Anda di halaman 1dari 49

Journal of Archaeological Research, Vol. 7, No.

1, 1999

Recent Research in Paleoethnobotany


Christine A. Hastorf1

This article discusses paleoethnobotanical research and results presented in the recent literature. Although archaeobotany is a fairly recent addition to the study of the past, it now encompasses a diverse range of techniques, analyses, and new results. Issues that are prominent in this archaeological subdiscipline include the origins of agriculture, resource use, environmental reconstruction, anthropogenic environmental change, political-economic change, plant cultivation and crop production, plant processing, consumption (diet), and site deposition. Some of the plant identification methods for macrobotanical remains include morphology using light microscopes, histology with the scanning electron microscope, and statistics. The study of microbotanical remains has expanded greatly and now includes pollen, phytolith, chemical, and molecular analyses. KEY WORDS: archaeology; plants; archaeobotany; paleoethnobotany.

INTRODUCTION The archaeological subdiscipline of paleoethnobotany has expanded greatly during the last 20 years. First practiced in Europe by botanists such as Heer, who looked at plants from archaeological Swiss lake-dwelling sites in the 1850s, it was truly launched as a modern research program in North America by Volney Jones in 1941. In the New World the discipline is usually termed "paleoethnobotany" and is defined as "the analysis and interpretation of archaeobotanical remains to provide information on the interactions of human populations and plants" (Popper and Hastorf, 1988, p. 2). This approach to plant-human interrelationships adds a dynamic aspect to the study of ecological and anthropological questions. Many active scholars in
1

Department of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720.


55
1059-0161/99/0300-0055$16.00 C 1999 Plenum Publishing Corporation

56

Hastorf

Europe have the same perspective (Hillman and Davies, 1990; Miller, 1995; van Zeist et al., 1991, p. vii), but they use the term "archaeobotany." This difference in names causes some confusion, because in the New World archaeobotany refers the specific processing and identification of plant materials rather than the interpretation of the results. Plants are essential to human existence. Until the last few hundred years of human history, most things that humans dealt with came from either plants or animals. Common daily tasks such as getting food, food preparation, cooking, eating, ritual, shelter construction, and tool use primarily were accomplished using plant matter. Plants were charged with symbolic importance that colored every human interaction with them, adding to their technical and biological importance. Thus plants also are important to archaeologists. But it is not easy to reconstruct and understand the use and meaning of each plant in the past. Whether we focus on the more commonly uncovered charred, waterlogged, and desiccated macroremains or pollen, phytoliths, and other molecular microremains, we obtain only a partial view of the vast universe of past human-plant interactions. Radically diverse preservation conditions and the fact that most plant matter observed on sites is commonly a reflection of mistakes and residues rather than initial acts of usage continue to challenge this subdiscipline. A search of the archaeological journals of 20 years ago reveals that archaeobotanical studies were less common than analyses of animal and human bones. But this pattern is changing as collecting and processing techniques, analytical methods, and interpretations are increasingly implemented, codified, and published. With systematic recovery techniques used at most excavations, we now are seeing a fuller picture of past lifeways and long-term human impacts on the environment. In the last 10 years or so many fine examples of paleoethnobotanical research and archaeobotanical studies that report on food, foraging, crops, agriculture, and vegetation have been published (Ford, 1985; Greig, 1989; Harris and Hillman, 1989; Hastorf and Popper, 1988; Miller and Gleason, 1994; Neusius, 1986; Pearsall, 1989; Piperno, 1988; Renfrew, 1991; Scarry, 1993; Smith, 1992, 1995; Sobolik, 1994; van Zeist and Casparie, 1984; van Zeist et al., 1991; Zohary and Hopf, 1993). There also are some bibliographic articles such as Bonavia and Kaplan (1990) and the annual section in Journal of Ethnobiology that reports on recent dissertations of interest to paleoethnobotanists. The journal Vegetation History and Archaeobotany has been in print since 1991. Equally influential in paleoethnobotanical expansion is the regular inclusion of plant analysis in contract archaeology worldwide. This research has contributed substantially to data as well as methodology, although it has been harder to learn about these results due to different strategies of dissemination.

Recent Research in Paleoethnobotany

57

Why was this subdiscipline peripheral in field archaeology for so long? Part of the reason is the specialized training that archaeobotanists must have in addition to archaeology, although such detailed training is increasingly essential in all subfields of archaeology. In part, I believe that the slowness of regular incorporation also is due to the less visible nature of charred plant remains on sites compared to bones, ceramics, or lithics. Excavators normally cannot see most plant remains with the naked eye and thus cannot use them in their on-site contextual interpretations. It is often many months later that the botanical data enters the discussion, and usually well after the cultural contexts are established and interpretations have been made. This position of archaeobotany in much of archaeology's history perhaps also occurred because of the implicit view that plants were lowly items, interacting with human society primarily in the household spheres of hearth, food processing, fuel gathering, cooking, and eating. These tasks are commonly women's domains. Such household aspects of life perhaps were not thought to be important avenues of study when big questions could be addressed, such as the origins of the state or the rise of complexity. It is as if plants did not participate in or reflect these larger changes. Only recently have state-level questions been addressed with botanical data. On the other hand, the origins of agriculture and environmental reconstruction are archaeological questions that draw regularly on botanical information. Even in models about the onset of agriculture Watson and Kennedy (1991) have pointed out how it is implied that men initiated the process. Archaeobotany also is very labor intensive, so that plant analysis is costly. As Gero (1985) has noted, female archaeologists have tended to be the detailed, small item, laboratory/museum analysts, not valued as highly as field workers in the greater discipline. These two effects have perhaps created a sense of lesser impact in archaeology. Yet despite these images, paleoethnobotany is definitely productive and providing substantive input into broad archaeological issues. This overview highlights some of the important directions in the subdiscipline between 1988 and 1995. I have focused this literature search on issues raised in major books and international journals. The most regularly presented results are the macroremains of charred plants. Pollen is important, of course, but it tends to be used in the examination of paleoecological and off-site environmental questions (Bottema, 1995; Edwards, 1991b), although on-site examples exist (Tipping, 1994). There is an increasing number of exciting microbotanical techniques in the literature, including the investigation of mineralized plants (Scott, 1989), phytoliths (Pearsall and Piperno, 1993; Rapp and Mulholland, 1992), isozymes (Doebley, 1990; Quiros et al., 1990), DNA (Brown et al., 1993; Rollo et al., 1991), chemical

58

Hastorf

analyses (Evershed, 1993; Hillman et al., 1993), plant isotopes (Hastorf and DeNiro, 1985), and coprolites (Holden, 1991; Reinhard et al., 1991). These diverse techniques are being applied more often and increasingly help contribute to our knowledge of past human lifeways.

METHODS

One of the most important domains in a discipline's maturation is the development and implementation of effective field and laboratory methods. Macrobotanical remains are investigated primarily by morphology and histology. Studying morphology with a light microscope is by far the most common identification method. Microbotanical remains must always be analyzed using more high-powered microscopes, chemically, or molecularly. New methods range from processing technologies such as Gumerman and Umemoto's (1987) siphoning for submerged plant parts in the flotation machine, to Wagner's (1988) systematic testing of recovery rates of various flotation machines. Pearsall's (1989) Paleoethnobotany has become a very important text for methodology. The book reviews basic excavation and soil collection methods all the way through processing of pollen and phytolith extracts. It offers more detail than introductory archaeology textbooks and is in the process of being updated for a second edition.
Systematic Sample Collection

The systematic collection of samples of sufficient size is an important part of good analysis. Brady (1989) points out the need for diligence in collection methods in his discussion of the importance of systematic flotation for wood analysis. While paleoethnobotanists are committed to collecting regular and systematic soil samples from every excavation unit for flotation, there is still debate as to whether or not the collected soil sample size should vary. Some choose to vary the size based on the density and/or amount of charred or desiccated material coming out of any one unit (G. Jones, 1991). Others prefer a standard size of collected soil sample (Lennstrom and Hastorf, 1992). Some paleoethnobotanists collect varying-sized samples, with at least 500 specimens retrieved per sample. Others emphasize collecting a standard soil size that will have 500 specimens on average. If one wants to complete statistical analysis (e.g., ubiquity analysis or relative percentages), it is important to use standard-sized collections.

Recent Research in Paleoethnobotany

59

Ubiquity analysis, also called presence or percentage presence analysis, quantifies the botanical presence and absence of each taxon from within a set of proveniences. It tallies the number of the samples (percentage) within a soil-sample population that contains a particular taxon. More or less equivalent sample sizes are required for this analysis. Flexible-size collection procedures tend to require more on-site management to direct how much soil must be collected in each sample. Such strategies work best if the excavation is small, the flotation setup is on-site, and the flotation team keeps up with the excavation speed. Standard-size flotation sampling allows for more flexibility in flotation location and time, as well as comparability between samples. A standard soil-collection size allows the soil samples to be floated after the excavations are completed or at some distance away from the site or sites. Many choose a sampling strategy with the understanding that the larger any one sample is, the greater the chance is to collect rare taxa. The excavation team must decide which of these procedures is most suitable and effective before the project begins. Further sampling decisions also occur in the laboratory. Van der Veen (1984, 1991) has discussed what can be done in the laboratory to minimize time in analysis while maintaining sufficient material for adequate results. She suggests, as does Pearsall (1989), that one can speed identification by subsampling the floated matrix while maintaining the minimum counts needed for statistics. This procedure is feasible and necessary with some samples, but it does mean that the samples within a population will not always be comparable in every type of analysis, especially for rare species. Further stress on standardization is discussed by Leonard (1989). He statistically reanalyzed a published botanical assemblage and discovered that the shifts that had been attributed to economic resource specialization were in fact an artifact of the different numbers of flotation samples collected and analyzed in the excavated provenience clusters. Thus the number of samples per analyzed unit also must be standardized for certain computations. Both replicability and comparability between contexts and sites are important goals. Comparability can be assured only if soil samples are regularly collected. It is the case occasionally that archaeologists want to compare specific locations on a site, especially those next to each other, often well after the excavation is completed. Such comparisons can be accomplished only if blanket sampling has occurred during the excavation (Lennstrom and Hastorf, 1995; Pearsall, 1989).

60

Hastorf

Taphonomy

The methodological gap between the excavated macroremains and interpretation is bridged by the complex issue of differential preservation. As one of the most difficult aspects of paleoethnobotany, taphonomy has received some discussion in the literature, but much remains to be addressed. The study of the affects of formation processes on plants unearthed in archaeological sites involves both the C and N transforms in Schiffer's (1987) formation-process terminology. Stages of preservation, amount of charring, erosion, decomposition, and postdepositional disturbance all are relevant concerns. We need to study the actions and selective destruction that occurred between what was deposited by humans and what we dig up: the death assemblage. The most frequently studied taphonomic impact is charring. Over the years, we have learned that individual taxa must be investigated systematically to determine what affect the type and duration of heat has had on morphology and preservation. Increasing sophistication is seen in the studies of Boardman and Jones (1990) and Hubbard and al Azm (1990) on distortions in Old World cereal grains. The Hubbard and al Azm study presents a systematic, descriptive scale based on time and temperature of heat exposure. This study was then amplified by Boardman and Jones. Another example that details charring effects was completed on grape seeds by Smith and Jones (1990). In this taxon, small changes, perhaps due to charring, determine whether the seed is classified as domestic or wild. Mclaren and Hubbard (1990) report on part of their larger ongoing study of European crop-charring conditions. Kislev and Rosenzweig (1991) have experimented with the charring conditions of legumes, a taxon for which it is very difficult to reconstruct past preservation situations. Goette et al. (1994) also completed a descriptive study of charring conditions for maize. All of these studies are working toward the determinination of the charring conditions most similar to what is found in archaeological samples. Eventually the aim is to provide concrete links between processing and burning acts and the preservation conditions we find in the archaeological record. In general, these studies have found that the most likely archaeological conditions are low heating temperatures applied for a long time, as if the crops were buried in the soil near a hearth in a reducing atmosphere. Such determinations can provide a behavioral link for the plant death assemblage at the time of use and deposition. A second taphonomic approach is to reconstruct depositional histories. This is accomplished by investigating the assemblage contents and associating these with depositional activities, linking statics to dynamics. This type

Recent Research in Paleoethnobotany

61

of study is exemplified in Kreuz (1990), where she explicitly graphs a range of pit deposition patterns, linking them to the likely activities that formed the deposits. Derived from a theoretical model of depositional activities, this paper associates plant distributions and densities to possible activities. Lennstrom and Hastorf (1995) also explicitly deal with understanding the history of assemblage contents by comparing specific contexts with those that adjoin them. Additional taphonomic understanding undoubtedly will be gained through micromorphological analysis.

Plant Identification
Plant identification continues as an important area of archaeobotanical methodology. I cannot begin to mention all of the references on this topic; I discuss a few that are illustrative.

Macroremains
Morphological identification continues to progress on a range of taxa. Individual plant taxa, their identifications, and uses from around the world are regularly presented in paleoethnobotanical journals, especially Economic Botany, Journal of Ethnobiology, and Vegetation History and Archaeobotany. A particularly good example of ethnographic plant studies helpful to archaeology is Wendy Beck's (1992) study of the collected plant, Cycas, in aboriginal life in Australia. In her article she presents the ecology of the plant, its recorded uses, as well as a listing of all archaeological finds in Australia. This information provides a guide to each plant's potential use in the past. Damp and Pearsall (1994) present a New World archaeological example of plant identification for early cotton in Ecuador. One breakthrough in archaeobotany during the past 7 years has been the work of Jon Hather (1991, 1994) and his systematic histological research on soft plant tissues. Hather has the difficult task of identifying the internal cellular structures of subsurface plant tissues, including tubers, rhizomes, and conns. This cellular-level histology includes the study of microscopic plant fiber anatomy (Korber-Grohne, 1988) of parenchymous tissue, common within all storage tubers (Hather, 1992a, 1993, 1994; Moffett, 1991). Although such studies involve extremely painstaking SEM work, Hather has identified a series of parenchymous charred samples from the Near East, Europe, and Polynesia, expanding our interpretations of early food use and agriculture in those areas. This type of detailed anatomical study will become increasingly important over the coming years.

62

Hastorf

Wood identification provides valuable cultural and environmental information. The procedural article on wood identification by Boyd (1988) is a good example. A very helpful regional example is the Gymnosperm key to American southwestern wood taxa by Minnis (1987). Wood identification can address questions of vegetation use, fuel choice, and wood and woodland management (February, 1992; Hastorf and Johannessen, 1991; Kreuz, 1991; Miller, 1990; Noshiro et al., 1992; Shackelton and Pruess, 1992; Smart and Hoffman, 1988). Ecological work in conjunction with wood identification can identify past forest disturbance and use (e.g., Morrison, 1994). Historical documents and drawings also can aid in our knowledge of the utility and worth of plants and their useful substances (Munson, 1989). Another type of report concerns rare taxa and/or early finds, such as the works of Ugent et al. (1982, 1984) that identify tubers in early Peruvian coastal sites. Although these dried tubers occur only under unique environmental conditions, they begin to fill in the temporal and spatial picture on plant evolution, trade, and human-plant interactions. Statistics continue to be useful in identifying domesticates when the wild specimens are closely related morphologically. Detailed attribute measurements are made on plant parts, and these measurements, rather than the plant counts, are investigated statistically. An important macrobotanical example of this is Decker and Newsom (1988), who applied statistics to the very early domesticate in Florida, Cucurbita pepo, to determine if they had found a wild or a domesticated specimen. Powers-Jones and Padmore (1993) completed a similar statistical analysis of opal phytoliths.

Mircroremains
There is a wide array of chemical and molecular techniques that are beginning to be applied to archaeobotanical data. A brief summary of many of these techniques is provided in Thomas' (1993) introductory article to the World Archaeology volume on scientific techniques in archaeology. In addition to the microscopic work with phytoliths and pollen, some of these techniques include chemistry, X-ray fluorescence, paleogenetics, isozyme starch and protein electrophoresis, gas (and other) chromatography/mass spectroscopy, and electron spin resonance. Starch grain analysis also is providing results and gaining more attention (Cortella and Pochetten, 1994). In his succinct overview on the state of archaeological palynology and phytolith research, Bryant (1993) notes that archaeological palynology began in the 1920s, whereas archaeological phytolith work began only in the 1980s. Over this time, pollen has blossomed into a sophisticated tool for vegetation and climatic reconstruction as well as for providing information

Recent Research In Paleoethnobotany

63

about local plant use in archaeology (Bottema, 1995; Edwards, 1991b; Tipping, 1994). Pollen becomes especially important in conjunction with macrobotanical remains; the two data sets together present a more complete picture of past environments (Bush, 1988; Hall, 1988; Piperno et al., 1991; Schoenwetter, 1987; Sergerstrom, 1991). For example, Sergerstrom's Swedish example demonstrates that pollen extracted from soils trace agricultural practices in arable lands over 1000 years. Suzanne Fish (1994) uses palynological methods to show how different data sets should be computed and applied to reconstruct past field use. Warnock and Reinhard (1992) present a new methodology for extracting pollen as well as parasite eggs to gain a clearer picture of past soils and their use. There also are examples of pollen and phytolith studies combined on the same project, such as Cummings' work (1992). One very traditional and important application of pollen is reconstructing agricultural field composition and, thus, agricultural production (Morrison, 1995). Although a younger subdisipline within paleoethnobotany, phytolith studies have become increasingly active and important, as seen in Piperno's (1988), Pearsall and Piperno's (1993), and Rapp and Mulholland's (1992) textbooks on this subject (see also Bozarth, 1987, 1990; Mulholland, 1988; Piperno, 1991). There are papers and reports throughout the literature on phytolith identification of grasses, beans, cucurbits, etc. (e.g., Russ and Rovner, 1989), and on early evidence of maize in areas where macroremains are not commonly recovered (Pearsall, 1990, 1994; Piperno, 1990, 1991; Piperno et al., 1991). We also have some intriguing new evidence for dry-environment irrigation from phytolith evidence (Rosen, 1994). Phytolith studies have begun to provide major insights into changing ecological relationships (Donahue and Dinan, 1993), as well as identifying anthropogenic indicators (Dinan and Rowlett, 1993). Such research is initiated by identifying shifts in plant types (not necessarily specific species) that reflect localized human disturbance. Through the creation of many type collections, these scientists have made headway in identifying plants in environments where this was not possible before. New methodologies are being developed continually, as in Fujiwara's (1993) identifications of phytolith taxa extracted from ceramic temper and or in the dating of phytoliths using thermoluminescence (Rowlett and Pearsall, 1993). Piperno (1993) has a particularly cogent example of making visible the invisible, by using pollen and phytoliths together to independently substantiate human impact on past environments in the moist tropics. She notes the importance of what she calls the silent taxa [that Hillman (1989) and Hillman et al. (1993) also discuss as missing foods]taxa not represented in most botanical data sets. This is a problem for whole categories of plants, like tuberous plants that do not preserve because they are too soft, or tree

