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Task 01 (P1 and P2) P 1.

1 Discuss the main provisions of legal requirements relating to construction sites to ensure compliance with health and safety legislation
Main provisions of factories Ordinance relating to Building and other construction sites. Sanitary convenience Sanitary convenience section 15 of factories Ordinance
Sufficient and suitable sanitary convenience for the persons employed in the factory shall be provided, maintained and kept clean, and effective provisions shall be made for lighting the convenience and, where persons of both sexes are or are intended to be employed.

The factories (Sanitary Convenience) Regulations, 1965


Where females are employed in any premises to which these regulations apply, there shall be at least one suitable sanitary convenience for every 25 females , and where males are employed , there shall be at least one suitable sanitary convenience (not being a convenience suitable merely as a urinal) for every 25 males: Provided that in the case of any premises where the number males employed execs 100 and sufficient urinal accommodation is also provided, it shall be sufficient urinal accommodation is also provided, it shall be sufficient if there is one such convenience for every 40 males in excess of 100 males: Provided further that m the case of any premises where the number of males employed exceeds 500 it shall be sufficient to provide one such convenience for every 60 males , if sufficient urinal accommodation is also provided. The sanitary conveniences shall be so arranged as to be conveniently accessible to the persons employed at the factory. Urinal accommodation shall be provided for the use of male workers and shall not be less than two feet in height for every 50 males: Provided that where the number of males employed exceeds 50, it shall be sufficient if there is one urinal for every 50 males up the first 500 employed, and one urinal for every hundred males in excess of 500 employed, and one urinal for every hundred males in excess of 500 males. The walls, ceilings and partitions of every convenience and urinal shall be white washed and the white washing or colour washed and the white washing or color washing shall be repeated at least once in every period of six months.

But PQR co Ltd provides:

8 toilets 5 urinals To accommodate 240 workers at once but according to the national law only 30 percentum of the workers at a time and under the sanitary convenience I mentioned toilet needs for male, Toilets 1 for 25 Female all the time 1 for 25 Males at first 100. 1for 40 Males per 100< M < 500 1for 60 Males per M > 500,

Urinals Urinals 1-Per 50 for males (M<500) Urinals 1 per 100 for males (M > 500)

In given construction, For male, First 100 => ( Next 400 => ( Next 1300 => ( So, 36 toilets for male First 500 => ( Next 1300 => ( So, 23 urinals 2 | ) ) ) ) ) for female => ( )

one toilet for female.

According to this rule ABC Company has not mentioned the correct number of toilets and urinals it needs. So, ABC Company has to construct toilets and urinals to fulfill the companys need.

The provisions of relating to safety Main provisions to prevent accident from machinery Prime movers Section 17
Every part of prime movers shall be securely fenced. Prime mover means which provides mechanical energy such as motor. Engine or other appliance and includes generators

Transmission machinery section 18


Every part of transmission machinery shall be securely fenced . Transmission machinery means belt and pulley drivers , gear drives , chain drivers , coupling clutches , shafts and keys etc.,

Other machinery 19
Every dangerous part any machinery other than prime movers and transmission machinery shall be securely fenced. E.g. Dangerous parts such as blades in dust fan

Construction and maintenance of fencing Section 21


All fencing shall be in substantial construction, and constantly maintained and kept in position while the parts required to be fenced are in motion or in use. E.g. Cleaning and lubrication

Construction and sale of new machinery Section 22


Every machinery must be made to comply with Factories Ordinance. Any person who imports, sells or lets on hire, or as agent of the importer, seller or hirer causes or procures to be imported, sold or let on hire, for use in a factory in Sri Lanka any machine intended to be driven by mechanical or electrical power which does not comply with the requirements of this section, shall be guilty of an offence and liable to a fine not exceeding fifty thousand rupees.

High - risk machinery - all with periodically testing requirements Hoist and lifts Section 27
Every hoist or lift shall be thoroughly examined by a competent person at least once in every period of twelve months. Every hoist or lift shall be thoroughly examined by a competent person at least once in every period of twelve months, and a report of the result of every such examination in such form and containing such particulars as may be prescribed shall be signed by the person making the examination and shall within fourteen days be entered in or attached to the general register.

Chain ropes and lifting tackles- Section 28


All chains, ropes or lifting tackle shall be thoroughly examined by a competent person at least once in every period of six months. The expression lifting tackle means chain slings, rope slings, rings, hooks, shackles and swivels.

