies on the Thames.

on the table

on the left

on the first floor

on the bus, on a plane

on TV, on the radio

by, next to, beside

left or right of somebody or something

Jane is standing by / next to / beside the car.

under

on the ground, lower than (or covered by) something else

the bag is under the table

below

lower than something else but above ground

the fish are below the surface

over

covered by something else

meaning more than

getting to the other side (also across)

overcoming an obstacle

put a jacket over your shirt

over 16 years of age

walk over the bridge

climb over the wall

above

higher than something else, but not directly over it

a path above the lake

across

getting to the other side (also over)

getting to the other side

walk across the bridge

swim across the lake

through

something with limits on top, bottom and the sides

drive through the tunnel

to

movement to person or building

movement to a place or country

for bed

go to the cinema

go to London / Ireland

go to bed

into

enter a room / a building

go into the kitchen / the house

towards

movement in the direction of something (but not directly to it)

go 5 steps towards the house

onto

movement to the top of something

jump onto the table

from

in the sense of where from

a flower from the garden

Other important Prepositions

English UsageExample

from

who gave it

a present from Jane

of

who/what does it belong to

what does it show

a page of the book

the picture of a palace

by

who made it

a book by Mark Twain

on

walking or riding on horseback

entering a public transport vehicle

on foot, on horseback

get on the bus

in

entering a car / Taxi

get in the car

off

leaving a public transport vehicle

get off the train

out of

leaving a car / Taxi

get out of the taxi

by

rise or fall of something

travelling (other than walking or horseriding)

prices have risen by 10 percent

by car, by bus

at

for age

she learned Russian at 45

about

for topics, meaning what about

we were talking about you

Exercise

Exercise on Prepositions – Place

Complete the exercise according to the picture.

In the picture, I can see a woman.

The woman is sitting at a table.

She is sitting on a chair.

There is another chair opposite the woman.

Her feet are under the table

The woman is holding a cup in her hands.

On the table are a laptop, a paper, a calculator, an appointment calendar, two pens

and a muffin.

The woman is looking at her laptop.

The woman's bag is under the table.

COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES

Introduction

Comparatives and Superlatives are special forms of adjectives. They are used to

compare two or more things. Generally, comparatives are formed using -er and

superlatives are formed using -est. This page will explain the rules for forming

regular comparatives and superlatives, and also show some basic ways of using

them.

1. Forming comparatives and superlatives

How these forms are created depends on how many syllables there are in the

adjective. Syllables are like “sound beats”. For instance, “sing” contains one

syllable, but “singing” contains two — sing and ing. Here are the rules:

Adjective form

Comparative Superlative

Only one syllable, ending in E. Examples: wide, fine, cute

Add -r: wider, finer,

cuter

Add -st: widest, finest, cutest

 

Only one syllable, with one vowel and one consonant at the end. Examples: hot,

big, fat

Double the consonant, and add -er: hotter, bigger, fatter

Double

the consonant, and add -est: hottest, biggest, fattest

Only one syllable, with more than one vowel or more than one consonant at the

end. Examples: light, neat, fast

Add -er: lighter, neater, faster

Add -est:

lightest, neatest, fastest

Two syllables, ending in Y. Examples: happy, silly, lonely

Change y to i, then

add -er: happier, sillier, lonelier

Change y to i, then add -est: happiest, silliest,

loneliest

Two syllables or more, not ending in Y. Examples: modern, interesting, beautiful

 

Use “more” before the adjective: more modern, more interesting, more

beautiful

Use “most” before the adjective: most modern, most interesting, most

beautiful

2. How to use comparatives and superlatives

Comparatives

Comparatives are used to compare two things. You can use

sentences with “than”, or you can use a conjunction like “but”.

Jiro is taller than Yukio.

Yukio is tall, but Jiro is taller.

Superlatives Superlatives are used to compare more than two things. Superlative

sentences usually use “the”, because there is only one superlative.

Masami is the tallest in the class.

Yukio is tall, and Jiro is taller, but Masami is the tallest.

Excercise

Some of the answers are incorrect or incomplete. Keep going!

  • 1. Joe is shorter than Ed. (short)

  • 2. Al is the shortest . (short)

  • 3. Ed is the thinnest . (thin)

  • 4. Joe is thinner than Al. (thin)

  • 5. Al has the most colourful clothes. (colourful)

  • 6. Al is than Joe. (heavy)

  • 7. Ed is the heavier lightest . (light)

  • 8. Joe is happier than Ed. (happy)

  • 9. Ed is the most mysterious . (mysterious)

10. Joe is more energetic than Ed. (energetic)

Prefixes and suffixes

PREFIXES

Prefixes and suffixes are sets of letters that are added to the beginning or end of

another word. They are not words in their own right and cannot stand on their own

in a sentence: if they are printed on their own they have a hyphen before or after

them.

