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Almost Like Grandma's Apple Turnovers

Servings: Makes 6 turnovers


Ingredients: 3 medium size tart apples (such as Granny Smith or Fuji), peeled, cored and sliced 1/8-inch thick 1 tablespoon fresh lemon juice 1/4 cup granulated sugar 1/2 teaspoon ground cinnamon 1/4 teaspoon ground ginger 1/4 teaspoon ground allspice Pinch of salt 1/4 cup (1/2 stick/2 oz./56g) unsalted butter 1/4 cup heavy (whipping) cream 1/4 cup raisins, currants or dried cranberries, (optional) 1 sheet puff pastry, 10 x 15 inches 1 egg, lightly beaten Instructions: Toss the apple slices with the lemon juice and place them in a large skillet. Add the sugar, spices, salt and butter and cook over mediumhigh heat until the apples begin to soften, but still hold their shape, about 5 minutes. Add the cream and raisins and cook until the sauce thickens and the apples are soft and glazed with caramel, about 15 minutes. Remove the pan from the heat and cool completely. Cut the puff pastry into 6 (5 x 5-inch) squares. Divide the filling among the pastry squares, placing the apples on the bottom corner of each piece of dough. Leave a 1/2-inch border of pastry uncovered. Brush the edge of the dough on all four sides of the pastry squares with some of the beaten egg. Fold the dough over the filling to make a triangle-shaped packet. Press the edges of the pastry together with the tines of a fork. Cut two small slits in the top of each turnover. Brush lightly with egg and sprinkle with sugar. Place the turnovers on a rimmed baking sheet lined with parchment or wax paper and transfer to the freezer for 15 minutes. While the turnovers are chilling, position a rack in the middle of the oven, and preheat to 400 degrees F/200 degrees C. Transfer the chilled turnovers to the hot oven. Bake until puffed and golden brown, 25 to 35 minutes. Makes 6 turnovers. Date: August 19, 2006

Apple Butter Cake


Servings: 12-16 Ingredients: For Cake: 1 cup vegetable oil 1 3/4 cups granulated sugar 3 large eggs 1 tbsp. vanilla extract 3 tablespoons orange juice 1 tablespoon baking powder 1 teaspoon salt 2 teaspoons ground cinnamon 1/2 teaspoon ground nutmeg 3 cups all-purpose flour 1/3 cup apple butter (store-bought or homemade) 2 1/2 - 3 cups apples, peeled and chopped 1 cup chopped walnuts For Glaze: 1 cup confectioners' sugar 2-3 tablespoons apple butter (store-bought or homemade) Serve with: Whipped Cream or non-dairy whipped topping (thawed), or vanilla ice cream Instructions: Preheat oven to 350F/180C. Grease and flour a 9 or 10-inch bundt pan. With an electric mixer beat vegetable oil and sugar together. Add eggs one at a time. Sift together dry ingredients and blend into egg mixture. By hand, stir in vanilla, orange juice, apple butter, apples and walnuts. Stir until well combined. Pour batter into prepared bundt pan. Bake in preheated oven for 65 to 75 minutes or until cake tests done by inserting a cake tester or wooden skewer into cake and comes out clean. Remove from oven and let cool 10-15 minutes on a wire rack. Then invert cake and remove from pan onto a serving plate. Glaze: Prepare glaze by combining apple butter and confectioners' sugar. Pour over top of cake. Serve slices of cake topped with whipped cream, nondairy whipped topping or serve with vanilla ice cream on the side, if desired. Makes 12-16 servings. Date: May 4, 2006

Caramel Pudding
Servings: Makes 2 cups; 4 servings Ingredients: 2 cups whole milk 2 tablespoons cornstarch 1 large egg 2/3 cup granulated sugar 1 teaspoon vanilla extract Instructions: 1. In a bowl, whisk 1/2 cup milk, cornstarch, and egg until well blended. 2. In a 2- to 3-quart pan over medium-high heat, tilt and swirl sugar until melted and deep amber, about 4 minutes. Stir in remaining 1 1/2 cups milk; mixture will bubble and sugar will harden. Stir until sugar melts again, about 2 minutes. 3. Whisk about 1/2 cup of the caramelized sugar mixture into cornstarch mixture, then return all to pan. Stir over medium-high heat until pudding thickens and begins to bubble, 3 to 5 minutes. Remove from heat and stir in vanilla. Pour into bowls and serve warm. Or let cool, chill airtight up to 2 days, and serve cold. Makes 2 cups; 4 servings. Date: November 11, 2004

Cheddar Bacon Biscuits


Servings: Makes Tender, 7 Flaky biscuits Biscuits

Comments: Tips for Making

When cutting the butter into the flour, work quickly so it doesnt melt too much before you put the biscuits in the oven. And when adding the milk, dont overmix the dough; stir until the ingredients are just combined. Enjoy these tasty biscuits any day of the week. They are especially good during the cooler weather months, autumn and winter. Serve them with a nice home made stew or a hearty soup. Ingredients: Ingredients: 3 cups all-purpose flour 4 tsp. baking powder 3/4 tsp. salt 8 tbsp. (1 stick/4 oz./113g) cold unsalted butter 1 cup finely shredded cheddar cheese 1/3 cup chopped fresh chives 6 bacon slices, finely chopped and fried until crisp 1 1/2 cups milk Instructions: Position a rack in the lower third of an oven and preheat to 400F/200C. Lightly spray a biscuit pan with nonstick cooking spray. In a large bowl, sift together the flour, baking powder and salt. Using a pastry blender or 2 knives, cut in the butter until it resembles coarse meal. Add the cheese, chives and bacon; using a fork, stir until evenly distributed. Add the milk; using a rubber spatula, stir until just combined. Divide the dough among the wells of the prepared pan. Bake until the biscuits are golden and a toothpick inserted into the center of a biscuit comes out clean, about 30 minutes. Transfer the pan to a wire rack and let cool for 15 minutes. Invert the pan onto the rack and lift off the pan. Let cool for 5 minutes before serving. Makes 7 biscuits. Date: October 11, 2007

Fresh Pumpkin Bread


Servings: Makes 1 (9 x 5-inch) loaf, 10 servings Ingredients: 1/2 cup (1 stick/4 oz./113g) butter 2 cups all-purpose flour 1 tsp. baking soda 1/2 tsp. salt 1/2 tsp. ground cinnamon 1/2 tsp. ground nutmeg 1 cup honey 1 cup fresh pured pumpkin* (See Preparing Fresh Pumpkin below) 2 eggs 2 tsp. lemon juice 1 tsp. vanilla extract Instructions: Preheat oven to 350 degrees F/180 degrees C. Grease a 9 x 5-inch loaf pan and line bottom of pan with parchment paper. Grease parchment paper also. Whisk together flour, baking soda, salt, ground cinnamon and ground nutmeg in a medium bowl to blend. Using an electric mixer, beat butter in large bowl until fluffy. Gradually add honey, beating until blended. Beat in eggs, 1 at a time. Beat in pumpkin, lemon juice and vanilla. Stir in dry ingredients. Transfer mixture to prepared loaf pan. Bake in preheated oven for 75 to 90 minutes, or until a toothpick inserted in center of bread comes out clean. Cool bread in pan for 10 minutes, then remove from pan and let cool completely on a wire rack. (Can be made 2 days ahead. Wrap and store at room temperature.) Makes 1 (9 x 5-inch) Fresh loaf, 10 servings. Pumpkin

Tip: Any pumpkin pure not used immediately in recipes can be stored for up to 2 days in the refrigerator, or can be stored in the freezer indefinitely. If you store in the freezer, place a 1 cup portion in a plastic bag - this is the most common amount required by most recipes. Ingredients: 1 (8-pound) pumpkin (preferably a sugar pumpkin) 1 1/2 tablespoons unsalted butter, melted Instructions: Slice off the stem end of the pumpkin 2 1/2 inches from the top, reserving it, scrape out the seeds and the membranes, reserving the seeds for toasting if desired, and brush the inside of the pumpkin with the melted butter. Top the pumpkin with the reserved stem end and bake it in a shallow baking pan in the middle of a preheated 375F/190C oven for 1 1/2 hours, or until the pulp is tender, and let it cool in the pan until it can be handled. Discard any liquid that may have accumulated in the pumpkin, scoop out the pulp, and in a blender pure it in batches, transferring it as it is pured to a large sieve or colander lined with overlapping large coffee filters and set over a large bowl. Cover the surface of the pure with plastic wrap and let the pure drain, chilled, overnight. Use 1 cup drained pured pumpkin in above recipe. Date: August 12, 2007

Preparing

There are many different ways to prepare pumpkin, but this is the easiest and quickest method I have found yet. Small "Sugar" pumpkins are recommended, but I have used jack-o-lantern sized pumpkins, and even giant 50-100 pound pumpkins, with good results. In general, the smaller the pumpkin, the more sweet the meat. You may need to add more honey with a larger pumpkin (taste before baking).