Cranes and other lifting machines Section 29


Cranes and other lifting machines shall be thoroughly examined by a competent person at least Once in every period of fourteen months. The expression- lifting machine means a crane, crab, winch, pulley block, gin wheel, transporter or runway.

Steam boilers Section 34


Every steam boiler and its fittings and attachments shall be thoroughly examined by an authorized officer at least once in every period of twelve months.

Steam receivers Section 35


Every steam receiver and its fittings and attachments shall be thoroughly examined by an authorized officer at least once in every period of twenty four months.

Air receivers section 36


Every air receiver and its fittings and attachments shall be thoroughly examined by an authorized officer at least once in every period of twenty four months. This section the expression air receiver means (a) Any vessel (other than a pipe or coil, or an accessory, fitting or part of a compressor ) for containing compressed air and connected with an air compressing plant; (b) Any fixed vessel for containing compressed air or compressed exhaust gases and used for the purpose of starting an internal combustion engine; or (c) Any fixed or portable vessel (not being part of a spraying pistol) used for the purpose of spraying by means of compressed air any paint, varnish, lacquer or similar material; or (d) Any vessel in which oil liquid or similar substance is stored and from which it is forced by compressed air or by any gas:

Gas receivers section 36


Every gas receiver and its fittings and attachments shall be thoroughly examined by an authorized officer at least once in every period of twelve months. The provisions of part V with respect to special regulations for safety and health

Removal of dust or fumes Section 51


In every factory is which, in connexion with any process carried on, there is given off any dust or fume or other impurity of such a character and to such extent as to be likely to be injurious or offensive to the persons employed, or any substantial quantity of dust of any kind, all practicable measures shall be taken to protect the persons employed against inhalation of the dust or fume or other impurity and to prevent its accumulating in any workroom , and in particular, where the nature of the process makes it practicable, exhaust appliances shall be provided and maintained, as near as possible to the point of origin of the dust or fume or other impurity, so as to prevent it entering the air of any workroom.

Protection of eyes - Section 53


Where any process or operation carried on in any factory involves a special risk of injury to the eyes of persons employed in such process or operation or to the persons working close to the place where such process or operation is in progress, there shall be provided suitable eye protection for such persons.

The factories (protection of Eyes) Regulations, 1979


Effective and suitable Screens, shields, goggles of spectacles corrected if necessary for defective vision shall be provided in every factory in which my of the following processes or operations are carried on , for the protection of persons employed in, or in the immediate vicinity of , such processes or operations:(a) Dry grinding of metals or metal articles by the application of such metal or such article to a revolving wheel or disc driven by mechanical power. (b) Turning (external or internal) of non- ferrous melds, or of cast iron, or of articles of such metals or such iron and where such work is done dry, even in the case of precision work. (c) Welding or cutting of metals by means of electrical, oxy-acetylene gas or similar process. (d) The following process or operations when carried on by means of hand tools, or other portable tools that is to say, fettling of metal casting involving the removal of metal or cutting out or cutting off (not including drilling or punching back) of cold rivets or bolts from boilers or other planes or from ships, or chipping or scaling of boilers or ship plates, or breaking or dressing of stone, concrete or sling. (e) The handling of corrosive liquids. (f) Processes or operations where persons employed there in are exposed to fumes which would cause injury or discomfort to the eyes. (g) Processes where persons are employed in arc-welding oxy-acetylenes welding, for renounce work, or any other operations where eyes are exposed to glare, flicker or any radiation. (h) Any other process or operation likely to cause injury to the human eye. 5 |

Lifting excess weights Section 58


No persons shall be employed to lift, carry or move any load so heavy as to be likely to cause injury to him.

Protection of Noise - Section 58A


No person employed in any factory shall be exposed to noise above a prescribed upper limit, unless such person is provided with suitable ear defenders.

Records to be maintained in General Register Section 92


General register shall be maintained in the factory and the entries must be sent once in six months to DFIE. The records of certificates under the Factories Ordinance must be attached to the general register.

Preservation of register and records Section 93


The general register and every other register or record kept in pursuance of this Ordinance shall be preserved and shall be kept available for inspection by any Factory Inspecting Engineer or by the authorized factory doctor for at least two years, or such other period as may be prescribed for any class or description of register or record, after thedate of the last entry in the register or record.