64

Hastorf

taxa that do not have a pollen rain and therefore do not exist in the archaeological record. Some of these invisible taxa have preserved phytoliths and thus can be registered. Phytoliths add to the other data sets to create a more complete picture of past plants in a region. Although identifying diatoms has traditionally been a paleoclimatic procedure, their use in the study of past environmental reconstruction and human impact is valuable. Diatoms are single-celled algae that reside in all bodies of water on earth. They have a siliceous skeleton that, like phytoliths, preserves in most soils. They are sensitive to water and soil conditions within lakes and thus can aid research in any temperate region. The review article by Battarbee (1988) will help the uninitiated discover their potential. Pearsall (1994) includes the presence of diatoms in her discussion of New World tropics phytoliths. Genetic research also has joined the search for plant identification and evolution. The first archaeological research on human DNA (Paabo, 1985, 1993) and on seed RNA (Rollo, 1985) was published in 1985. Once the potential of such research was established, scientists began looking at very old plant and animal DNA, from as far back as the Miocene (Golenberg et al., 1990), including extinct plants (Poinar et al., 1993) and animals from museum collections (e.g., Handt et al., 1994). Such genetic research could only begin after the amplification process of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed. In essence, this procedure allows for small, broken pieces of DNA to be duplicated, thus gaining more visibility (Rollo et al., 1988). Yet there are still many complications to be solved. A most important problem is controlling against contamination of what is being duplicated and studied, especially from introduced fungi and molds. A second problem is that many analyses are required to produce enough of a plant or animal genome to be able to complete both genetic and cultural research. Despite these drawbacks, the potential for archaeology is exciting. Ultimately, this genetic procedure should be able to trace domestication sequences, plant dispersals, and speciation and relatedness of varieties within taxa. These data will provide an increased ability to discuss archaeological trade. The first archaeological plant studies are focusing on major crops: wheat, barley, and maize (Allaby et al., 1994; Brown and Brown, 1992; Brown et al., 1993; Goloubinoff et al., 1993, 1994; Rollo et al., 1988, 1991; Thuesen, 1995). Electrophoresis (SDS/PAGE) and isoelectric focusing of proteins in common beans and potatoes are allowing researchers to learn about the varietal ancestry of these important crop plants, as well as to gain a greater understanding of their domestication loci and the prehistoric movement of early domesticates (Gepts et al., 1986; Quiros et al., 1990). Using related

Recent Research in Paleoethnobotany

65

approaches, exciting new and controversial evidence for the origins of maize in the Rio Balsas area of Mexico has been put forward through the use of isozyme analysis of maize (Benz, 1994; Benz and Iltis, 1990, 1992; Doebley, 1990, 1994). An archaeological example of this application is seen in an article by Riley et al. (1990), who use morphology and isozyme data to follow early maize evidence in eastern North America. Using maize morphology they illustrate how difficult it is to trace archaeological movements of the crop. They build on Doebley's maize isozyme work and discuss the continuing issue of entry into eastern North America either through the American southwest or via the Caribbean and Florida. Smith (1989) questions some of the earlier models of domesticate migration applying the allozyme research Decker-Walters et al. (1993; Decker and Wilson, 1987). They suggest independent squash domestication in eastern North America. Encrustations, resins, glues, and amorphous substances have been under investigation now for several decades using chemical analysis in addition to the extraction of pollen, phytoliths, and starch grains. Mclaren has applied a range of chemical analyses to identify charred matter successfully (1995). Lipid analysis is the most common and important chemical to be pursued, allowing us to learn about vessel contents and therefore their uses (Evershed, 1993; Evershed et al., 1990; Hill and Evans, 1989; Rottlander, 1990). Lipids are midsize molecules that are diagnostic and preserve better than DNA. They can even survive some charring. Being small, they seep into the pores of ceramics and other spaces, even into lithic tool crevices. Diagnostic "signatures" of steroids and lipids now becoming available will allow many archaeologists a chance to identify ceramic uses more specifically. The edited volume from a Society for Scientific Archaeology symposium on material analysis of organic contents by Biers and McGovern (1990) provides useful examples of chemical analyses. These analyses include gas chromatography, isotopic analysis, and pine-pitch analysis. Infrared spectroscopy helps identify less well-preserved plant fragments (Badler et al., 1990; Letts et al., 1994). Spectra signatures of taxa are created on individual plant specimens or extracted chemicals, as in the case of tartaric acid in grape wine. In theory, such a procedure works by comparing the spectrum of the archaeological unknown substance to a range of spectra from known species. Once a large type collection of spectra is created, there will be possibilities to identify archaeological plant parts and organic deposits with more accuracy. Research on grapes, rye, and maize has launched this technique.

66

Hastorf

ORIGINS OF AGRICULTURE

One of the major topics that continues to dominate archaeology and paleoethnobotany is the origins of agriculture, in terms of both primary and secondary centers. Pursuit of this subject continues to lead to new discoveries, dates, and plant identifications. The most comprehensive book on this subject is Harris and Hillman's Foraging and Farming, the Evolution of Plant Exploitation (1989). Comprising 45 chapters, it is based on a symposium at the 1986 World Archaeological Congress, along with many added papers. Besides spanning a wide range of regions, authors, and crops from across the world, it includes classic as well as new views about the onset of agriculture, refreshingly including nonNear Eastern examples. For example, a paper by Timothy Johns (1989) on the chemical characteristics of root and tuber plants discusses the idea that flavor selection played a part in the domestication of specific crop varieties. The papers in Foraging and Farming that review crop and agricultural systems tend to be thorough, providing up to date syntheses. There is a long section on nonagrarian plant exploitation with detailed ethnographic information on collecting procedures. This section of the book focuses on Australia and Asia and lets us begin to see foraging diversity and similarity in different landscapes and cultures. A large ethnographic section on the impact of the shift to farming helps us gain a better sense of how the transition to domestication differed throughout the world. Another edited book on the origins of agriculture is Cowan and Watson (1992), based on a 1985 AAAS conference. These 10 papers span the world including East Asia (Crawford, 1992a), the Near East (Miller, 1992), Africa (Harlan, 1992), Europe (Dennell, 1992), North America (Minnis, 1992; Smith, 1992), Mesoamerica (McClung de Tapia, 1992), and South America (Pearsall, 1992). Introductory and summary chapters by the editors describe the basic models for domestication as well as the problems inherent in such models. The Soils and Early Agriculture volume in the World Archaeology series, edited by Thomas (1990), provides further examples that focus on the interrelationships of people's actions, soils, landscape, and plants, with some helpful papers on phytosociology. Gebauer and Price (1992; as well as Price and Gebauer, 1995) have edited two volumes on the onset of agriculture that span the world as well, with some diverse and innovative views. Bruce Smith (1995) also has written a clear, well-illustrated, synthetic book on the origins of agriculture worldwide. Zohary and Hopf (1993) describe Old World domesticates from West Asia to Egypt. This book systematically covers the major crop families, discussing the plants' anatomy, ancestry, and new archaeological evidence. Early agricultural material also is presented in the 1992 festschrift for van

Recent Research in Paleoethnobotany

67

Zeist published in the journal Review of Paleoethnobotany and Palynology (Pals, 1992) and by Renfrew (1991). In both volumes we see Old Worldbased papers providing new evidence for early plant use. Of specific note also on Near Eastern early agriculture are the provocative papers by Hillman and Davies (1990, 1993). Based on years of field experiments reproducing the morphological change that is visible in Neolithic cereals, they deduce that such a change could have occurred in a very short time, even in as little as 30 years! The morphological change of cereal grains and therefore domestication might have been due to a change in harvesting techniques, from beating the seeds off to cutting the stalks. Such a model further suggests that intensive harvesting could have started earlier and gone on for longer than has previously been considered. Intellectually along the same lines are the papers by Blumler and Byrne (1991) and Blumler (1992, 1994), focusing on domestication from a more geographical, human-plant behavioral orientation. In the Near East, refinement of interpretation is based on new data with a focus on individual plants and environmental change (e.g., Bar-Yosef and Belfer-Cohen, 1992; Bar-Yosef and Valla, 1990; Kislev, 1989; Kislev and Bar-Yosef, 1988; Liphschitz et al., 1991; McCorriston, 1992; McCorriston and Hole, 1991; Moore and Hillman, 1992; van Zeist, 1988; Wright, 1993). What we are beginning to see from the botanical material is that the plant assemblages that were the focus of intensive harvesting in the Levant included different plantsemmer wheat and barleyfrom those harvested to the north in the Euphrates-southeastern Turkish regionrye, einkorn wheat, and barley. These are the two areas where the Mesolithic and the earliest Neolithic plant material has been a focus of intense investigation (Bar-Yosef and Belfer-Cohen, 1989; Edwards, 1989; Henry, 1984; Hillman 1989; Hillman et al., 1989; Kislev and Bar-Yosef, 1988; Moore and Hillman, 1992). There seems to be a debate over the role of these two regions in staple plant domestication. McCorriston and Hole (1991; Smith 1995) have put forward a Levant-centered model of domestication based on climate change in the Jordan Valley, leading to increased seasonality that focused activities towards single domestication events. However, to the north there also is evidence for a contemporaneous climate change in the steppe and nearby foothills of the Euphrates area. With this change, a wide variety of ultimately domesticated species migrated into the region and thus also created conditions for increased collection and domestication there as well (Moore and Hillman, 1992). The climate did change quite quickly during the Younger Dryas (increased seasonality), which would have shifted the location of wild cereal steppe, in association with oak forests (Moore and Hillman, 1992; Wright, 1993). The reactions of plants to human cultivation and

68

Hastorf

impact are diverse. Some plants change morphologically and show evidence of domestication; some do not respond well to human cultivation and remain "wild." The above named cereals, however, seem to have been responsive to increased human interaction. At this stage in the research, some of the earliest domestic cereals are being found in the Levant, as are the earliest olives, legumes, and acorns (oak). The Euphrates region had a different climatic and forest-steppe regime than it does today, making it the home of different cereal domestication at about the same time. These regions now offer us a view of two major cultural and economic trajectories that can been studied in new ways. Of interest, too, is the increasing evidence for secondary agricultural dynamics and spread. In some places evidence of agriculture is being found earlier than previously thought, in others it is later. One cogent example from Japan illustrates the ongoing work, where the entry and spread of millet and rice are found at Jomon sites that previously were labeled as nonfarming, "forager" sites (Crawford, 1992b; Crawford and Takamiya, 1990; Crawford and Yoshizaki, 1987; D'Andrea, 1995a, b; D'Andrea et al., 1995). Large storage areas and macrobotanical remains of crops not only are present much earlier than previously thought, but are found at sites that are part of a complex foraging culture. In the New World, we begin with Keegan's important volume on horticulture and early agriculture in eastern North America (1987). This volume presents a new and substantial range of information that allows us to see long, gradual indigenous agricultural developments in that region. In part, this has been advanced by systematic work, but also by applying new technologies to previously collected plants. Bruce Smith, Gayle Fritz, and others have published a series of articles on Chenopodium and Amaranthus in the eastern United States (Fritz, 1984; Fritz and Smith, 1988; Gremillion, 1993a; Smith, 1987; Smith and Cowan, 1987) in which they have found early and indigenous domestication of those crops by measuring the thickness of the seed's testa, making eastern North America another independent center for Chenopodium domestication. As mentioned above, there also is new evidence for squash domestication in that region as well. The 1990 Corn and Culture conference produced an edited volume that has many new insights into the evolution and migration of corn out of Mexico into both North and South America (Johannessen and Hastorf, 1994). Adams' (1994), Wills' (1988), and Minnis' (1992) new syntheses on the onset and role of agricultural crops in the American Southwest depict less sedentism, accompanied by a slower shift from gathering to production than was previously thought. Perhaps more radical, this view of a stepped agricultural adoption appears to fit the American Midwest as well. A series of papers and books on the midwestern Mississippian region demonstrate how

Recent Research in Paleoethnobotany

69

an Eastern Agricultural Complex of locally domesticated starchy seeds was cultivated at least 500 years before maize entered the region (Johannessen, 1988; Keegan, 1987; Pulliam, 1987; Scarry, 1993; Smith, 1989; Wymer, 1987). This evidence provides a picture of local agricultural development, with the addition of maize found only rarely between A.D. 250 and 800, well after the process of sedentism and food production had begun. These new results change the timing and therefore our interpretations of political development for those regions. Now we see not only that maize became an important crop after agriculture was well established in many areas, but also that it was a political crop, always involved in the escalation of social difference. A later scenario for the onset of agriculture is discussed in Fritz's (1994) commentary, triggered by the new AMS accelerator dates for the early maize at Tehuacan of 3640-3360 B.C. (Long et al., 1989). Such a radical rethinking also is generated from the new AMS bean dates from central Mexico and Andean South America (Kaplan, 1994). These two direct dates from common beans now place the earliest ones around 335-480 B.C., vastly curtailing their early placement in foraging contexts (Kaplan, 1994, p. 131). One South American lima bean from Guiterrero Cave now directly dates to 1545-1375 B.C. These re-assessments have opened up the debate about when and how people took up agriculture. Fritz's late-adoption view is based on the direct dating of macrobotanical samples and is in sharp contrast to the recent microbotanical results, primarily from pollen and phytoliths from the moist central and northern South American tropics, most notably published by Pearsall and Piperno (Bush et al., 1989; Pearsall, 1992; Pearsall and Piperno, 1990; Piperno, 1990, 1993, 1994). Based on a range of independent data, these researchers suggest that land clearing linked to maize and manioc agriculture began perhaps as early as 5000-4000 B.C. in these moist, forested areas. There are now a series of locations where early agricultural phytolith remains have been found, ranging from Panama to Ecuador. Independent evidence of land clearing, such as soil strata and pollen cores, supports Piperno and Pearsall's phytolith evidence. Both data sets provide evidence of agriculture; the challenge now is to weave them together, as well as to decide if all of the new material is acceptable. Some of the discrepancies probably will be resolved as more dates are run (as has just been experienced with the very early squash dates of 5000 B.C. from Guila Naquitz [Smith, 1997]) and as maize is dated from a series of Mesoamerican locations. We now have an increased number of New World locations of crop domestication accompanying a wide range of dates associated with morphological change or plant distribution.

70

Hastorf

One reason for the heating up of this debate is that some scholars do not accept the identifications of maize phytoliths, whereas others accept these phytolith shapes, sizes, and ratios as valid for maize identification. A second problem with phytoliths is that, unlike macroremains, they cannot be dated directly. This poses a problem for validating the dates of maize entry, even if the identifications are accepted. It does seem that one can date a mass of in situ phytoliths, and this would be the surest dating strategy. This macromicro debate will continue for some years in paleoethnobotany. The application of microbotanical remains, pollen, and phytoliths to questions of early agriculture is increasing rapidly, as techniques develop and more detailed analysis is undertaken. Pollen studies in Mesoamerica (Hansen, 1990; Jacobs, 1992; J. Jones, 1991, 1994; Jones and Bryant, 1992; Rust and Leyden, 1994) in association with macrobotanical studies (Lentz 1991) have proven useful. Evidence of early maize pollen is now known from the Tabasco and Maya wetlands (Rust and Leyden, 1994). Phytolith research, in association with other information from areas outside the moist tropics, provide new data on regional vegetation histories as well as on early agricultural practices (Dinan and Rowlett, 1993; Fujiwara, 1993; Pearsail, 1990, 1994; Rosen, 1993, 1994; Umlauf, 1993). More use of combined micro- and macrobotanicals, in association with soils and other paleoclimatic data, hopefully will continue to refine our picture of agricultural developments in different regions.
ENVIRONMENTAL USE, RECONSTRUCTION, AND CHANGE

Ecologically oriented research, focusing on environmental reconstruction and land use, continues to gain from archaeobotanical studies. One of the prominent subjects within paleoethnobotany is the identification of the level of agricultural impact on the landscape. Of particular note are recent articles discussing the subsistence of past peoples from the cool temperate northeastern (Watson, 1989) and the southeastern United States (Gremillion, 1993b), the moister regions of Mesoamerica (Blake et al., 1992; Jones, 1994; Rust and Leyden, 1994), the moist tropics of South America (Pearsall, 1992, 1994, 1995a), and the very dry regions of north Africa (Haland 1992, 1995; Krzyzaniak, 1991). Increasing subsistence evidence also is seen from the wet Pacific and Asia (Hather 1992b, 1994; Kealhofer and Piperno, 1994; Thompson, 1992), a particularly challenging region to study due to the difficulty of recovering identifiable plant remains. Environmental reconstruction is a common subject for paleoethnobotanists. We share this subdiscipline with paleoecologists in geography and

Recent Research in Paleoethnobotany

71

geology. Fortunately, some of the recent discussions in all three disciplines have been more anthropogenically oriented. There is a great concern for the extent of human impact on the landscape, in both the past and the present, as well as a concern with local and long-range studies. Pollen data are still the most commonly used, although phytoliths, soils, and macroremains also participate in addressing questions of human impact (Behre and Jacomet, 1991; Bottema, 1995; Bradshaw, 1991; Edwards, 1991a; Kirch and Ellison, 1994; Piperno et al., 1991). Two books that discuss anthropogenically oriented reconstructions are Harris and Thomas (1991), focusing on northern Europe, and Bottema et al. (1992) for the eastern Mediterranean. Kevin Edwards (1991b) even calls his geographical subdiscipline "cultural palynology" and compares the pros and cons of off-site and on-site pollen studies in the interpretation of human use of the landscape. Pollen core studies have been successful in describing off-site, local environments through time, such as as those by Richard (1993), Moore et al. (1991), and Delcourt et al.'s (1986) North American work on human impact on Holocene vegetation of the Tennessee River Valley. These studies demonstrate how, with closer scrutiny and wellcontrolled collections, we can see specific human impacts on local environments. Such projects track how the environment changed over the short and the long term. Our modern interest in 20th-century human impact on natural resources and their sustainability can gain much from these investigations of past human interactions. Knowledge about plant communities is a requirement for investigating past habitat use as well as environmental change. One vegetation reconstruction approach, phytosociology, has been most commonly applied in European archaeobotanical work. Phytosociology began within ecology some years ago in Germany and became popular with the work of Ellenberg in central Europe (1978, 1988). He created detailed sets of plant communities and organized these hierarchically, based on plants' co-occurrence within habitats. This work is helpful to archaeologists, who can use the plants that coassociate in specific environmental zones to look for past zonal reconstruction, use, and foraging activities. This often is seen in archaeobotanical reports where plants are categorized as being from disturbed habitats, crop weeds, grassland species, forest plants, marsh plants, and so on. But habitats clearly have changed through time from the preagrarian plant communities, so it is awkward to use modern plant groupings uncritically to reconstruct and understand the past. The ecological phytosociological models have operating assumptions like constant microenvironmental habitat relationships and regular successional developments. When the models are applied to prehistoric crops and their associated weed seeds, there has been critical discussion (Henry 1991; Hill-

72

Hastorf

man, 1991; Kuster, 1991; G. Jones, 1992; van der Veen, 1992). It is never clear that a specific plant lived only in one plant community. More useful have been the less structured plant groupings, such as wet-land plants, salttolerant plants, or lists of the major environments in which a taxon might be found. In this way it is possible to indicate a clustering of what zones the archaeological plants are from, keeping in mind that archaeological assemblages will have filtered what was in the environment due to human choice. Wild archaeological plant remains and their likely past habitats can help us understand weed complexes as well as environmental use and alteration. Because of this procurement information, archaeobotanists continue to remain intrigued with the concept of phytosociology. Less common are the studies that use pollen from sealed, protected, on-site contexts. These situations demonstrate pollen's potential in specific settings, including information on past plant use in ritual events (LeroiGourhan, 1975; Tipping, 1994). Environmental (climate) change and its impact on agriculture also are prominent in the recent literature. Chambers' (1993) edited volume on this topic includes examples from around the world, covering both moist and arid regions. Maloney (1992) discusses Southeast Asia, while February (1992) presents evidence from South Africa. Seltzer and Hastorf (1990) compare episodes of changing climate with agricultural shifts in the central Andes. In fact, as mentioned above, some recent explanations for Near Eastern origins of agriculture have returned to Younger Dryas climate change and its impact on the small- and large-scale events (Wright, 1993).

ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL ISSUES

Paleoethnobotanical research addresses economic, sociopolitical, and political economy questions as well. The three main economic subjects that paleoethnobotanists address are production-procurement, processing, and consumption. Political issues are more wide ranging. Production and Procurement Production and procurement include the acts of propagating and harvesting plants and the collection of wild plant products. Paleoethnobotanical reports commonly discuss the plants available for human use. While some studies fall short of discussing how the past economies and crop production actually worked, others use evidence for changing plant use to reconstruct past economies (e.g., Millisauskas and Kruk, 1989).

Recent Research in Paleoethnobotany

73

Building on an earlier published approach to Old World cereal crop production by Martin Jones (1985), van der Veen (1991) presents a Cambridgeshire fen paleoethnobotanical study of production. By charting the ratios of grass seeds to weed seeds to cereal chaff, she proposes to identify subsistence production versus surplus, as well as to separate productionderived samples from samples that reflect consumption. Her interpretations are based on theoretical models. For example, she rightly assumes that winnowing will separate chaff from seeds, so that postwinnowed samples will have less chaff than pre-winnowed samples. Van der Veen's study using a theoretical model illustrates one of the two main interpretive trajectories in paleoethnobotany. This approach began with Dennell's 1976 publication on processing and production in the Bulgarian Neolithic The second major approach to production has been put forward by Gordon Hillman (1984) and Glynis Jones (1984). Their entry is different from the previously defined approach in that they construct their production and processing models from ethnographic observation and analysis of botanical samples collected from traditional cereal processing. These two paleoethnobotanists did their ethnographic work in Greece and Turkey, where archaic forms of domesticated wheats were produced and nonmechanical processing techniques were in use. Based on actual plant part frequencies and combinations gathered from the discrete processing stages, they created detailed models, noting each step in the sequence and the associated plant parts that are present in that processing stage. These ethnographic models provide a specific comparison between plant frequencies and associated activities. An ethnographic example of agricultural cropping systems is seen in the Jones and Halstead paper about Greek cropping through time (1995). They use modern ethnographic observation and collections of crop seed mixes associated with specific planting strategies to propose a range of identifiable archaeological strategies that not only aided in risk minimization while providing sufficient food for the year, but also diversified diet and crop genetics. Although theoretical models are effective, ethnographic models are probably more useful when interpreting flotation sample assemblages from individual locations. Regardless of which approach is used, it is important to be very explicit about model construction. Because most agricultural production occurs away from the excavated site, in the fields and farmyards, normally we approach production through the less direct method of identifying and tracking on-site processing and seeing how the processing strategies reflect different production techniques (see also Reddy, 1994). There is some recent work that tries to identify old fields through plant remains and chemical differences (Miller and Gleason, 1994).

74

Hastorf

Because the production processes of many New World plants are different from cereals in the Old World and there is not as much ethnographic use of associated wild seeds and plant parts, like cereal chaff, that can reflect types of production and processing, New World specialists tend not to apply the same types of theoretical and ethnographic models. Plant residue production models could be constructed for some crops, however. Maize produces both the inedible cobs and cupules as well as edible kernels. One problem with such model applications for maize production is that their seed heads are huge compared to the cereal seed heads and thus the plant parts do not get dispersed in a sequence of winnowing and beating activities like wheat, nor are they harvested with companion weeds. Beans have tough pods and seeds, but these are notoriously invisible (unidentifiable) in archaeological assemblages (Butler, 1989; Kaplan, 1994). Sunflower or acorns have preserved husks and seeds, and these should be more appropriate for such analyses. There are some New World cereals (and pseudo-cereals: Chenopodium) that were domesticated (Cowan, 1978; Fritz, 1986; Hunter, 1992; Shipek, 1989). Their domestic status is based on morphological change, plant distribution and abundance, and ethnographic evidence. These seed crops could be amenable to chaff-seed studies, but the inedible plant parts are not normally identified and quantified (Johannessen, 1988). In temperate New World studies, plant part analyses are completed for collected nut resources, mainly because the husks tend to be preserved rather than the nutmeat. Domesticate data are presented by single species as standardized counts, frequencies, or densities or as ratios of one plant type to another, such as wood to seeds. There is little comparison of edible seeds to the weed seeds or seeds to their chaff. Chaff-to-seed and weed seed-to-crop seed ratios could be investigated more in New World examples. Such analyses benefit from specific ethnographic evidence on processing-stage residues but also from ecological field weed-crop-soil studies, in order to construct fairly specific models of plant taxa frequencies. Production and processing stages often are not broken down in the sample assemblages. It is difficult to clarify past foraging strategies and activities. Models of plant foraging are suggested regularly for many of the world's environments (cf. D'Andrea, 1995b; Edwards, 1989; Harlin, 1989; Harris and Hillman, 1989; Hillman, 1989; Hillman et al., 1989; Keeley, 1992; Layton et al., 1991; Simms, 1987). Some are specifically applied to archaeological plant remains. Tool artifacts and on-site attributes as well as site distributions are helpful in determining the types and scale of plant foraging, but the plant remains are critical (Allen et al., 1989; Loy et al., 1992). For example, Pearsall (1988) constructed a theoretical model for wild plants entering a

Recent Research in Paleoethnobotany

75

foraging site. She identified the potential activities (contexts) that could have occurred on the site and lists the associated plant taxa. These combinations were then compared to the botanical taxa from flotation samples. Processing Plant processing is the most common activity reflected by the plant remains found on archaeological habitation sites, yet it can be difficult to identify specific activities. This difficulty is due, in part, to the potential complexities of the many activities included in processing as well as to the fact that a series of activities could have occurred in the same location. Most often, paleoethnobotanists simply assume that processing occurred on the site and use plants to indirectly reflect production or even less directly, consumption. However, Susan Mulholland (1993) looked for evidence of maize processing on a North Dakota site, aware that maize was grown at the village. To her surprise, she found very few maize phytoliths in the houses. Thus she concludes that maize processing probably occurred off site. Glynis Jones (1984, 1987) has presented the most sophisticated example of identifying archaeological crop processing from archaeological plant assemblages. She bases her interpretations on statistical comparisons of the archaeological plant flotation samples with her ethnographic plant-processing results. She terms this an external analysis because she creates a model generated solely from her ethnographic processing information. This is done by defining processing stages based on weed characteristics and weed seed frequencies (Jones, 1984). She describes the different processing activities by their seed and weed frequencies (course or fine sieving, stored cleaned products, untouched harvested plants, etc.). For her archaeological analysis, she presents ratios of grain seed-weed seed-crop rachis (chaff) frequencies for each of the different processing activities, creating signatures, such as fine-sieved by-products that have more than 50% weed seeds and very few rachis internodes, or cleaned products that have more than 80% grain and few rachis internodes (Jones, 1987). These processing stage signatures are then compared to her archaeological material to find the best fit for each flotation sample. Taking the archaeological samples and grouping them by their degree of similarity to the external signature ratios, she concludes that the early stages of processing did not generally occur on the site, but probably occurred in the fields. She further identifies a series of later-stage processing and storing in her samples. This model, based on discriminate analysis, is time consuming but provides a tremendous amount of information about the site, its contexts, and the activities

76

Hastorf

that occurred there. Such a protocol is proving productive in other regions (Colledge, 1994). This type of research plan will give archaeologists the closest view of on-site activities. Stahl (1989) provides a theoretical overview of several issues relating to archaeological food processing. She also considers consumption and preservability in the archaeological record.
Consumption

Traditionally it has been very difficult to reconstruct actual archaeological diets, except through coprolites (Bryant and Williams-Dean, 1975), stable isotopes, and trace element analyses. Coprolite studies are rare due to very unique preservation requirements: very dry or permanently moist and anaerobic. Recent work has been completed in dry areas of the world, like Chile (Holden, 1990, 1991), Texas (Sobolik and Gerick, 1992), and the American Southwest (Minnis, 1989). More recently, moist areas also have received dietary studies, as seen in the analysis of the gut contents of bog bodies (Hillman, 1986) and latrines (Warnock and Reinhard, 1992). Sobolik's diet conference and 1994 publication cover a range of important new data and methodologies for the study of diet. Research on soft tissue plant morphology in coprolites and especially gut contents by Hather and Holden has begun to identify some of the "vanishing" food remains that are virtually never seen in macrobotanical analysis (Hillman et al., 1989). This approach requires specialized histological training as mentioned above. Macrobotanical remains from paleofaeces have long been studied from desiccated cave sites, providing an important view into past human diet. Recent methodological work has focused on pollen (Reinhard et al., 1991) and the chemistry of both gut contents and paleofaeces (Aufderheide et al., 1994; Wales et al., 1992). Coprolite food analysis is expanded by linking the results to other botanical data and evidence for disease (Faulkner, 1991; Holden, 1991). A little studied aspect of plant consumption has been the use of plants for medicinal purposes. Although this will always be a difficult subject to study, people are beginning to look for and identify medicines within archaeobotanical collections. Source identification has begun with pollen (Lietava, 1992; Reinhard et al., 1991). More common is the use of human bones to view a person's life-long average diet through stable isotopes (e.g., Ambrose, 1987; Hastorf, 1991; Spielmann et al., 1990.) This analysis is based on the assumption that one's bones take up small amounts of stable isotopes from consumed food

Recent Research in Paleoethnobotany

77

throughout life. These selected isotopes are retained in the bone collagen and can be extracted from the bone and identified with a mass spectrometer. Carbon and nitrogen isotopes are the most commonly extracted and studied for diet reconstruction. As early as 1989, Sillen et al. detailed some of the pressing analytical problems involved in applying isotopic and trace element results to the study of past human diet. Trace element strontium and calcium have been even more controversial, yet they are still being selectively presented in the literature (e.g., Runia, 1987). Still very experimental, but with potential, is the less direct evidence of diet found by the study of tooth wear and the associated phytoliths present on teeth (Lalueza Fox and Perez-Perez, 1994). With proper systematic techniques and experimental work, this approach should be able to inform us about the amount of fiber in the diet, the amount of nuts chewed, and the types of processing food stuffs received before being eaten. There is potential for more studies of diet from the perspective of food and cuisine: how and what people consumed as combinations and mixtures of foods, not just calories, or lists of food stuffs. Food ingredients are culturally meaningful, people do not simply eat the cheapest calories available. How plants and animal parts are combined in dishes is also an exciting research direction. Such an approach should be most effective through the use of multiple data sets as well as longitudinal studies. This new direction is seen in some of the studies mentioned in the next section. Political and Economic Questions Politically oriented research in paleoethnobotany has become more common in the last 10 years. Plants can be used, like ceramics, spindle whorls, grinding stones, or lithics, to address questions of hierarchy, difference, social relations, exchange, and conquest. The reinterpretation of the American midwestern agricultural origins, as illustrated in the papers by Johannessen (1988, 1993), is an excellent example of applying botanical data to issues of cultural and political change. In these papers she demonstrates how plant material adds detailed, new information to the investigation of the rise of political systems. Her specific case comes from the American Bottom of the Mississippi River Valley. There, we see how escalating political centralization of Cahokia affected agricultural production, crop storage, crop choice, and dishes prepared for meals, as well as influencing other aspects of material culture. Welch and Scarry (1995) also have completed a study of Moundville chiefdom social relations using botanical, animal bone, and ceramic data. In their research they look at food distribution and food preparation to see evidence of tribute payment, differential

78

Hastorf

status between classes, and diverse social settings present on the site. Such studies are exciting and productive avenues that allow us to view closely the evidence for chiefly power negotiation in the past. Political questions are visible in papers by Blake and his colleagues (Blake et al., 1992; Clark and Blake, 1994). Their research on Formativeperiod Mesoamerica includes evidence for early maize use along the southwest coast of Mexico. They show how the archaeobotanical data, analyzed by Feddema, alter our previous views of political development of the preOlmec Makaya. They note that maize was present quite early but not in large quantities. Maize became a dominant crop only hundreds of years later, as part of a larger-scale political shift in both regions. Taube (1989) also studies the role of maize in Mesoamerican cultural change. Through documentary evidence, he finds neighboring cultural groups using different food-processing techniques along with different maize symbolism regarding consumption. He demonstrates how the preparation of tamales in the Maya region and tortillas in the Valley of Mexico reflected different cultural groups. With the eventual cultural conquest by Valley of Mexico peoples of the southern tropical region, there was an influx of tortilla-processing evidence in the Maya area. In that same region we see even more detailed politically influenced food differences in Lentz's (1991) study of the rich and poor at a Maya center. Diversity of taxa in diet became the most important status marker. Another example of botanical data applied to political issues is Hastorf's (1990, 1991) study of how an Andean group's agricultural production and consumption changed with the conquest of the Inka. She finds that the Inka state entered and influenced local household agricultural practices in the central Andes. While local inhabitants still produced the same crops as before, the frequency of maize production changed significantly. Stable isotope results from human bone suggest that after the Inka conquest, the male consumption of maize increased relative to females. These combined data show how the conquering state influenced crop production but also local dietary consumption. Also illustrating how maize played a political role in a coastal South American state, Gumerman (1994) demonstrates that specific varieties of corn were used in different settings and different statuses in the hierarchical Mochica culture. He found certain maize types only in rich burials, with other varieties in the food rubbish dumps. Turning to the more economically oriented subjects in the literature, one very exciting approach is the use of multiple data sets to address economic questions of agricultural intensification and sedentism (e.g., Moore et al., 1995; Morrison, 1994; Zeder, 1994). By using both botanical and

Recent Research in Paleoethnobotany

79

faunal material to unravel economic changes, a clearer view of past economic dynamics is illustrated. There continues to be a series of ecologically based models to explain economic agricultural change. One example of these is the application by Crites (1987) of a coevolutionary model, similar to Rindos (1984), to Middle Woodland agricultural intensification. Here he presents a hypothetical scenario for an increasing focus on fewer plants, with human concern for intensification as the central driving force, rather than the traditional causes of population pressure or environmental stress. As Fritz (1994) points out, more scholars must begin to increase the archaeobotanical material extracted from sites through collection and analysis and, also, to broaden research vistas and ask cultural questions of the data. We cannot remain at the descriptive level or simply reuse old models. Of course some of the old models have served us well, and we have now some substantial and basic understandings of past plant use. But we will not be able to move our inquiries forward without new starting points and directions. There are subjects that are only just being brought into the paleoethnobotanical discussion that deserve more concerted effort in the future. Subjects such as fuel use, feasting, the cultural value and symbolics of specific plant taxa, the spatial distributions of plants, and their ritual meanings all await more work. Helping us towards these new ways of viewing plant material is the focused use of ethnography, more sophisticated computer models and simulations, systematic sampling, detailed analytical methodologies, and regular statistical procedures.
SUMMARY

Although this paper does not include all recent publications that are related to archaeological plant material by any means, I have tried to highlight some major themes in recent paleoethnobotanical research and to show the general directions this subdiscipline is heading. Due to my own interests and research emphasis on macroremains, I have discussed this domain more than microremains. My emphasis here does not mean, however, that pollen, phytoliths, coprolites, DNA, or other chemical analyses are not critical and integral to the future of paleoethnobotany and archaeology. One point I hope to have made in this overview of current research trends is that plant materials can substantively address any and all archaeological questions. However, there needs to be a continual and concerted effort on collection, methods, and technological training. Equally important is the need for crisp thinking on theories and model building that paleoethnobotanists can apply to archaeological questions.

80

Hastorf

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This project was supported in part by NSF-SBR 94-96251 and the Undergraduate Research Apprenticeship Program at the University of California, Berkeley. I want to thank James Barnes for work on the recent paleoethnobotanical literature bibliography, with help from Suzanne Calpestri of the Anthropology Library at the University of California, Berkeley. Deborah Pearsall, Gary Crawford, lan Hodder, and two anonymous reviewers provided thoughtful comments on the text, as well as some references. Paul Minnis, John Jones, Bill Whitehead, Francis Mclaren, and Vaughn Bryant also provided help with references. Some sections benefited from conversations with Gordon Hillman and Sissel Johannessen, although all opinions expressed are my own.

REFERENCES CITED
Adams, K, R. (1994). A regional synthesis of Zea mays in the prehistoric American Southwest. In Johannessen, S., and Hastorf, C. A. (eds.), Com and Culture in the Prehistoric New World, Westview Press, Boulder, CO, pp. 273-302. Allaby, R. G., Brown, T. A., and Jones, M. (1994). DNA in charred wheat grains from the Iron Age hillfort at Danebury, England. Antiquity 68(258): 126-132. Allen, J., Gosden, C, and White, J. P. (1989) Human Pleistocene adaptations in the tropical Island Pacific: Recent evidence from New Ireland, a greater Australian outlier. Antiquity

63: 548-561. Ambrose, S. (1987). Chemical and isotopic techniques of diet reconstruction in eastern North

America. In Keegan, W. (ed.), Emergent Horticultural Economies of the Eastern Woodlands, Occasional Paper, No. 7, Center for Archaeological Investigations, No. 7, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, pp. 87-107. Aufderheide, A., Kelley, M., Rivera, M., Tieszen, L., Iversen, E., Krouse, R., and Carevic, A. (1994), Contributions of chemical dietary reconstruction to the assessment of adaptation by ancient highland immigrants (Alto Ramirez) to coastal conditions at Pisagua, North Chile. Journal of Archaeological Science 21: 515-524. Badler, V. R., McGovern, P. E., and Michel, R. H. (1990). Drink and be merry!: Infrared spectroscopy and ancient Near Eastern wine. In Biers, W. R., and McGovern, P. E. (eds.), Organic Contents of Ancient Vessels, Material Analysis and Archaeological Investigation, MASCA Research Papers in Science and Archaeology, Vol. 7, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, pp. 25-36. Bar-Yosef, O., and Belfer-Cohen, A. (1989). The origins of sedentism and farming communities in the Levant. Journal of World Prehistory 3: 447-498. Bar-Yosef, O., and Belfer-Cohen, A. (1992). From foraging to farming in the Mediterranean Levant. In Gebauer, A. B., and Price, T. D. (eds.), Transitions to Agriculture in Prehistory, Prehistory Press, Madison, WI, pp. 21-48. Bar-Yosef, O., and Valla, F. (1990). The Natufian culture and the origin of the Neolithic in the Levant. Current Anthropology 31: 433-435. Battarbee, R. (1988). The use of diatom analysis in archaeology: A review. Journal of Archaeological Science IS: 321-344. Beck, W. (1992). Aboriginal preparation of Cycas seeds in Australia. Economic Botany 46: 133-147.

