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BACKGROUND FOR US HISTORY WORKSHOPS The following description of the 40 hour training sessions that I will be undertaking will

be based on my five years of classroom experience as a fourth grade bilingual teacher in El Paso, TX from the years 2000-2005, as well as on theoretical approaches to successful strategies one can integrate into ones classroom context. The text that I will be basing my instruction on will be Howard Zinns A Peoples History of the United States, which proffers a somewhat different viewpoint of US history in that it is told from the perspective of the oppressed classes, particularly people of color and women. In the majority of classrooms across the country American history is told from the Anglo-Saxon viewpoint that tends to omit some of the atrocities that were committed against the aforementioned minorities, and this is something that in my opinion cannot be glossed over if we want our students to be critical thinkers and agents in their educational plight. As educators we cant be neutral as we tread against conservative educational systems that are detrimental to the oppressed classes. Thus, it is a teachers obligation to present US history from this perspective, as it will present students with what may be a new vision of how history was presented to them in the past. As far as practical applications go in the classroom, I am a firm believer in collaborative contexts and thus the majority of the activities/projects/etc. will be designed for that kind of structure. The research has proven that English language learners (ELLs) experience more success if they are placed in this kind of environment and thus the sessions will give teachers a chance to see how this functions in relation to the teaching of US history. It will also be emphasized in these respective sessions that history should not be taught in isolation from the rest of the curriculum, and the concept of thematic units will be introduced as well to demonstrate how other subjects can be integrated into the teaching of history. As mentioned previously in relation to collaborative contexts, thematic teaching is also highly beneficial for ELLs. The most important link that will be highlighted is providing quality learning opportunities that are accessible for ones students, because its quite possible that if one is teaching fifth grade the students will not be linguistically equipped to handle the basal reader that is used by the school. A teacher must be flexible when faced with these obstacles and not resort to the old fashioned technique of open the book to page 22 and read the first chapter. This strategy will not be successful in the second language classroom and often leads to discipline problems as students become

disconnected from their learning experience. But, this can be rectified with creative out of the box teaching strategies in relation to US history, which will be shown in the respective training sessions. In addition to strategies, alternative evaluation assessments will be introduced to teachers as well, being that the run of the mill assessments provided by textbook companies are often biased against ELLs in that the reading level is out of their reach. Thus, different methods of evaluation will be introduced to the future teachers throughout the trajectory of the course, such as the use of portfolios, presentations, and other alternative assessments that could be used in the classroom. In conjunction with this, rubrics will be introduced as a way to assess these respective assessments due to the fact that at times it can be puzzling how to give grades for work that isnt your normal fill in the blanks, yes/no, true/false structure often used in classrooms, much to the detriment of English Language Learners. MATERIALS NEEDED FOR WORKSHOP- The following items will be necessary for the five week work shop, being that the trainees will be placed into the context of students whom are learning about US history. 1. Plenty of large butcher paper for collaborative activities (cartulinas) 2. Masking tape/ Scotch tape 3. Plenty of markers for collaborative activities 4. Dry erase board for concept explanation by trainer 5. Scissors 6. Photocopied reading material 7. Tables to support collaborative learning context 8. World Map THE FOLLOWING MATERIAL SHOULD BE READ BEFORE THE DATE POSTED BELOW: March 25th Interview with Howard Zinn (A Pedagogy of Resistance) and the article Defending Bilingual Education. Also chapter 1 from A Peoples History of the US (Columbus, the Indians, and Human Progress) April 1st- Chapter 4 (Tyranny is Tyranny) April 15th- Chapter 6 (The Intimately Oppressed) April 22nd- Chapter 14 (War is the Health of the State) April 29th- Chapter 16 (A Peoples War) ***It is strongly recommended that trainees highlight and make notes about content, as this preparation will prepare them for the strategies that will utilized in the respective sessions. It is rather obvious that with a 40-hour course it is impossible to cover everything, thus depth of understanding with