P 1.2 Explain the legal requirements and the responsibilities for providing welfare facilities for the given construction site situation.
The provisions of part IV with respect to welfare regulationsDrinking water Section 46
There shall be provided and maintained at suitable points conveniently accessible to all persons employed an adequate supply of wholesome drinking water from a public main or from some other source approved in writing by the District Factory Inspecting Engineer for the district, such approval not to be withheld except on the ground of the unwholesomeness of the water.

The Factories (Washing facilities General) Regulations under - Section 47


There shall be provided and maintained in every factory for the use of employees adequate and suitable facilities for washing. Such facilities shall include soap, nail brushes or other suitable means of cleaning facilities for drying;such facilities shall be conveniently accessible and shall be kept in a dean condition. Where washbasins are provided every basin having a separate tap shall be not less than 20 inches in length. Such a basin shall be provided for every 20 persons employed at any one time.

Accommodation for clothing Section 48


There shall be provided and maintained for the use of employed persons adequate and suitable accommodation for clothing not worn during working hours; and such arrangements as are reasonably practicable or, when a standard is prescribed, such arrangements as are laid down thereby shall be made for drying such clothing.

Facilities for resting for female workers Section 49


There shall be provided and maintained; for the use of all female workers whose work is done standing, suitable facilities for resting sufficient to enable them to take advantage of any opportunities for resting which may occur in the course of their employment.

First aid Section 50


In the construction site, first aid facilities are not given clearly in this Construction Site. However, if I analyze the first aid box One first aid box for 150 persons Thus, . Weneed 12 boxes. And first aid box must be correctly maintained by educational person.

Information about the First aid Factory Ordinance is as given below:


(1) There shall be provided and maintained so as to be readily accessible a first-aid box or cupboard of such standard as may be prescribed, and where more than one hundred and fifty persons are employed an additional box or cupboard for every additional one hundred and fifty persons. For the purposes of this provision the number of persons employed in a factory shall be taken to be the largest number of persons employed there in at any one time, and any fraction of one hundred and fifty shall be reckoned as one hundred and fifty. Where the persons employed are employed in shifts the calculation of the number employed shall be according to the largest number at work at any one time. (2) Nothing except appliances or requisites for first-aid shall be kept in a first-aid box or cupboard. (3) Each first-aid box or cupboard shall be placed under the charge of a responsible person who shall, in the case of a factory where more than fifty persons are employed, be trained in first-aid treatment, and the person in charge shall always be readily available during working hours.

(4) A notice shall be affixed in every workroom stating the name of the person in charge of the first-aid box or cupboard provided in respect of that room.

Meal room- Section 105


The Meal rooms must have accommodated at least 30 per centum of the workers any time. In the given construction site, ( ) ABC Company must accommodate to 540 workers at once. The floor area of the meal room occupied by equipment and all facilities table and chairs or benches shall not be less than 10 square feet per person Thus, ( But given construction site has no information about meal room. Meal room shall be painted once in period of 12 months.

Information about the Meal room Factory Ordinance is as given below:


Where in a factory not less than five persons are employed, the occupier of the factory shall provide and maintain in accordance with the requirements specified, suitable adequate and separate meal rooms to be used by the workers for taking their meals. The meal rooms shall be substantial construction and readily accessible from the workrooms and the floors there of shall be constructed of material impervious to water and with readily washable surface. The meal rooms shall be such as would afford adequate protection from the weather at all times. The meal rooms shall be adequately ventilated and lighted. The meal rooms shall be furnished with sufficient number of tables and chairs or benches. The meal room shall be such as would accommodate at least 30 per centum of the workers any time. The floor area of the meal room excluding the area occupied by the equipment, fittings and facilities other than tables and chairs or benches shall not be less than 10 square feet per person to be accomplished. Every meal mom shall be constantly maintained in a clean condition. There shall be provided in every meal room adequate and suitable number of cups or drinking vessels with facilities for rinsing them except where water is delivered from an upward jet. The meal room shall be in charge of a responsible person appointed by the occupier. The walls, ceilings and partitions of every meal room shall be washed, white-washed,colour- washed or painted once in every period of 12 months.

Legal Responsibilities
In construction site situation, there are various parties involved. Especially client, contractor and consultant are the basic parties. Under the contractor various parties involved for construction and services. The normal responsibilities are as follows and can be changed according to the situations of the construction sites.