Golden Vanilla Cornbread


Servings: 9-12 Comments: A twist on traditional cornbread, this recipe calls for the addition of one tablespoon of vanilla extract which gives it a wonderful flavor and aroma, and instead of using regular granulated sugar, the cornbread is sweetened with confectioners' sugar (powdered or icing sugar) giving it a nice soft texture, not a cake-like texture but not as firm as some other cornbreads. The buttermilk in it gives the cornbread it's light and fluffy texture. Serve with lots of butter and honey, or try whipping together butter with honey or butter with maple syrup for a delicious spread for your cornbread. So good!! Tip: If needed, you may substitute the confectioners' sugar in this recipe with regular granulated sugar. Ingredients: 1 cup yellow cornmeal 1 cup all-purpose flour 3/4 cup confectioners' sugar (or regular granulated sugar may be used) 1/2 teaspoon salt 1/2 teaspoon baking powder 1/2 teaspoon baking soda 2 large eggs 1 1/4 cups cultured buttermilk 1 tablespoon vanilla extract 6 tablespoons (3/4 stick/3 oz/85g) unsalted butter, melted Maple or Honey-Butter (see recipe below)

Pour the batter into the prepared pan (or castiron skillet). Bake in preheated oven for 35 to 40 minutes, until golden around the edges and a cake tester inserted into the center comes out clean. Remove pan from oven and place on wire cooling rack. Let cool completely. Once cornbread has cooled completely, lift it out of the pan using the edges of the parchment paper. Remove parchment paper and cut cornbread into squares or wedges. Serve with lots of butter, honey or Maple-Butter or Honey-Butter Spread. Makes 9-12 servings.

Maple-Butter

or

Honey-Butter

Ingredients: 1/2 cup (1 stick/4 oz/113g) butter softened to room temperature 1/3 cup honey or maple syrup Instructions: With an electric mixer on high speed whip the butter and maple syrup (or honey) together until smooth and fluffy. Store any left-over honeybutter, covered with plastic wrap, in the refrigerator. Makes approximately 1 cup maple-butter or honey-butter. Photograph taken by Diana Baker Woodall 2006

Date: February 12, 2006

Instructions: Preheat oven to 350F/180C. Grease (or spray with cooking spray) a 8 or 9-inch square or round baking pan or a 8 or 9-inch oven safe cast-iron skillet. Line bottom and halfway up the sides of pan (or skillet) with parchment paper. In a large mixing bowl, combine the cornmeal, flour, sugar, salt, baking powder, and baking soda. In a small mixing bowl, mix together the eggs, buttermilk, and vanilla. Add mixture to the dry ingredients and pour the melted butter over the top of the batter. Stir just until all ingredients are moistened yet thoroughly blended (DO NOT OVERMIX OR CORNBREAD TEXTURE WILL BE TOUGH).

Harvest Chocolate Pumpkin Cake Roll


Servings: 10-12 Ingredients: For the Pumpkin Filling: 3 oz. cream cheese, softened to room temperature 1/2 cup confectioners' sugar (powdered sugar) 1/2 cup cooked pumpkin (you may used canned 100% pure pumpkin puree, such as Libby's) 1/2 tsp. ground cinnamon 1/8 tsp. ground nutmeg 1/4 tsp. vanilla extract 1/2 cup whipping cream For the Cake Roll: 4 egg whites 4 egg yolks 3/4 cup granulated sugar, divided 1 teaspoon vanilla extract 1/2 cup all-purpose flour 1/3 cup unsweetened cocoa powder 1/2 teaspoon baking soda 1/4 teaspoon baking powder 1/2 teaspoon salt 1/3 cup water For the Chocolate Glaze: 2 tbsp. butter 2 tbsp. unsweetened cocoa powder 2 tbsp. water 3/4 cup confectioners' sugar (powdered sugar) 1/2 tsp. vanilla extract

Beat egg yolks and vanilla in medium bowl 3 minutes; gradually add remaining 1/4 cup sugar, beating 2 additional minutes. Combine the flour, cocoa powder, baking soda, baking powder and the salt; add to yolk mixture alternately with the water, beating on low speed just until smooth. Gradually fold this chocolate mixture into beaten whites mixture with a rubber spatula until well blended. Spread batter evenly in prepared pan. Bake in preheated oven for 12 to 15 minutes or until top springs back when touched lightly. Immediately loosen cake from edges of pan; invert on clean towel sprinkled with confectioners' sugar. Carefully peel off foil. Immediately roll cake in towel, starting from narrow end; place on wire rack to cool completely. Carefully unroll cake; remove towel. Spread cake with pumpkin filling; reroll without towel. For the Chocolate Glaze: Melt the butter in small saucepan over low heat; add 2 tablespoons the cocoa powder and water, stirring until smooth and slightly thickened. Do not boil. Remove from heatl cool slightly. Gradually add the confectioners' sugar and the vanilla extract, beating with whisk until smooth. Makes about 1/2 cup glaze. Spoon glaze over top. Refrigerate cake roll until just before serving. Cover and refrigerate any leftover cake roll. Makes 10 to 12 servings.

Instructions: Prepare the Pumpkin Filling: Beat the softened cream cheese with the confectioners' sugar. Beat in cooked pumpkin, ground cinnamon, ground nutmeg and vanilla extract. Slowly add the whipping cream, beating until slightly thickened. Refrigerate mixture for about 2 hours. Preheat oven to 375F/190C. Line a 15 1/2 x 10 1/2 x 1-inch jellyroll pan with foil. Generously grease foil. For the Cake Roll: Beat egg whites in large bowl on high speed of mixer until soft peaks form; gradually add 1/2 cup sugar, beating until stiff peaks form. Set aside.

Source: Date: January 13, October 16, 2009

2005-Recipe

Hershey's revised on

Hot Chocolate
Servings: 4-6 Ingredients: 1/4 cup unsweetened cocoa powder 1/3 cup granulated sugar 1/3 cup hot water 3 cups milk 1 cup whipping cream, or 1 additional cup milk Pinch of salt 1/2 teaspoon vanilla extract Miniature marshmallows (optional) Semisweet chocolate, grated (optional) Instructions: In a heavy saucepan, stir together the cocoa powder and sugar. Gradually whisk in the hot water. Stir in the milk, cream, and salt, and set the pan over medium heat. Cook, stirring often, until just steaming (do not boil). Remove from the heat and stir in the vanilla. For a frothy beverage, beat the cocoa with a handheld electric mixer for about 1 minute. Ladle the cocoa into mugs, top wih marshmallows and grated chocolate, if desired, and serve immediately. Makes 4 to 6 servings. Date: September 29, 2005

Mint Hot Chocolate


Servings: 4 Comments: Whole milk makes a wonderfully rich drink, but low-fat milk produces a satisfying concoction as well. For a grown-up variation, add 1 to 2 tbsp. crme de menthe or crme de cacao to each mug. This elixir guarantees sweet dreams.

Ingredients: 1/4 cup chilled heavy cream 4 tbsp. sugar 3 tbsp. Dutch process cocoa powder 4 cups milk 4 oz. semisweet chocolate, chopped, plus 1/2 oz., shaved 1/2 tsp. peppermint extract

Instructions: In a bowl, beat the cream and 1 tbsp. of the sugar until soft peaks form. Cover and refrigerate until ready to serve. In a small, heavy saucepan, combine the remaining 3 tbsp. sugar and the cocoa. Gradually whisk in the milk. Place over medium heat and bring to a simmer, whisking frequently. Add the chopped chocolate and whisk until melted and smooth. Stir in the peppermint extract. Divide the hot chocolate among warmed mugs. Top each with a dollop of whipped cream. Sprinkle with the shaved chocolate and serve immediately. Makes 4 servings.

Date: October 9, 2004

Moist Caramel Apple Cake


Servings: 16 Ingredients: 1 package (2-layer size) yellow cake mix (do not use cake mix with pudding in the mix) 1 package (4-serving size) vanilla or french vanilla flavor instant pudding and pie filling 1 cup water 4 eggs 1/3 cup vegetable oil 3 medium granny smith apples, peeled, coarsely chopped 20 caramels, unwrapped 3 tbsp. milk Serve with (optional): Non-dairy whipped topping, thawed, or vanilla ice cream

Old-Fashioned Chocolate Pudding


Servings: 6

Ingredients: 1/2 cup granulated sugar 2 1/2 tbsp. cornstarch 1 1/2 tbsp. unsweetened cocoa powder A pinch of salt 1 1/4 cups heavy cream 10 oz. whole milk 1 tsp. vanilla extract 6 oz. semisweet chocolate, finely chopped 1 1/2 tbsp. unsalted butter, cut into small pieces Serve with: Sweetened whipped cream or non-dairy whipped topping

Instructions: Preheat oven to 350 degrees F/180 degrees C. Grease and flour a 12-cup fluted tube pan or 10inch tube pan. Beat cake mix, dry pudding mix, water, eggs and oil in large bowl with electric mixer on low speed until blended. Beat on high speed 2 min. Gently stir in apples. Pour into prepared pan. Bake for 50 to 60 minutes inserted in center comes out for 20 minutes; remove completely on or until toothpick clean. Cool in pan from pan. Cool wire rack.

Instructions: 1. In a medium saucepan, whisk together sugar, cornstarch, cocoa, and salt. In a medium size mixing bowl with pouring spout, combine heavy cream with milk and vanilla. Whisk 1 cup cream mixture into dry ingredients until cornstarch is completely dissolved. Whisk in remaining cream mixture until smooth. 2. Place saucepan over medium heat. Cook, whisking constantly, until mixture comes to a boil and thickens, about 4 to 5 minutes. Add chocolate, and cook, whisking until chocolate is melted, about 1 minute. Remove from heat, and whisk in butter until melted. Using a ladle, pour pudding into six dessert cups. 3. Refrigerate until completely set, about 1 hour. Serve with sweetened whipped cream or nondairy whipped topping. Makes 6 servings.

Microwave caramels and milk in microwaveable bowl on HIGH 1-1/2 minutes, stirring every 30 seconds until blended. Cool 10 minutes until slightly thickened. Drizzle over cake just before serving. Makes 16 servings.