relation to the concepts/themes will be the goal. Because history is not about the memorization of dates, people, and battles. Its more about arriving at a deep understanding of ideas that will be presented in the five sessions. ***It should also be noted that with each passing session the participants will take a more active role in creating lessons/strategies that they will be able to utilize in their classrooms in the US. The trainer will commence by demonstrating techniques that he/she has utilized in the classroom, with the aim of providing ideas to be tried out by the trainees as the sessions go on. For that reason (as noted above) it is imperative that participants prepare themselves by reading the assigned material. ***If the trainer were assessing the trainees (in this case students) for a grade, the following rubric (for a portfolio) would be utilized instead of a standardized test: 5 points- Student includes all notes in relation to class work, reflections, and self-evaluations as indicated by professor, displays solid organization techniques in relation to the portfolio, and demonstrates a high level of growth in connection to concepts/ideas/techniques in the course. 4 points- Student includes all notes in relation to class work, reflections, and self-evaluations as indicated by professor, displays somewhat effective organization techniques in relation to the portfolio, and demonstrates growth at times in connection to the concepts/ideas/techniques in the course. 3 points- Student is missing some of the notes in relation to class work, reflections, and self-evaluations as indicated by professor, displays at times erratic organization techniques in relation to the portfolio, and occasionally demonstrates growth in connection to the concepts/ideas/techniques in the course. 2 points- Student is missing many of the notes in relation to class work, reflections, and self-evaluations as indicated by professor, displays erratic organization techniques in relation to the portfolio, and rarely demonstrates growth in connection to the concepts/ideas/techniques in the course. 1 point- Student has very little of the notes in relation to class work, reflections, and self-evaluations as indicated by professor, displays no

organization techniques in relation to the portfolio, and shows no growth in connection to the concepts/ideas/techniques in the course.

Session #1- March 25th, 2007- Focus on settlement in the Americas Objective #1- An effective approach for beginning any lesson regardless of subject is searching for students background knowledge pertaining to the content that is going to be taught. This will give the respective teacher some groundwork for the lessons that he/she will be teaching and will assist in the design of future lessons. It is highly recommended that teachers find ways to access this background knowledge on behalf of students before a unit is taught. Collaborative groups will also be formed as a result of the findings discovered in the self-evaluation below. Procedure- Using the rubric found below, trainees will rate themselves on a scale from 1 to 5 as far as his/her knowledge pertaining to US History. This self-evaluation technique is a good way to get students involved in their own learning process, and also gives the trainee a gauge as far as the types of strategies that need to be carried out throughout the unit/theme. Rubric- My Knowledge of US History 5- I feel that I have a deep understanding of US History concepts and ideas. 4- I feel that I have a pretty good understanding of US History concepts and ideas. 3- I feel that I have a fair understanding of US History concepts and ideas. 2- I feel that I have very scant understanding of US History concepts and ideas. 1- I feel that I have very little understanding of US History concepts and ideas. Forming heterogeneous collaborative groups- As a result of the selfevaluation found above, trainees are placed in groups (ideal number being 5 students) in which there are a variety of levels in terms of concept understanding. Ones management of the second language (English) should also be taken into account when placing students in collaborative working

groups. Balance as far as abilities is key when placed in collaborative structures. The following roles are assigned to members of the collaborative group and will be utilized throughout the workshop sessions. It is quite important that trainees understand the responsibilities of each role, and the trainer should make sure that trainees get the opportunity to change roles for different activities. RECORDER- I am in charge of the putting onto paper the contributions of my group members, utilizing their ideas, and in turn organizing our work in a visual fashion. TIME KEEPER- I monitor our progress and the time remaining to finish the respective task. Obviously, I also contribute ideas for the recorder. This is harder than it sounds. Definitely dont sleep on the job with this one. REPORTER #1- My job is to report our findings to the entire group. I should do my best to talk to the group, and not read directly from the paper (or whatever medium you are utilizing) made by the recorder. In addition, I am also contributing ideas and listening attentively, as I will be the one presenting it to the public. REPORTER #2- My job is the same as reporter #1. It is recommended that I split this job equally with the other reporter. Nonetheless, both need to report the groups findings. MATERIALS- I am responsible for the gathering up of, organizing, and the care of all materials being utilized in the respective activity. Likewise, I also contribute ideas for the recorder. Real important role, as being organized saves precious time. Activity Trainees are now in their respective collaborative groups and at this point should be equipped with butcher paper and markers. Trainees are presented with the following question(s), What do you know about US History? What do you want to know about US History? This last question will be used at the end of the five sessions. What did you learn about US History? The activity mentioned above is called a K-W-L chart and the butcher paper with the results is best utilized as a visual that is on display in the respective