Recent Research in Paleoethnobotany

81

Behre, K.-E., and Jacomet, S. (1991). The ecological interpretation of archaeobotanical data. In van Zeist, W., Wasylikowa, K., and Behre, K.-E. (eds.), Progress in Old World Paleoethnobotany, A. A. Balkema, Rottendam, pp. 81-108. Benz, B. F. (1994). Reconstructing the racial phylogeny of Mexican maize: Where do we stand? In Johannessen, S., and Hastorf, C. A. (eds.), Com and Culture in the Prehistoric New World, Westview Press, Boulder, CO, pp. 157-179. Benz, B. F., and Iltis, H. H. (1990). Studies in archaeological maize I: The "wild" maize from San Marcos re-examined. American Antiquity 55: 500-511. Benz, B. F., and Iltis, H. H. (1992). Evolution of female sexuality in the maize ear (Zea mays
L. subsp, mays, Graminae). Economic Botany 46: 212-222. Biers, W. R., and McGovem, P. E. (eds.) (1990). Organic Contents of Ancient Vessels, Material Analysis and Archaeological Investigation, MASCA Research Papers in Science and

Archaeology. Vol. 7, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Blake, M., Chisholm, B., Clark, J., Voorhies, B., and Love, M. (1992). Prehistoric subsistence in the Soconusco region. Current Anthropology 33: 83-94. Blumler, M. A. (1992). Independent inventions and recent genetic evidence on plant domestication. Economic Botany 46: 98-111. Blumler, M. A. (1994). Evolutionary trends in the wheat group in relation to environment, Quaternary climate change and human impacts. In Millington, A. C, and Pye, K. (eds.), Environmental Change in Drylands, John Wiley, Chichester, UK, pp. 253-69. Blumler, M. A., and Byrne, R. (1991). The ecological genetics of domestication and the origins of agriculture. Current Anthropology 32: 23-54. Boardman, S., and Jones, G. E. M. (1990). Experiments on the effects of charring on cereal plant components. Journal of Archaeological Science 17: 1-11. Bonavia, D., and Kaplan, L., (1990). Bibliography of American archaeological plant remains.
Economic Botany 44: 114-128.

Bottema, S. (1995). Ancient palynology. American Journal of Archaeology 99: 93-96. Bottema, S., Entjes-Nieberg, G., and van Zeist, W. (eds.) (1992). Man's Role in the Shaping of the Eastern Mediterranean Landscape, A A. Balkema, Rotterdam. Boyd, W. E. (1988). Methodological problems in the analysis of fossil non-artifactual wood assemblages from archaeological sites. Journal of Archaeological Science 15: 603-619. Bozarth, S. R. (1987). Diagnostic opal phytoliths from rinds of Cucurbitaceae. American Antiquity 52: 607-615. Bozarth, S. R. (1990). Diagnostic opal phytoliths from pods of selected varieties of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). American Antiquity 55: 98-104. Bradshaw, R. (1991). Spatial scale in the pollen record. In Harris, D. R., and Thomas, K. D. (eds.), Modelling Ecological Change, Institute of Archaeology, University of London, London, pp. 41-52. Brady, T. J. (1989). The influence of flotation on the rate of recovery of wood charcoal from archaeological sites. Journal of Ethnobiology 9: 207-227. Brown, T. A., and Brown, K. A. (1992). Ancient DNA and the archaeologist. Antiquity 6: 10-23. Brown, T. A., Allaby, R., Brown, K. A., and Jones, M. K. (1993). Biomolecular archaeology of wheat: Past, present, and future. World Archaeology 25: 64-73. Bryant, V. M., Jr. (1993). Phytolith research: A look toward the future. In Pearsall, D., and
Piperno, D. (eds.), Current Research in Phytolith Analysis: Applications in Archaeology and

Paleoecology, MASCA Research Papers in Science and Archaeology, Vol. 10, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, pp. 175-181. Bryant, V. M. Jr., and Williams-Dean, G. (1975).The coprolites of man. Scientific American 232(1): 100-109. Bush, M. B. (1988), Early Mesolithic disturbance, a force on the landscape. Journal of Archaeological Science 15: 453-462. Bush, M. B., Pipemo, D. R., and Colinvaux, P. A. (1989). A 6000 year history of Amazonian maize cultivation. Nature 340: 303-305.

82

Hastorf

Butler, A. (1989). Cryptic anatomical characters as evidence of early cultivation in the grain legumes (pulses). In Harris, D. R., and Hillman, G. C. (eds.), Foraging and Fanning: The Evolution of Plant Exploitation, Unwin Hyman, London, pp. 390-407. Chambers, F. M. (ed.) (1993). Climate Change and Human Impact on the Landscape: Studies in Palaeoecology and Environmental Archaeology, Chapman and Hall, New York. Clark, J. E., and Blake, M. (1994). The power of prestige: Competitive generosity and the emergence of rank societies in lowland Mesoamerica. In Brumfiel, E., and Fox, J. (eds.), Factional Competition and Political Development in the New World, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 17-30. Colledge, S. M. (1994). Plant Exploitation on Epipalaeolithic and Early Neolithic Sites in the Levant, Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Archaeology and Prehistory, University of Sheffield, Sheffield. Cortella, A. R., and Pochetten, M. L. (1994). Starch grain analysis as a microscopic diagnostic feature in the identification of plant material. Economic Botany 48: 171-181. Cowan, C. W. (1978). The prehistoric use and distribution of maygrass in eastern North America: Cultural and phytogeographical implications. In Ford, R. I., Brown, M. F., Hodge, M., and Merrill, W. L. (Eds.), The Nature and Status of Ehnobotany, Anthropological Papers, No. 67, Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, pp. 263-288. Cowan, C. W., and Watson, P. J. (eds.) (1992). The Origins of Agriculture: An International Perspective, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. Crawford, G. W. (1992a). Prehistoric plant domestication in Bast Asia. In Cowan, C. W., and Watson, P. J. (eds.), The Origins of Agriculture: An International Perspective, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, pp. 7-38. Crawford, G. W. (1992b). The transitions to agriculture in Japan. In Gebauer, A. B., and
Price, T. D. (eds.), Transitions to Agriculture in Prehistory, Prehistory Press, Madison, WI,

pp. 117-132. Crawford, G. W., and Takamiya, H. (1990). The origins and implications of late prehistoric plant husbandry in northern Japan. Journal of Archaeological Science 17: 889-911. Crawford, G. W., and Yoshizaki, M. (1987). Ainu ancestors and early Asian agriculture. Journal of Archaeological Science 14: 201-213. Crites, G. (1987), Human-plant mutualism and niche expression in the paleothnobotanical record: A middle Woodland example. American Antiquity 52: 725-740. Cummings, L. S. (1992). Pollen and phytolith analysis at the Hutton-Pinkham site, eastern Colorado: A feasibility study. Southwestern Lore 58(2): 19-25. Damp, J. E., and Pearsall, D. P. (1994). Early cotton from coastal Ecuador. Economic Botany 48: 163-165. D'Andrea, A. C. (1995a). Later Jomon subsistence in northeastern Japan: New evidence from paleoethnobotanical studies. Asian Perspectives 34: 195-227. D'Andrea, A. C. (1995b). Archaeobotanical evidence for Zoku-Jomon subsistence at the Mochiyazawa site, Hokkaido, Japan. Journal of Archaeological Science 22: 583-595. D'Andrea, A. C, Crawford, G. W., Yoshizaki, M., and Kudo, T. (1995). Late Jomon cultigens in northeastern Japan. Antiquity 69: 146-152. Decker, D. S., and Newsom, L. (1988). Numerical analysis of archaeological Cucurbita pepo seeds from Hontoon Is., Florida. Journal of Ethnobiology 8: 35-44. Decker, D. S., and Wilson, H. D. (1987). Allozyme variation in the Cucurbita pepo complex: C. pepo var. ovifera vs. C. texana. Systematic Botany 12: 263-273. Decker-Walters, D., Walters, T., Cowan, C. W., and Smith, B. D. (1993). Isozyme characterization of wild populations of Cucurbita pepo. Journal of Ethnobiology 13: 55-72. Delcourt, P. A., Delcourt, H. R., Cridiebaugh, P., and Chapman, J. (1986). Holocene ethnobotanical and palcoecological record of human impact on vegetation in the Little Tennessee River Valley. Quaternary Research 25: 330-349. Dennell, R. (1976). The economic importance of plant resources represented on archaeological sites. Journal of Archaeological Science 3: 229-247.

Recent Research in Paleoethnobotany

83

Dennell, R. W. (1992). The origins of crop agriculture in Europe. In Cowan, C. W., and Watson, P. J. (eds.), The Origins of Agriculture: An International Perspective, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, pp. 71-100. Dinan, E. H., and Rowlett, R. M. (1993). Vegetation changes at the Shriver Paleo-Indian site, N.W. Missouri: Phytolith analysis as an aid in environmental reconstruction. In Pearsall, D., and Piperno, D. (eds.), Current Research in Phytolith Analysis: Applications in Archaeology and Paleoecology, MASCA Research Papers in Science and Archaeology, Vol. 10, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, pp. 73-82. Doebley, J. F. (1990). Molecular evidence and the evolution of maize. Economic Botany 44: 6-27. Doebley, J. F. (1994). Morphology, molecules, and maize. In Johannessen, S., and Hastorf, C. A. (eds.), Com and Culture in the Prehistoric New World, Westview Press, Boulder, CO, pp. 101-112. Donahue, J. A., and Dinan, E. H. (1993). A geoarchaeological analysis of phytolith data from the Bear Creek site, Cedar County, Missouri. In Pearsall, D., and Piperno, D. (eds.), Current Research in Phytolith Analysis: Applications in Archaeology and Paleoecology, MASCA Research Papers in Science and Archaeology, Vol. 10, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, pp. 83-94. Edwards, K. J. (1991a). Spatial scale and palynology: A commentary of Bradshaw. In Harris, D. R., and Thomas, K. D. (eds.), Modelling Ecological Change, Institute of Archaeology, University of London, London, pp. 53-60. Edwards, K. J. (I991b). Using space in cultural palynology: The value of the off-site pollen record. In Harris, D. R., and Thomas, K. D. (eds.), Modelling Ecological Change, Institute of Archaeology, University College, London, pp. 61-73. Edwards, P. C. (1989). Revising the broad spectrum revolution and its role in the origins of Southwest Asian food production. Antiquity 239: 225-246. Ellenberg, H. (1978). Vegetation Mitteleuropas mit den Alpen in okologisoher Sicht, 2nd ed. Verlag, Stuttgart. Ellenberg, H. (1988). Vegetation Ecology of Central Europe, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Evershed, R. P. (1993). Biomolecular archaeology and lipids. World Archaeology 25: 74-93. Evershed, R. P., Heron, C., and Good, L.J. (1990). Analysis of organic residues of archaeological interest by high temperature gas chromotography and gas chromotography/mass spectroscopy. The Analyst 115: 1339-1342. Faulkner, C. T. (1991). Prehistoric diet and parasitic infection in Tennessee: Evidence from the analysis of desiccated human paleofeces. American Antiquity 56: 687-700. February, E. (1992). Archaeological charcoals as indicators of vegetation change and human fuel choice in the late Holocene at Elands Bay, Western Cape Province, S. Africa. Journal of Archaeological Science 19: 347-354. Fish, S. K. (1994). Archaeological palynology of gardens and fields. In Miller, N., and Gleason, K. (eds.), The Archaeology of Garden and Field, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, pp. 44-69. Ford, R. I. (ed.) (1985). Prehistoric Food Production in North America, Anthropological Papers, No. 75, Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Fritz, G. (1984). Identification of cultigen Amaranth and Chenopodium from rock shelter sites in northwest Arkansas. American Antiquity 49: 558-572. Fritz, G. (1986). Prehistoric Ozark Agriculture: The University of Arkansas Rockshelter Collections, Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. Fritz, G. (1994). Are the first American farmers getting younger? Current Anthropology 35: 49-52. Fritz, G., and Smith, B. (1988). Old collections and new technology: Documenting the domestication of Chenopodium in eastern North America. Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology 13: 3-27. Fujiwara, H. (1993). Research into the history of rice cultivation using plant opal phytoliths. In Pearsall, D., and Piperno, D. (eds.), Current Research in Phytolith Analysis: Applications

84

Hastorf

in Archaeology and Paleoecology, MASCA Research Papers in Science and Archaeology, Vol. 10, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, pp. 147-159. Gebauer, A. B., and Price, T. D. (eds.) (1992). Transitions to Agriculture in Prehistory, Prehistory Press, Madison, WI. Gepts, P., Osborn, T. C., Rashka, K., and Bliss, F. A. (1986). Phaseolin-protein variability in wild forms and landraces of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): Evidence for multiple centers of domestication. Economic Botany 40: 451-488. Gero, J. M. (1985). Socio-politics and the woman-at-home ideology. American Antiquity 50: 342-350. Goette, S., Williams, M., Johannessen, S., and Hastorf, C. (1994). Toward reconstructing ancient maize: Experiments in processing and charring. Journal of Ethnobiology 14: 1-22. Golenberg, E. M., Giannasi, D. E., Clegg, M. T., Smiley, C. J., Durbin, M., Henderson, D., and Zurawski, G. (1990). Chloroplast DNA sequence from a Miocene Magnolia species. Nature 344: 656-658. Goloubinoff, P., Paabo, S. and Wilson, A. C. (1993). Evolution of maize inferred from sequence diversity of an Adh2 gene segment from archaeological specimens. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA. 90: 1997-2001. Goloubinoff, P., Paabo, S. and Wilson, A. C. (1994). Molecular characterization of ancient maize: Potentials and pitfalls. In Johannessen, S., and Hastorf, C. A. (eds.), Com and Culture in the Prehistoric New World, Westview Press, Boulder, CO, pp. 113-125. Greig, J. (1989). Archaeobotany: Handbook for Archaeologists 4, European Science Foundation, Strasborg. Gremillion, K.J. (1993a). The evolution of seed morphology in domesticated Chenopodium: An archaeological case study. Journal of Ethnobiology 13: 149-170. Gremillion, K. J. (1993b). Crop and weed in prehistoric eastern North America: The Chenopodium example. American Antiquity 58: 496-509. Gumerman, G., IV (1994). Corn for the dead: The significance of Zea mays in Moche burial offerings. In Johannessen, S., and Hastorf, C. A. (eds.), Corn and Culture in the Prehistoric New World, Westview Press, Boulder, CO, pp. 399-410. Gumerman, G., IV, and Umemoto, B. S. (1987). The siphon technique: An addition to the flotation process. American Antiquity 52: 330-336. Haland, R. (1992). Fish, pots and grain: Early and Mid-Holocene adaptations in the central Sudan. African Archaeological Review 10: 43-64. Haland, R. (1995) Sedentism, cultivation and plant domestication in the Holocene. Middle Nile region. Journal of Field Archaeology 22: 157-173. Hall, S. A. (1988). Prehistoric vegetation and environment at Chaco Canyon. American Antiquity 53: 582-592. Handt, O., Hoss, M., Krings, M., and Paabo, S. (1994). Ancient DNA-Methodological challenges. Experientia 50: 524-529. Hansen, B. (1990). Pollen stratigraphy of Laguna de Cocas. In Pohl, M. (ed.), Ancient Maya Wetland Agriculture in Northern Belize: Excavations on Albion Island, Westview Press, Boulder, CO, pp. 155-186. Harlan, J. R. (1989). Wild-grass seed harvesting in the Sahara and sub-Sahara of Africa. In Harris, D. R., and Hillman, G. C. (eds.), Foraging and Farming: The Evolution of Plant Exploitation, Unwin and Hyman, London, pp. 79-98. Harlan, J. R. (1992). Indigenous African agriculture. In Cowan, C. W., and Watson, P. J. (eds.), Origins of Agriculture: An International Perspective, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., pp. 59-70. Harris, D. R., and Hillman, G. C. (eds.) (1989). Foraging and Farming: The Evolution of Plant Exploitation, Unwin and Hyman, London. Harris, D. R., and Thomas, K. D. (eds.) (1991). Modelling Ecological Change, Institute of Archaeology, University of London, London. Hastorf, C. A. (1988). The use of paleothnobotanical data in prehistoric studies of crop production, processing and consumption. In Hastorf, C. A., and Popper, V. S. (eds.), Current Paleoethnobotany, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 119-144.

Recent Research in Paleoethnobotany

85

Hastorf, C. A. (1990). The effect of the Inka state on Sausa agricultural production and crop consumption. American Antiquity 55: 262-290. Hastorf, C. A. (1991). Gender, space and food in prehistory. In Gero, J., and Conkey, M.

(eds.), Engendering Archaeology, Women and Prehistory, Basil Blackwell, Oxford, pp.
132-159. Hastorf, C. A., and DeNiro, M. J. (1985). New isotopic method used to reconstruct prehistoric plant production and cooking practices. Nature 322: 822-823. Hastorf, C. A., and Johannessen, S. (1991). Understanding changing people/plant relationships in the prehispanic Andes. In Preucel, R. (ed.), Processual and Postprocessual Archaeologies, Occasional Paper, No. 10, Center for Archaeological Investigations, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, pp. 140-159. Hastorf, C. A., and Popper, V. S. (eds.) (1988). Current Paleoethnobotany, University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Hather, J. G. (1991). Identification of charred archaeological remains of vegetative parenchymous tissue. Journal of Archaeological Science 18: 661-675. Hather, J. 0. (1992a). The identification of charred archaeological remains of vegetative parenchymous tissue. Journal of Archaeological Science 18: 661-675. Hather, J. G. (1992b). The archaeobotany of subsistence in the Pacific. World Archaeology 24:

70-81. Hather, J. G. (1993). An Archaeobotanical Guide to Root and Tuber Identification. Volume 1:

Europe and South West Asia, Oxbow Monograph 28, Oxbow Books, Oxford. Hather, J. G. (1994). Morphological classification of roots and tubers and its bearing on the origins of agriculture in Southeast Asia and Europe. Journal of Archaeological Science 21: 719-724. Henry, D. C. (1984). Interpretation of archaeological plant remains: The application of ethnographic and models from Turkey. In van Zeist, W., and Casparie, W. A. (eds.),

Plants and Ancient Man; Studies in Paleoethnobotany, A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp.

