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Basic principles of steel structures

Dr. Xianzhong ZHAO x.zhao@mail.tongji.edu.cn

Lecture Questionnaire (1)


Language preferred ( C = in Chinese, E = in English)
NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 other Oral Writing on the Presentation blackboard E C&E C E C C C E E E E C E C Handout & textbook E E E C E C C Coursework & Tick the one written exam you prefer E E E E E E E

From this course you prefer to: Learn steel struc. 1 2 3 in English format

Practise English

Syllabus
Aims
To introduce procedures for designing steel members and connections.

Syllabus (total 41 courses)


; Introduction =>2 ; Steel properties =>6 ; Tension members =>3 ; Compression members (Columns) =>7 ; Bending Members (Beams) =>8 ; Beam-columns =>7 ;Connections =>8

Coursework & Assessment


;

Assignment 1 ; Assignment 2 ; Assignment 3

Attendance, activities & Coursework Experiments EPUT Final written examination

30% 10% 60%

Introduction
Outlines

what is steel structure? why choose steel structures? where & when use steel structures? main structural types state-of-the-art and prospective market design concept & rationale of steel structures

Whats steel structure?


architecture structure steel structure

Architecture

Structure

Steel structure

Whats steel structure?


definition & scope
STEEL STRUCTURE: a structure which is made from organised combination of structural STEEL members designed to carry loads and provide adequate rigidity

Steel structure

PK

RC structure

steel structure, reinforced concrete (RC) structure, concrete-filled-

steel tubular (CFT) structure, steel-RC composite structure? steel shelf steel furniture steelwork of buildings, Steel structure? Yes, but bridges and civil eng. works in this course

Whats steel structure?


definition & scope
steel structures involve sub-structure or members in a building made from structural steel

SHANGHAI STADIUM Steel roof + concrete stand

SHANGHAI GRAND THEATER Steel roof + concrete columns

Whats steel structure?


definition & scope
structural member is physically distinguishable part of structure with independent structural function, e.g. member ()element()cable() and their combination

cable

Why use steel structure?


advantages ; High strength
The high ratio of strength to weight (the strength per unit weight)

; Excellent ductility and seismic resistance


Withstand extensive deformation without failure even under high tensile stress

; Elasticity, uniformity of material


Predictability of properties, close to design assumption

; Ease of fabrication and speed of erection

high ratio of strength to weight

By M.F.Ashby

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Elasticity, ductility and uniformity of material

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Ease of fabrication and speed of erection

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Why use steel structure?


disadvantages : Susceptibility to corrosion
Maintenance costs / thin-walled structure

: Loss of strength at elevated temperature


Fireproofing costs

: Susceptibility to buckling
Slender member in compression

: Fatigue and brittle fracture

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Where & when use steel structures?


; Long-span structures ; Multi-storey & high-rise buildings ; Buildings of heavy duty plants ; Tower & mast structures ; Portal frames ; Bridges ; Infrastructures ; Deployable structures ; Generalized structures: mechanical

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Long-span structures
Airport terminals

Train stations Theatres Stadiums

Exhibition centres

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High-rise buildings
World trade centre

CCTV

Tai-bei 101 Jinmao tower

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Buildings of heavy duty plant

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Tower & Mast structures


TV Tower Eiffel Tower TV Tower

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Portal frames

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Bridges

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Infrastructures

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Agricultural buildings

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Sight-seeing

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Deployable structures

Oh, he is coming

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Generalized structures

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Main structural types


buildings and bridges ; truss structures
Bar or truss members

; frame structures
Beams and columns

; beam bridge ; truss bridge


truss members

; grids structures
latticed structure or dome

; arch ; prestressed structures

; arch bridge ; cable-stayed bridge ; suspension bridge

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Main structural types


buildings: truss structures

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Main structural types


buildings: frame structures

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Main structural types


buildings: grid /domes

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Main structural types


buildings: prestressed structures

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Main structural types


buildings: prestressed structures

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Main structural types


bridges: truss bridges

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Main structural types


bridges: arch bridges

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Main structural types


bridges: cable-stayed bridges

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Main structural types


bridge: suspension structures

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State-of-the-art & prospective market


technology & economy

; technology
Accurate and automatic fabrication

; economy
Less construction time and less structural weight

; environment
Less wet work Reuse, Reduce & Recycle / removable

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State-of-the-art & prospective


market for steel structures
2007 y > overall output of the world before 1966 2008 y > 2nd-8th output
No. 1 2
2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 Raw steel output, Mt 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 China Japan America Russia India Korea Germany Ukraine

Nations China Japan USA Russia Italy Korea Germany Ucran

Output/Mt 489.2 120.2 97.2 72.7 53.1 51.4 48.5 42.8

3 4 5 6 7 8

2~8 Sum.

485.9

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State-of-the-art & prospective


market for steel structures
Crude steel consumed kg/head
Regional Kg/head 2006 Coastal Central

Forecast average 2017 = 550kg/head

434 227 2007-2017

170

Western

Kg/head 2017 750 450 National average 2007 = 340kg/head Coastal Central

360

Western

Data: CRU, NBS, CISA

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State-of-the-art & prospective


100,000

market for steel structures


Steel
140000

50,000

Wooden R.C

Residential Housing
2004 128163

120000

100000

Steel R.C Others


0

80000
2000 80715

60000

year1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

40000

M/ton

JAPAN CHINA steel used in buildings

20000

Steel structure 2%4%


1985 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

steel structure R.C structure

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Design concept & rationale


ensure strength, stability and stiffness
Stiff Strength stability Light

All OK !

Not stiff enough (need bigger E)

Not stable enough

Not strong enough (need bigger y )

Too heavy (need lower )

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Design concept & rationale


Loads structural system erection
tio ac

Steel

metallurgy

fabrication Member + connection

Force, deformation

Strength, stability , rigidity

SR
Performance required: Safety, serviceability, durability

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Loads
action

Design concept & rationale

struc tural mode l

member connection actions

? ? ?

element restraint loading

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Design concept & rationale


member connection actions

? ? ?

element restraint loading

Analytical model

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Loads
action

Design concept & rationale

force ation m r o f de

Mechanics of materials Structural analysis Elastic mechanics Plastic mechanics

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Design concept & rationale


Loads structural system erection
tio ac

Steel

metallurgy

fabrication Member + connection

Force, deformation

Strength, stability , rigidity

SR
Performance: Safety, serviceability, durability

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Design concept & rationale


Steel Tension member Compression member Beam Beam-column connection Strength, stability , rigidity metallurgy

fabrication Member + connection

Mechanics of materials You got a high level?

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Design concept & rationale


fs
objective

SR S Sa Sn SnRn

fR

R Rn Ra

subjective

Sn Rn

fR-S

SdRd

Sn

Rn

Acceptable:
point of view of safety point of view of economy

Rd-Sd

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Design concept & rationale

DESIGN METHOD ASD SnRn/K LRFD SSnRn/R


Sa Sn Rn Ra

fd

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Design concept & rationale

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possible failure modes


; brittle / ductile fracture of steel

members or connections ; global buckling of structures/members ; local buckling ; excessive development of plastic deformation ; loss of geometry stability ; fatigue failure

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possible failure modes

brittle / ductile fracture of steel members or connections

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possible failure modes

global buckling of structures/members

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possible failure modes

local buckling

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possible failure modes

MCP-1

MPP-1

excessive development of plastic deformation

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possible failure modes


; loss of geometry stability ; fatigue failure

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possible failure modes


your task:
Prevent all these failure modes

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