Responsibilities of client
The client is benefited ultimately from all the construction activities. Therefore the client must ensure that the main contractor comply with all applicable requirements of Factories Ordinance. If the main contractor does not comply with the requirements of Factories Ordinance then the client is responsible for compliance with the Factories Ordinance. Client shall monitor the progress and ongoing construction activities which are carried out according to the requirements of Factories Ordinance, through the consultant. Consultant shall prepare safety plan for the construction projects. Consultant shall prepare and implement a monitoring mechanism to ensure that work is carried out in compliance with the national laws. The consultant shall advice on specific work which needs to be carried out with special attention on safety. Safe work method statement will be prepared for some activities with risk assessment according to the severity.

Responsibilities of contractors
The main contractor is ultimately responsible for employees safety at the site but if your employees are on the site youre also responsible for their actions. Managing safety at the site is a responsibility that all contractors must share. A) The main contractor shall comply with all applicable sections of Factories Ordinance and he shall ensure that the other contractors also shall comply with all sections of Factories Ordinance. Identify hazards in the sites that your employees could be exposed to before they begin work. Correct the hazards if you have the ability or authority to do so. If you cant correct a hazard, notify other contractors about it immediately. Determine who has the ability or authority to correct the hazard. If the hazard is serious, remove your employees from the job if you cant protect them. Be aware, and watch for new hazards. Instruct your employees how to recognize hazards and protect themselves. If your employees create a hazard, correct it immediately All machinery must be tested and maintained to comply with Factories Ordinance. All employees shall be adequately trained to perform their task safely. Make aware employees on health and safety law in the country and importance of comply with it. Ensure that records shall be maintained according to the Factory Ordinance. Ensure that accidents, dangerous occurrences and industrial diseases shall be reported according to the Factory Ordinance. Provide sufficient budget for safe work. Appoint a competent person to look after compliance issues relating Factory Ordinance.

B) C) D) E) F) G) H)

General responsibilities of managers

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Some of the general responsibilities of managers in construction sites are follows. These responsibilities may be varied depending on the policies of construction companies.

Project directors responsibilities


Approve safety budget for various safety related work and equipment. Discuss with top management and review status of compliance with Factories Ordinance periodically. Ensure that the machinery, equipment and material will be purchased while ensuring compliance with national laws.

Project managers responsibilities


Safety budget shall be prepared to ensure safety of employees. Ensure that the construction activities are carried out according to the requirements of national laws. Ensure that the accidents, Industrial diseases and dangerous occurrences records maintained in compliance with Factories Ordinance. Provide personal protective equipments according to the needs.

Safety managers responsibility


Assess the requirement for personal protective equipments. Assess the need for training and organize training activities. Keep records on accidents, dangerous occurrences and industrial diseases. Support for preparation of safety budget. Inform accidents, dangerous occurrences and industrial diseases which are required according to the Factories Ordinance. Inspection of hazards mentioned in the Factories Ordinance and complies with requirements of Factories Ordinance.

Supply engineers responsibilities


Purchase equipment and machinery which are complied with Factories Ordinance. Purchase personal protective equipment necessary for various tasks. Purchase material which will not be hazardous to the sites employees and also in case of hazardous material necessary information shall be provided to employees. Inform site engineers about the availability of safety equipments.

Site engineers responsibilities


Identify the hazards in the sites and find out the compliance requirements related to Factories Ordinance. Ensure that all machinery tested and maintained according to the Factories Ordinance. Coordinate government authorities when compliance inspection is carried out. Provide suitable personal protective equipments. 11 |

Supervisors responsibilities
The supervisors overall safety responsibility is to identify hazards and unsafe work practices and correct them before an accident occurs. Effective Supervisors know how to motivate employees, and when discipline is necessary they know how to apply it fairly. Key supervisory responsibilities: Ensure that employees have been properly trained and can perform their assigned work tasks safety. Require employees to demonstrate the ability to perform work tasks safely before permitting them to work independently. Periodically review each employees safety performance. Ensure that employees have additional safety training or are disciplined when they dont do their jobs safely. Supervise employees when theyre receiving job safety training.

Responsibilities of employees
The employee shall not willfully interfere with or misuse any means appliance, convenience or other things. The employee shall use the means or appliance provided. The employee shall willfully and without reasonably cause do anything likely to endanger himself and others. The employees shall comply with requirements of Factories Ordinance.