1-41. Henry, D. C. (1991). Phytosociology and ancient weed floras: Taking account of taphonomy changes in cultivation methods. In Harris, D. R., and Thomas, K. D. (eds.), Modelling Ecological Change, Institute of Archaeology, London, pp. 27-40. Hill, H. E., and Evans, J. (1989). Crops of the Pacific: New evidence from the chemical analysis of organic residues on pottery. In Harris, D. R., and Hillman, G. C. (eds.), Foraging and Farming: The Evolution of Plant Exploitation, Unwin and Hyman, London, pp. 418-425. Hillman, G. C. (1984). Interpretation of archaeological plant remains: The applications of ethnographic model from Turkey. In van Zeist, W., and Casparie, W. A. (eds.), Plants and Ancient Man: Studies in Paleoethnobotany, A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 1-41. Hillman, G. C. (1986). Plant foods in ancient diet: The archaeological role of palaeofaeces in general and Lindow man's gut contents in particular. In Stead, I. A., Bourke, J., and Brothwell, D. R. (eds.), Lindow Man: The Body in the Bog, British Museum Publications, London, pp. 99-115. Hillman, G. C. (1989). Late Palaeolithic plant foods from Wadi Kubbaniye in Upper Egypt: Dietary diversity, infant weening, and seasonality in a riverine environment. In Harris,

D. R., and Hillman, G. C. (eds.). Foraging and Farming: The Evolution of Plant

Exploitation, Unwin and Hyman, London, pp. 207-239. Hillman, G. C. (1991). Phytosociology and ancient weed floras: Taking account of taphonomy and changes in cultivation methods. In Harris, D. R., and Thomas, K. D. (eds.), Modelling Ecological Change, Institute of Archaeology, University College, London, pp. 27-40. Hillman, G. C, and Davies, M. S. (1990). Measured domestication rates in wild wheats and barley under primitive cultivation, and their archaeological implications. Journal of World Prehistory 4:157-322. Hillman, G. C, and Davies, M. S. (1993). Domestication rates in wild wheats and barleys under primitive cultivation: Preliminary results and archaeological implications of field measurements of selection coefficient. In Anderson-Gerfaud, P. J. (ed.), Prehistoire de

I'agriculture: nouvelle approaches experimentals et ethnographique, Editions de CNRS,


Valbonne, pp. 1-46.

86

Hastorf

Hillman, G. C., Madeyska, E., and Hather, J. G. (1989a). Wild plant foods and diet at Late Palaeolithic Wadi Kubbaniya: The evidence from charred remains. In Wendorf, F., Schild, R., and Close, A. M. (eds.), The Prehistory of Wadi Kubbaniya, Vol. 2; Palaeoeconomy, Stratigraphy and Environment, Southern Methodist University Press, Dallas, pp. 1S9-242. Hillman, G. C., Colledge, S. and Harris, D. (1989). Plant-food economy during the epipaleolithic period at Tall Abu Hureyra, Syria: Dietary diversity, seasonality, and modes of exploitation. In Harris, D. R., and Hillman, G. C. (eds.), Foraging and Farming: The Evolution of Plant Exploitation, Unwin and Hyman, London, pp. 240-168. Hillman, G. C., Wales, S., McClaren, F., Evans, J., and Butler, A. (1993). Identifying problematic remains of ancient plant foods: A comparison of the role of chemical,
histological, and morphological criteria. World Archaeology 25: 94-121. Holden, T. G. (1990). Taphonomic and Methodological Problems in Reconstructing Diet from

Ancient Human Gut and Faecal Remains. Ph.D. dissertation, Institute of Archaeology, University College, London. Holden, T. G. (1991). Evidence of prehistoric diet from northern Chile: Coprolites, gut contents and flotation samples from the Tulan Quebrada. World Archaeology 22: 318-331. Hubbard, R. N. L. B., and al Azm, A. (1990). Quantifying presentation and distortion in carbonized seeds and investigating the history of frike production. Journal of Archaeological Science 17: 193-196. Hunter, A. (1992). Utilization o/Hordeurn pusillum (Little Barley) in the Midwest United States: Applying Rindos' Co-evolutionary Model of Domestication. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology.University of Missouri, Columbia. Jacobs, J. S. (1992). The Agroecological Evolution of Cobweb Swamp, Belize, Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Soil and Crop Science, Texas A & M University, College Station. Johannessen, S. (1988). Plant remains and culture change: Are paleoethnobotanical data better than we think? In Hastorf, C. A., and Popper, V. S. (eds.), Current Paleoethnobotany, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 145-166. Johannessen, S. (1993). Food, dishes, and society in the Mississippi Valley. In Scarry, C. M.
(ed.), Foraging and Farming in the Eastern Woodlands, University Press of Florida,

Gainesville, pp. 182-205. Johannessen, S., and Hastorf, C. A. (eds.) (1994). Com and Culture in the Prehistoric New World, Westview Press, Boulder, CO. Johns, T. (1989). A chemical-ecological model of root and tuber domesticating in the Andes.
In Harris, D. R., and Hillman, G. C. (eds.), Foraging and Farming: The Evolution of Plant

Exploitation, Unwin and Hyman, London, pp. 504-522. Jones, G. E. M. (1984). Interpretation of archaeological plant remains: Ethnographic models for Greece. In van Zeist, W., and Casparie, W. A. (eds.), Plants and Ancient Man, A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 43-61. Jones, G. E. M. (1987). A statistical approach to the archaeological identification of crop processing. Journal of Archaeological Science 14: 311-323. Jones, G. E. M. (1991). Numerical analysis in archaeobotany. In van Zeist, W., Wasylikowa, K., and Behre, K.-E. (eds.), Progress in Old World Palaeoethnobotany, A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 63-80. Jones, G. E. M. (1992). Weed phytosociology and crop husbandry: Identifying a contrast between ancient and modern practices. In Pals, J. P. (ed.), Festschrift for Willem van Zeist, Review of Paleoethnobotany and Palynology 73: 133-143. Jones, G. E. M., and Halstead, P. (1995). Maslins, mixtures and monocrops: On the interpretations of archaeobotanical crop samples of hererogenous composition. Journal
of Archaeological Science 22: 103-114. Jones, J. G. (1991). Pollen Evidence of Prehistoric Forest Modification and Maya Cultivation in

Belize, Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Texas A & M University, College Station. Jones, J. G. (1994). Pollen evidence for early settlement and agriculture in northern Belize. Palynology 18: 205-211. Jones, J. G., and Bryant Jr., V. (1992). Use of fossil pollen to identify forest clearing and Maya agriculture in Belize, Central America. Palynology 16:223.

Recent Research in Paleoethnobotany

87

Jones, M. (1985). Archaeobotany beyond subsistence reconstruction. In Barker, G. W. W., and Gamble, C. (eds.), Beyond Domestication in Prehistoric Europe, Oxbow Press, Oxford, pp. 107-128. Jones, V. (1941). The nature and status of ethnobotany. Cronica Botanica 6(10): 219-221. Kaplan, L. (1994). Accelerator mass spectrometry dates and the antiquity of Phaseolus cultivation. Bean Improvement Cooperative 37: 131-132. Kealhofer, L., and Piperno, D. R. (1994). Early agriculture in Southeast Asia: Phytolith evidence from the Bang Pakong Valley, Thailand. Antiquity 68(260): 564-572. Keegan, W. (ed.) (1987). Emergent Horticultural Economies of the Eastern Woodlands, Occasional Paper, No. 7, Center for Archaeological Investigations, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale. Keeley, L. H. (1992). The use of plant foods among hunter-gatherers: A cross-cultural survey. In Anderson, P. C. (ed.), Prehistoire de 'agriculture: novettes approches experimentales et ethnographiques, Monograph 6, CNRS, Paris, pp. 29-38. Kirch, P. V., and Ellison, J. (1994). Paleoevironmental evidence for human colonization of remote oceanic islands. Antiquity 68(259): 310-321. Kislev, M. E. (1989). Pre-domesticated cereals in the pre-pottery Neolithic A period. In Hershkovitz, I. (ed.), Man and Culture in Change, BAR International Series, No. 508, Oxford, pp. 147-151. Kislev, M. E., and Bar-Yosef, O. (1988). The legumes: The earliest domesticated plants in the Near East? Current Anthropology 29: 175-179. Kislev, M. E., and Rosenzweig, S. (1991). Influence of experimental charring on seed dimensions of pulses. In Hajnalova, E. (ed.), Palaeoethnobotany and Archaeology, International Work-Group for Palaeoethnobotany, 8th Symposium, Nirte-Nove, Vozokany 1989, Ada Interdisciplinaria Archaeologica 7: 143-157. Korber-Grohne, U. (1988). Microscopic methods for identification of plant fibres and animal hairs from the prince's tomb of Hochdorf, SW Germany. Journal of Archaeological Science 15: 73-82. Kreuz, A. (1990). Searching for "single-activity refuse" in linearbandkeramik settlements. An archaeological approach. In Robinson, D. E. (ed.), Experimentation and Reconstruction in Environmental Archaeology, Oxbow Books, Oxford, pp. 63-74. Kreuz, A. (1991). Charcoal from ten early Neolithic settlements in central Europe and its interpretation in terms of woodland management and wildwood resources. Les charbons de bois, les anciens ecosystemes et le role de I'homme. Bulletin de la Societe Botanique Francaise, Montpellier, pp. 383-394. Krzyzaniak, L. (1991), Early farming in the middle Nile Basin: Recent discoveries at Kadero (central Sudan). Antiquity 65: 515-532. Kuster, H. (1991). Phytosociology and archaeobotany. In Harris, D. R., and Thomas, K. D. (eds.), Modelling Ecological Change, Institute of Archaeology, London, pp. 17-26. Lalueza Fox, C, and Perez-Perez, A. (1994). Dietary information through the examination of plant phytoliths on the enamel surface of human dentition. Journal of Archaeological Science 21: 29-34. Layton, R., Foley, R., and Williams, E. (1991). The transition between hunting and gathering and the specialized husbandry of resources: A socio-ecological approach. Current Anthropology 32: 255-274. Lennstrom, H. A., and Hastorf, C. A. (1992). Testing Old Wives' tales in Paleoethnobotany: A comparison of bulk and scatter sampling schemes from Pancan, Peru. Journal of Archaeological Science 19: 205-229. Lennstrom, H. A., and Hastorf, C. A. (1995). Interpretation in context: Sampling and analysis in paleoethnobotany. American Antiquity 60: 701 -721. Lentz, D. L. (1991) Maya diets of the rich and poor: Paleoethnobotanical evidence from Copan. Latin American Antiquity 2: 260-268. Leonard, R. D. (1989). Resource specialization, population growth, and agricultural production in the American Southwest. American Antiquity 54: 491-500. Leroi-Gourhan, A. (1975) The flowers found with Shanidar IV, a Neanderthal burial in Iraq. Science 190: 562-564.

88

Hastorf

Letts, J. B., Evans, J., Fung, M., and Hillman, G. C. (1994). A chemical method of identifying charred plant remains using infra-red spectroscopy. In Johannessen, S., and Hastorf, C.

A. (eds.), Com and Culture in the Prehistoric New World, Westview Press, Boulder, CO,
pp. 37-80. Lietava, J. (1992). Medicinal plants in a Middle Paleolithic grave at Shanidar IV? Journal of Ethnopharmacology 35: 263-266. Liphschitz, N., Gopha, R., Hartman, M., and Beger, C. (1991). The beginning of olive (Olea

europaea) cultivation in the Old World, a reassessment. Journal of Archaeological Science


18: 441-455. Long, A., Benz, B., Donahue, D., Jull, A., and Toolin, L. (1989). First direct AMS dates on early maize from Tehuacan, Mexico. Radiocarbon 31: 1035-1040. Loy, T. H., Spriggs, M., and Wickler, S. (1992). Direct evidence for human use of plants 28,000 years ago: Starch residues on stone artifacts form the northern Solomon Islands. Antiquity 66: 898-912. Maloney, B. K. (1992). Late Holocene climatic change in Southeast Asia: The palynological evidence and its implications for archaeology. World Archaeology 24: 26-34. McClung de Tapia, E. (1992). The origins of agriculture in Mesoamerica and Central America.

In Cowan, C. W., and Watson, P. J. (eds.), The Origins of Agriculture: An International


Perspective, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, pp. 143-172. Mclaren, F. S. (1995). Plums from Doura Cave, Syria: The chemical analysis of charred fruit stones. In Kroll, H., and Pasternak, R. (eds.), Res archaeobotanicae, Institut fur Ur- und Fruhgeschichte, Christian-Albreche Universitat, Keil, pp. 195-218. Mclaren, F. S., and Hubbard, R. N. L. B. (1990). The archaeobotanical remains. In Tringham, R., and Krstic, D. (eds.), Selevac.: A Neolithic Village in Yugoslavia, Institute of

Archaeology, UCLA. Monumenta Arqueologica 15: 247-254. McCorriston, J. (1992). The Early Development of Agriculture in the Ancient Near-East: An
Ecological and Evolutionary Study, Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology,,Yale University, New Haven, CT. McCorriston, J., and Hole, F. (1991). The ecology of seasonal stress and the origins of agriculture in the Near East, American Anthropologist 93: 46-69. Miller, N. F. (1990). Clearing land for farmland and fuel: Archaeobotanical studies of the ancient Near East. In Miller, N. F. (ed.), Economy and Settlement in the Near East: Analysis of Ancient Sites and Materials, MASCA Research Papers in Science and Archaeology, Supplement to Vol. 7, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, pp. 71-83. Miller, N. F. (1992). The origins of agriculture in the Near East. In Cowan, C. W., and Watson,

P. J. (eds.), The Origins of Agriculture: An International Perspective, Smithsonian Institution


Press, Washington, DC, pp. 35-58. Miller, N. F. (1995). Archaeobotany: Macroremains. American Journal of Archaeology 99: 91-93. Miller, N. F., and Gleason, K. L. (1994). Fertilizer in the identification and analysis of cultivated soil. In Miller, N. F., and Gleason, K. L. (eds.), The Archaeology of Garden and Field, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, pp. 25-43. Miller, N. F., and Gleason, K. L. (eds.) (1994). The Archaeology of Garden and Field, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia. Millsauskas, S., and Kruk, J. (1989). Neolithic economy in Central Europe. Journal of World Prehistory 3: 403-446. Minnis, P. E. (1987). Identification of wood from archaeological sites in the American Southwest. I. Keys for gymnosperms. Journal of Archaeological Science 14: 121-131. Minnis, P. E. (1989). Prehistoric diet in the northern Southwest: Macroplant remains from Four Corners faeces. American Antiquity 54: 543-563. Minnis, P, E. (1992). Earliest plant cultivation in the desert borderlands of North America.

In Cowan, C. W,, and Watson, P. J. (eds.), The Origins of Agriculture: An International


Perspective. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., pp. 121-142. Moffett, L. (1991). Pignut tubers from a Bronze Age cremation at Ballow Hills, Oxfordshire, and the importance of vegetable tubers in the prehistoric period. Journal of Archaeological Science 18: 187-191.

Recent Research In Paleoethnobotany

89

Moore, A. M. T., and Hiliman, G. C. (1992). The Pleistocene to Holocene transition and human economy in Southwest Asia: The impact of the Younger Dryas. American Antiquity 57: 482-494. Moore, K. M., Miller, N. F., Hiebert, F. T., and Meadow, R. H. (1995). Agriculture and herding in the early oasis settlement of the Oxus civilization. Antiquity 68: 418-427. Moore, P. D., Webb, J. A., and Collinson, M. E. (1991). Pollen Analysis, Blackwell Scientific, Oxford. Morrison, K. D. (1994). Monitoring regional fire history through size-specific analysis of microscopic charcoal: The last 600 years in South India. Journal of Archaeological Science
21: 675-685. Morrison, K. D. (1995). Fields of Victory, Vijyanagara and the Course of Intensification,

Contributions of the Archaeological Research Facility, No. S3, University of California, Berkeley. Mulholland, S. C. (1988). Phytolith shape frequencies in North Dakota grasses: A comparison to general patterns. Journal of Archaeological Science 13: 489-511. Mulholland, S. C. (1993). A test of phytolith analysis at Big Hidatsa, North Dakota. In Pearsall,
D., and Piperno, D. (eds.), Current Research in Phytolith Analysis: Applications in

Archaeology and Paleoecology, MASCA Research Papers in Science and Archaeology, Vol. 10, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, pp. 131-146. Munson, P. J. (1989). Still more on the antiquity of maple sugar and syrup in aboriginal
eastern North America. Journal of Ethnobiology 9: 159-170. Neusius, S. (ed.) (1986). Foraging, Collecting, and Harvesting: Archiac Period Subsistence and

Settlement in the Eastern Woodlands, Occasional Paper, No. 6, Center for Archaeological Investigations, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale. Noshiro, S., Suzuki, M., and Yamida, M. (1992). Species selection for wooden artifacts by prehistoric and early historic people in Kento plain, C. Japan. Journal of Archaeological Science 19: 429-444. Paabo, S. (1985). Molecular cloning of ancient Egyptian mummy DNA. Nature 314: 644-645. Paabo, S. (1993). Ancient DNA. Scientific American 269(5): 86-92. Pals, J. P. (ed.) (1992). Festschrift for Wittem van Zeist, Review of Paleoethnobotany and Pafynology 73. Pearsall, D. M. (1988). Interpreting the meaning of macroremain abundance: The impact of source and context. In Hastorf, C. A., and Popper, V. S. (eds.), Current Paleoethnobotany, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 97-118. Pearsall, D. M. (1989). Paleoethnobotany, a Handbook of Procedures, Academic Press, San Diego. Pearsall, D. M. (1990). Application of phytolith analysis to reconstruction of past environments and subsistence: Recent research in the Pacific. Micronesia Supplement 2: 65-74. Pearsall, D. M. (1992) The origins of plant cultivation in South America. In Cowan, C. W.,
and Watson, P. J. (eds.), The Origins of Agriculture: An International Perspective,

Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, pp. 173-205. Pearsall, D. M. (1994) Investigating New World tropical agriculture: Contributions from phytolith analysis. In Hather, J. G. (ed). Tropical Archaeobotany, Routledge, London, pp. 115-138. Pearsall, D. M. (1995a). Domestication and agriculture in the New World Tropics. In Price, T. D., and Gebauer, A. B. (eds.), Last Hunters-First Farmers, School of American Research Press, Santa Fe, NM, pp. 157-192. Pearsall, D. M. (1995b). "Doing" paleoethnobotany in the tropical lowlands: Adaptation and innovation in methodology. In Stahl, P. (ed.), Archaeology in the Lowland American Tropics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 113-129. Pearsall, D. M,, and Piperno, D. R. (1990). Antiquity of maize cultivation in Ecuador: Summary and revaluation of the evidence. American Antiquity 55: 324-337. Pearsall, D. M. and Piperno, D. R. (eds.) (1993). Current Research in Phytolith Analysis:
Applications in Archaeology and Paleoecology, MASCA Research Papers in Science and