classroom. As trainees progress during the investigation of a respective theme, they write in the column L the concepts they have learned in the class. They should be put in charge of their own learning and this strategy facilitates this process. Activity discussion- Reporters present their findings from the activity and the butcher paper is put on display, as they will be utilized throughout the workshop. Objective #2 (In conjunction with Chapter #1 (Columbus, the Indians, and Human Progress) and trainees background knowledge)- Trainees will come to a deep understanding of how US history is told from two perspectives, from the oppressed and oppressor point of view, and at the same time construct concept maps with illustrations, key words, and opinions of the material presented. Organization of key ideas on behalf of trainees is the goal. ***It should be noted that the following procedure will be carried out with the assumption that the material assigned has been thoroughly read by the respective trainees. Procedure #2- First of all trainees are asked to illustrate (through a drawing) the image that comes to their mind when they think about the discovery of the Americas by Christopher Columbus, with one illustration being from the perspective of the white man (the oppressor) and the other from the perspective of the Arawak Indians (the oppressed). Then the following parts from Chapter 1 will be read to the trainees. This is obviously the perspective as seen from the point of view of the oppressed population, in this case the Arawak Indians. Page 7- When we read the history books given to children in the US, it all starts with heroic adventure- there is no bloodshed- and Columbus Day is a celebration. Page 6- They rode the backs of Indians as if they were in a hurry or were carried on hammocks by Indians running in relays. Page 7- so that from 1494 t0 1508, over three million people had perished from war, slavery, and the mines. Page 9- To emphasize the heroism of Columbus and his successors as navigators and discoverers, and to de-emphasize their genocide, is not a technical necessity but an ideological choice. Page 10- The cry of the poor is not always just, but if you dont listen to it, you will never know what justice is.

Page 4- Indians found without a copper token had their hands cut off and bled to death. Next, students should come up with similar statements (from their prior knowledge) from the perspective of the oppressor, in this case the Spaniards under the orders of Christopher Columbus. Activity #2(Big Ideas from 2 Perspectives)- In collaborative groups trainees should come up with some kind of concept map (their choice) using illustrations and key words to demonstrate the discovery of the Americas from the perspective of the Arawak Indians and the Spaniards. Keep in mind that we are dealing with ELLs, so visuals need to be concise, to the point, and in language that is accessible to the most basic levels. Use of first language skills may also be necessary at this juncture. 30 minutes should be provided for the respective activity and collaborative roles should be different from the first activity of the day. Activity discussion- Reporters present their concept maps to the rest of the class. Material (as was with the first activity) is placed in the classroom for visual assistance throughout the unit/theme. The following rubric/self-evaluation is recommended to be used over time to gauge where the student views himself/herself in terms of contribution to the class.

Participation 5 points- Student actively participates on a daily basis, displays ability to comment on work done outside of class, and demonstrates solid effort in collaborative structures. 4 points- Student actively participates on a daily basis, demonstrates solid effort in collaborative structures, but does not carry out all the necessary work outside of class. 3 points- At times student is reluctant to participate and/or contribute in collaborative structures, even though it is demonstrated in other mediums (writing) that work outside of class is carried out by student.

2 points- Student rarely participates, displays negative actions at times in collaborative structures, and is not up to speed on assignments outside of class. 1 point- Student never participates and struggles in collaborative structures. ACTIVITY- Self evaluate yourself using this scale, and write a few sentences to justify your score out of 5 points. Be as honest with yourself as you can. Objective #3- To foment the understanding on behalf of trainees that the Native Americans (the Indians) were not uncivilized savages as they are sometimes portrayed in US history. Trainees will confront a new paradigm in terms of description of Native American way of life and hopefully dispel some of the knowledge they previously had (from the media, etc) pertaining to the way of life of this respective group. Procedure #3- Pose the following question to trainees: How did/does the media/mainstream history books paint the lives of Native Americans before the arrival of Columbus to the Americas? Have trainees jot down their responses. Then pose the next question: Why are these images so ingrained in our psyches? Like the previous example have trainees write down their thoughts. Finally, go over the following citations from Chapter 1 of a Peoples History: Page 21- So, Columbus and his successors were not coming into an empty wilderness, but into a world which in some places was as densely populated as Europe itself, where the culture was complex, where human relations were more egalitarian than in Europe, and where the relations among men, women, children, and nature were more beautifully worked out than perhaps any place in the world. They were people without a written language, but with their won laws, their poetry, their history kept in memory and passed on, in an oral vocabulary more complex than Europes, accompanied by song, dance, and ceremonial drama. Page 20- Women were important and respected in Iroquois society. Thus power was shared between the sexes and the European idea of male dominancy and female subordination was conspicuously absent in Iroquois society.