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P 1.3 Evaluate the penalties for non-compliance with current health and safety legislation.
Offences, penalties and legal proceedings Offences and penalties for non-compliance section 108
In the event of any contravention, in or in connection with or in relation to a factory, of the provision of this ordinance or any regulation or order made or direction issued there under, the occupier or (if the contravention is one in respect of which the owner is by or under this ordinance made responsible) the owner of the factory shall, subject as hereinafter in this ordinance provided, be guilty of an offence. In the event of a contravention by an employed person of the provisions of part X with respect to duties of persons employed or of a contravention by any person of any regulation or order made under this ordinance which expressly imposes and duty upon him, that person shall be guilty of an offence and the occupier or owner, as the case may be, shall not be guilty of an offence in respect of that contravention unless its proved that he failed to take all reasonable steps to prevent the contravention. Where an offence under this ordinance committed by a company is proved to have been committed with the consent or connivance or, or to have been facilitated by any neglect on the part of, any director, manager, secretary or other officer of the company, he, as well as the company, shall be deemed to be guilty of the offence and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly.

Fines for offences for which no express penalty provided section 109
(1) Subject as hereinafter in this ordinance provided, any person guilty of an offence under this ordinance for which no express penalty is provided by this ordinance shall be liable (a) In the case of a first offence, to a fine not less than five thousand rupees; (b) In the case of a second offence (not being an offence in respect of a continuation of an offence referred to in subsection (2), to a fine not less than five thousand rupees but not exceeding twelve thousand five hundred rupees; (c) In the case of a third or subsequent offence (not being an offence in respect of a continuation of an offence referred to in subsection (2), to a fine exceeding twelve thousand five hundred rupees but not exceeding twenty five thousand rupees (2) Where any person convicted of an offence and punished under subsection (3) Continues the contravention in respect of which he was so convicted and punished he shall (subject to the provisions of section 110) be guilty of a further offence and liable in respect thereof to a fine not exceeding five hundred rupees for each day on which the contravention was so continued.

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Power of courts to order causes or contravention to be remedied section 110


Where the occupier or owner of a factory is convicted of an offence under this ordinance, the court may, in addition to instead of inflicting a fine, order him, within the time specified in the order, to take such steps as may be so specified remedying the matters in respect of which the contravention occurred, and may, on application enlarge the time so specified; and where such an order is made, the occupier or owner shall not be liable under this ordinance in respect of the continuation of the contravention during the time allowed by the court, but if, after the expiration of the time as originally specified or enlarged by subsequent order, the order is not complied with, the occupier or owner, as the case may be, shall be liable to a fine not exceeding five hundred rupees for each day on which the non-compliance continues.

Fines in case of death or injury section 111


If any person is killed, or dies, or suffers any bodily injury, in consequence of occupier or owner of a factory having contravened any provision of this ordinance or of any regulation or order made there under, the occupier or owner of the factory shall, without prejudice to any other penalty, to liable to a fine not exceeding one hundred thousand rupees; and subject to the provisions of subsection (4) to (9) of section 17 of the code of criminal procedure act, the wool or any part of the fine may be applied or the benefit of the injured person or his family death or injury.

Penalty of persons actually committing offence for which occupier is liable section 114
Where an act or default for which an occupier or owner is liable under this ordinance is in fact the act or default of some agent, servant, worker or other person, that agent, servant, worker or other person shall be guilty of an offence and liable to the like fine as if he were the occupier or owner, as the case may be.

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P 2.1 Analyze organizational health and safety policies and safety policies and procedural documents.
If there is a particular organization, there should be a health and safety policy which is developed by the top management of that organization. It should be included with relevant data collected from all the divisions of the organization. Organizational safety policy should show that the organization commit to improve safety and health performance. The policy should cover, management intent, responsibilities, budget (that funds are available for health and safety issues), authority, emergency procedures and requirements on all to report incidents etc. In this organizational safety policy they have committed to ensure employees and contractors health, safety and welfare. Also they take the responsibility if anyone gets affected by their activities which mean this policy provides the information about the people who are responsible for what. But they havent given facts in detail. In addition they commit that they provide and maintain safe machinery to ensure that the employees are safe by judging the risk periodically. This shows that it covers the management intent. Provide necessary information for them to work safely plus to reduce the safety issues and at the same time they are doing the adequate supervision too. But having a safety policy in an organization is not sufficient, it has to be implemented, maintained and reviewed periodically so that each and every employee should be made aware of that. Also they have quoted that the person who is responsible for this overall safety policy. This safety policy must include that they commit all these things which are mentioned below. Training is one of the main things as the employees are supposed to have knowledge about the first aid and etc. Not only that you should give publicity on available training. Collecting information about the accidents occurred and any injuries or sicknesses caused are also important. Therefore they can take actions to prevent those accidents. In addition to that promotion of consultation and participation between all employees is also be inserted in the policy. As the safety coordinator of this company I suggest to add these commitments into this company safety policy in order to reduce or prevent any hazards and to improve the safety of the employees including the other people who get affected by these activities. I am supposed to analyze the existing procedures of this ABC Company as the new appointed safety coordinator working directly under the project director. I should instruct quality assurance engineers and safety supervisors to reduce the accidents happen at the site. There are a lot of procedures arranged to improve the safety of the workforce and the other people. Since there are about 1800 workers are there at the site, safety is more important so that there are about thirty five supervisors working under the quality assurance engineer.