Archaeology, Vol. 10, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

90

Hastorf

Piperno, D. R. (1988). Phytotith Analysis, An Archaeological and Geological Perspective, Academic Press, San Diego. Piperno, D. R. (1990). Aboriginal agriculture and land usage in the Amazon Basin, Ecuador. Journal of Archeological Science 17: 665-677. Piperno, D. R. (1991). The status of phytolith analysis in the American tropics. Journal of World Archaeology S: 155-199. Piperno, D. R. (1993). Phytolith and charcoal records from deep lake cores in the American tropics. In Pearsall, D., and Piperno, D. (eds.), Current Research in Phytolith Analysis: Applications in Archaeology and Paleoecology, MASCA Research Papers in Science and Archaeology, Vol. 10, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, pp. 58-72. Piperno, D. R. (1994). On the emergence of agriculture in the New World. Current Anthropology 35:637-639. Piperno, D. R., Colinvaux, P. A., and Bush, M. B. (1991) Paleoecological perspectives on human adaptation in central Panama, II: The Holocene. Geoarchaeology 6:227-250. Poinar, H. N., Cano, R. J., and Poinar, G. O., Jr. (1993). DNA from an extinct plant. Nature 363:677. Popper, V. S., and Hastorf, C. A. (1988). Introduction. In Hastorf, C. A., and Popper, V. S. (eds.), Current Paleoethnobotany, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 1-13. Powers-Jones, A., and Padmore, J. (1993). The use of quantitative methods and statistical analyses in the study of opal phytoliths. In Pearsall, D., and Piperno, D. (eds.), Current Research in Phytolith Analysis: Applications in Archaeology and Paleoecology, MASCA Research Papers in Science and Archaeology, Vol. 10, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, pp. 47-56. Price, T. D., and Gebauer, A. B. (1995). Last Hunters-First Farmers, School of American Research Press, Santa Fe, NM. Pulliam, C. (1987). Middle and Late Woodland horticultural practices in the western margin of the Mississippi River Valley. In Keegan, W. (ed.), Emergent Horticultural Economies of the Eastern Woodlands, Occasional Paper, No. 7, Center for Archaeological Investigation, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, pp. 185-200. Quiros, C. F., Brush, S. B., Douches, D. S., Zimmer, K. S., and Heustis, G. (1990). Biochemical and folk assessment of variability of Andean cultivated potatoes. Economic Botany 44: 254-266. Rapp, G. R., Jr., and Mulholland, S. C. (eds.) (1992). Phytolith Systematics: Emerging Issues, Plenum Press, New York. Reddy, S. N. (1994). Plant Usage and Subsistence Modeling: An Ethnoarchaeological Approach to the Late Harappan of Northwest India, Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin, Madison. Reinhard, K. J., Hamilton, D. J., and Hevly, R. (1991). Use of pollen concentration in paleopharmacology: Coprolite evidence of medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnobiology 11: 117-132. Renfrew, J. (ed.) (1991). New Light on Early Farming, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh. Richard, H. (1993). Palynological micro-analysis in Neolithic lake dwellings. Journal of Archaeological Science 20: 241-262. Riley, T. J., Edging, R., and Rossen, J. (1990). Cultigens in prehistoric eastern North America. Current Anthropology 31: 525-541. Rindos, D. (1984). The Origins of Agriculture, Academic Press, San Diego. Rollo, F. (1985). Characterization by molecular hybridization of RNA fragments isolated from ancient (1400 B.C.) seeds. Theoretical Applications in Genetics 71: 330-333. Rollo, F., Amiel, A., Salvi, R., and Garbuglia, A. (1988). Short but faithful pieces of ancient DNA. Nature 335: 774. Rollo, F., Venanzi, F. M., and Amici, A. (1991). Nucleic acids in mummified plant seeds: Biochemistry and molecular genetics of pre-Colombian maize. Genetic Research 58: 193-201. Rosen, A. M. Miller (1993). Phytolith evidence for early cereal exploitation in the Levant. In Pearsall, D., and Piperno, D. (eds.), Current Research in Phytolith Analysis: Applications

Recent Research In Paleoethnobotany

91

in Archaeology and Paleoecology, MASCA Research Papers in Science and Archaeology, Vol. 10, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, pp. 160-171. Rosen, A. M. Miller (1994). Identifying ancient irrigation: A new method using opaline phytoliths from emmer wheat. Journal of Archaeological Science 21: 125-132. Rottlander, R. C. A. (1990). Lipid analysis in the identification of vessel contents. In Biers, W. R., and McGovem, P. E. (eds.), Organic Contents of Ancient Vessels, Material Analysis and Archaeological Investigation, MASCA Research Papers in Science and Archaeology, Vol. 7, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, pp. 37-40. Rowlett, R. M., and Peareall, D. (1993). Archaeological age determinations derived from opal phytoliths by thermoluminescence. In Pearsall, D., and Piperno, D. (eds.), Current Research in Phytolith Analysis: Applications in Archaeology and Paleoecology, MASCA Research Papers in Science and Archaeology, Vol. 10, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, pp. 25-30. Runia, L. T. (1987). Strontium and calcium distributions in plants: Effects on paleoedietary studies. Journal of Archeological Science 14: 599-608. Russ, J. C., and Rovner, I. (1989). Plant and animal procurement sites in the Lower Pecos region, Texas. Journal of Field Archaeology 19: 335-349. Rust, W., and Leyden, B. W. (1994). Evidence of maize use at Early and Middle Preclassic La Venta Olmec sites. In Johannessen, S., and Hastorf, C. A. (eds.), Com and Culture in the Prehistoric New World, Westview Press, Boulder, CO, pp. 181-202. Scarry, C. M. (ed.) (1993). Foraging and Farming in the Eastern Woodlands, University of Florida Press, Gainesville. Schiffer, M. B. (1987). Formation Processes of the Archaeological Record, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque. Schoenwetter, D. (1987). Palynological approach to a chronometry problem in the Colorado Plateau. Journal of Ethnobiology T. 123-135. Scott, A. C. (1989). Observation on the nature and origin of fusian. International Journal of Coal Geology 12: 443-475. Seltzer, G., and Hastorf, C. A. (1990). Climatic change and its effect on prehistoric agriculture in the Peruvian Andes. Journal of Field Archaeology 17: 397-417. Sergerstrom, U. (1991). Soil pollen analysis: An application for tracing ancient arable patches. Journal of Archaeological Science 18: 165-175. Shackelton, C, and Pruess, P. (1992). Charcoal analysis and the principle of least effort: A conceptual model. Journal of Archaeological Science 19: 631-638. Shipek, F. C. (1989). An example of intensive plant husbandry: The Kumeyaay of southern California. In Harris, D. R., and Hillman, G. C. (eds.), Foraging and Farming: The Evolution of Plant Exploitation, Unwin and Hyman, London, pp. 159-170. Sillen, A., Sealy, J., and van der Merwe, N. J. (1989). Chemistry and paleodietary research: No more easy answers. American Antiquity 54: 504-512. Simms, S. (1987). Behavioral Ecology and Hunter-Gatherer Foraging: An Example from the Great Basin, BAR International Series, No. 381, Oxford. Smart, T., and Hoffman, E. S. (1988). Environmental interpretation of archaeological charcoal. In Hastorf, C. A., and Popper, V. S. (eds.), Current Paleoethnobotany, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 167-205. Smith, B. D. (1987). The economic potential of Chenopodium berlandieri in prehistoric eastern North America. Journal of Ethnobiology T. 29-54. Smith, B. D. (1989). Origins of agriculture in eastern North America. Science 246: 1566-1571. Smith, B. D. (1992). Rivers of Change; Essays on Early Agriculture in Eastern North America, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. Smith, B. D. (1995). The Emergence of Agriculture, Scientific American Library, New York. Smith, B. D. (1997). The initial domestication of Cucurbita pepo in the Americas 10,000 years ago. Science 276: 932-934. Smith, B. D., and Cowan, C. W. (1987). Domesticated Chenopodium in prehistoric eastern North America: New accelerator dates from eastern Kentucky. American Antiquity 52: 355-357.

92

Hastorf

Smith, H., and Jones, G. (1990). Experiments on the effects of charring on cultivated grape seeds. Journal of Archaeological Science 17: 317-327. Sobolik, K. D. (ed.) (1994). Paleonutrition: The Diet and Health of Prehistoric Americans, Occasional Paper, No. 22, Center for Archaeological Investigations, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Sobolik, K. D., and Gerick, D. J. (1992). Prehistoric medicinal plant usage: A case study from coprolites. Journal of Ethnobiology 12: 203-211. Spielmann, K. A., Schoeninger, M. J., and Moore, K. (1990). Plains-Pueblo interdependence and human diet at Pecos Pueblo, New Mexico. American Antiquity 55: 745-746. Stahl, A. (1989). Plant-food processing: Implications for dietary quality. In Harris, D. R., and Hillman, G. C. (eds.), Foraging and Farming: The Evolution of Plant Exploitation, Unwin and Hyman, London, pp. 171-194. Taube, K. A. (1989). The maize tamale in classic Maya diet, epigraphy and art. American Antiquity 54: 31-51. Thomas, K. D. (ed.) (1990). Soil and Early Agriculture, World Archaeology 22(1). Thomas, K. D. (1993). Molecular biology and archaeology: A prospectus for inter-disciplinary research. World Archaeology 25: 1-17. Thompson, G. B. (1992). Archaeobotanical Investigations at Khok Phanom Di, Central Thailand, Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Prehistory, Australian National University, Canberra. Thuesen, I. (1995). Paleogenetics: DNA for the archaeologists. American Journal of Archaeology 99: 136-139. Tipping, R. (1994). "Ritual" floral tributes in the Scottish Bronze age: Palynological evidence. Journal of Archaeological Science 21: 133-139. Ugent, D., Pozorski, S., and Pozorski, T. (1982). Archaeological potato tuber remains from the Casma Valley of Peru. Economic Botany 36: 182-192. Ugent, D., Pozorski, S., and Pozorski, T. (1984). New evidence for ancient cultivation of Canna edulis in Peru. Economic Botany 33: 417-432. Umlauf, M. (1993). Phytolith evidence for Initial period maize at Cardal, central coast of Peru. In Pearsall, D., and Piperoo, D. (eds.). Current Research in Phytolith Analysis: Applications in Archaeology and Paleoecology, MASCA Research Papers in Science and Archaeology, Vol. 10, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, pp. 125-129. van der Veen, M. (1984). Sampling for seeds. In van Zeist, W., and Casparie, W. A. (eds.), Plants and Ancient Man, A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 198-200. van der Veen, M. (1991). Consumption or production? Agriculture in the Cambridgeshire Fens. In Renfrew, J. (ed.), New Light on Early Farming, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, pp. 349-361. van der Veen, M. (1992). Crop Husbandry Regimes: An Archaeobotanical Study of Fanning in Northern England, 1000 B.C.-A.D. 500, Sheffield Archaeological Monographs, No. 3, J. R. Collis, Sheffield, UK. van Zeist, W. (1988). Some aspects of early Neolithic plant husbandry in the Near East. Anatolia 15: 49-67. van Zeist, W,, and Casparie, W. A. (eds.) (1984). Plants and Ancient Man, Studies in Paleoethnobotany, A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam. van Zeist, W., Wasylikowa, K., and Behre, K.-E. (eds.) (1991). Progress in Old World Paleoethnobotany, A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam. Wagner, G. E. (1988). Comparability among recovery techniques. In Hastorf, C. A., and Popper, V. S. (eds.) Current Paleoethnobotany, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 17-35. Wales, S., Evans, J., and Leeds, A. R. (1992). The value of using chemical analytical techniques on coprolites. In Organic Residues in Archaeology: Their Identification and Analysis, UK Institute for Conservation Monograph, London, pp. 33-38. Warnock, P. J., and Reinhard, K. J, (1992). Methods for extracting pollen and parasite eggs from latrine soils. Journal of Archaeological Science 19: 261-264. Watson, P. J. (1989). Early plant cultivation in the eastern woodlands of North America. In Harris, D., and Hillman, G. (eds.), Foraging and Farming: The Evolution of Plant Exploitation, Unwin and Hyman, London, pp. 555-570.

Recent Research in Paleoethnobotany

93

Watson, P. J., and Kennedy, M. (1991). The development of horticulture in the eastern woodlands of North America: Women's role. In Gero, J., and Conkey, M. (eds.), Engendering Archaeology, Women and Prehistory, Basil Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 255-275. Welch, P. D., and Scarry, C. M. (1995). Status-related variation in foodways in the Moundville chiefdom. American Antiquity 60: 397-419. Wills, W. H. (1988). Early agriculture and sedentism in the American Southwest: Evidence and interpretations. Journal of World Prehistory 2: 445-488. Wright, H. E. Jr. (1993). Environmental determinism in Near Eastern prehistory. Current Anthropology 43: 458-469. Wymer, D. A. (1987). The middle Woodland-late Woodland interface in central Ohio. Subsistence continuity amid cultural change. In Keegan, W. (ed.), Emergent Horticultural Economies of the Eastern Woodlands, Occasional Paper, No. 7, Center for Archaeological Investigations, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, pp. 201-216. Zeder, M. A. (1994). After the revolution: Post-Neolithic subsistence in northern Mesopotamia. American Anthropologist 96: 97-126. Zohary, D., and Hopf, M. (1993). Domestication of Plants in the Old World, 2nd ed., Oxford Science, Rotterdam.

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF RECENT LITERATURE2 Abakumova, M., and Sillasoo, 0. (1991). Taimejaanused arheoloogilistes proovides. In Botaanilised Uurimused 6, Puhendatud prof. L.-M. Laasimeri malestusele, Eest Teadustie Akadeenia Zooloogia ja Botaanika Institut, Tallin, pp. 117-217. Adams, K. R. (1990). Prehistoric reedgrass (Phragmites) "cigarettes" with tobacco (Nicotiana) contents: A case study from Red Bow Cliff Dwelling, Arizona. Journal of Ethnobiology 10: 123-139. Allsworth-Jones, P. (1991). Kariya Wuro rockshelter, Bauchi State: Recent results. West African Journal of Archaeology 21: 202-207. Alonso, N., and Buxo i Capdevila, R. (1991). Estudi sobre restes paleocarpoldgiques al Valles Occidental: primers resultats del jaciment de les Sitges UAB (Cerdanyola del Vall6s). Limes 1: 19-35. Alonso i Martinez, N. (1992). Conreus i agriculture a la Plana Occidental Catalana en Epoca Ibdrica. Estudi arqueobotdnic de Margalef (Torregrossa el Pla d'Urgell) i Tossal de les Tenalles (Sidamon, el Pla d'Urgell). Quaderns Arqueolo. Grup Recerques "La Femosa" 7, Artesa de Lleida, pp. 1-56. Andah, B. W. (1993). Identifying early farming traditions of West Africa. In Wendorf, F., and Close, A. E. (eds.), Archaeology of Africa: Food, Metals and Towns, Routledge, London, pp. 240-254. Anderson, A. (1994). Paleoenvironmental evidence of island colonization. Antiquity 68(261): 873-877. Anderson, M. K. (1991). California Indian horticulture: Management and use of Redbud by the southern Sierra Miwok. Journal of Ethnobiology 11: 145-157. Anderson-Gerfaud, P. J. (ed.) (1993). Prehistoire de l'agriculture: nouvelle approaches experimentations et ethnographique, Editions du CNRS, Valbonne. Anderson-Gerfaud, P. J., Deraprahamian, G., and Willcox, G. (1991). Les premieres cultures de cereales sauvages et domestiques primilives au Prouche-Orient ndolithique: resultats preliminaires d'experiences a Jales (Ardeche). Cahiers Euphrate 5-6: 191-232. Argant, J., Brochier, J. L., and Heinz, C. (1991). Pollens, charbons de bois et sediments: I'action humaine et la vegetation, le cas de la grotte d'Antonnaire Montmaur-en-Diois, Drome. Revu D'archeometrie 15: 29-40.
2

Compiled by James J. Barnes and Christine A. Hastorf.

94

Hastorf

Armit, I., and Finlayson, B. (1992). Hunter-gatherers transformed: The transition to

agriculture in northern and western Europe. Antiquity 66(252): 664-676. Arzigian, C. (1993). Analysis of Prehistoric Subsistence Strategies: A Case Study of Southwestern Wisconsin, Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin, Madison. Bakels, C.C. (1990). The crops of the Rossen culture: Significantly different from their Bankeramik predecessors-French influence? In Cahen, D., and Otte, M. (eds.), Rubane a Cardial, ERAUL, Liege, pp. 83-87. Bakkevik, S. (1992). Prehistoric cereal raising at Forsandmoen, south-west Norway: Changes between the Bronze age and the Iron Age. Laboratic Arkeologi 6: 49-55. Beck, C. W. (1995). The provenience analysis of amber. American Journal of Archaeology 99: 125-127. Beck, C. W., and Borromeo, C. (1990). Ancient pine pitch: Technological perspectives from a Hellenistic shipwreck, In Biers W. R., and McGovern, P. E. (eds.), Organic Contents of Ancient Vessels: Materials Analysis and Archaeological Investigation, MASCA Research Papers in Science and Archaeology, Vol. 7, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, pp. 51-58. Bellomo, R. V. (1993). A methodological approach for identifying archaeological evidence of fire resulting from human activities, Journal of Archaeological Science 20: 525-553. Bendremer, J, C. M., Kelloff, E. A., and Largy T. B. (1991). A grass-lined maize storage pit and early maize horticulture in central Connecticut North American Archaeologist 12: 325-350. Berato, J., Leguilloux, M., Rogers, G., and Borreani, M. (1990). Villa gallo-romaine des Laurons (quartier Saint-Pierre): les Arcs-sur-Argens, Var. Documents D'archeologie Meridionale 13: 221-247. Bernstein, D. J. (1992). Prehistoric use of plant foods in the Narragansett Bay region. Man in Northeast Albany 44: 1-13. Binder, D., Benoist, F., Vitry, C., and Bourgeois, G. (1990). Identification de brai de bouleau (Betula) dans le Neolithique de Giribaldi (Nice, France) par la spectrometrie de masse. Revue D'archeometrie 14: 37-42. Bird, R. McC. (1990). What are the chances of finding maize in Peru dating before 1000 B.C.? Reply to Bonavia and Grobman. American Antiquity 55: 828-840. Blake, L. W. (1992). Corn from the Orchard site (22-Le-515). Mississippi Archaeology 27: 60-71. Blumler, M. A. (1991). Modelling the origins of legume domestication and cultivation. Economic Botany 45: 243-250. Blumler, M. A. (1992). Independent inventions and recent genetic evidence on plant domestication. Economic Botany 46: 98-111. Boardman, S., and Jones, G. (1990). Experiments on the effects of charring on cereal plant components. Journal of Archaeological Science 17: 1-11. Bohrer, V. L. (1991). Recently recognized cultivated and encouraged plants among the Hohokam. Kiva 56: 227-235. Bonde, N., and Christensen, A. E. (1993). Dendrochronological dating of the Viking Age ship burials at Oseberg, Gokstad and Tune, Norway. Antiquity 67(256): 575-583. Bower, M. (1992). Cereal pollen dispersal: A pilot study. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 1: 236-241. Bouzek, J. (1993). Climatic changes: New archaeological evidence from the Bohemian Karst and other areas. Antiquity 67(255): 386-393. Bozarth, S. R. (1993). Maize (Zea mays) cob phytoliths from a central Kansas Great Bend aspect archaeological site. Plains Anthropologist 38(146): 279-286. Bretting, P. K. (1990). New perspectives on the origin and evolution of New World domesticated plants. Economic Botany 44: 1-5. Brooks, R. R., and Johannes, D. (1990). Phytoarchaeobgy, Dioscorides Press, Portland, OR. Burchard, R. E. (1992). Coca chewing and diet. Current Anthropology 33: 1-24. Butler, A. (1990), Food Legumes in Antiquity: A Micromorphobgical Investigation of Seeds of Vicieae, Ph.D. dissertation, Institute of Archaeology, University College, London.