Page 16- Behind the English invasion of North America, behind their massacre of Indians, their deception, their brutality, was that special powerful drive born in civilizations based on private property. It was a morally ambiguous drive; the need for space, for land, was a real human need. Page 20- The concept of private ownership of land and homes was foreign to the Iroquois. Page 17- Was all this bloodshed and deceit- from Columbus to Corts, Pizarro, the Puritans- a necessity for the human race to progress from savagery to civilization? Page 17- If there are necessary sacrifices to be made for human progress, is it not essential to hold to the principle that those to be sacrificed must make the decision themselves? Page 16- The Indian population of 10 million that lived north of Mexico when Columbus came would ultimately be reduced to less than a million. Activity#3- Compare/Contrast (using a visual representation of your choice) the image of Native Americans using the two viewpoints that were presented in this lesson. Collaborative roles (as in the last activity) should be changed so that new trainees are getting the opportunity to speak. Discussion of activity- Discuss different strategies when presented with a compare/contrast activity such as this one. Why is it important to have visuals with pictures, etc for ELLs? Wrap-up activity for Day #1 1. Add the necessary information in the L column from the first activity; which would be the information that the respective trainees learned during the day. 2. Write a paragraph that answers the following question: How has my viewpoint of US history changed as a result of this new knowledge? 3. In groups come up with some teaching ideas that you have in relation to the material in Day #1s class? 4. Discussion of material to be covered for April 1st.

5. Evaluation of workshop Session #2- April 1st, 2007- Focus on the Revolutionary War (chapter 4) Objective #1- To develop a deep understanding of the conflict between the British and the Americans, while also creating critical thinking opportunities in relation to other conflicts in American history, specifically to see if some of the same characteristics (of conflict) are identified in relation to the Revolutionary War and current world conflicts involving the US. Trainees should comprehend after this lesson that conflict has been and will continue to be a part of our society. Procedure #1- Propose the question: What is a conflict and what are usually the causes of conflict between two countries? In collaborative groups (changing roles once again) brainstorm this question and butcher paper jot down the responses. Share with whole group. Then propose the second question: Is there any difference (in reality) between the conflicts of yesteryear and the ones that we are witnessing in modern times? Repeat the steps carried out after the first question. Activity #1- Trainees must now construct a concept map/graphic organizer that would be visual, have accessible language for ELLs, and be logically organized in order to store the information more easily. Trainees will then present the information and be graded on the following rubric: 3pts- Visual projects accessible, enriching language (or illustrations) for ELLs, demonstrates well-organized ideas. All members contributed in some fashion. 2pts- Presentation is lacking in one of the areas above. 1pt.- Presentation is lacking in more than one of the areas above. ***Trainees can grade themselves after the presentation with written justification. Procedure #2- Integrate the use of mathematics with the purpose of demonstrating how inter-disciplinary units (in this case Math) can be effective in the ELL context.

Activity #2- Read the following passage and invent a math problem using the numbers provided (in the passage). Page 65- The biggest problem was to keep the propertyless people, who were unemployed and hungry in the crisis following the French war, under control. In Boston, the economic grievances of the lowest classes mingled with anger against the British and exploded in mob violence. The leaders of the Independence movement wanted to use that mob energy against England, but also contain it so that it would not demand too much from them. At this time, the top 10 percent of Bostons taxpayers held about 66 percent of Bostons taxable wealth, while the lowest 30 percent of the taxpaying population had no taxable property at all. Discussion of activity- Group presents problem to class, the other groups solve it, and the presenting group gives an explanation how they would have done it (visual aid). Procedure #3- Pose the question: What were some examples of conflict escalation between the colonists and the British? What were their causes? What are some examples of class conflict between the wealthy and the poor? What was the root of the problem between them? Activity #3- How would you present the findings from the questions above in language that is accessible for ELLs, especially for those whose reading level prevents them from reading the textbook? Present your findings so that it is comprehensible input for students with very little English language experience. Think about big concepts! Discussion of Activity#3- After the presentations we discuss what would be effective strategies and what wouldnt be an effective strategy for the ELL classroom. What would be a fair method to evaluate your students in terms of synthesizing the learning that they did? Objective#2- Revealing the benefits of using alternative assessments (in this example a poster in collaborative groups) in the ELL classroom, one that is accessible to all and not focused on rote memorization, but instead based on the understanding of a concept presented in class discussions. Name of poster project: Past and present conflicts, in two perspectives