Date: October 15, 2006 Source: Kraft Date: September 15, 2006 Foods

Pumpkin Bread
Servings: Makes 1 (9 x 5-inch) loaf, 10 servings Ingredients: 1/2 cup (1 stick/4 oz./113g) unsalted butter or margarine 1 cup granulated sugar (may use a combination of white and brown sugar to equal 1 cup) 2 eggs 1/2 teaspoon vanilla extract 2 cups all-purpose flour 1/2 teaspoon baking powder 1 teaspoon baking soda 1/2 teaspoon salt 1 teaspoon ground cinnamon 1/2 teaspoon ground nutmeg 1/4 teaspoon ground cloves 1 cup 100% pure pumpkin puree 1/2 cup milk or orange juice 1/2 cup chopped walnuts or pecans and/or raisins or chocolate chips (optional)

Pumpkin Chocolate Chunk Cookies


Servings: Makes 3 dozen cookies
Ingredients: 2 1/2 cups all-purpose flour 1 teaspoon baking soda 1 teaspoon baking powder 1 teaspoon ground cinnamon 1 teaspoon ground nutmeg 1/2 teaspoon ground ginger (optional) 1/2 teaspoon salt 1/2 cup (1 stick/4 oz/113g) unsalted butter, at room temperature 1 1/2 cups granulated sugar 1 cup canned 100% pumpkin puree 1 egg, beaten 1 teaspoon vanilla extract 1 1/2 cups semi-sweet chocolate chunks or chips 1/2 cup walnuts or pecans (optional) Instructions: 1. Preheat oven to 350 degrees F (180 C). Line 2 baking sheets with parchment paper. Set aside. 2. In a medium bowl, combine together the flour, baking soda, baking powder, cinnamon, nutmeg, ginger (if using) and salt. Set aside. 3. With an electric mixer, beat the butter and sugar on medium speed until fluffy. Add the pumpkin, egg, and vanilla and beat just until blended. 4. Mix in the dry ingredients, and beat until well combined. 5. Remove the bowl from the mixer stand. With a rubber spatula or wooden spoon, stir in the chocolate chips or chunks and nuts (if using). 6. Drop the batter by heaping tablespoons 2 inches apart on the baking sheets. 7. Bake the cookies for 15 to 18 minutes or until lightly browned. Rotate the sheets halfway through baking to ensure even baking. Let the cookies cool on the sheets for 1 to 2 minutes. Transfer to wire racks to cool completely. Makes 3 dozen cookies.

Instructions: Preheat oven to 350 F/180 degrees C. Butter and flour a 9 x 5-inch loaf pan. In a medium bowl, cream butter and sugar. In a separate bowl, combine all dry ingredients and blend together. Add eggs and vanilla to creamed mixture, beat well. Add dry ingredients, pumpkin and milk (or orange juice). Mix until well blended. Gently stir in chopped nuts, raisins or chocolate chips (or a combination of these), if using. Pour batter into prepared baking pan. Bake in preheated oven for 60 to 70 minutes or until toothpick inserted into the center of the bread comes out clean. Cool on cooling rack for 10 minutes before removing from pan. Remove bread from pan and allow to cool completely before serving or storing. Makes 1 (9 x 5-inch) loaf, 10 servings.

Reviews
Reviewer: Amber Excellent! I used walnuts and dark chocolate chips and it came out moist and delicious! I can't stop eating it! Reviewer: KT Great - very moist and sweet! It was a hit at Thanksgiving. I added a little powdered sugar on top to make it look pretty, and pumpkin pie spice was added to the dry ingredients to give it an extra pumpkin kick.

I did a slight variation on this recipe. Replaced the sugar with orange juice concentrate, and replaced the flour with whole grain (spelt/rye/wheat) flour. I didn't use any chocolate or nuts. They turned out WONDERFUL!!! You'd be surprised it is sugar-free. GREAT RECIPE! Thanks!

Pumpkin Crme Brle


Servings: 4 Ingredients: 1 1/2 cups heavy cream 5 egg yolks 1/2 tsp. vanilla extract Pinch of salt 1/2 cup pumpkin puree 1/8 tsp. ground cinnamon 1/8 tsp. ground allspice 1/8 tsp. ground ginger 1/8 tsp. freshly grated nutmeg 1/4 cup plus 4 tsp. granulated sugar

Pumpkin Mousse Trifle


Servings: 12 Ingredients: 42 vanilla wafers, divided 1 pkg. ( 8 oz.) cream cheese, softened 1 can (15 oz.) 100% pure pumpkin 1 tsp. vanilla extract 1/2 tsp. pumpkin pie spice 1-3/4 cups cold milk 1 pkg. (4-serving size) instant vanilla pudding and pie filling mix 2 cups non-dairy whipped topping, thawed, divided 1/2 cup Autumn Spiced Nuts* (see below)

Instructions: Preheat an oven to 300F/150C. Have a pot of boiling water ready. Line a shallow baking pan with a kitchen towel. In a warm edges about small saucepan over medium-low heat, the cream until bubbles form around the and steam begins to rise from the surface, 3 minutes. Remove from the heat.

In a large bowl, whisk together the egg yolks, vanilla, salt, pumpkin puree, cinnamon, allspice, ginger, nutmeg and the 1/4 cup sugar until smooth and blended. Slowly pour in the cream, stirring until blended. Pour the mixture through a fine-mesh sieve set over a bowl. Divide the mixture among four 8-oz. ramekins and place in the prepared baking pan. Add boiling water to fill the pan halfway up the sides of the ramekins. Cover the pan loosely with aluminum foil and bake until the custards are just set around the edges, 25 to 30 minutes. Transfer the ramekins to a wire rack and let cool to room temperature. Cover and refrigerate for at least 4 hours or up to 3 days. Just before serving, sprinkle 1 tsp. sugar evenly over the surface of each custard. Using a kitchen torch according to the manufacturers instructions, move the flame continuously in small circles over the surface until the sugar melts and lightly browns. Serve immediately.

Instructions: Arrange 32 of the wafers on bottom and up side of 2-1/2-qt. serving bowl; set aside. Beat cream cheese and pumpkin in medium bowl with electric beater on medium speed until well blended. Add vanilla and spice; mix well. Pour milk into large bowl. Add dry pudding mix. Beat with wire whisk 2 minutes or until well blended. Let stand 5 minutes. Gently stir in 1-1/2 cups of the whipped topping. Add cream cheese mixture; stir until well blended. Spoon half of the pudding mixture into prepared bowl; top with the remaining wafers. Cover with layers of the remaining pudding mixture and remaining 1/2 cup whipped topping. Sprinkle with the Autumn Spiced Nuts. Store leftover dessert in refrigerator. Makes Autumn Ingredients: 1/2 cup 1 tbsp. 1/8 tsp. 1 12 Spiced pecan brown pumpkin pie tsp. servings. Nuts halves sugar spice butter

Instructions: Toss pecans with sugar and spice; set aside. Melt butter in medium skillet on medium heat. Add pecans; cook and stir 5 to 7 minutes or until lightly toasted. Spread onto sheet of wax paper; cool completely. Store in tightly covered container at room temperature. Source: Recipe adapted from Kraft Foods Date: August 29, 2006

Source: Williams-Sonoma Date: October 9, 2004

Kitchen

Pumpkin Pound Cake


Servings: 8-10 Ingredients: 1/2 cup (1 stick/4 oz/113g) butter 2/3 cup brown sugar, firmly packed 1/2 cup granulated sugar 1 cup canned 100% pumpkin puree 2 eggs 1 tsp. vanilla extract 1 1/2 cups all-purpose flour 1 1/2 tsp. pumpkin pie spice 1 tsp. baking powder 1/2 tsp. baking soda

1/4 cup low-fat vanilla yogurt 2 eggs 1 1/2 cups all-purpose flour 1/2 tsp. baking powder 1/2 tsp. baking soda 1/2 tsp. salt 1/2 cup unsalted butter, softened 3/4 cup granulated sugar Instructions: Preheat oven to 350 degrees F/180 degrees C. Spray a 9-inch round cake pan with nonstick spray. Stir together brown sugar, cream, and salt for the caramel. Pour into prepared pan and spread to coat the bottom. Sprinkle pecans over the caramel. Process brown sugar, flour, butter, cinnamon, and salt for the streusel in a food processor. Pulse until small clumps form; set aside. Whisk buttermilk, yogurt, and eggs together for the cake in a measuring cup with a pour spout. Sift flour, baking powder, soda, and salt onto a paper plate. Cream butter and sugar with a mixer just until combined. Alternately add dry and wet ingredients, starting and ending with the dry. Blend each addition just until incorporated. Spread half the batter over the caramel, then sprinkle with half the streusel. Carefully spread remaining batter over that and top with remaining streusel. Bake 50 to 60 minutes, or until a toothpick comes out clean. Cool cake for 5 minutes on a rack, then run a paring knife around the sides to loosen. Invert onto a serving platter while hot, then let cool slightly before slicing. Due to the sticky top, use a sharp, thinbladed knife to slice the cake. Makes *NOTE: How 1 to (9-inch) Toast cake. Pecans

Instructions: Preheat oven to 350F (180 C). Beat butter and sugars until light and fluffy. Add pumpkin, eggs and vanilla; stir well. In a small bowl, stir together dry ingredients; add to pumpkin mixture and mix well. Pour into a greased 9 x 5-inch loaf pan and bake for about 45 minutes or until a toothpick inserted into the center comes out clean. Let cool before slicing. Makes 8-10 servings. Date: November 23, 2003 ==============================