Prefixes

Prefixes are added to the beginning of an existing word in order to create a new

word with a different meaning. For example:

word

prefix

new word

happy

un-

unhappy

cultural

multi-

multicultural

work

over-

overwork

space

cyber-

cyberspace

market

super-

supermarket

Suffixes

Suffixes are added to the end of an existing word. For example:

word

suffix

new word

child

-ish

childish

work

-er

worker

taste

-less

tasteless

idol

-ize/-ise

idolize/idolise

like

-able

likeable

The addition of a suffix often changes a word from one word class to another. In

the table above, the verb like becomes the adjective likeable, the noun idol

becomes the verb idolize, and the noun child becomes the adjective childish.

Some prefixes and suffixes are part of our living language, in that people regularly

use them to create new words for modern products, concepts, or situations. For

example:

word

prefix or suffix

new word

security

bio-

biosecurity

clutter

de-

declutter

media

multi-

multimedia

email

-er

emailer

Email is an example of a word that was itself formed from a new prefix, e-, which

stands for electronic. This modern prefix has formed an ever-growing number of

other Internet-related words, including e-book, e-cash, e-commerce, and e-tailer.

http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/elc/studyzone/330/grammar/regcom1.htm

http://oxforddictionaries.com/words/prefixes-and-suffixes

Exercise

1. PREFIXES like DIS/IN/IM/IR/UN/IL/MIS are used to give an opposite/negative

meaning to a word.

Task: Find the opposites of the words on the right and write them down.

POSSIBLE IMPOSSIBLE

LOYAL

DISLOYAL

HONEST

DISHONEST

REGULAR IRREGILAR

LEGAL

ILLEGAL

COMPLETE INCOMPLETE

REPLACE ABLE IRREPLEACLE ABLE

EFFECTIVE

INEFFECTIVE

POPULAR

UNPOPULAR

FORTUNE

MISFORTUNE

DIFFERENT

INDIFFERENT

KIND

UNKIND

http://www.englishexercises.org/makeagame/viewgame.asp?id=3677#a

THE FIRST CONDITIONAL

We use the First Conditional to talk about future events that are likely to happen.

If we take John, he'll be really pleased.

If you give me some money, I'll pay you back tomorrow.

If they tell us they want it, we'll have to give it to them.

If Mary comes, she'll want to drive.

The 'if' clause can be used with different present forms.

If I go to New York again, I'll buy you a souvenir from the Empire State Building.

If he's feeling better, he'll come.

If she hasn't heard the bad news yet, I'll tell her.

The "future clause" can contain 'going to' or the future perfect as well as 'will'.

If I see him, I'm going to tell him exactly how angry I am.

If we don't get the contract, we'll have wasted a lot of time and money.

The "future clause" can also contain other modal verbs such as 'can' and 'must'.

If you go to New York, you must have the cheesecake in Lindy's.

If he comes, you can get a lift home with him.

http://www.englishgrammarsecrets.com/firstconditional/menu.php

Exercise

Correct! Well done.

Your score is: 1%.

1.

If you don't study (not study), you will fail (fail) the test.

2.

We will die (die) if we don't get (not get) help soon!

3.

If you look (look) in the fridge, you will find (find) some cold drinks.

4.

If there is (be) no oil in the engine, the car will break (break) down.

5.

I will lend (lend) you my umbrella if you need (need) it.

6.

The sea level will rise (rise) if the planet gets (get) hotter.

7.

If you eat (eat) your sandwiches now, you won't have (not have) anything for

lunch!

8.

You will be (be) safe in an accident if you wear (wear) your seatbelt.

9.

If he saves (save) all his money, he will be able to go (be able to go) on holiday

to Canada.

10. I will not come (not come) with you if you don't bring (not bring) John!

SECOND CONDITIONAL

The Second Conditional is used to talk about 'impossible' situations.

If we were in London today, we would be able to go to the concert in Hyde Park.

If I had millions dollars, I'd give a lot to charity.

If there were no hungry people in this world, it would be a much better place.

If everyone had clean water to drink, there would be a lot less disease.

Note that after I / he/ she /it we often use the subjunctive form 'were' and not 'was'.

(Some people think that 'were' is the only 'correct' form but other people think 'was'

is equally 'correct' .)

If she were happy in her job, she wouldn't be looking for another one.

If I lived in Japan, I'd have sushi every day.