Description of assessment technique- Trainees will visually and in written language show the British/colonist conflict and the rich/poor class conflict during the Revolutionary War period, and compare/contrast it with a current conflict between warring countries, coupled with a class conflict that is happening in one of the countries (like what happened in New Orleans). Activity- Collaborative groups construct a poster that satisfies the above requirements for the assessment, while at the same time designing a rubric in order for students to know exactly how they are being evaluated. ***Another alternative assessment idea is to evaluate how one performs in collaborative settings. The following rubric is an example: RUBRIC IN COLLABORATIVE STRUCTURES 5 points- Student is always open to sharing his/her ideas with group, is always prepared to collaborate in respect to the classroom context, and is always willing to listen to others when he/she isnt speaking. 4 points- Student is frequently open to sharing his/her ideas with group, is often prepared to collaborate in respect to the classroom context, and most of the time is willing to listen to others when he/she is not speaking. 3 points- Student is occasionally open to sharing his/her ideas with group, is occasionally prepared to collaborate in respect to the classroom context, and occasionally is willing to listen to others when he/she is not speaking. 2 points- Student is frequently unwilling to share his/her ideas with group, is rarely prepared to collaborate in respect to the classroom context, and is often disruptive and off task when others are sharing in the group. 1 point- Student never shares his/her ideas with group, is never prepared to collaborate in respect to the classroom context, and is always disruptive and off task when others are sharing in the group. Wrap-up activity for Day #2

1. Add the necessary information in the L column from the first activity; which would be the information that the respective trainees learned during the day. 2. Write a paragraph that answers the following question: How can alternative assessment be a more accurate way to evaluate ELLs, in relation to other kinds of norms-based evaluations? 3. In groups come up with some teaching ideas that you have in relation to the material in Day #2s class? 4. Discussion of material to be covered for April 15th. 5. Evaluation of workshop Session #3- April 15th, 2007- Women in the 19th century (Chapter 6) Objective #1- Trainees will gain a deep understanding of the plight of women in the 19th century in the US, and compare/contrast this historical perspective with the role they currently play in todays society. Procedure #1- As in previous examples the search for background knowledge is extremely important when embarking upon a new theme in the classroom. Now that trainees have witnessed various strategies to access this knowledge on behalf of students, they will be put in charge of designing an activity for the rest of the group. They should keep in mind some of the characteristics from past examples, mainly using accessible language, visual aids, and quite possibly first language support in the design of the respective activity. Activity #1- Trainees in collaborative groups should devise an opening activity for theme pertaining to women that accesses prior knowledge about what they know of womens plight in the past, coupled with the perspectives they possess about their role in present society. It is important to try and access from students things they have lived in their real lives, and any prejudices they may have pertaining to women and their respective roles in society. The key here is to ask pertinent questions that will be the basis for a healthy dialogue between students and the teacher. Trainee work should also be put on display in order to reflect on and quite possibly transform their ideas from how they commenced at the beginning of the theme on women. Trainer will utilize the following rubric to evaluate the trainees in their collaborative presentations:

4- Activity grabs the attention of the students, is delivered in a comprehensible fashion linguistically, and provides solid strategies to access background knowledge of the students. 3- Activity grabs the attention of students and provides solid strategies to access background knowledge of students, but is delivered in a somewhat difficult format for the students. 2- Even though activity is interesting for students, strategies are weak as far as accessing background knowledge and the delivery is rather confusing for the students to comprehend. 1- Students show no interest and strategies are weak in all aspects. Discussion of activity- Trainees will present their activities to the entire group and a discussion will ensue focused on if the lesson (and why) would be effective or not in the ELL classroom. Procedure #2- As was mentioned earlier in relation to ELL students, it is quite possible that they will not possess the reading level to comprehend the material (rather normal) which is found in the respective textbooks that are used in the classroom. Thus, it is essential that teachers devise strategies that allow students the ability to access the information that is presented to them. Below are some excerpts from Chapter 6 (The Intimately Oppressed): Page 103- It is possible, reading standard histories, to forget half the population of the country. The explorers were men, the landholders and merchants men, the political leaders men, the military figures men. The very invisibility of women, the overlooking of women, is a sign of their submerged status. Page 103,104- Earlier societies- In America and elsewhere- in which property was held in common and families were extensive and complicated, with aunts and uncles and grandmothers and grandfathers all living together, seemed to treat women more as equals than did white societies that later overran them, bringing civilization and private property. Page 108- Nothing is more gratifying to the mind of man than power or dominion; and as I am the father of the familyI am perpetually taken up in giving out orders, in prescribing duties, in hearing parties, in administering justice, and in distributing rewards and punishments.