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Health and Safety committee


There is a safety committee at this site including managers, engineers supervisors. This is acting as the principal forum for the management. Because committee is appointed to ensure that the workforce doesnt have any problem with health issues or issues regarding to organizational policy so that the management directly consult the committee. and this any can

This committee is responsible of the development of safety policies and the procedures as they are supposed to monitor and review the health of employees. They are free to change or make new policies to the workplace, policies or work practices or suggest any proposals or procedures in order to develop the health and safety of the workforce. Also they have to promote the importance of health and safety among the workforce of the site and the management as well. Also they are responsible to monitor the safety performance of the organization and treatments of the injured employees. Also they have to help in the resolution of health and safety disputes.

First-Aid procedure
First of all the first aid must be given to the person. And then arrange the transport to accompany him to the doctor or to a hospital. Also others should ensure that he will not get any further injuries because of the transportation. Supervisors and the top management should be notified about the accident happened. The most important thing is that others should take out the injured person without disturbing the scene of accident and then accompany him to have the further medicines or checkups. But in this site first aid arrangements were not considered. So a proper training should be given to the employees about it and also to keep the records of them.

Accident informing procedure


Immediately after an accident occurs, first aid must be given. And then they should carry out the accident informing procedure. Then after that, the injured persons family should be informed. This should be done by the supervisor or the owner of the organization. There is a form which must be prepared after an accident occurs. It should be done according to the requirement of national law (the factories ordinance) so that the accidents occurred should record in general Register. This particular form must include the name of the person injured, place of work, time of the accident occurred, machinery involved, what was he doing when the accident happened, type of accident, type of injuries and etc. Also there is an analyzing method of accidents according to the sections, sex, age, time, type of injury, location of injury, type of accident, agency of accident and category of accident. In addition to that there are several ways to investigate accidents occur. After the investigations are done, the organization can take necessary steps or make new rules to reduce the accidents occur in sites. But it was revealed that the accident informing system did not continue as it was earlier. So I recommend that it should be there as it is such an important procedure to carry out. 16 |

Tag & lock procedures


Tag and lock procedures are used to control or avoid unplanned releasing of energy such as electricity used in construction work. As an example leakage of electricity or unplanned release of compressed air while opening of a valve during maintenance work can be avoid using these tags and locks. So In order to prevent any accidents, the controls that are deactivated during the site work, should be properly locked and put tags. Equipments or circuits which are activated so that the electricity can be leaked should be tagged to inform the employees. Also should be padlocked in the open positions. They must be rendered inoperative and have tags and locked padlocks attached at all the points where such equipment or circuits can be energized. If there is a place that the energy might be hazards to the employees it must be released. Also if the stored electricity acts as a hazard to employees, capacitors must be discharged and high capacitance elements must be short-circuited and grounded. This is one of the important procedures they are carrying out.

Emergency drill
This is another important procedure which instructs the employees to react in any emergency case such as a fire or any other blast. This shows what are the routes, employees should take whenever there is an issue like that. This should conduct periodically so that the employees can make sure that they are safe even in such hazards if they respond in no time.

Work permit system


Work permit is a formal written document issued by an authorized person giving the permission to carry out work. Three copies of the work permit are given and trades person must have two copies. One is with him and other one should be kept at workplace where others can see easily. Final one must be kept properly in a file. Actually this is necessary when high risks or strict control over the job performances is needed. It also will be issued when controlling energy, entering into confined places as the employees will be affected by hazardous substances. In addition to that, when working at heights, repairing any electrical systems, cleaning of vessels, excavations and hot work (tanks or vessels which may have flammable vapor), the permit should be issued. Work permit should include the following information: 17 | Hazard identification Precautions taken Prepare and signed trades person Acknowledgement signed by the authorized person Handing over specify hours limit Handing back signed by trade person

Work completion signed by the authorized person

There are many advantages of having a work permit procedure at a site where the audit can be done. And also then employees plan for safe work. Moreover it makes the trade person feel confident. There will be a step by step logical approach and clear line responsibility to the management.