If they were to enter our market, we'd have big problems.

Note the form 'If I were you' which is often used to give advice.

If I were you, I'd look for a new place to live.

If I were you, I'd go back to school and get more qualifications.

The Second Conditional is also used to talk about 'unlikely' situations.

If I went to China, I'd visit the Great Wall.

If I was the President, I'd reduce taxes.

If you were in my position, you'd understand.

Note that the choice between the first and the second conditional is often a

question of the speaker's attitude rather than of facts. Compare these examples.

Otto thinks these things are possible, Peter doesn't.

Otto – If I win the lottery, I'll buy a big house.

Peter – If I won the lottery, I'd buy a big house.

Otto – If I get promoted, I'll throw a big party.

Peter – If I got promoted, I'd throw a big party.

Otto – If my team win the Cup, I'll buy champagne for everybody.

Peter – If my team won the Cup, I'd buy champagne for everybody.

Note that the 'If clause' can contain the past simple or the past continuous.

If I was still working in Brighton, I would commute by train.

If she were coming, she would be here by now.

If they were thinking of selling, I would want to buy.

Note that the main clause can contain 'would' 'could' or 'might.

If I had the chance to do it again, I would do it differently.

If we met up for lunch, we could go to that new restaurant.

If I spoke to him directly, I might be able to persuade him.

Exercise

Use a prefixes to find the opposite of these verbs:

1- wrap

unwrap

2- use

misuse

3- agree

disagree

4- engage

disengage

5- behave

misbehave

6- understand

misunderstand

7- fold

unfold

8- spell

misunderstand

9- connect

disconnect

10- close

disclose

Put the words in brackets in the appropriate form (use a prefixes or a suffixes):

He was acting in a very childish way. (child)

She looked unhappy .She started to cry. (happy)

He passed his exam. He was successful for the second time. (succeed)

The team that he supported were able to win the championship . (champion)

  • I couldn't find any weakness in his theory. (weak)

He wants to be a mathematician when he grows up. (mathematics)

There were only a handful of people at the match. (hand)

The road was too narrow, so they had to widen it. (wide)

  • I think that you should reconsider your decision. It may not be the best thing to do.

(consider)

You need a combination of motivation, organization and hard work to realize your

dreams.(combine)

FORM

[used to + VERB]

Example:

USED TO

  • I used to go to the beach every day.

It is better not to use "used to" in questions or negative forms; however, this is

sometimes done in informal spoken English. It is better to ask questions and create

negative sentences using Simple Past.

USE 1 Habit in the Past

"Used to" expresses the idea that something was an old habit that stopped in the

past. It indicates that something was often repeated in the past, but it is not usually

done now.

Examples:

Jerry used to study English.

Sam and Mary used to go to Mexico in the summer.

I used to start work at 9 o'clock.

Christine used to eat meat, but now she is a vegetarian.

USE 2 Past Facts and Generalizations

"Used to" can also be used to talk about past facts or generalizations which are no

longer true.

Examples:

I used to live in Paris.

Sarah used to be fat, but now she is thin.

George used to be the best student in class, but now Lena is the best.

Oranges used to cost very little in Florida, but now they are quite expensive.

"Used to" vs. Simple Past

Both Simple Past and "Used to" can be used to describe past habits, past facts

and past generalizations; however, "used to" is preferred when emphasizing these

forms of past repetition in positive sentences. On the other hand, when asking

questions or making negative sentences, Simple Past is preferred.

Examples:

You used to play the piano.

Did you play the piano when you were young?

You did not play the piano when you were young.

ACTIVE / PASSIVE

Examples:

Jerry used to pay the bills. Active

The bills used to be paid by Jerry. Passive

Exercise

  • 1. I used to

have eggs for breakfast.

  • 2. My brother used to

work in a bank.

  • 3. They are used to listening to loud noise because they live in the city centre.

  • 4. There used to be a bakery in this street.

  • 5. Mr and Mrs Mc Donald are used to

going to Japan every year.

  • 6. running 15 miles every day.

I am used to

She is used to

  • 7. working with computers.

  • 8. Paul used to play football.

10. You are used to

studying English.

http://www.tolearnenglish.com/exercises/exercise-english-2/exercise-english-

39054.php

Linking words Relative clauses

In addition

As well as

Also

Too

Furthermore

Moreover

Apart from

In addition to

Besides

Ideas are often linked by and. In a list, you put a comma between each item, but

not before and.

"We discussed training, education and the budget."

Also is used to add an extra idea or emphasis. "We also spoke about marketing."

You can use also with not only to give emphasis.

"We are concerned not only by the costs, but also by the competition."