Page 110- While poor women, in the last years of the fighting, went to army encampments, helped, and fought, they were later represented as prostitutes, whereas Martha Washington was given a special place in history books for visiting her husband in Valley Forge. Page 110- While perhaps 90% of the white male population were literate around 1750, only 40% of the women were. Page 112- As the economy developed, men dominated as mechanics and tradesmen, and aggressiveness became more and more defined as a male trait. Page 112- It became important to develop a set of ideas, taught in church, in school, and in the family, to keep women in their place even as that place became more and more unsettled. Page 113- The womans job was to keep the home cheerful, maintain religion, be nurse, cook, cleaner, seamstress, flower arranger. A woman shouldnt read too much, and certain books should be avoided. Page 114,115- She could not vote, could not own property; when she did work, her wages were one-fourth to one-half what men earned in the same job. Women were excluded from the professions of law and medicine, from colleges, from the ministry. Page 117- Middle-class women, barred from higher education, began to monopolize the profession of primary-school teaching. Literacy among women doubled between 1780 and 1840. Women became health reformers. So, by the time a clear feminist movement emerged in the 1840s, women had become practiced organizers, agitators, speakers. Page 123- We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men and women are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness The history of mankind is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations on the part of man toward woman, having in direct object the establishment of an absolute tyranny over her. To prove this, let facts be submitted to a candid world

Page 124- Thus were women beginning to resist, in the 1830s and 1840s and 1850s, the attempt to keep them in their womens sphere. They were taking part in all sorts of movements, for prisoners, for the insane, for black slaves, and also for all women. Activity #2- Trainees will pick 3 of the excerpts from chapter 6 that are mentioned above, and utilize a graphic organizer of their choice in order to present the key concepts from the excerpts that are chosen. It must be kept in mind that it is highly probable that students wont have the language abilities to just read the excerpts, thus they need to be converted into comprehensible input through the use of big concepts, illustrations if necessary, and quite possibly first language support (not direct translation). Discussion of activity- Trainees will critique each others work in terms of how effective they believed each presentation was. What could they improve on? What changes would be made next time the lesson is taught? Procedure #3- As mentioned earlier in the background information pertaining to the US history workshop being described here, it is highly recommended that future teachers integrate other subjects (thematic units) such as language arts, science, etc into their history lessons. The benefits of this approach have already been mentioned. In the following activity trainees will be instructed on how to utilize resources that one finds outside of the classroom, in this case a woman that will be interviewed by a respective student. From experience bringing aspects of the surrounding school community into the classroom has proved to be fruitful for teachers and students alike. Activity #3- Students (obviously trainees wont have access to this resource in the workshop) will select a female member of their community and prepare an interview to find out more about this person. The student will then proceed to write a biography (between 1 and 2 pages) about this respective person (in Language Arts class the format of a biography will be discussed) that satisfies all of the criteria on the rubric that will be show below. Being that trainees wont have access to this aforementioned community member, they should prepare an interview with pertinent questions for a fictitious member of the community. This activity could also be extended in that an oral presentation could be integrated in conjunction with the written biography.

