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Distributed Generation

ECE 59500: Introduction to Smart Theory and Implementation Week 10 Lecture A

What is Distributed Generation

A Distributed Generator (DG) is defined as a small scale electric generator located next to and connected to the load being served. DG technologies yield power in capacities that range from a fraction of a kilowatt to about 100 megawatts.

DG Technologies

The Dominant Electricity Generation Model

The majority of electrical power is generated from centralized power plants which are typically combustion (coal, oil, and natural gas) or nuclear generated. Centralized power plants are often located many miles away from the load centers and require transmission lines to be built bring power to consumers. Disadvantages of centralized power plants include transmission losses, greenhouse gas emission and nuclear waste, environmental issues and power system security problems.

Centralized Generation vs. Distributed Generation

Advantages of DG
Improved efficiencies from reduced loss (conventional generation loses about 4 to 9% of electricity). Financial income from selling power back into the grid, especially during peak season. DG in the form of co-generation power plants provide both electricity and heat to customers on-site. DG technologies can provide un-interrupted service to commercial customers whose operation critically relies on electrical power. Less need for building transmission facilities Reduced carbon emission

DG Benefit Matrix

DG Usage
There is a relatively low percentage of capacity of distributed generation in comparison to the total generation capacity. Main impediments include
Capital cost Utility preference Business practice Interconnection issues

DG Interconnection to the Power Grid

Unlike central power generation plants, distributed generation such as wind, solar, stored energy resources are often connected to the grid at the sub-transmission and distribution systems levels. Development of the interconnection standards is necessary because it can help
Safeguard against safety hazards Cultivate quality design and manufacture Improve market competitiveness Accelerate interoperability and implementation Achieve reliability Enable enhanced DR systems

Adverse Impact to the Distribution Protection System

In a most radial network configuration, DG installation can cause incorrect operation of the distribution protection system (Reclosers, sectionalizers, fuses), which is coordinated through over-current relays. In the following example, traditionally for a fault on line 1, R1 will operate to clear the fault. Downstream DG2 can be feeding the fault current even if R2 operates. Coordination between relays will be more complex taking into account DG currents.
Simple distribution system With 3 DGs

Distribution system Protection Device Coordination

IEEE Standard 1547

IEEE 1547 Standard is established for interconnecting distributed generation resources with the electric power systems Scope
The standard establishes criteria and requirements for interconnection of distributed resources (DR) with electric power systems (EPS).

This (standard) document provides a uniform standard for interconnection of distributed resources with electric power systems. It provides requirements relevant to the performance, operation, testing, safety considerations, and maintenance of the interconnection.

Approved by the IEEE Standards Boards in 2003 as an American National Standard.


Illustration of DR interconnection with EPS

General Requirements of IEEE 1547 Standards (Section 4)

4.1.1 Voltage regulation
The DR shall not actively regulate the voltage at the PCC. The DR shall not cause the Area EPS service voltage at other Local EPSs to go outside the requirements of ANSI C84.1-1995, Range A.

4.1.2 Integration with Area EPS grounding

The grounding scheme of the DR interconnection shall not cause overvoltages that exceed the rating of the equipment connected to the Area EPS and shall not disrupt the coordination of the ground fault protection on the Area EPS.

4.1.3 Synchronization
The DR unit shall parallel with the Area EPS without causing a voltage fluctuation at the PCC greater than 5% of the prevailing voltage level of the Area EPS at the PCC, and meet the flicker requirements of 4.3.2.

Definitions: Distributed Resource vs. Distributed Generation

3.1.4 distributed generation (DG): Electric generation facilities connected to an Area EPS through a PCC; a subset of DR. 3.1.5 distributed resources (DR): Sources of electric power that are not directly connected to a bulk power transmission system. DR includes both generators and energy storage technologies.

Protection Co-ordination Requirements

4.1.4 Distributed resources on distribution secondary grid and spot networks
Network protectors shall not be used to separate, switch, serve as breaker failure backup or in any manner isolate a network or network primary feeder to which DR is connected from the remainder of the Area EPS, unless the protectors are rated and tested per applicable standards for such an application. Any DR installation connected to a spot network shall not cause operation or prevent reclosing of any network protectors installed on the spot network. This coordination shall be accomplished without requiring any changes to prevailing network protector clearing time practices of the Area EPS. Connection of the DR to the Area EPS is only permitted if the Area EPS network bus is already energized by more than 50% of the installed network protectors. The DR output shall not cause any cycling of network protectors. The network equipment loading and fault interrupting capacity shall not be exceeded with the addition of DR.

Anti-Islanding Requirements
4.1.5 Inadvertent energization of the Area EPS
The DR shall not energize the Area EPS when the Area EPS is de-energized.

4.2.2 Area EPS reclosing coordination

The DR shall cease to energize the Area EPS circuit to which it is connected prior to reclosure by the Area EPS.

4.4.1 Unintentional islanding

For an unintentional island in which the DR energizes a portion of the Area EPS through the PCC, the DR interconnection system shall detect the island and cease to energize the Area EPS within two seconds of the formation of an island.

Power Quality Requirements

4.3 Power quality 4.3.1 Limitation of dc injection
The DR and its interconnection system shall not inject dc current greater than 0.5% of the full rated output current at the point of DR connection.

4.3.2 Limitation of flicker induced by the DR

The DR shall not create objectionable flicker for other customers on the Area EPS.11

4.3.3 Harmonics
When the DR is serving balanced linear loads, harmonic current injection into the Area EPS at the PCC shall not exceed the limits stated below in Table 3. The harmonic current injections shall be exclusive of any harmonic currents due to harmonic voltage distortion present in the Area EPS without the DR connected.

IEEE Standard 1547 Series

The initial standards, IEEE std 1547 (2003), was approved in 2003. Since then, 8 more complementary standards expand up or clarify the initial standard.
IEEE std 1547.1 (2005): Standard for Conformance Tests Procedure for Equipment Interconnection Distribution Resources with Electric Power Systems. IEEE std 1547.2 (2008): Application Guide for IEEE 1547 Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems. IEEE std 1547.3 (2007): Guide for Monitoring Information Exchange, and Control of Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems. IEEE std 1547.4 (2011): Draft Guide for Design, Operation, and Integration of Distributed Resource Island Systems with Electric Power Systems. IEEE std 1547.5: Draft Technical Guidelines for Interconnection of Electric Power Sources Greater than 10 MVA to the Power Transmission Grid . IEEE std 1547.6 (2011): Draft Recommended Practice for Interconnecting Distributed Resources With Electric Power Systems Distribution Secondary Networks. IEEE std 1547.7: Draft Guide to Conducting Distribution Impact Studies for Distributed Resource Interconnection. IEEE std 1547.8: Recommended Practice for Establishing Methods and Procedures that Provide Supplemental Support for Implementation Strategies for Expanded use of IEEE Standard 1547.

Reading assignments ml for Introduction to Distributed Generation Impact of distributed generations on power system protection performance, Zayandehroodi, et al. IEEE 1547 2003 Interconnection Case Studies