We don't usually start a sentence with also. If you want to start a sentence with a

phrase that means also, you can use In addition, or In addition to this…

As well as can be used at the beginning or the middle of a sentence.

"As well as the costs, we are concerned by the competition."

"We are interested in costs as well as the competition."

Too goes either at the end of the sentence, or after the subject and means as well.

"They were concerned too."

"I, too, was concerned."

Apart from and besides are often used to mean as well as, or in addition to.

"Apart from Rover, we are the largest sports car manufacturer."

"Besides Rover, we are the largest sports car manufacturer."

Moreover and furthermore add extra information to the point you are making.

"Marketing plans give us an idea of the potential market. Moreover, they tell us

about the competition."

Summarising

In short

In brief

In summary

To summarise

In a nutshell

To conclude

In conclusion

We normally use these words at the beginning of the sentence to give a summary

of what we have said or written.

Sequencing ideas

The former, … the latter

Firstly, secondly, finally

The first point is

Lastly

The following

The former and the latter are useful when you want to refer to one of two points.

"Marketing and finance are both covered in the course. The former is studied in the

first term and the latter is studied in the final term."

Firstly, … secondly, … finally (or lastly) are useful ways to list ideas.

It's rare to use "fourthly", or "fifthly". Instead, try the first point, the second point, the

third point and so on.

The following is a good way of starting a list.

"The following people have been chosen to go on the training course: N Peters, C

Jones and A Owen."

Giving a reason

Due to / due to the fact that

Owing to / owing to the fact that

Because

Because of

Since

As

Due to and owing to must be followed by a noun.

"Due to the rise in oil prices, the inflation rate rose by 1.25%."

"Owing to the demand, we are unable to supply all items within 2 weeks."

If you want to follow these words with a clause (a subject, verb and object), you

must follow the words with the fact that.

"Due to the fact that oil prices have risen, the inflation rate has gone up by 1%25."

"Owing to the fact that the workers have gone on strike, the company has been

unable to fulfill all its orders."

Because / because of

Because of is followed by a noun.

"Because of bad weather, the football match was postponed."

Because can be used at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence. For example,

"Because it was raining, the match was postponed."

"We believe in incentive schemes, because we want our employees to be more

productive."

Since / as

Since and as mean because.

"Since the company is expanding, we need to hire more staff."

As the company is expanding, we need to hire more staff."

Giving a result

Therefore

So

Consequently

This means that

As a result

Therefore, so, consequently and as a result are all used in a similar way.

"The company are expanding. Therefore / So / Consequently / As a result, they are

taking on extra staff."

So is more informal.

Contrasting ideas

But

However

Although / even though

Despite / despite the fact that

In spite of / in spite of the fact that

Nevertheless

Nonetheless

While

Whereas

Unlike

In theory… in practice…

But is more informal than however. It is not normally used at the beginning of a

sentence.

"He works hard, but he doesn't earn much."

"He works hard. However, he doesn't earn much."

Although, despite and in spite of introduce an idea of contrast. With these words,

you must have two halves of a sentence.

"Although it was cold, she went out in shorts."

"In spite of the cold, she went out in shorts."

Despite and in spite of are used in the same way as due to and owing to. They

must be followed by a noun. If you want to follow them with a noun and a verb, you

must use the fact that.

"Despite the fact that the company was doing badly, they took on extra

employees."

Nevertheless and nonetheless mean in spite of that or anyway.

"The sea was cold, but he went swimming nevertheless." (In spite of the fact that it

was cold.)

"The company is doing well. Nonetheless, they aren't going to expand this year."

While, whereas and unlike are used to show how two things are different from each

other.

"While my sister has blue eyes, mine are brown."

"Taxes have gone up, whereas social security contributions have gone down."

"Unlike in the UK, the USA has cheap petrol."

In theory… in practice… show an unexpected result.

"In theory, teachers should prepare for lessons, but in practice, they often don't

have enough time."

Exercise

Dear Mirabel, the sooner, the better, because ofafter all ! I haven't written to you for

ages.

For that reason I feel rather ill at ease (mal à l'aise).

To this endMoreover, I haven't written to Nigel either !

By comparisonAs a matter of fact I am very embarrassed : I agreed to marry your

brother

because ofin spite of his age

sincebut I must confess that it is now impossible.

As a resultIn other words, I have met Walter and we have immediately fallen in

love.

DespiteFurthermore, Walter is American and wants me to live in Boston with him ...

On the other handOn the one hand, I 'll miss my friends and family

in other wordson the other hand, I' ll lose Walter if I don't go.