BIOGRAPHY RUBRIC 5- Student has included all components of the biography (documented interview, concept map, rough draft, peer revisions, photograph, cover page) and satisfies the 1-2 pages as stated in the project design. Students writing is well organized and grabs the attention of the reader. 4- Student has included all components of the biography (see above) and satisfies the 1-2 pages as stated in the project design. Students writing is somewhat organized and at times grabs the attention of the reader. 3- Student is missing one or some of the components of the biography (see above), but satisfies the 1-2 pages as stated in the project design. Students writing is somewhat organized and at times grabs the attention of the reader. 2- Student is missing most of the components of the biography (see above), and doesnt satisfy the 1-2 pages as stated in the project design. Students writing is lacking organization and is monotonous for the reader to read. 1- Biography is delivered past due date. Discussion of activity- Trainees will share interview questions with groups and any other teaching ideas they have pertaining to the topic of women in US history. Procedure #4- History is most certainly made every day, thus bringing current events into the classroom should be an essential component of ones practice. This bridges gaps for students in that one can make sense of the past by investigating that which is going on in the present. Trainees will be given the article Why Arent We Shocked? by New York Times columnist Bob Herbert, along with poems by the names of Woman by Andrea Townsend and Two Young Woman by Deidre Barry. These three pieces focused on women also bring the reading element into the picture, a characteristic that in reality is always a part of any history lesson. Activity #4- Trainees should dialogue in their groups about how these readings could be integrated into a history lesson pertaining to women and history. After brainstorming their ideas, they will develop a short activity based on one of the three readings. This most definitely should not be some questions that students are to answer based on one of the readings. It should

be well thought out with the goal being trying to incorporate some of the strategies they have seen up to this point in the training sessions. Getting students to voice their opinions would be a good starting point for an activity of this sort. What do you think about this material? How does this make you feel? Is it fair? What would you do if you could make change? Asking poignant questions often leads to critical dialogue in the classroom. Discussion of Activity - Trainees will critique each others lessons and offer ways they could be improved for the future. Wrap-up activity for day #3 Add the necessary information in the L column from the first activity; which would be the information that the respective teachers learned during the day. Write a paragraph that answers the following question: Why are gender issues key to the teaching of history, and why must connections to the present be part of your teaching? In groups come up with some teaching ideas that you have in relation to the material in Day #3s class? Discussion of material to be covered for April 22nd Evaluation of workshop Session #4- April 22nd, 2007- Focus on WWI (chapter 14) Objective #1- Students will gain a deep understanding of US motivations for entering WWI, while also becoming aware of US resistance to involvement in the war. Students will be expected to develop activities that access prior knowledge, design activities in conjunction with the reading, and construct assessments that are fair for ELLs. The goal at this point is to give trainees the opportunity to utilize and practice some of the strategies that were demonstrated in previous sessions. Regurgitation of information is not the focus here! Students must be involved in their learning, as this will get them interested in history. Memorization of dates and facts is not history! Procedure #1- Trainees will be presented with some key themes/concepts from chapter 14 and in turn asked to design an activity with a focus on accessing on background knowledge from students. Students should keep in mind strategies that were utilized in previous sessions and do their best to incorporate these in the respective activities that will be designed. These activities will then be presented to the group, whom will play the role of

students in a mock US history classroom. Trainees must keep in mind that its most likely that they will encounter a variety of second language levels coupled with a plethora of first languages that arent English. Thus, the input needs to be comprehensible. Some of the key concepts from chapter 14: 1. War is the health of the state 2. Socialism was growing 3. President Woodrow Wilson had promised neutrality 4. Lies 5. War orders stimulated the economy 6. Rich took direct charge of the economy 7. War for empire 8. Wealth from darker nations (Asia, Africa, South and Central America) 9. Exploitation 10.Massive effort to excite a reluctant public 11.Crime against the people of the US 12.Espionage Act of 1917 13.Shrewd public relations 14.330,000 draft evaders 15.Patriotic fervor 16.Class war 17.Anarchists Activity #1- Utilizing one of the concepts/themes above (or another one chosen by the group), trainees will design an activity with the purpose of accessing students background knowledge pertaining to chapter 14 (WWI). A suggestion would be to try and link one of them with something that is happening in present day history, for example we most certainly witness shrewd public relations when trying to gain support for the conflict in Iraq. In addition, patriotic fervor was a tactic used by the Bush Administration to feed into the emotions of Americans after the 9/11 attacks on the twin towers. Students need to make connections in order to be able to become involved in the respective activity. Finally, war is the health of the state is most certainly something that is part of our present context in as far as history goes, especially with the role that private corporations play in our lives in 2007.