Recent Research in Paleoethnobotany

95

Bye, R. A., and Linares, E. (1990). Mexican market plants of 16th century I: Plants recorded in Historia Natural de Nueva Espafia. Journal of Ethnobiology 10: 151-168. Cartmell, L. W., Aufderheide, A. C., Springfield, A., Weems, C., and Arriaza, B. (1991). The frequency and antiquity of prehistoric coca-leaf-chewing practices in northern Chile: Radioiramunoassay of a cocaine metabolite in human-mummy hair. Latin American Antiquity 2: 260-268. Ceci, L. (1990). Maize cultivation in coastal New York: The archaeological, agronomical, and documentary evidence. North American Archaeologist 11: 147-176. Chabal, L (1991). Environment vegetal de 1'habitat antique de La Galere (Ile de Porquerolles, Hyeres, Var): etude anthropologique. Documents D'archeologie MeridionaU 14: 368-377. Chapman, J., and Muller, J. (1990). Early farmers in the Mediterranean Basin: The Dalmatian evidence. Antiquity 64(242): 127-134. Coles, G. M., and Gilbertson, D. D. (1994). The airfall-pollen budget of archaeologically important caves: Creswell Crages, England Journal of Archaeological Science 21: 735-755. Colinvaux, P. A., and Bush, M. B. (1991). The rain-forest ecosystem as a resource for hunting and gathering. American Anthropologist 93: 153-160. Cooke, R., and Ranere, A. J. (1992). Prehistoric human adaptations to the seasonally dry forests of Panama. World Archaeology 24: 114-133. Cordova, C., Delpozzo, A. L. M., and Camacho, J. L. (1994). Paleoland forms and volcanic impact on the environment of prehistoric Cuicuilco, southern Mexico City. Journal of Archaeological Science 21: 585-596. Costantini, L. (1990). Harappan agriculture in Pakistan: The evidence of Nausharo. In Taddei,
M. (ed.), South Asian Archaeology 1987, Proceedings of the 9th International Conference of the Association of South Asian Archaeology in Western Europe, Institute Italiano peril

il Medio ed Estremo Oriente, Vol. 66, Rome, pp. 321-332. Costantini, L., and Dyson, R. H., Jr. (1990). Ancient agriculture of the Damghan Plain: The archaeobotanical evidence from Tepe Hissar. In Miller, N. F. (ed.), Economy and
Settlement in the Near East: Analyses of Ancient Sites and Materials, MASCA Research

Papers in Science and Archaeology, supplement to Vol. 7, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, pp. 46-68. Cowan, C. W., and Smith, B. D. (1993). New perspectives on a wild gourd in eastern North
America. Journal of Ethnobiology 13: 17-54. Crawford, P. L. (1994). Man-Land Relationships in the Wadi Tumilat of Egypt Tell El-Maschuta:

A Paleoethnobotanical Perspective, Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Archaeology, Boston University, Boston. Crites, G. D. (1993). Domesticated sunflower in 5th millennium B.P. temporal context: New evidence from middle Tennessee. American Antiquity 58: 146-148. Delyser, D. Y., and Kasper, W. J. (1994). Hopped beer: The case for cultivation. Economic Botany 48: 166-170. Demeritt, D. (1991). Agriculture, climate, and cultural adaptation in the prehistoric Northeast. Archaeology of Eastern North America 19: 183-202. de Vartavan, C. (1990). Contaminated plant-foods from the tomb of Tutankhamun: A new interpretive system. Journal of Archaeological Science 17: 473-494. Devries, F. T. (1991). Chufa (Cyperus esculentus, Cyperaceae): A weedy cultivar or a cultivated weed. Economic Botany 45: 27-37. Doran, G. H., Dickel, D. N., and Newsom, L. A. (1990). A 7,290 year-old bottle gourd from the Windover site, Florida. American Antiquity 55: 354-360. Dorfler, W. (1990). Geschichte des Hanfanbaus in Mitteleuropa: Aufgrund palynologischer Untersuchungen und von Grossrestnachweisen. Praehistorische Zeitschrift 65: 218-244. Drass, R. R. (1993). Macrobotanical remains from two early Plains village sites in central Oklahoma. Plains Anthropologist 38(142): 51-64. Eisentraut, P. J. (1990). Investigations of prehistoric seed caches from site CA-SC1I-1542, San Clemente Island. Pacific Coast Archaeological Society Quarterly 26(2-3): 93-113. Esabrook, G. F. (1994). Choice of fuel for Bagaco still helps maintain biological diversity in traditional Portuguese agricultural system. Journal of Ethnobiology 14: 43-58.

96

Hastorf

Evans, J. (1990). Come back King Alfred, all is forgiven. In Biers, W. R., and McGovern, P. E. (eds.), Organic Contents of Ancient Vessels: Materials Analysis and Archaeological Investigation, MASCA Research Papers in Science and Archaeology, Vol. 7, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, pp. 7-9. Evans, S. T. (1990). The productivity of maguey terrace agriculture in central Mexico during the Aztec period. Latin American Antiquity 1: 117-132. Ezzo, J. A. (1992). A test of diet versus diagenesis at Ventana Cave, Arizona. Journal of Archaeological Science 19: 23-37. Fairbairn, A. S. (1993). Charred plant remains. In Whittle, A., Rouse, A. J., and Evans, J. G. (eds.), A Neolithic Downland Monument in Its Environment: Excavations at the Easton Down Long Barrow, Bishops Cannings, North Wiltshire, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 59: 197-239. Fie, S. M., Hunt, E. D., Zubrow, E., Jacobi, R., Bartalotta, K., Brennan, J., Allen, K., Bush, P., and Fountain, J. (1990). Encrustations in Iroquois ceramic vessels and food resource
areas. In Biers, W. R., and McGovern, P. E. (eds.), Organic Contents of Ancient Vessels:

Materials Analysis and Archaeological Investigation, MASCA Research Papers in Science


and Archaeology, Vol. 7, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, pp. 11-23. Florian, M.-L. E., Kronkright Dale, P., and Norton, R. E. (1990). The Conservation of Artifacts

Made from Plant Materials, Getty Conservation Institute, Marina del Rey, CA. Floyd, M. L., and Kohler, T. A. (1990). Current productivity and prehistoric use of pifion (Pinus edulis, Pinaceae) in the Dolores Archaeological Project area, southwestern Colorado, Economic Botany 44: 141-156. Fredskild, B., and Humle, L, (1991). Plant remains from the Norse farm Sandnes in the western settlement, Greenland. Ada Borealia 1: 69-81. Frink, D. S. (1992). The chemical variability of carbonized organic matter through time. Archaeology of Eastern North America 20: 67-80. Fritz, G. J. (1990). Multiple pathways to farming in precontact Eastern North America. Journal of World Prehistory 4: 387-435. Fritz, G. J. (1993). Archeobotanical evidence from the Cobb-Pool site, a late prehistoric farmstead in Dallas County, Texas. Texas Archeological Society Bulletin 64: 227-246. Fritz, G. J. (1994). Precolumbian Cucurbila argyrosperma ssp. argyrosperma (Cucurbitaceae) in the eastern woodlands of North America. Economic Botany 49: 280-292. Fritz, G. J., and Kidder, T. R. (1993). Recent investigations into prehistoric agriculture in the Lower Mississippi Valley. Southeastern Archaeology 12: 1-14. Garman, J. C. (1991). Prehistoric maize at Riverside, Mill. Massachusetts Archaeological Society Bulletin 52(1): 1-7. Gepts, P. (1990). Biochemical evidence bearing on the domestication of Phaseolus (Fabaceae) beans. Economic Botany 44: 28-38. Gmitter, F. G., and Hu, X. L. (1990). The possible role of Yunnan, China, in the origin of contemporary citrus species (Rutaceae). Economic Botany 44: 267-277. Goren-Inbar, N., Belitzky, S., Verosub, K., Werker, E., Kislev, M., Heimann, A., Carmi, I., and Rosenfeld, A. (1992). New discoveries at the middle Pleistocene Acheulian site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, Israel. Quaternary Research 38: 117-128. Greffier, F., Ruffaldi, P., and Richard, H. (1992). Computerizing the acquisition of archeobotanic counting (SCOPOLI-Fossiles). Revue d'archeometrie 16: 63-69. Gregg, S. (1991). Indirect food production: Mutualism and the archaeological visibility of cultivation. In Gregg, S. (ed.), Between Bands and States: Sedentism, Subsistence and Interaction in Small-Scale Societies, Occasional Paper, No. 9, Center for Archaeological Investigations, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, pp. 203-215. Gregg, S. (ed.) (1991). Between Bands and States: Sedentism, Subsistence and Interaction in Small-Scale Societies, Occasional Paper, No. 9, Center for Archaeological Investigations,
Southern Illinois University, Carbondale. Gremillion, K. J. (1993). Plant husbandry at the Archaic/Woodland transition: Evidence from the Cold Oak Shelter, Kentucky. Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology 18: 161-189. Gremillion, K. J. (1993). Adoption of Old World crops and processes of cultural change in the historic Southeast. Southeastern Archaeology 12: 15-20.

Recent Research in Paleoethnobotany

97

Griffin, K., and Sandvik, P. U. (1989). Frukter, FrO og andre makrofossiler. Funksjoner og aktiviteter belyst gjenom analyser av jordprOver. Fortiden Trondheim Bygrunn

Folkebibliotekstomten Medd. 19: 53-79, Trondheim. Gronlund, E., Uimonen-Simola, P., and Simola, H. (1990). Early agriculture in the eastern Finnish Lake District. Norwegian Archaeological Review 23(1-2): 79-85. Gyulai, F. (1991). Remnants of food from the Bronze Age. Industrial Archaeology and Archaeometry News 9: 4-9, Budapest. Haldane, C. (1993). Direct evidence for organic cargoes in the Late Bronze Age. World Archaeology 24: 348-360. Hall, A. R. (1992). The last teasel factory in Britain and some observations on teasel (Dipsacus fullonum L. and D. sativus [L.] Honckeney) remains from archaeological deposits. Circaea 9(1): 9-13. Hansen, J. M. (1991). Beyond subsistence: Behavioural reconstruction from palaeoethnobotany. Archaeological Review 10(1): 53-59. Hansen, J. M. (1991). The Paleoethnobotany of Franchthi Cave, Indiana University Press, Bloomington. Hansson, A.-M., Liden, K., and Isaksson, S. (1992). The charred seed-cake from Eketorp. Pact 38: 303-315. Harris, D. R., Masson, V. M., Berezkin, Y. E., Charles, M. P. (1993). Investigating early agriculture in Central Asia: New research at Jeitun. Antiquity 67(255): 324-338. Hastorf, C. A. (1990). The ecosystem model and long-term prehistoric change: An example from the Andes. In Moran, E. F. (ed.), The Ecosystem Approach in Anthropology, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, pp. 131-157. Hastorf, C. A. (1993). Agriculture and the Onset of Political Inequality before the Inka, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Hastorf, C. A., and Johannessen, S. (1993). Pre-Hispanic political change and the role of maize in the central Andes of Peru. American Anthropologist 95: 115-138. Hather, J. G. (1994). A morphological classification of roots and tubers and its bearing on the origins of agriculture in Southwest Asia and Europe. Journal of Archaeological Science 21: 719-724. Hather, J. G. (ed.) (1994). Tropical Archaeobotany: Applications and New Developments, Routledge, New York. Hather, J. G., and Hammond, N. (1994). Ancient Maya subsistence diversity: Root and tuber remains from Cuello, Belize. Antiquity 68(259): 330-335. Hather, J. G., and Hammond, N. (1994). Ancient Maya subsistence diversity. Antiquity 68(260): 487-488. Hather, J. G., and Kirch, P. V. (1992). Prehistoric sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) from Mangaia Island, central Polynesia. Antiquity 65(249): 887-893. Haury, E. W., and Huckell, L. W. (eds.) (1993). Prehistoric cotton cache from the Pinaleno Mountains, Arizona. Kiva 59: 95-145. Hazlett, D. L. (1991). Availability and nutritional value of Cymopterus (Apiaceae) roots in the Colorado steppe. Journal of Ethnobiology 11: 83-92. Heckenberger, M. J., Peterson, J. B., and Sidell, N. A. (1992). Early evidence of maize agriculture in the Connecticut River Valley of Vermont. Archaeology of Eastern North America 20: 67-80. Heinen, H. D., and Yee, D. (1994). More on why hunter-gatherers work. Current Anthropology 35: 287-289. Heiser, C. (1990). New perspectives on the origin and evolution of New World domesticated plants. Economic Botany 44: 111-116. Hepper, F. N. (1990). Pharaoh's flowers: The Botanical Treasures of Tutankhamun, H.M.S.O., London. Hill, H. E., and Evans, J. (1990). Producing standards for identifying plant food remains on ancient pottery: With special reference to Southeast Asia and the Pacific area. In Glover, I., and Glover, E. (eds.), Southeast Asian Archaeology 1986: Proceedings of the First Conference of the Association of Southeast Asian Archaeologists in Western Europe, BAR International Series, No. 561, Oxford, pp. 101-108.

98

Hastorf

Hillam, J., Groves, C. M., Brown, D. M., Baillie, M. G. L., Coles, J. M., and Coles, B. J. (1990). Dendrochronology of the English Neolithic. Antiquity 64(243): 210-220. Hjelmqvist, H. (1990). Uber die Zusammensetzung einiger prahistorischer Brote. Fomvannen 85(1): 9-21. Holt, C A. (1991). Plants, humans, and culture: An edible model of consuming behavior. Historical Archaeology 25(2): 46-61. Honeysett, E. A., and Shultz, P. D. (1990). Burned seeds from a goldrush store in Sacramento, California. Historical Archaeology 24(1): 46-61. Huckell, L. W. (1993). Plant remains from the Pinaleno cotton cache, Arizona. Kiva 59: 147-203. Illig, H., and Lange, E. (1992). Die naturraumliche Situation in der Umgebung von Presenchen, Kr. Luckau und die palaoethnobotanischen Befunde zur fruhmittelalterlichen Vegetation und Landschaft. Biotogische Studien Luckau 21: 9-25. Jocomet, S., Brombacher, C, and Dick, M. (1991). Archaeobotanical work in Swiss Neolithic and Bronze Age lake dwellings over the past ten years. In Renfrew, J. (ed.), New Light on Early Farming: Recent Developments in Paleoethnobotany, Edinburgh University Press,
Edinburgh, pp. 257-276. Johannessen, S., and Hastorf, C. A. (1990). A history of fuel management (A.D. 500 to the

present) in the Mantaro Valley, Peru. Journal of Ethnobiology 10: 61-90. Johannessen, S., Hastorf, C. A., and Goette, S. (1990). Modern and ancient maize fragments: An experiment in variability. Journal of Quantitative Anthropology 2: 179-200. Johnson, W. G. (1990). The role of maize in southern Florida aboriginal societies. Florida Anthropologist 43(2-4): 285-294. Jones, G. (1990). The application of present-day cereal processing studies to charred archaeobotanical remains. Circaea 6(2): 91-96. Jones, G., Straker, V., and Davis, A. (1991). Early medieval plant use and ecology. In Vince, A. G. (ed.), Aspects of Saxon and Norman London 2: Finds and Environmental Evidence, Special Paper, No. 12, Middlesex Archaeological Society, London, pp. 347-388. Karg, S. (1991). Knoblauchzehen aus dem mittlealterlichen Laugen BE. Archaologie der Sweiz 14: 257-260. Karg, S., and Jacomet, S. (1991). Pflanzliche makroreste als informtionsquelle zur RenShrungsgeschichte des Mittelalters en der Schweiz und Suddeutschland. In Tauber, J. (ed.), Methoden und Perspektiven der Archaologie des Mittelalters, Museen die Archaologie des Kantons, Baselland, Switzerland, pp. 121-143. Karg, S., and Muller, M. (1991). Neolithische getreidefunde aus Pokrovnik, Dalmatien. Archaologisches Korrespondenzblatt 20: 373-386. Kassai, M. K. (1991). Recent palaeoethnobotanical research in Hungary. In Renfrew, J. (ed), New Light on Early Farming: Recent Developments in Palaeoethnobotany, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, pp. 277-279. Kelso, G. K. (1993). Pollen-record formation processes, interdisciplinary archaeology, and land use by mill workers and managers: The Boott Mills Corporation, Lowell, Massachusetts, 1836-1942. Historical Archaeology 27(1): 70-94. Kelso, G. K. (1994). Palynology in historical rural-landscape studies: Great Meadows, Pennsylvania. American Antiquity 59: 359-372. Kelso, G. K., and Beaudry, M. C. (1990). Pollen analysis and urban land use: The environs of Scottow's Dock in 17th, 18th, and early 19th century Boston. Historical Archaeology 24(1): 61-81. Kislev, M. E., Marcus, E., and Artzy, M. (1993). Import of an Aegean food plant to a Middle Bronze II: A coastal site in Israel. Levant 25: 145-154. Kommert, R. (1990). Mitteilung uber die Eigenschaften von Eichenholz der Ausgrabung Behren-Lubchin. Zeitschrift fur Archaologie 24(1): 67-77. Korpusova, V. N., and Liashko, S. N. (1990). Katakombnoe pogrebenie pshenitsei v Krymu. Sovetskaia Arkheologiia (3): 166-175. Kroll, H. (1990). Melde von Feudvar, Vojvodina: Ein Massenfund bestatigt Chenopodium als Nutzpflanze in der Vorgeschichte. Praehistorische 65(1): 46-48. Kroll, H. (1993). Kulturpflanzen von Kalapodi. Archaologischer (2): 161-182.