Sticky Bun Coffee Cake


Servings: Makes 1 (9-inch) cake Ingredients: For the Caramel: 3/4 cup brown sugar 1/4 cup heavy cream Pinch of salt 1 1/2 cups chopped pecans, toasted* (see note below) For the Streusel: 1/2 cup brown sugar 1/3 cup all-purpose flour 4 tbsp. (1/2 stick/2 oz./56g) unsalted butter, sliced 1 1/2 tbsp. ground cinnamon 1/4 tsp. salt For the Cake: 1/2 cup buttermilk

Preheat oven to 350 degrees F/180 degrees C. In a shallow, foil-lined pan large enough to hold pecans in a single layer, toast pecan halves just until light golden and fragrant, about 10 to 13 minutes. Stir occasionally, and watch carefully! (nuts can burn quickly). Remove from oven and set aside to cool until ready to use. Date: November 16, 2007

100% Stone Ground Whole Wheat Bread


Servings: Makes 2 loaves Comments: If you like sesame seeds or poppy seeds, roll dough on damp towel and in seeds before placing in bread pans. Note: Stone Ground whole wheat flour can be purchased online at Bob's Red Mill: http://www.bobsredmill.com

Amish Friendship Bread and Starter


Servings: Makes 2 (9x5-inch) loaves Comments: Amish Friendship Bread Starter Make something special to share with a friend. This delicious starter can make a variety of breads. Do not use metal containers or utensils. Ingredients: Amish Friendship Bread Starter: Ingredients: 1 (.25 ounce) package active dry yeast 1/4 cup warm water (110 degrees F/45 degrees C) 3 cups all-purpose flour, divided 3 cups granulated sugar, divided 3 cups milk Instructions For Making Starter: 1). In a small bowl, dissolve yeast in water. Let stand 10 minutes. In a 2 quart container glass, plastic or ceramic container, combine 1 cup flour and 1 cup sugar. Mix thoroughly or flour will lump when milk is added. Slowly stir in 1 cup milk and dissolved yeast mixture. Cover loosely and let stand at room temperature until bubbly. Consider this day 1 of the 10 day cycle. 2). On days 2 thru 4; stir starter with a spoon. Day 5; stir in 1 cup flour, 1 cup sugar and 1 cup milk. Days 6 thru 9; stir only. 3). Day 10; stir in 1 cup flour, 1 cup sugar and 1 cup milk. Remove 1 cup to make your first bread, give 2 cups to friends along with this recipe, and your favorite Amish Bread recipe. Store the remaining 1 cup starter in a container in the refrigerator, or begin the 10 day process over again (beginning with step 2). Note: Once you have made the starter, you will consider it Day One, and thus ignore step 1 in this recipe and proceed with step 2. You can also freeze this starter in 1 cup measures for later use. Frozen starter will take at least 3 hours at room temperature to thaw before using. Amish Friendship Bread Recipe Ingredients:

Ingredients: 2 tbsp. active dry yeast 1/4 cup warm water (110F/43C) 1/4 cup plus 2 tbsp. honey 1 1/2 tsp. sea salt 3 tbsp. vegetable oil 1 3/4 cups warm water (110F/43C) 6 cups Stoneground whole wheat flour

Instructions: Dissolve yeast in 1/4 cup warm water. Allow to proof 3-5 minutes. Combine next 4 ingredients and add to yeast mixture. Stir in flour, mix well. Knead 10 minutes. Cover and let rise 1 hour and 45 minutes. Punch down. Let rise 40-60 minutes until doubled in size. Punch down and let rise a third time until doubled. Shape into 2 loaves and let rise until double or place loaves in two 9 x 5-inch loaf pans and let rise until doubled. Preheat oven to 350 degrees F/180 degrees C. Bake loaves for 45 minutes. Optional: If you like sesame seeds or poppy seeds, roll dough on damp towel and in seeds before putting in pans. Makes 2 loaves.

Source: Bob's Date: October 30, 2006

Red

Mill

1 1 2 1 1/2

cup cup cups cup vegetable all-purpose granulated cup

starter oil flour sugar milk

1 3 3 1/2 1/2 1 3/4

1/4

teaspoons baking large teaspoons vanilla teaspoon baking teaspoon teaspoon ground cup chopped nuts

powder eggs extract soda salt cinnamon (optional)

For the Topping: 2 teaspoons orange juice 1 tablespoon coarse sugar Apricot-Butter Spread: (optional) 2/3 cup butter, softened 4 tablespoons apricot preserves Instructions: To Make Preheat oven the to Scones : 375F (190C).

Instructions: Preheat oven to 350 degrees F. Combine all ingredients (including Starter) and mix well. Pour into 2 well greased and sugared 9x5-inch loaf pans. Bake for 40-50 minutes or until done. Cool 20 minutes before removing from pans. Makes 2 (9x5-inch) loaves. Source: DianasDesserts.com Date: November 3, 2002 ==============================

Combine 1 1/2 cups flour, 1/4 cup sugar, baking powder, baking soda, orange peel and salt in large bowl; cut in 1/4 cup cold butter until mixture resembles coarse crumbs. Coat apricots with remaining flour in small bowl; stir into flour mixture. Combine sour cream, egg and milk in same small bowl. Stir into flour mixture just until moistened (1 minute). Turn dough onto lightly floured surface; knead 5 to times until smooth. Pat dough to 7-inch circle on greased baking sheet. Score into 6 wedges; do not separate. Topping: Brush dough with orange juice; sprinkle with 1 tablespoon sugar. Bake for 18 to 23 minutes or until lightly browned. Serve with Apricot-Butter Spread, jam or preserves, jelly, double or clotted cream, or creme fraiche. Makes 6 scones.

Apricot-Cream Scones
Servings: Makes 6 scones Comments: These wonderful creamy scones are flavored with dried apricots. You can use any dried fruit you like to make your favorite flavor. Scones are a great breakfast or brunch treat, or served with afternoon tea and traditionally go well with clotted or double cream, creme fraiche, jam, preserves or jelly. Try these with the ApricotButter Spread (See recipe below). A lovely accompanient to these delicious scones. "This Scottish Quick Bread is said to have taken its name from the Stone Of Destiny (or scone), the place where Scottish kings were once crowned. The original triangular-shaped scone was made with oats and griddle-baked". Ingredients: For the Scones: 1 3/4 cups all-purpose flour 1/4 cup granulated sugar 1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder 1/2 teaspoon baking soda 1 1/2 teaspoons grated orange peel 1/4 teaspoon salt 1/4 cup cold unsalted butter 1/2 cup finely chopped dried apricots* (See Note Below) 1/4 cup sour cream 1 egg 3 tablespoons milk

To Make Apricot-Butter Spread: Combine 2/3 cup softened butter and apricot preserves in small bowl. Cover, and refrigerate until ready to serve scones. Put two tablespoons of Apricot-Butter Spread into six (6) small butter ramekins, and serve with each scone. *Note on Substitutions* If desired, substitute 1/2 cup of your favorite dried fruit for the dried apricots in this recipe. If you are substituting another dried fruit for the apricots, you can also substitute another flavor preserves to make the "Butter Spread" in this recipe. For example; for Peach-Butter Spread; use peach preserves instead of apricot preserves. Date: April 27, 2002

Bagels
Servings: Comments: What 12-15 are bagels Bagels?

Place the dough in a buttered bowl, cover, and let rise until doubled. Then punch the dough down and let it rise again. Punch down again, turn out onto a floured board, and knead again, until the dough is smooth and elastic. Divide the dough into 12-15 portions and form each portion into a strip about 6 inches long and 3/4 inch thick. Pinch the ends together to form rings. Add the remaining 2 tablespoons sugar to the boiling water. Drop the bagels into the water one at a time, cooking 4 or 5 at once, depending on the size of the pot. Simmer the bagels for 5-6 minutes from the time they rise to the surface of the water. Then lift them out of the water with a long handled fork and place them on a very lightly greased cookie sheet. Let them cool for about 5 minutes. Then place them in a 375 degree F oven, and bake for 25-35 minutes, or until the crust is golden brown and crisp. Makes 12 to 15 bagels.

Bagels are unique, and uniquely Jewish hard crusted rolls made with yeast. They are traditionally served with lox (smoked salmon) and cream cheese, but today almost everyone eats bagels; toasted with butter or jam, or spread with cream cheese or other types of spreads, and many people love to make sandwiches using bagels. There are so many varieties of bagels in supermarkets and deli's today, and there are even stores that specialize in selling, just bagels. Today, we are given so many delicious choices of flavors and textures of these marvelous breads to choose from. When the book " A World Of Breads" by Dolores Casella (author of this wonderful bagel recipe) was written in 1966, bagels had not yet become so enormously popular all over the world as they are today. This recipe from "A World of Breads" is for water bagels that are both boiled in water and then baked, using both eggs and vegetable oil in the ingredients.

Ingredients: 3 cups bread flour or all-purpose flour PLUS 1/4 cup for flouring the bread board 1 teaspoon salt 4 tablespoons sugar 1 package cake yeast OR 1 envelope (2 1/4 teaspoons) active dry yeast 2/3 cup warm potato water* (see note below) 3 tablespoons vegetable oil 2 large eggs 4 quarts boiling water

Bagel Variations You may sprinkle the bagels with poppy or sesame seeds before baking. Or blend some finely minced sauteed onion into the dough before kneading and sprinkle more finely minced, sauteed onion on the tops of the bagels before baking. *Notes Making Potato Water What you'll need to make potato water are a few potatoes which can be any type of boiling potatoes such as, New Potatoes, Fingerling Potatoes, Round White Potatoes, or Round Red Potatoes, or really just any type of potatoes you have in your kitchen. Just put a few potatoes in a pot with boiling salted water, and cook until potatoes, when stuck with a fork, are somewhat on the soft side, (about 20 to 30 minutes depending on the type and size of potatoes you use). Use 2/3 cup of the warm potato water for this recipe. The book "A World of Breads" by Dolores Casella, (which is my favorite cookbook on bread making) can be purchased "used" on Amazon.com.