2.2 Determine training needs from given risk assessments, including onsite induction training.
There are around 1800 workers at this site, under three sub-contractor levels. There are twenty engineers working in the company as project managers, design engineers, quality assurance engineers, supply engineers and site engineers. There are about thirty five supervisors also working in the company. Therefore the health and safety of the whole workforce is so important. Because the workers have to face hazards and risks often when they get into different projects. So in order to increase the safety of the employees they should have a proper training on safety so that they can ensure that the risks are low. There are mainly three types of industrial training. General Induction Site Induction Task-specific Induction

General Induction
This induction provides a basic knowledge to the employees who work in construction sites about the OSH laws, risks in the site and any other common hazards so that they can prevent those hazards.

Site Induction
This provides information of the contractors rules and procedures for the safety of the site, emergency management, the supervisory and reporting arrangements and any other issues take place in the site. Also the principal contractor must make sure that the employees have been given site specific induction for the site before he starts the construction work. Site specific induction is an introduction which makes aware the employees about the hazards and the risks they may have to face and how to minimize them. Before starting a new site, this induction should be conducted by the site management with the employee representatives. This should include about the safety rules and policies, welfare facilities, emergency procedures, how to report accidents, first aid provisions, details of the consultative process of the site. All the employees and the site visitors should attend to this site and make aware of themselves so that they can reduce the accidents occurring in the site.

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Task-specific Induction

This provides information about the risk factors and control measures relating to particular construction task. Also it depends on the activity which is done in the site. There is another type of training called competency based training which required when operating cranes, any other lifting machines, erectors and scaffoldings.

And in this site about 1800 workers are there and training is conducted first for 1000 employees. And training needs analysis must be done to all the people including the top management of the organization depending about their roles and responsibilities. Also there must be a recording system for the training and it should be maintained properly.

When analyzing the accidents that have happened at the site, there had been a total of 121 accidents and two of them were fatal. 24 serious the fatal accident has happened due to fallen from a height of 50 feet and also a worker died due to fall of crane at the site. Out of the 24 serious accidents, 14 were due to falling from height, 6 due to lifting materials and 4 due to electricity. Out of those accidents very few accidents were discussed at the safety committee and investigation records were not available for reference. Most of these serious accidents have happened due to heights at the site. As the safety coordinator of this organization I suggest that the workforce should have a proper understanding about the risks of heights. In addition to that workers should have proper equipment like the scaffoldings and they should be thoroughly tested before the workers get them to use. Many of them occurred because of the lifting machinery. I recommend that all the workers should have specific induction so that they get to know information about the risk factors and control measures relating to particular construction task. And if something goes wrong with the lifting machines it wont just harm the person who is uplifted but all the others who are working around it. So better be careful on these machines properly. When it comes to electricity, it is very dangerous unless you know how to handle it properly. To prevent any accidents site engineers should use tag and lock procedures to make them aware and display safety signs at the places where a harmful occurrence can happen due to electricity. I recommend that the employees should be given a proper knowledge about the first aid procedure. Because first aid is important as it would help to minimize the injury or the risk of a person who got injured. Sub-contractors are responsible for this procedure first aid. Even the emergency drills are supposed to be a procedure of this organization even though it did not last for a long time.

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Further I suggest a session where the workers would be taught of properly using the several personal protective equipment (PPE) used for different activities at the site to again minimize risks, injuries and serious accidents.

Conclusion
According to the inspections or the analysis done, there are several things happening at the site which makes minimize the safety of the employees. There are no records of health and safety inspections. Emergency drills were conducted but only in the beginning. Accident informing system is not available at the site. Risk assessments were available but only for some activities. And first aid arrangements were ignored by the sub-contractors and the employees have not trained properly because of that. Accidents wererecorded while sending the injured persons to a doctor or to a hospital. In addition to that work permit systems, tag and lock procedures were maintained properly. Moreover there have been some serious accidents at the site due to heights. So I would like to give some recommends so that the site can improve the safety and health of the site.

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Reference:
Lectures notes www.labouurdept.gov.lk

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