Recent Research In Paleoethnobotany

99

Kuster, H. (1993). The carbonised plant remains. In Wells, P. S. (ed.), Settlement, Economy,
and Cultural Change at the End of the European Iron Age, Excavations at Kehlheim in

Bavaria, 1987-1991, Archaeological Series, No. 6, International Monographs in Prehistory, Ann Arbor, pp. 57-60. Kyule, D. M. (1991). Plant remains from a Sirikwa culture site at Hyrax Hill, Nakuru, Kenya. Nyame Akuma 36: 8-10. Ladizinsky, G. (1993). Lentil domestication: On the quality of evidence and arguments. Economic Botany 47: 60-64. Lange, E. (1991). Pflanzenreste us einer hochmittelalterlichen slawischen Flachsroste aus dem Stadtkern von Cottbus. Ethnographic-Archaologie 32: 398-404. Lange, E., and Illig, H. (1991). Ein Ackerreservat als Experimentierfeld der Palaoethnobotanik. In Experimentelle Archaologie. Archaologische Mitteurpische Nordwestdeutschlands Heiheitung 6: 197-203, Bilanz. Largy, T. B. (1992). Archaeobotanical clues from Cedar Swamp, Westborough, Massachusetts.
Massachusetts Archaeological Society Bulletin 53(1): 31-37. Lennstrom, H. A. (1992). Intrasite yariability and Resource Utilization in the Prehistoric Peruvian highlands: An Exploration of Method and Theory in Paleoethnobotany, Ph.D. dissertation,

Center for Ancient Studies, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. Lentz, D. L. (1990). Acrocomia mexicana: Palm of the ancient Mesoamericas. Journal of Ethnobiology 10: 183-194. Lev-Yadun, S., and Gophna, R. (1992). Exportation of plant products from Canaan to Egypt in the Early Bronze Age I: A rejoinder to William A. Ward. American Schools of Oriental
Research Bulletin (287): 89-90. Lieberman, D. E., and Bar-Yosef, O. (1994). On sedentism and cereal gathering in the

Natufian. Current Anthropology 35: 431-434. Limbrey, S. (1990). Edaphic opportunism: A discussion of soil factors in relation to the beginnings of plant husbandry in southwest Asia. World Archaeology 22: 45-52. Litynska, M. (1990). Zboza I chwasty zneolitycznego stanowiska Iwanowice-Klin, woj. Krakow. Sprawozdania Archaeology 42: 105-108. Litynska, M. (1993). Plant remains from the Neolithic site at Armant: Preliminary report. In Krzyzaniak, L., Kobusiewicz, M., and Alexander, J. (eds.), Environmental Change and
Human Culture in the Nile Basin and Northern Africa until the Second Millennium B.C.,

Poznan Archaeological Museum, Poznan, pp. 351-354. Liversage, D., and Robinson, D. (1992/3). Prehistoric settlement and landscape development in the sandhill belt of southern Thy. Journal of Danish Archaeology 11: 39-56. Lone, F. A., Khan, M., and Buth, G. M. (1993). Palaeoethnobotany: Plants and Ancient Man in Kashmir, Oxford and 1BH Publishers, New Delhi, and A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam. Malmros, C. (1990). Viking Age wood resources at Argisbrekka, Faroe Islands. Norwegian Archaeological Review 23(1-2): 86-92. Maloney, B. K. (1994) The prospects and problems of using palynology to trace the origins of tropical agricultural: The case of Southeast Asia. In Hather, J. G. (ed.), Tropical Archaeobotany: Applications and New Developments, Routledge, New York, pp. 139-154. Mangafa, M. (1993). II. Archaeobotaniki meleti tou spilaeou Skoteinis sta Tharrounia, Efbeuas [The archaeobotanical remains of Skoteini Cave, Tharrounia, Euboea]. In Sampson, A.
(ed.), Skoyeini, Tharrounia, to spilaeo, o oikosomos kai to nekrofeio [Skoteini, Tharrounia.

The Cave, the Settlement and the Cemetery], Athens, pp. 360-369. Mangafa, M., and Kotsakis, K. (1996). A new method for the identification of wild and cultivated charred grape seeds. Journal of Archaeological Science 23: 409-418. Marino, B. D., and DeNiro, M. J. (1987). Isotopic analysis of archaeobotanicals to reconstruct past climates: Effects of activities associated with food preparation on carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen isotope ratios of plant cellulose. Journal of Archaeological Science 14: 537-548. Marquardt, W. H., with the assistance of Payne, C. (1992). Culture and Environment in the Domain of the Calusa, Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, University of Florida, Gainesville. Mason, S. L. R. (1992). Acorns in Human Subsistence, Ph.D. dissertation, Institute of Archaeology, University College, London.

100

Hastorf

Mason, S. L. R. (1995). Acorn-eating and ethnographic analogies: A reply to McCorriston. Antiquity 69: 1025-9. Mason, S. L. R. (1995). Acorn Utopia? Determining the role of acorns in past human subsistence. In Wilkins, J., Harvey, D., and Dobson, M. (eds.), Food in Antiquity, University of Exeter Press, pp. 12-24. Mason, S. L. R., Hather, J. G., and Hillman, G. C. (1994). Preliminary investigation of the plant macro-remains from Dolni Vestonice II and its implications for the role of plant foods in Palaeolithic and Mesolithic Europe. Antiquity 68(258): 48-57. McClaren, F., Evans, J., and Hillman, G. C. (1990). Identification of charred seeds from Epipaleolithic sites in SW Asia. In Wagner, G., and Perreka, E. (eds.), Archaeometry '90: Proceedings of the 26th International Symposium on Archaeometry, Hiedelberg 1990, G. Berkhaus Verlag, Basel, pp. 797-806. McCorriston, J. (1992). The Halaf environment and human activities in the Khabur drainage, Syria. Journal of Field Archaeology 19: 315-333. McCorriston, J. (1994). Acorn eating and agricultural origins: California ethnographies as analogies for the ancient Near East. Antiquity 68(258): 97-107. McGovern, P. E., and Michey, R. H. (1990). Royal purple dye: Its identification by
complementary physicochemical techniques. In Biers, W. R., and McGovern, P. E. (eds.),

Organic Contents of Ancient Vessels: Materials Analysis and Archaeological Investigation, MASCA Research Papers in Science and Archaeology, Vol. 7, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, pp. 69-76. McKenna, W. J. B. (1991). The environmental evidence. In Evans, D. H., and Tomlinson, D. G. (eds.), Excavations at 33-35 Eastgate, Beverley, 1983-86, Sheffield Excavation Reports 3: 227-233. McMeekin, D. (1992). Representations on pre-Columbian spindle whorls of the floral and fruit structure of economic plants. Economic Botany 46: 171-180. McWeeney, L. (1991). Plant macrofossil identification as a method toward archaeo-environmental reconstruction. Archaeological Society of Connecticut Bulletin 54: 87-97. Miller, N. F. (1990). Archaeobotanical perspectives on the rural-urban connection. In Miller, N. F. (ed.), Economy and Settlement in the Near East: Anafyses of Ancient Sites and Materials, MASCA Research Papers in Science and Archaeology, supplement to Vol. 7, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, pp. 79-83. Miller, N. F. (1993). Preliminary archaeobotanical results from the 1989 excavation at the central Asian site of Gonur Depe, Turkmenistan. Information Bulletin, International Association for the Study of the Cultures of Central Asia (19): 149-163. Miller, N. F., Piperno, D., Paca, B., and Yentsch, A. (1990). Two centuries of landscape change at Morven, Princeton, New Jersey. In Earth Patterns: Essays in Landscape Archaeology, University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville, pp. 257-275. Minnis, P. E. (1992). Earliest plant cultivation in the desert borderlands of North America. In Cowan, C. W., and Watson, P. J. (eds.), Origins of Agriculture: An International Perspective, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., pp. 121-141. Moore, A. M. T. (1994). On seasonal mobility and agriculture in the Levant. Current Anthropology 35: 48-49. Nadel, D., Stewart, K., Danin, A., Werker, E., Schick, T., and Kislev, M. E. (1994). 19,000-year-old twisted fibers from Ohalo II. Current Anthropology 35: 451-458. Nee, M. (1990). The domestication of Cucurbita (Cucurbitaceae). Economic Botany 44: 56-68. Negbi, M. (1992). A sweetmeat plant, a perfume plant and their weedy relatives: A chapter in the history of Cyperus esculentus L. and C. rotundus L. Economic Botany 46: 64-71. Neve, J. (1992). An interim report on the dendrochronology of Flag-Fen and Fengate. Antiquity 6(5(251): 470-475. Newman, M. E., Yohe, R. M., Ceri, H., and Sutton, M. Q. (1993). Immunological protein residue analysis of nonlithic archaeological materials. Journal of Archaeological Science 20: 93-100. Newson, L. A., Webb, S. D., and Dunbar, J. S. (1993). History and geographic distribution of Cucurbita pepo gourds in Florida. Journal of Ethnobiology 13: 75-98.

Recent Research in Paleoethnobotany

101

Nunez, D. R., and Walker, M. J. (1991). Grape remains and direct radiocarbon dating: A disconcerting experience from El Prado, Murtia, Spain. Antiquity 5(249): 905-908. Opravil, E. (1990). Zuhelnatele drevo z veterovskeho sidliste v Budkovicich, Objekty I and II. Archeologicke Rozhledy 42(2): 145-146. Opravil, E. (1990). Zuhelnatele drevo z objektu c. 5 na. Cezavach u Bluciny. Pamatky Archeologicke 81(2): 303-305. Parkington, J. (1991). Approaches to dietary reconstruction in the Western Cape: Are you what you have eaten. Journal of Archaeological Science 18: 331-342. Peacock, E. (1992). Some additional notes on forest reconstruction in the Black Belt. Mississippi Archaeology 27(1): 1-18. Pearsall, D. M. (1992). Prehistoric subsistence and agricultural evolution in the Jama River Valley, Manabi Province, Ecuador. Journal of the Steward Anthropological Society 20(1-2): 181-207. Pearsall, D. M., Piperno, D. R., Dinan, E. H., Umlauf, M., Zhao, Z., and Benfer Jr., R. (1995). Distinguishing rice (Oryza saliva Poaceae) from wild Oryza species through phytolith analysis: Results of preliminary research. Economic Botany 49: 183-196. Piperno, D. R., Colinvaux, P. A., and Bush M. B. (1991). Paleoecological perspectives on human adaptation in central Panama, I: The Pleistocene. Geoarchaeology 6: 201-226. Piperno, D. R., and Pearsall, D. M. (1993). Nature and status of phytolith analysis. In Pearsall, D. M., and Piperno, D. R. (eds.). Current Research in Phytolith Analysis: Applications in Archaeology and Paleoecology, MASCA Research Papers in Science and Archaeology, Vol. 10, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, pp. 9-18. Piperno, D. R., and Pearsall, D. M. (1993). Phytoliths in the reproductive structures of maize and teosinte: Implications for the study of maize evolution. Journal of Archaeological Science 20: 337-362. Potter, D., and Doyle, J. J. (1993). Origins of the African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarra, Leguminosae) evidence from morphology, isozymes, chloroplast DNA, and linguistics. Economic Botany 47: 211-214. Pryor, F. (1992). The Fengate northern landscape. Antiquity 66(251): 518-531. Punning, J.-M., and Rajamae, R. (1993). Radiocarbon dating organic detritus: Implications for studying ice sheet dynamics. Radiocarbon 35: 449-455. Reddy, N. S. (1991). Archaeobotanical investigations at Oriyo Timbo (1989-1990): A post-urban site in Gujarat. Man and Environment 16: 73-83. Rick, C. M., Holle, M. N., and Dean, L. Y. (1990). Copersicon esculentum var. cerasifome, genetic variation and its evolutionary significance. Economic Botany 44: 69-78. Rico Gray, V., and Garcia Franco, J. G. (1991). The Maya and the vegetation of the Yucatan Peninsula. Journal of Ethnobiology 11: 135-142. Rieseberg, L H., and Seiler, G. J. (1990). Molecular evidence and the origin and development of the domesticated sunflower (Helianthus annuus, Asteraceae). Economic Botany 44: 79-91. Robinson, D. E. (ed.) (1990), Experimentation and Reconstruction in Environmental Archaeology, Oxbow Books, Oxford. Rosenberg, M. (1990). The mother of invention: Evolutionary theory, territoriality, and the origins of agriculture. American Anthropologist 92: 399-415. Rosenburg, M. (1994). Agricultural origins in the American midwest. American Anthropologist 96: 161-164. Rovner, I. (1994). Floral history by the back door: A test of phytolith analysis in residential yards at Harpers Ferry. Historical Archaeology 28(4): 37-48. Samford, P. M. (1991). Pollen, parasites and privies: Analysis of an early 18th-century privy in Williamsburg. Quarterly Bulletin, Archeological Society of Virginia 46: 166-182. Samuel, D. (1989). Their staff of life: Initial investigations on ancient Egyptian bread making. In Kemp B. J. (ed.), Amama Reports 5, Occasional Publications 6: 253-290. Sanchez, G. J. J., and Goodman, M. M. (1992). Relationships among the Mexican races of maize. Economic Botany 46: 72-85. Saunders, J. W. (1992). Plant and animal procurement sites in the lower Pecos region, Texas. Journal of Field Archaeology 19: 335-349.

102

Hastorf

Scarry, M. C. (1991). Plant production and procurement in a Palachee Prornee. Florida Archaeologist 44(2-4): 285-294. Schurr, M. R., and Redmond, B. G. (1991). Stable isotope analysis of incipient maize horticulturalists from the Card Island, Site 1 Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology 16: 69-84. Scora, P. E., and Scora, R. W. (1991). Some observations on the nature of Papyrus bonding. Journal of Ethnobiology 11: 193-202. Shapiro, G., Scarry, M. C, Marvin, T., Washer, N., and McEwan, B. G. (1992). Archaeology San Louis part one: The Apalachee council house. Florida Archaeologist 6(1): 1-173. Simpson, B. B. (1991). The past and present uses of rhatany (Krameria, Krameriaceae). Economic Botany 45: 397-409. Singh, R. P. (1990). Agriculture in Protohistoric India, Pratibha Prakashan, Delhi. Small, E., Jurzysta, M., and Nozzolillo, C. (1990). The evolution of hemolytic saponin content in wild and cultivated alfalfa (Medicago saliva, Fabaceae). Economic Botany 44(2): 226-235. Smith, B. A., and Egan, K. C. (1990). Middle and Late Archaic faunal and floral exploitation at the Weber I site (20SA581), Michigan. Ontario Archaeology 50: 39-54. Sobolik, K. D. (1991). Prehistoric diet from the lower Pecos region of Texas. Plains Anthropologist 36(135): 139-152. Sobolik, K. D. (1992). Paleonutrition of the Lower Pecos Region of the Chihuahuan Desert (Mexico, Texas), Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Texas A and M University, College Station. Stafford, C. R. (1994). Structural changes in archaic landscape use in the dissected uplands of southwestern Indiana. American Antiquity 59: 219-237. Steffian, A. F. (1992). Archaeological coal in the Gulf of Alaska: A view from Kodiak-Island. Arctic Anthropology 29: 111-129. Stempler, A. B. L. (1990). A scanning electron microscope analysis of plant impressions in pottery from the sites of Kadiro, El Zakiab, Um Direwan and El Kadada. Archaeologie de Nil Moyen 4: 87-106. Sullivan, M., and O'Connor, S. (1993). Middens and cheniers: Implications of Australian research. Antiquity 67(257): 776-778. Taylor, M. (1992). Flag-Fen: The wood. Antiquity 66(251): 476-498. Tellez, R., Chamorro, J. G., and Arnanz, Q. A. M. (1991). Analisis discriminante en la identificacidn de trigos arqueologicos espanoles. Trabajos Prehistoric 47: 291-318. Thulin, M., and Claeson, P. (1991). The botanical origin of scented myrrh (bissabol or habakhadi). Economic Botany 45: 487-494. Tieszen, L. L, and Fagre, T. (1993). Carbon isotope variability in modern and archaeological maize. Journal of Archaeological Science 20: 25-40. Timbrook, J. (1990). Ethnobotany of Chumash Indians, California, based on collections by John P. Harrington. Economic Botany 44: 236-253. Torres, C. M., Repke, D. B., Chan, K., Mckenna, D., Llagostera, A., and Schultes, R. E. (1991). Snuff powders from pre-Hispanic San Pedro de Atacama: Chemical and contextual analysis. Current Anthropology 32: 640-649. Turner, N. J., and Davis, A. (1993). "When everything was scarce": The role of plants as famine foods in northwestern North America. Journal of Ethnobiology 13: 171-202. Turner, N. J., Johnson Gottesfeld, L. M., Kuhnlein, H. V., and Ceska, A. (1992). Edible wood fern rootstocks of western North America: Solving an ethnobotanical puzzle. Journal of Ethnobiology 12: 1-36. Tuross, N., Fogel, M. L, Newsom, L., and Doran, G. H. (1994). Subsistence in the Florida American Antiquity 59: 288-303. van der Veen, M. (1993). Evidence for Bronze age woodland from Durham. In Lowther, P., Ebbatson, L., Ellison, M., and Millet, M. (eds.), The city of Durham; An Archeological Survey, Durham Archaeological Journal 9: 27-119.

Archaic: The stable-isotope and archaeobotanical evidence from the Windover site.

Recent Research in Paleotthnobotany

103

Venkatasubbaiah, P. C., and Kajale, M. D. (1991). Biological remains from Neolithic and early historic sites in Cuddapah District, Andhra Pradesh. Man and Environment 16: 85-97. Vernet, J.-L. (1992). Les Charbons de bois les anciens ecosystemes et le role de l'homme: Colloque organise a Montpellier du 10 au 13 septembre 1991. Societe Botanique de France, Paris. von Hellwig, M. (1990). Palaoethnobotanische Untenuchungen an mittelalterllichen und
fruhneuzeitlichen Pflanzenresten aus Braunschweig. Cramer J., Berlin. Walz, G. R. (1992). Paleoethnobotany of the Schwerdt site (20AE127), an early fifteenth

century encampment in the lower Kalamazoo River Valley, Allegan County, Michigan. Michigan Archaeologist 38(1-2): 121-138. Wasylikowa, K. (1993). Plant macrofossils from the archaeological sites of Uan Muchuggiag and Ti-n- Torha, southwestern Libya. In Krzyzaniak, L., Kobusiewicz, M., and Alexander, J. (eds.), Environmental Change and Human Culture in the Nile Basin and Northern Africa until the Second Millennium B.C., Poznan Archaeological Museum, Poznan, pp. 25-41. Wasylikowa, K., Harlan, J. R., Evans, J., Wendorf, F., Schild, R., Close, A., Krolik. H., and Housley, R. A. (1993). Examination of botanical remains from early Neolithic houses at Nabta Playa, western desert, Egypt, with special reference to sorghum grains. In Wendorf, F., and Close, A. E. (eds.), Archaeology of Africa: Food, Metals and Towns, Routledge, London, pp. 154-164. Webb, E. (1990). On mid-Hoxian deforestation. Current Anthropology 31: 76-77. Weber, S. A. (1991). Plants and Harappan subsistence: An Example of Stability and Change
from Rojodi, Westview Press, Boulder, CO. Weber, S. A. (1992). South Asian archaeobotanical variability. In Jarrige, C. (ed), South Asian

Archaeology 1989: Papers from the Tenth International Conference of South Asian
Archaeologists in Western Europe, Prehistory Press, Madison, WI, pp. 283-290. Wheelersburg, R. P. (1992). Archaeobotanical study of Fort Ancient subsistence in southwestern Ohio: The State Line site. Pennsylvania Archaeologist 62(2): 45-65. Willcox, G. (1991). Exploitation des especes ligneuses au Proche-Orient: Donnees anthracologiques. Paleorient 17: 117-126. Willcox, G. (1992), Some differences between crops of Near Eastern origin and those from

the tropics. In Jarrige, C. (ed.), South Asian Archaeology 1989: Papers from the Tenth International Conference of South Asian Archaeologists in Western Europe, Prehistory Press, Madison, WI, pp.291-300. Winterhalder, B., and Goland, C. (1993). On population, foraging efficiency, and plant domestication. Current Anthropology 34: 710-715. Yen, D. E. (1993). The origins of subsistence agriculture in Oceania and the potentials for future tropical food crops. Economic Botany 47: 3-14. Yesner, D. R. (1992) Evolution of subsistence in the Kachemak tradition: Evaluation the north Pacific maritime stability model. Arctic Anthropology 29: 167-181. Young, D., Nicks, G., McConnell, R., and Suss, L. (1991) Birchbark industry and brain tanning in the central Canadian subarctic. Arctic Anthropology 28: 110-123.