Instructions: Sift the flour, salt, and 2 tablespoons of the sugar into a large mixing bowl. Dissolve the yeast in 1/3 cup of the warm potato water and add yeast to the flour mixture. Add the oil to the remaining potato water and stir into the flour mixture. Then add the eggs and stir until dough forms a ball. Turn out onto a floured board and knead thoroughly for at least 5 minutes.

Source: A World of Breads, by Dolores Casella Date: February 25, 2002

Baking Powder Biscuits


Servings: Comments: Biscuits Makes in 12 biscuits America

Ingredients: 2 cups soft winter-wheat flour (such as White Lily flour) 1 tbsp. baking powder 1/2 tsp. salt 3/4 cup (1 1/2 sticks/6 oz./170g) chilled unsalted butter, cut into small pieces 1/2 cup half-and-half (half-and-half is half milk and half cream) Instructions: Preheat oven to 500F/260C.

In America, a "biscuit" is a small form of bread made with baking powder or baking soda as a leavening agent rather than yeast. (Biscuits, soda breads, and corn bread, among others, are sometimes referred to collectively as "quick breads" to indicate that they do not need time to rise before baking.) Biscuits are extremely similar to scones; in fact, many recipes are identical. In the United States, there is a growing tendancy to refer to sweet variations as "scone" and to the savoury as a "biscuit," though there are exceptions for both (such as the cheese scone). A sweet biscuit served with a topping of fruit and juice is called shortcake. In Canada, both sweet and savoury are referred to as "biscuits," "baking powder biscuits" or "tea biscuits". Biscuits are a common feature of Southern U.S. cuisine and are often made with buttermilk or as in this recipe, half-and-half (a half milk and half cream combination). They are traditionally served as a side dish with a meal, especially in the morning. As a breakfast item they are often eaten with butter and a sweet condiment such as molasses, light sugarcane syrup, sorghum syrup, honey, or fruit jam or jelly. With other meals they are usually eaten with butter or gravy instead of sweet condiments. However, biscuits and gravy (biscuits covered in "country-style" gravy) are usually served for breakfast, sometimes as the main course. A common variation on basic biscuits is "cheese biscuits", made by adding grated Cheddar or American cheese to the basic recipe. If you like, you may add grated cheese to this recipe's ingredients for a savory biscuit. Soft winter-wheat flour produces exceptionally light baked goods, especially biscuits and cakes. Sometimes this type of flour is self-rising. For instance in this recipe, if you were to use selfrising flour, eliminate the baking powder and salt in the recipe's ingredients as self-rising flour already contains baking powder and salt.

Over a sheet of waxed paper, sift together the flour, baking powder and salt and sift again. Put the flour mixture in a large mixing bowl and add the butter. Using a pastry blender or your fingertips, mix the flour and butter together until the mixture resembles small, coarse crumbs. Add the half-and-half and, using a fork, stir to form large, damp clusters. Turn the dough out onto a lightly floured surface. With floured hands, press the dough together to form a large ball. Roll out the dough to 1/2-inch thickness, dusting with more flour as needed. Using a 3-inch round cookie cutter, cut out the dough and transfer the rounds to an ungreased baking sheet; gather the scraps and repeat. Bake biscuits on center rack of oven, rotating the pan once halfway through baking, until the biscuits are golden brown, 8 to 10 minutes. Makes 12 biscuits.

Source: Date: June 4, 2002

DianasDesserts.com

Basic Pizza Dough


Servings: Makes enough for a 12-inch thin crust pizza Ingredients: 1 tbsp. active dry yeast 3/4 cup plus 2 tbsp. lukewarm water 2 3/4 cups all-purpose flour, plus 1/2 cup for work surface 1 tsp. salt 1 tbsp. extra-virgin olive oil Instructions: In a small bowl, dissolve the yeast in the lukewarm water and let stand until slightly foamy, about 10 minutes. In a large bowl, stir together the 2 3/4 cups flour and the salt and form into a mound. Make a well in the center and add the yeast mixture to the well. Using a fork and stirring in a circular motion, gradually pull the flour into the yeast mixture. Continue stirring until a dough forms. Lightly flour a work surface with some of the 1/2 cup flour and transfer the dough to it. Using the heel of your hand, knead the dough until it is smooth and elastic, about 10 minutes. Form the dough into a ball. Brush a large bowl with the olive oil and place the dough in it. Cover with plastic wrap and let rise at room temperature until doubled in size, 1 to 2 hours. Turn the dough out onto a surface dusted with the remaining flour. Punch down the dough and, using your hand, begin to press it out gently into the desired shape. Then, place one hand in the center of the dough and, with the other hand, pull, lift and stretch the dough, gradually working your way all around the edge, until it is the desired thickness, about 1/4 inch thick for a crusty pizza base and 1/2 inch thick for a softer one. Flip the dough over from time to time as your work with it. (Or roll out the dough with a rolling pin.) The dough should be slightly thinner in the middle than at the edge. Lift the edge of the pizza to form a slight rim. Transfer the dough to a bakers peel or baking sheet, cover with a kitchen towel and let rise again until almost doubled in size, about 20 minutes. Top and bake as directed in the pizza recipe. Makes 1 1/4 lb. dough, enough for a 12-inch thin-crust pizza or a 9-inch thick-crust pizza.

Basic Shortcake Biscuits


Servings: Makes 8 biscuits cut with a 3-inch round cutter Ingredients: 2 2/3 cups all-purpose flour 2 tablespoons sugar 1 teaspoon salt 1 tablespoon PLUS 2 teaspoons baking powder 2/3 cup vegetable shortening, chilled 1 cup buttermilk, chilled 2 teaspoons vanilla extract Instructions: Preheat oven to

400

degrees

(200

C).

In a bowl, combine the flour, sugar, salt, and baking powder; stir to mix. Add the shortening and incorporate it by taking a big pinch of the ingredients and rubbing lightly between your fingertips. Continue until only very small lumps of fat remain, nothing larger than a small pea. (Stir in any dry flavorings such as citrus zest or nuts at this point.) Add the chilled buttermilk and the vanilla extract. Mix with your hand just until the flour is completely moistened and the ingredients form a loose dough. Don't overmix. Pat out the dough onto a floured surface and roll it out about 3/4 inch thick. Use a biscuit cutter or a sharp knife to cut the dough into the desired shapes; dip the cutter or knife in flour between cuts to keep the dough from sticking. Reroll any scraps and cut again. Do this only once or the dough will get tough. Arrange the shortcakes about an inch apart on a parchment-lined baking sheet and bake until the biscuits are very lightly colored and have just about doubled in height, 15 to 20 minutes. When baked, peel them off the parchment and let them cool on a rack. Makes 8 biscuits cut with a 3-inch round cutter. Date: April 27, 2004

Basic White Bread


Servings: Makes 2 (9 x 5-inch) loaves Ingredients: 2 packages (4 1/2 tsp./1/2 oz./14g) active dry yeast 2 1/2 cups warm water 3 tablespoons butter or margarine, melted 3 tablespoons granulated sugar 2 teaspoons salt 6-7 cups all-purpose flour Instructions: 1. In a large mixing bowl, combine yeast and 1/2 cup warm water. Stir until dissolved. Add remaining warm water, butter, sugar and salt. Stir until mixed. 2. Add 6-7 cups of flour and mix* (see note below) until blended. Add enough of the remaining flour until dough forms a smooth ball that is slightly sticky to the touch. 3. Place dough in a large, greased bowl. Cover and let rise until double in size, about 1 hour. 4. Punch dough down, divide in half, and shape into loaves. Place loaves into two 9 x 5-inch greased loaf pans and let rise until double in size, about an hour. 5. Bake in 350F (180C) oven for 40 minutes. Note: Use mixer equipped with dough hook.

Bite Size Cream Cheese Biscuits


Servings: Makes 4 dozen bite size biscuits Comments: These little bite-size biscuits make greats snacks or appetizers. Serve them with sliced cheese, sliced ham or other deli meat, and make little sandwiches, or serve them warm with butter and honey for breakfast or brunch. Ingredients: 12 ounces cream cheese, softened 1 cup (2 sticks/8 oz./226g) butter, softened 1 1/2 cups self-rising flour Instructions: Combine all ingredients by hand or in food processor. Divide mixture into 1/2-cup portions and refrigerate for at least 30 minutes. Roll out one portion at a time to approximately 1/8-inch thickness (flour work surface and rolling pin to prevent sticking). Cut out bite-size biscuits (1 to 1-1/4 inch diameter) and place on ungreased cookie sheet 1 inch apart. Bake in 425 degree F/220 degree C oven until light brown, 10 to 12 minutes. Makes 4 dozen bite-size biscuits.

NOTE: Uncooked biscuits may be frozen by placing entire cookie sheet in freezer. Remove biscuits to plastic bag when frozen and store in freezer until ready to use. Thaw on cookie sheet before baking.