If notTherefore, I have made up my mind. I will go to Boston ...

unlessfor I love Walter and he loves me.

In the same wayThis is why I won't marry Nigel

...

our friendship.

I hope it won't have any effect on

In spite ofIn any case, I would be very happy to have you at home in Boston.

Nevertheless, I would understand if you didn't come.

In the same wayIn the first place, Nigel is your brother,

that is to sayin the second place, it's a long way from Bath to Boston.

However, you've been my friend for so many years that you're like a sister to me.

'Angela'.

Asking for and Giving Directions

How do I get to …?

What's the best way to …?

Where is …?

Go straight on (until you come to …).

Turn back./Go back.

Turn left/right (into …-street).

Go along …

Cross …

Take the first/second road on the left/right

It's on the left/right.

straight on

opposite

near

next to

between

at the end (of)

 

on/at the corner

behind

in front of

(just) around the corner

 

traffic lights

 

crossroads, junction

 

signpost

Exercise

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

James leaves the school and turns right left .

He walks along Lake Street Queen Street .

He takes the second the first turning on the left on the right .

Then he goes straight on turns left .

He goes past goes as far as Station Road.

Monika lives in Park Street Station Road .

Her house is opposite next to the cinema, behind near the supermarket.

1.

1. 2. 3. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. http://www.englishexercises.org/makeagame/viewgame.asp?id=6787#a

2.

1. 2. 3. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. http://www.englishexercises.org/makeagame/viewgame.asp?id=6787#a

3.

5.

6.

   

7.

     

8.

   

9.

   

10.

         
         

http://www.englishexercises.org/makeagame/viewgame.asp?id=6787#a

http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/vocabulary/directions

Members of a Family

father

dad

mother

mum , mummy , mom (amerik.)

parent

parents

child

children

son

daughter

brother

sister

grandfather

granddad , grandpa

grandmother

grandma , granny

grandson

granddaughter

grandchild

uncle

aunt

cousin

nephew

niece

boyfriend

girlfriend

fiancé

fiancée

bride

groom, bridegroom

wife

husband

spouse

father-in-law

mother-in-law

parents-in-law

son-in-law

daughter-in-law

brother-in-law

sister-in-law

godfather

godmother

godson

goddaughter

godchild

History of a Family

be pregnant

expect a baby

give birth to

born

birthday

baptize

bring up, raise

go to school

be proud of

move

be engaged

marry , get married

be married to

be married with two children

divorced

widowed

widow

widower

die

late

Exercise

Write down the term for the opposite sex?

mum - dad

brother - sister

son - daughter

uncle - aunt

grandmother - grandfather

granddaughter - grandson

nephew - niece

wife - husband

boyfriend - girlfriend

cousin - cousin

accountant contador

actor

actor

actress

actriz

air hostess

azafata

architect arquitecto

astronaut astronauta

au-pair, babysitter

niñera

baker panadero

bank clerk

empleado bancario

beekeeper apicultor

barberbarbero, peluquero (de hombre)

bookseller librero

bricklayer albañil

bus driver

conductor de autobús

butcher carnicero

chemist farmacéutico

chimney-sweeper deshollinador

consultant asesor

cook cocinero

customs officer

oficial de aduanas

dentistdentista

disc jockey, DJ

disc jockey, DJ

doctor médico

driver conductor

driving instructor

instructor de manejo

dustman basurero

electrician electricista

employee empleado

engineer ingeniero

factory worker

farmeragricultor

fashion designer

obrero

diseñador de moda

firefighter , fireman bombero

fisherman pescador

gardener jardinero

graphic designer

diseñador gráfico

hairdresser

peluquero (de mujer)

inspector inspector

interior designer

jeweller joyero

diseñador de interiores

journalist periodista

judge juez

lawyerabogado

librarian bibliotecario

lifeguard

salvavidas, socorrista

lorry driver

camionero

mechanic mecánico

model modelo

mailman (US)

cartero

nanny niñera

nurse enfermera

office worker oficinista

painter pintor

photographer fotógrafo

pilot

piloto

plumber

fontanero, plomero

policeman policía

policewoman mujer policía

politician político

postman cartero

psychiatrist psiquiatra

psychologist psicólogo

receptionist recepcionista

reporter reportero

sailor marinero

salesman vendedor

scientist científico

secretary secretario

security guard guardia de seguridad

shepherd pastor

shoemaker zapatero

singer cantante

soldiersoldado

 

sports instructor

instructor de deportes

stockbroker

agente de bolsa

student estudiante

 

surgeon cirujano

tailor sastre

taxi driver

taxista

teacher

profesor, maestro

technician técnico

telemarketer,