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Additional Exercise Questions on Time Value of Money

MGTC03, Prof. Jason Z. Wei 1. Find the values for the following: a. An initial $500 compounded for 1 year at 6 percent. b. An initial $500 compounded for 2 years at 6% percent. c. The present value of $500 due in 1 year at a discount rate of 6 percent. d. The present value of $500 due in 2 years at a discount rate of 6 percent. 2. What is the monthly payment on a 5 year car loan for $14,000 at an annual interest rate of 12%? 3. Which grows to a larger future value, $1000 invested for 2 years at: a. 10 percent each year b. 5 percent the first year and 15 percent the second year or c. 15 percent the first year and 5 percent the second year? Explain your results. 4. Which grows to a larger future value: a. $4000 invested for 10 years at 5% or b. $2000 invested for 10 years at 10%. 5. Which is worth more at 10 percent, compounded annually: $1000 in hand today or $2,000 due in 5 years? 6. A paper company invests $4m to clear a tract of land and plant some young pine trees. The trees will mature in 10 years, at which time the forest will have a market value of $8m. What is the expected rate of return for the paper company's investment? 7. A 1987 advertisement in the New Yorker solicited offers on a 1967 Mercury Cougar XR7 (Motor Trend's 1967 car of the year) that had been stored undriven in a climate controlled environment for 20 years. If the original owner paid $4000 for this car in 1967, what price would he have to receive in 1987 to obtain a 10 percent annual return on his investment? 8. Vincent Van Gogh sold only one painting during his lifetime, for about $30. A sunflower still life he painted in 1888 sold for $39.85 million in 1988,, more than three times the highest price paid previously for any work of art. If this painting had been purchased for $30 in 1888 and sold in 1988 for $39.85 million, what would have been the annual rate of return? 9. In 1940, your grandmother put $1000 into a special trust to be paid to a future grandchild (you) 60 years later, in the year 2000. How much will this trust be worth in the year 2000 if it has been earning 8%? How much if it earns 12%.

10. A lottery jackpot of one million is paid out $25,000 a year for 40 years. At a 10 percent required return, what is the present value of this payoff? Assume that the first payment is paid immediately. 11. At an interest rate of 10%, what is present value of $1m to be received in: a. 10 years b. 50 years c. 100 years d. 150 years 12. You have been hired as a financial advisor to Michael Jordan. He has received two offers for playing professional basketball and wants to select the best offer, based on considerations of money only. Offer A is a $10m offer for $2m a year for 5 years. Offer B is a $11m offer of $1m a year for four years and $7m in year 5. What is your advice? (Hint: compare the present value of each contract by assuming a range of interest rate, say 8% - 14%) 13. Assume it is now January 1, 2000, and someone offers the following deal: starting from year 2000, you will be paid each year the amount of dollars equal to the year, i.e., $2000, $2001, $2002, .... until year 3000 inclusive. If payments occur at the year end and the interest rate remains at 10%, what is the PV of such a deal? What is the PV if the payments covers only the years from 2000 to 2050 inclusive? What can you conclude for the comparison? 14. When you use the effective annual yield on a semi-annual coupon bond to price the corresponding annual coupon bond, do you get the same price?

Answers to Addition Exercise Questions on Time Value of Money


MGTC03, Prof. Jason Z. Wei 1. a. a. b. c. $530 $561.80 $471.70 $445.00

2. 3.

kmonth = 0.0094888, monthly payment = $307.10 a. a. b. $1210 $1207.50 $1207.50

Generally speaking, if the average returns for different investments are the same, then the one with the smallest variation in returns has the highest total return (hence a) is better than b) or c). b) and c) are the same, because the sequence of returns do not matter. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. a. b. $6,515.58 $5,187,48

$1,241.84 r = 7.18%. $26,910 r = 15.14%. $101,257 and $897,597. $268,923.89 a. b. c. d. $385,543.29 $8,518.55 $72.57 $0.618

12. Interest rate 8.00% 9.00% 10.00% 11.00% 12.00% 13.00% 14.00% 13. PV = 2000/1.1 + 2001/1.12 + 2002 /1.13 + + 3000 /1.11001 Multiply both sides by (1.1): PV(1.1) = 2000 + 2001/1.1 + 2002/1.12 + 2003 /1.13 + + 3000 /1.11000 Subtract (1) from (2): PV(0.1) = 2000 + 1/1.1 + 1/1.12 + + 1/ 1.11000 !3000 /1.11001 Notice that the middle part of (3) is an annuity of one dollar for 1000 years. Therefore, PV(0.1) = 2000 + PVIFA10%, 1000 ! 3000 /1.11001 Therefore, PV = 2010 / (0.1) = $20,100. When the deal covers only 2000 - 2050, we only need to replace the number of periods in (4) by 50 and 51, and replace the last payment by $2050: PV(0.1) = 2000 + PVIFA10%, 50 ! 2050 /1.151 = 1994.04 Therefore, PV = 1994.04 / (0.1) = $19,940.40. The difference between the two cases is only $20,100 - $19,940.40 = $159.60. Implication: Money promised beyond 50 years is practically worthless! 14. The answer is no. For example, suppose the price for a two-year, 10% coupon (paid semiannually) bond is $965.35. Then the semi-annual yield, k can be solved from 965.35 = 50/(1+k) + 50/(1+k)2 + 50/(1+k)3 + 1050/(1+k)4 to obtain k = 0.06. Therefore the effective annual yield is, (1 + 0.06)2 - 1 = 0.1236. (4) (3) (2) (1) PV of A ($m) $7.9854 $7.7793 $7.5816 $7.3918 $7.2096 $7.0345 $6.8662 PV of B ($m) $8.0762 $7.7892 $7.5163 $7.2566 $7.0093 $6.7738 $6.5493 Choice B B A A A A A

Using this yield to price the same bond assuming the coupon is paid annually, we get 100/(1 + 0.1236) + 1100 / (1 + 0.1236)2 = 960.30, which is different from 965.35. Why? The reason lies in interest on interest. Although we are using the effective annual yield to discount the annual coupon, we can not take into account the fact that we are not earning the interest on interest when the coupons are paid semi-annually. For example, look at the first annual coupon. In the case of semi-annual payment, we get $50 every 6 months, and in the annual case, we get $100 in one year. Let k be the semi-annual yield. Then, the present value of the coupon in the first case is, 50/(1+k) + 50/(1+k)2 ; and that for the second case is 100/(1+k)2, which can be re-written as 50/(1+k)2 + 50/(1+k)2. We can easily see that the second expression is smaller, since we missed the interest on the first half of the coupon earned in the second 6-month period.