Makes 2 (9 x 5-inch) loaves. Source: Recipe adapted from Hamilton Beach Date: February 22, 2002 Reviews: Excellent bread, I've modified a bit and just had 2 tbsp butter and 2 tbsp of sugar for classic 'English' white bread. Tastes like the real thing, even better as I've never made bread but all of my roommates loved it! Thank you. Date: November 13, 2006

Bread Machine Challah Bread


Servings: Makes 1 1/2-pound loaf or 2 small loaves Comments: A great way to enjoy making Challah Bread. Using your bread machine on the Dough Cycle makes the job alot easier since your machine will do most of the work, the kneading and the rising. All you have to do is place the ingredients in the bread machine, turn it on to the dough/manual cycle, then remove the dough once it has risen. Then shape the bread, give it one more short rise and then bake in your oven. This bread can also be done completely in the bread machine if you want a traditional 1 1/2 pound loaf of bread. Just set your machine to the Basic Cycle/Medium Crust and let the machine do all the work. You will have a wonderfully tasty Challah to serve to your family or friends. They won't believe you made this in a bread machine and really, why tell them anyway? If desired, top the loaf or loaves if making 2 smaller loaves from this recipe, with sesame or poppy seed. Either one of these or a combination of both will enhance the delicious flavor of this traditional Jewish bread. Whether you decide to make the bread completely in your bread machine or take it out and braid and bake it in the oven, the outcome is sure to please.

Topping: (optional) Sesame or poppy seeds

Instructions: Note: You will need 2 baking sheets if making 2 smaller loaves (or one very large baking sheet will work also). Lightly grease or line with parchment paper one or two baking sheets. Dust greased baking sheet (or parchment paper lined sheet) with cornmeal (dusting your baking sheet with cornmeal is optional but it gives the crust a nice flavor and texture). Add warm water, egg, butter (or margarine or vegetable oil, if using), salt, flour, sugar, honey and yeast to bread machine pan in the order recommended by manufacturer. Select the Dough Cycle of your machine. Start the cycle. When dough cycle is complete, remove dough from machine to a lightly floured work surface. Punch dough down and let rest for 5 minutes. If necessary, knead in enough flour to make dough easy to handle. Making 1 loaf: If making one 1 1/2-pound loaf, divide dough into 3 equal size pieces and roll each piece into 20-inch long rope. Place ropes on prepared baking sheet that have been dusted with cornmeal (dusting baking sheet with cornmeal is optional). Braid by bringing left rope under center rope; lay it down. Bring right rope under new center rope; lay it down. Repeat braiding to the end of loaf. Pinch ends to seal and tuck under dough. Making 2 smaller loaves: If making two smaller loaves, divide dough in half. For each loaf, divide dough into 3 equal size pieces and roll each piece into a 12-inch long rope (you will have 6 ropes if making 2 smaller loaves). Place ropes on prepared baking sheets dusted with cornmeal (dusting with cornmeal is optional). Braid by bringing left rope under center rope; lay it down. Bring right rope under new center rope; lay it down. Repeat braiding to the end of loaf. Pinch ends to seal and tuck under dough. Repeat braiding with remaining 3 ropes for second loaf. Egg Wash: Lightly beat egg yolks with water. Brush loaf (s) with half of the egg wash, saving the remaining egg wash to brush loaf (s) again before baking.

Ingredients: 3/4 cup warm water (110 degrees F/43 degrees C) 1 large egg 3 tablespoons butter or margarine, cut into small pieces, or 2 tablespoons vegetable oil 1 1/4 teaspoons salt 3 cups bread flour (unbleached all-purpose flour may be substituted for the bread flour, if needed) 1 tablespoon granulated sugar 2 tablespoons clear honey 2 teaspoons bread machine yeast or instant yeast For Dusting Baking Pan: (optional) Cornmeal Egg Wash: 2-3 large egg yolks 2 tablespoons water

Cover with plastic wrap and place a smooth cotton kitchen towel over plastic wrap and let loaf (s) rise in a warm, draft-free place until almost doubled in size, 45 to 50 minutes. Baking: Brush loaf (s) with the remaining egg wash. If desired, sprinkle loaf (s) with sesame or poppy seeds and bake at 375 degrees F/190 degrees C for 25 to 30 minutes or until done (bread is done if it registers 190 degrees F/87 degrees C with instant-read thermometer). Tip: Cover bread with aluminum foil after 10 to 15 minutes of baking to prevent excess browning (for even browning when baking two loaves, switch positions of sheets halfway through baking). Remove bread from baking sheet and cool completely on wire rack. Storage: Bread may be frozen once cooled completely (2 hours). Wrap in aluminum foil, then place bread in a ziploc bag. Label and date. Bread can be frozen for up to 3 months. Thaw for 1 hour at room temperature before serving. Makes 1 (1 1/2-pound) loaf or 2 small (3/4 pound) loaves. 2006 Woodall Photograph taken by Diana Baker

2 tablespoons granulated sugar 2 teaspoons bread machine yeast, instant yeast or rapid-rise yeast Instructions: Add ingredients to bread machine pan in the order suggested by manufacturer. Recommended Cycle: Basic/White Bread Cycle. Crust Color Setting: Medium/Normal. Makes 1 (1 lb. or 1 1/2 lb.) loaf Date: April 1, 2006 ==============================

Bread Machine Pizza Dough


Servings: Makes two (12-inch) pizza rounds Comments: This pizza dough couldnt be easier to prepare. Just combine the ingredients in a bread machine and process as directed. The recipe makes enough dough for two 12-inch pizzas. Be sure to use fresh yeast (check the expiration date on the package); otherwise, the dough won't rise properly. Ingredients: 1 cup warm water (105 to 115F/40 to 46 C) 2 tbsp. olive oil 1 tsp. salt 3 cups unbleached all-purpose flour 1 tbsp. active dry yeast

Date: April 7, 2006 ==============================

Bread Machine Egg Bread


Ingredients: Ingredients for 1 Pound Loaf: 1/2 cup milk 1 large egg 1 tablespoon butter or margarine, cut up 3/4 teaspoon salt 2 cups bread flour 1 tablespoon granulated sugar 1-1/2 teaspoons bread machine yeast, instant yeast or rapid-rise yeast Ingredients for 1 1/2 Pound Loaf: 2/3 cup milk 2 large eggs 2 tablespoons butter, cut up 1 teaspoon salt 3 cups bread flour

Instructions: In the bread pan of an electric bread machine, combine (in this order) the warm water, olive oil, salt, flour and yeast. Set the machine for Pizza Dough according to the manufacturers instructions and process through the cycle. Transfer the dough to a lightly floured work surface. Punch down the dough and divide in half. Form each half into a ball and cover with a clean kitchen towel. Let the dough rise in a warm place until doubled in size, about 40 minutes. Roll out as directed in the pizza recipe. Makes two (12-inch) pizza rounds.

Date: June 5, 2004

Brioche tte
Servings: 1 loaf (about 12 servings) Comments: Distinguished by its topknot, Brioche tte is traditionally baked in a fluted mold. Rich and buttery, this bread goes easily from simple to spectacular depending on what you serve it with. If you have the time, you can make the dough, proof, and bake it all in the same day; otherwise, make the dough one day, refrigerate it overnight for a slow cold rise, then give it its final rise and bake it the next day. Ingredients: 3 1/4 cups bread flour 1 package (2 1/2 tsp/.25 oz/7g) instant active dry yeast 2 tablespoons granulated sugar 1 teaspoon salt 1/2 cup milk 1/2 cup (1 stick/4 oz./113g) plus 2 tablespoons unsalted butter, cut into small pieces 4 large eggs 1 tablespoon fresh lemon juice plus grated zest from 1 lemon 1 egg

3. Form the Brioche: Soften 2 tablespoons of butter and coat a 9 1/2inch (24cm) brioche pan. Measure out 1/2 cup of dough and set aside. Shape remaining dough into a ball and place in brioche pan. Roll reserved dough into a ball, make an indention in the center of the larger ball, and place the small ball in the depression. Cover with the towel and let rise in a warm, draft-free place until doubled in size, about 1 hour.

4. Bake the Brioche: Preheat oven to 375 degrees F/190 degrees C. In a small bowl, whisk egg yolk from remaining egg with 2 teaspoons of water. Brush the brioche with this mixture and bake until golden brown, about 40 minutes. Brioche will sound hollow when tapped. Remove from the pan and serve warm. Store in an airtight container. Makes 1 loaf (about 12 servings).

Source: DianasDesserts.com Date: May 8, 2003

Instructions: 1. Make the Dough: In a food processor fitted with metal blade, pulse to mix 3/4 cup flour, yeast, sugar, and salt. In a small saucepan, heat milk and butter until very warm, about 115 degrees F/46 degrees C. Add milk and butter to dry ingredients and process for 30 seconds. Break 3 eggs, one at a time, through feed tube with the motor running. Add lemon juice, zest, and remaining flour. Process for 45 more seconds. Turn dough out onto a lightly floured surface, form a ball, and knead a few moments by hand. 2. Proof the Dough: Coat a large bowl with 1 tablespoon butter and add ball of dough, turning to coat all sides. Cover with a clean, damp kitchen towel and let rise in a warm, draft-free place until doubled in size -about 1 hour. Stir down the dough, re-cover, and refrigerate overnight. About two hours before serving, turn the chilled dough out onto a lightly floured surface and punch it down. Cover it with the damp towel and let rest for 15 minutes.

