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MID SEMESTER Mata Kuliah Dosen Pengampu Program Studi Semester RULES: A.

Jawablah soal berikut dengan baik dan benar berdasarkan pendapat anda sendiri! B. Boleh mengambil source dari manapun dengan catatan tidak menyalin semuanya dan mampu menjelaskannya dengan bahasa sendiri. C. Dilarang mencontek atau menjiplak jawaban teman. Jika terjadi, akan mengurangi nilai orang yang memberi dan menerima contekan. D. Boleh kerja kelompok dengan catatan jawaban tidak sama. E. Tugas ini dikerjakan di rumah dan dikumpulkan pada hari sabtu tanggal 11 Mei 2013. Tidak boleh lewat dari tanggal yang ditentukan! F. Mahasiswa dianggap hadir apabila mengumpulkan tugas dengan waktu yang sudah ditentukan. G. Jawaban bisa ditulis dengan tangan atau diketik. H. Mahasiswa dianggap hadir apabila mengumpulkan tugas pada hari yang ditentukan. : Discourse Analysis : Khidayatul Munawwaroh, S.Pd : Bahasa Inggris : VI (Enam)

Pertanyaan: 1. Bagaimana pendapatmu tentang teks (text) dan jelaskan jenis-jenis teks yang anda ketahui! 2. Jelaskan pendapat anda tentang percakapan berikut ini: A: I have a fourteen years old child B: Well, Thats all right A: I also have a dog

B: Oh, I am sorry 3. Speech act tidak pernah berdiri sendiri. Dia selalu berada didalam discourse. Jelaskan dengan memberi contoh keberadaan speech act didalam discourse. 4. Speech acts terdiri dari 3 komponen, likusioner, illokusioner dan perlokusioner. Jelaskan masing-masing komponen dengan memberikan contoh. 5. Makna bahasa jika dilihat dari berbagai segi menjadi bermacam-macam. Hal ini disebabkan bahasa itu digunakan untuk berbagai kegiatan dan keperluan dalam kehidupan bermasyarakat. Bagaimana pendapat anda tentang makna Leksikal, Gramatikal, dan Kontekstual. Tolong jelaskan dengan menggunakan pendapat sendiri dan berikan contoh masing-masing 1 buah! 6. Jelaskan keuntungan dan kelemahan dari wacana tulis (written) dan wacana lisan (spoken) 7. Interpretasi terhadap tindak bahasa (yang biasa disebut tindak tutur) yang terjadi didalam komunikasi sangat tergantung kepada konteks yang terkait dengan tindak bahasa tersebut. Disamping itu, konteks juga akan menentukan fungsi tindak bahasa. Jelaskan dan beri contoh. 8. Jelaskan dengan memberi contoh bagaimana koherensi dapat membantu kita dalam menginterpetasi isi wacana. 9. Buatlah satu contoh yang menunjukkan speaking topically and speaking on the topic. 10. Bagaimana hubungan antara masyarakat dan discourse?

(Good Luck)

1. Teks adalah satuan makna Disebut teks jika: Bermakna, Masuk akal, Dapat difaham a. Teks Lisan Percakapan Transaksional: * Percakapan yang dilakukan untuk memenuhi kebutuhan hidup, misalnya: jual-beli, meminjam sesuatu, job interview, meminta maaf, mengharap kehadiran dsb. * Berbicara seperlunya, topiknya tertentu b. Teks tulisan Short functional texts: Label, notices, pengumuman, kartu ucapan dsb. Genres: Descriptive, report, recount dsb. 2. Lack of cohesion in this text so we need to interpret it using coherence. why, because if we read from structure and lexical meaning only we dont catch the meaning of the conversation. the expression Im sorry means polite rejection not sympathy or other meaning. 3. A : Honey, phone for you B : Im in a bath A : ok Speaker B request to A for answer the phone for A, although A doesnt say that request directly with the sentence. in speec act people doesnt say what they mean and doesnt mean what they say. Therefore, we need discourse analysis to analize that words using cohesive and coherence in meaning and context. 4. Speech act example : A : I sentence you to five years imprisonment Lucation : The words that uttered Ilucation : Act to get the crime into the prison Perlucation : the effect the crime get into the jail for five years 5. Lexical meaning is the meaning of the words from dictionary

Example : go Grammatical meaning : the meaning of the words not from dictionary and they cannot stand alone in the sentences Example : is am are Kontekstual meaning : meaning of the words based on circumstances, time and place when the words are stated. Example :
For example, a contextual sentence including "consecration" might read:

"After the priest had mumbled some prayers and announced that the church's new community center was dedicated to the work of God, the consecration ceremony was complete." In that sentence, "consecration" is not only used but it is also defined by the description of what was going on -- that is, the sentence sets up the CONTEXT for the word "consecration" This makes it a contextual sentence. 6. Written teks cant be shared and can edited but spoken teks can be shared but not edited. 7. in interpret the text we really need context. for example : A : Why did you not come yesterday? B : I was sick. A : Im sorry to hear that The words Im sorry not for begging apologizing but sympathy on hearing that statement

8. A : can you go to Jakarta tomorrow ? b : My family is coming here tomorrow. This is coherence sentences because we interpret it by sense of the speaker. 9. Speaking topically : A : I dont like cat B : why?, cat is cute pet. Even that, I like dog most A : The fur is everywhere in my house Speaking on the topic A : I got A for statistic subject B : Thats great. Statistics is difficult. I always fail on it A : poor you., I think its easy. you should learn more B : Ill try 10. Situations of discursive interaction are similarly part or constitutive of society; for example, a press conference may be a typical practice of organizations and media institutions. That is, "local" and more "global" contexts are closely related, and both exercise constraints on discourse. Personal and social cognition: Language users as social actors have both personal and social cognition: personal memories, knowledge and opinions, as well as those shared with members of the group or culture as a whole. cognition influence interaction and discourse of individual members, whereas

1. shared "social representations" govern the collective actions of a group