Discussion of activity- Trainees will discuss the effectiveness of the activities that were presented, and proceed to look for ways to improve facets of the activity that could be altered for future success in the classroom. Procedure #2- Note the following excerpt from page 363. Du Bois pointed to the paradox of greater democracy in America alongside increased aristocracy and hatred toward darker races. He explained the paradox by the fact that the white workingman has been asked to share the spoil of exploiting chinks and niggers. Yes, the average citizen of England, France, Germany, and the United States, had a higher standard of living than before. But: Whence comes this new wealth? It comes primarily from the darker nations of the world- Asia and Africa, South and Central America, the West Indies, and the islands of the South Seas. From this excerpt it is rather obvious about what motivated the US to want to become an empire and dominate foreign markets. In reality it was the beginning of the global era of open markets and exploitation of natural resources and oppressed populations. The following activity will put into perspective how this war opened up the world for the US economy. Activity #2- This activity is called Researching our Stuff, and it is found in a great teaching resource that is highly recommended for teachers called Rethinking Globalization. Trainees will proceed to investigate the labels on their clothes to discover if they are made in countries that are primarily from the darker nations of the world- Asia and Africa, South and Central America, the West Indies, and the islands of the South Seas. Using sticky notes, students will post their results on the world map (if available) to see if patterns can be deciphered. Through this activity one will make a connection between when the US began to create its empire in and around the time of WWI, and its present context of exploiter of poorer countries with less resources. As mentioned earlier, history always needs to be brought to light in the present, and in this particular example geography (a weakness in US students) skills are also being put to work. Discussion of activity- Was this an effective strategy to demonstrate how the US has come to dominate the world economy? What would be examples of other activities that could quite possibly achieve similar results? Why is it essential that students gain a global perspective of history?

Procedure #3- History has shown over time that civil liberties in the US have been diminishing for its citizens since the WWI era (specifically the Espionage Act of 1917), and its certainly the case in the post 9/11 modern area, as the Patriot Act was put into effect to supposedly assist the War on Terror as GW Bush likes to call it. Even though the acts are quite different nature, they do possess similar characteristics that trainees should be made aware of as far as the teaching of US history goes. The trainer will compare/contrast these two acts for the trainees, whom will follow up with an activity in which they take the role of students in the classroom. Activity #3- Integrating the theatre arts can be an invaluable resource in the US history classroom, especially for ELLs with limited second language skills. In this activity trainees will choreograph some kind of play/roleplay/skit that demonstrates the quenching of civil liberties in the WWI era coupled with one that places the situation in modern times as a result of 9/11 security measures. All members of the collaborative group should have a speaking opportunity (albeit brief) in the respective performance. Trainees will assist the trainer in devising an assessment (obviously alternative in nature) that could be utilized to evaluate the students performance in conjunction with the theme. Discussion of activity- Trainees will comment on each performance and give each group feedback on their effort. Why is this a positive approach to teaching US history? Why is it especially effective for ELLs? Wrap-up activity for Day #4 Add the necessary information in the L column from the first activity; which would be the information that the respective teachers learned during the day. Write a paragraph that answers the following question: Why is critical pedagogy a necessary and effective tool in ones practice in the US history classroom? In groups come up with some teaching ideas that you have in relation to the material in Day #4s class? Discussion of material to be covered for April 29th (group projects) Evaluation of workshop

Session #5- April 29th, 2007- Focus on WWII (chapter 16) The last session will give the trainees the opportunity to demonstrate the strategies/activities/lessons/assessments they have learned from the previous four. In their collaborative groups, they will conduct a 45-minute lesson that contains the components that are found below. Groups should designate what level the lesson is designed for (early primary, late primary, middle school, etc). Trainees will be allotted 1 hour at the beginning of the session their lessons, but it will be assumed that some preparation was carried out outside of class. 1. An activity that accesses prior knowledge on behalf of their students, whom in this case will be the other trainees. 2. A lesson that incorporates a graphic organizing technique in order to convey key concepts/themes from chapter 16. 3. An alternative form of assessment that is fair for all students in the classroom regardless of second language level. 4. A rubric to accompany the assessment, which should obviously be distributed to students prior to the assessment. 5. Allow time for feedback from fellow trainees and the trainer. The trainer will offer tips/suggestions pertaining to the lesson presentations and wrap up the last session with some words about the realities of entering the classroom in US Students will also fill out an evaluation of the training session so that the trainer can reflect on his/her work over the 40 hours.