Brioche Loaf
Servings: Makes 1 brioche loaf, 8-10 slices Comments: Brioche Definition: [BREE-ohsh; bree-ahsh] This French creation is a light yeast bread rich with butter and eggs. The classic shape, called brioche tte, has a fluted base and a jaunty topknot. It also comes in the form of small buns or a large round loaf. Special fluted brioche molds, available in metal, glass or ceramic, are necessary for the brioche tte. Brioche dough is also used to enclose foods such as sausage or cheese. Source of Definition: The New Food Lover's Companion, Second Edition, by Sharon Tyler Herbst This recipe is for a Brioche loaf (without a topknot), opposed to a brioche tte (one that has a jaunty topknot).......Diana Ingredients: 2 1/2 cups plus 2 tablespoons unbleached allpurpose flour 1 1/2 tsp. instant dry yeast 1/4 cup water, cool 4 large eggs 2 tbsp. granulated sugar 3/4 tsp. salt 1 cup (2 sticks) cold unsalted butter For Eggwash Glaze: 1 egg yolk 1 tbsp. water Instructions: 1). Place 1 1/2 cups of the flour, the yeast, the sugar, the salt, the cool water, and the 4 eggs into the pan of your bread machine or the bowl of an electric stand-mixer. 2). Beat at medium speed with electric mixer using a dough hook (or knead in the bread machine) until smooth. 3). Cover the bowl with a clean kitchen towel, and let it sit for 45 minutes. Bubbles will develop, but will not change very much due to the thinness of the batter. 4). Add the remaining 1 cup of flour, and beat (using the dough hook) with electric mixer (or knead in the bread machine) for 8 to 10 minutes, or until the dough cleans the sides of the bowl (or

bread

pan)

and

is

shiny

and

elastic.

5). Sprinkle a work surface with the 2 tablespoons of flour. Place the 1 cup (2 sticks) of "cold" butter onto the flour. Pound the "cold" butter with the side of a rolling pin until it's become a rectangle about 1/4-inch thick. Fold it over several times as you pound; making it pliable without becoming too warm or soft. Add the butter (in small amounts) to the dough and beat until the butter is fully incorporated. 6). Cover the dough and allow it to rise for 1 hour. It will be very soft at this point, and should have risen by about one-third. 7). Turn the dough out onto a lightly floured surface and fold it over several times. Place the dough into a greased bowl. Loosely cover the bowl with a clean kitchen towel or plastic wrap and refrigerate it for a minimum of 4 hours, and up to 16 hours or overnight. The chilled dough will firm up considerably. 8). Remove the dough from the refrigerator and form it into a round loaf. Work quickly, as the dough becomes very sticky as it warms. Place the rounded loaf into a 9-inch brioche pan* (see note below). Cover the dough lossely with a clean kitchen towel or plastic wrap and allow it to rise for another 2 1/2 to 3 hours, or until it's doubled in size and has crowned well over the top of the pan. For the Eggwash Glaze and Baking Brioche: Beat the egg yolk with the 1 tablespoon of water, and brush the complete top surface of loaf with the egg wash, (being careful not to let the egg wash drip onto the edges of the pan, as the dough will stick to it and the baked brioche will be difficult to invert from pan after baking). Using a very sharp knife, cut four slashes into the top of the loaf. Bake the brioche in a preheated 375F/190C* (see note below) oven until it's a medium-dark golden brown, about 30-40 minutes. You may use an instant-read thermometer to check doneness of loaf. When thermometer is inserted into center of loaf, it should read 190200F/87-93C when done. For a lighter crust, tent the loaf with aluminum foil after the first 20 minutes of baking. Remove the brioche from the oven and cool in pan for 10 minutes. Invert brioche loaf out of pan, and cool completely on a rack.

*Note: If baking your brioche in a glass or dark colored pan or a non-stick pan, bake brioche at 350F/180C instead of 375F/190C. Using glass, dark-colored or non-stick pans will bake your bread quicker, and will cause your loaf to brown faster. Makes 1 brioche loaf, 8-10 slices.

Photograph taken by Diana Baker Woodall Source: DianasDesserts.com Date: April 27, 2003-Revised June 1, 2003 ============================

Sprinkle a pastry board or pastry cloth with 1/4 cup flour. Turn the dough out onto the floured surface. With floured hands, gently knead the dough for 8 strokes. With a well-floured rolling pin, roll the dough into a 21 x 12-inch rectangle. (If necessary, sprinkle the surface of the dough with up to 1/4 cup flour to prevent sticking.) Fold dough crosswise into thirds to form a 12 x 7-inch rectangle. Loosely wrap in plastic wrap and chill for 1 to 1 1/2 hours in the refrigerator or 20 to 30 minutes in the freezer, or till dough is firm but not excessively stiff. On a well-floured surface, roll dough into a 21 x 12-inch rectangle. Fold dough crosswise into thirds again and give dough a quarter-turn. Roll, fold, and turn twice more, flouring the surface as needed. (It is not necessary to chill dough between each rolling.) Place dough in a plastic bag. Seal bag, leaving room for the dough to expand. Chill dough for 4 to 24 hours. To shape, cut dough crosswise into fourths. Wrap and return 3 portions to the refrigerator till ready to use. On a lightly floured surface, roll the fourth portion of dough into a 16 x 8-inch rectangle. Cut the rectangle crosswise in half to form 2 squares. Then cut each square diagonally in half to form 2 triangles. (You will have 4 triangles total from each rectangle.) Loosely roll up each triangle, starting from an 8-inch side and rolling toward the opposite point. Repeat shaping with the remaining 3 portions of dough. Place croissants 4 inches apart on 2 ungreased large baking sheets, points down. Curve the ends to form crescent shapes. Cover and let rise in a warm place until nearly double (about 1 hour). In a small mixing bowl beat 1 egg and 1 tablespoon water or milk. Lightly brush the egg mixture over croissants. Bake in a preheated 375 degree F/190 degree C oven for about 15 minutes, or until golden brown. Remove from baking sheets; cool on a wire rack. RASPBERRY CROISSANTS: Place 1 teaspoon of raspberry preserves on one 8-inch side of each croissant dough triangle and roll toward the opposite point. Proceed with the recipe. CHOCOLATE CROISSANTS: Chop your favorite chocolate bar and place about 2 teaspoons along one 8-inch side of each croissant dough triangle and roll toward the opposite point. Proceed with the recipe.

Butter Croissants
Servings: Makes 16 croissants Comments: Few things in life are as delectable as flaky, buttery croissants, and they're even better when you dress them up with special fillings. Because this dough is similar to puff pastry, it needs to be rolled out on a well-floured surface before shaping. Ingredients: 1 1/2 cups (3 sticks/12 oz./340g) cold butter 3 cups all-purpose flour 1 1/2 cups all-purpose flour 1 package active dry yeast 1 1/4 cups milk 1/4 cup granulated sugar 1/4 teaspoon salt 1 egg 1/4-1/2 cup all-purpose flour 1 egg 1 tablespoon water or milk Instructions: Cut butter into 1/2-inch-thick slices. In a medium mixing bowl stir butter slices into the 3 cups flour until slices are coated and separated. Chill butter mixture while preparing the dough. For dough, in a large mixing bowl stir together 1 1/2 cups flour and the yeast; set aside. In a medium saucepan heat and stir the milk, sugar, and salt until warm (120 to 130 degrees F). Add the milk mixture to the flour mixture. Add 1 egg. Beat with an electric mixer on low speed for 30 seconds, scraping bowl constantly. Beat on high speed for 3 minutes. Using a wooden spoon, stir in the chilled flour-butter mixture till the flour is well moistened (the butter will remain in large pieces).

SAVORY CROISSANTS: Roll up 1 thin slice ham and place on one side of each croissant dough triangle, or spread one side with 2 teaspoons of semisoft cheese with garlic and herbs, or 1 teaspoon cheese and 1 ham slice; roll toward the opposite point. Proceed with the recipe. Makes 16 croissants. Source: Cooking.com Date: April 8, 2003 ==============================

Challah Bread Or Braided Egg Bread


Servings: Makes 2 large loaves Ingredients: 2 packages active dry yeast 1/2 cup lukewarm water (about 110 degrees F) 1/3 cup sugar (plus an extra pinch of sugar) 1 stick (4 ounces) PLUS 2 tbsp. unsalted butter, thinly sliced and melted 1 cup warm milk 1 tablespoon honey 2 1/2 teaspoons salt 4 extra large eggs, at room temperature 1 extra large egg (beaten with extra-large egg yolk and 1 tablespoon water, for glazing) About 6 cups bread flour Cornmeal, for dusting Toppings: A generous sprinkling of seeds, such as poppy or sesame, or of coarse salt adds another layer of flavor to the already delectable challah. Use 1 tablespoon of poppy or sesame seeds, or 1 teaspoon of coarse salt, topping the dough after the second egg glazing. Instructions: In a small bowl, dissolve the yeast in the lukewarm water with the pinch of sugar and let stand until creamy and starting to bubble. In a medium saucepan, combine the sliced butter and the milk. Warm over low heat just until the butter melts. Stir in the remaining 1/3 cup of sugar and the honey and salt. Pour the milk mixture into a large bowl and stir in the dissolved yeast and the 4 eggs. Stir in just enough of the flour, 1/2 cup at a time, to form a dense dough that doesn't stick to the side of the bowl. Turn the dough out onto a lightly floured surface and knead until smooth and elastic, adding only as much flour as necessary to keep the dough from sticking. Brush a large bowl with 1-1/2 tablespoons of the melted butter. Transfer the dough to the buttered bowl and brush the top with the remaining 1/2 tablespoon of melted butter. Cover the bowl with plastic wrap and a kitchen towel and let rise in a warm, draft-free spot until doubled in bulk, about 2 hours. Punch down the dough, then cover and let rise

Buttermilk Biscuits
Servings: Makes 12-18 biscuits Ingredients: 2 cups all-purpose flour 2 1/2 tsp. baking powder 1 tsp. salt 1/2 tsp. baking soda 1/2 cup shortening 1 cup buttermilk or sour milk Instructions: Preheat oven to 425 degrees F/220 degrees C. Combine flour, baking powder, salt and baking soda in mixing bowl. Cut in shortening with mixture resembles pastry blender until coarse meal.

Add buttermilk all at once to dry ingredients and stir with fork until a soft dough is formed. Turn dough out onto lightly floured surface and knead gently 8 to 10 times. Roll or pat to 3/4-inch (2cm) thickness. Cut with floured 1 3/4-inch (4cm) round cutter. Place on ungreased baking sheet close together for softsided biscuits or about 1-inch (2.5cm) apart for crusty-sided biscuits. Bake in preheated oven for 12-15 minutes or until light golden. Serve warm with butter and honey on the side. Makes 12-18 biscuits, depending on what size cutter you use. Source: DianasDesserts.com Date: August 5, 2002

until doubled in bulk again, about 1-1/4 hours. Line 2 large rimmed baking sheets with parchment paper and sprinkle the paper with cornmeal. On a lightly floured work surface, divide the dough in half. Cover one half with plastic wrap and divide the other half into 3 equal pieces. Using lightly floured hands, roll each piece into a 10-inch-long rope with tapered ends. Arrange the 3 ropes side by side pointing toward you and just touching. Starting in the middle and working toward your body, braid the ropes together, bringing the outside ropes over the center one. Pinch the ends to seal and tuck them under. Turn the loaf around and repeat with the other half, this time braiding the outer ropes under the center one. Seal the ends, tuck them under and transfer the loaf to a prepared baking sheet; gently plump the loaf with your hands. Repeat with the remaining dough. Cover the loaves with kitchen towels and let rise for 35 minutes. Preheat the oven to 375 degrees F.

Cheddar Cheese Herb Bread


Servings: Makes 1 (1 1/2 pound) loaf, 16 slices Ingredients: 1 cup water 3 cups white bread flour 1 tablespoon granulated sugar 1 teaspoon salt 1 tablespoon powdered buttermilk 1/4 cup dairy sour cream 1/2 cup shredded cheddar cheese 1 tablespoon dry ranch salad-dressing mix 1/4 cup mixed chopped fresh herbs, such as parsley, sage, rosemary and thyme 1 teaspoon active dry yeast or bread-machine yeast

Instructions: Add ingredients to a 1-1/2-pound capacity bread machine according to manufacturer's directions. Select basic white bread cycle (Note: machine pan must have capacity of 10 cups or more). Makes 16 slices (1-1/2 pound loaf).

Brush the loaves with the egg glaze. Let stand uncovered for 10 minutes, then brush again with the glaze. Bake the loaves in the upper and lower thirds of the oven, switching the pans halfway through baking, for 35 to 45 minutes, or until they are golden, feel light when lifted and sound hollow when tapped on the bottom. Loosely cover the loaves with foil if they become too brown during baking. Transfer to a rack and let cool thoroughly before slicing. Makes 2 large loaves.

Date: June 25, 2004

Source: Source: Food Date: February 23, 2002

And

Wine

Cheese Biscuits
Servings: Makes about 3 dozen biscuits Ingredients: 2 cups unbleached all-purpose flour 2 tablespoons toasted wheat germ 4 level teaspoons baking powder 1/2 teaspoon salt 6 tablespoons cold butter, cut into cubes 1/4 cup (1-ounce) grated sharp cheddar cheese 3/4 cup buttermilk Instructions: Preheat the oven to 425 degrees F (220 C). Butter a baking sheet. In the bowl of a mixer or food processor, combine the flour, wheat germ, baking powder, and salt and process briefly to combine. Add the butter and cheese and process until the mixture resembles coarse meal. Pour in the buttermilk, then process until the dough comes together, about 15 seconds. Turn the dough out onto a floured board and allow it to rest for 5 minutes. Knead 3 times only, then pat into a circle 3/4-inch thick. Cut into petite biscuits, using a 1-inch biscuit cutter. Place the dough circles on the baking sheet and bake for 10 minutes in the upper third of the oven, until puffed and golden. Makes about 3 dozen biscuits.

Chocolate Chip Toffee Scones


Servings: 12 Comments: Truly and most probably the best scones I have ever baked, OR for that matter, ever eaten. The chocolate chips and chocolate-covered English Toffee Bits just "ooze" when you take your first bite into the scone. So if you really want to experience these scones at their very best, eat them when they're still just a touch warm. Otherwise, they are still terrific once they have cooled, and I think even better the next day. Really "To die for" with a good cup of coffee or tea, or a big glass of milk.....Diana

Ingredients: Scones: 3 1/4 cups all-purpose flour 1/2 cup granulated sugar 1 tablespoon PLUS 1/4 teaspoon baking powder 1/4 teaspoon salt 1 cup semisweet, milk, or dark chocolate chips 1/2 cup walnuts, toasted and then chopped into small pieces* (See Below on How to Toast Walnuts) 1/2 to 1 cup chocolate-covered English Toffee Bits (I recommend Hershey's Heath Milk Chocolate English Toffee Bits) 2 cups heavy cream, chilled Topping: (before baking) 2 tablespoons (1/4 stick/1 oz/28 gm) unsalted butter, melted Granulated or coarse white sugar Instructions: Preheat oven 375F (190C). Lightly butter two heavy large baking sheets. In a large mixing bowl, combine flour, 1/2 cup sugar, baking powder and salt; mix welll. Stir in chocolate chips, nuts and toffee bits. In a large mixing bowl or bowl of an electric mixer (chill mixing bowl and beaters or whisk attachment in freezer for 15 minutes, or chill in refrigerator for one hour before whipping cream), whip the chilled heavy cream until stiff peaks form. Fold whipped cream into dry ingredients; combine well. Turn dough out onto a lightly floured work surface. Knead gently until soft dough forms; about 2 minutes. Form dough into ball and pat dough out to 1 1/4-inch thickness. Cut dough into 12 wedges.

Source: Savannah Seasons: Food and Stories from Elizabeth on 37th by Elizabeth Terry, Alexis Terry (contributor) Date: February 5, 2003

Transfer wedges to prepared baking sheets, spacing about 1-inch apart. For Topping: Brush scones with melted butter. Sprinkle each scone with a bit of granulated or coarse white sugar. Bake in preheated 375F (190C) oven until golden brown, about 20 minutes. Serve warm or at room temperature. Store in airtight container at room temperature. Makes How to 12 Toast scones. Walnuts

1. Toast walnuts BEFORE chopping them into smaller pieces. 2. Heat walnuts in a dry, heavy skillet over medium heat for 1 to 2 minutes or until they're golden brown and they give off a rich, toasty fragrance. Watch walnuts closely when using this method as it's easy to burn them. 3. Stir or toss walnuts frequently for even toasting. 4. Remove from pan to cool. Store cooled leftover toasted walnuts in the refrigerator in an airtight container for up to 1 to 2 weeks. Source for Scone Recipe: Adapted from Bon Apptit Magazine Recipe, September 1997 Source for Desserts. How to Toast Walnuts: Diana's

Oven-Toasting 1. Preheat oven to 350 degrees F. 2. Toast walnuts BEFORE chopping them into smaller pieces. 3. Place nuts in a single layer in an ungreased shallow pan or rimmed baking sheet such as a cookie sheet or jelly roll pan. (DO NOT use a baking sheet without sides or you may have nuts all over the oven if you accidentally tip the sheet when removing it from the oven.) 4. Bake 5 to 10 minutes or until they are golden brown. A toasted walnut may look more GOLDEN than BROWN. They will continue to brown slightly after they're removed from the oven. Stir once or twice or shake the pan during toasting to aid in even browning. 5. Remove from pan to cool. 6. After toasting and walnuts have cooled, store any leftover toasted walnuts in the refrigerator in an airtight container for up to 1 to 2 weeks. Note: The first time you try toasting walnuts, it's better to err on the side of under-toasting than overtoasting. As walnuts toast, you'll notice a change in their fragrance as well as their color. Stove-Top Toasting

Photograph taken by Diana Baker Woodall 2004 Date: April 25, 2004

Stove-top toasting works well for small batches of walnuts. With this method, the parts of the walnuts touching the skillet may become darkest, unlike the oven method where the walnuts become more of an overall golden color.

Ciabatta
Servings: Makes (2) 5 x 10-inch loaves

Comments: Flat and flour dusted, this classic Italian "slipper shaped" bread is characterized by its large irregularly sized and shaped holes. It begins with biga, Italian for "starter," a fermented-yeast mixture that lends superior flavor and texture to bread. Make the biga the day before you plan to bake this bread. Ingredients: For the Biga: (the starter) 1 cup bread flour 1/2 teaspoon sugar 1/2 teaspoon instant active dry yeast 2/3 cup spring water, warmed to 100 degrees F (38 degrees C) For the Dough: 3 cups bread flour 1/2 teaspoon instant active dry yeast 2 teaspoons instant dry nonfat milk 1 1/2 teaspoons salt 1 1/4 cups warm spring water (100 degrees F/38 degrees C) Instructions: 1. Make the Biga: (Make the biga the day before baking the bread) In a medium bowl, combine flour, sugar, yeast, and water and stir until smooth. Cover bowl with a clean, damp kitchen towel and let ferment in a warm, draftfree place overnight. The resulting mixture will be bubbly and light. 2. Make the Dough: In a large bowl or food processor fitted with metal blade, stir together flour, yeast, dry milk, and salt. Add the biga and water. Use a wooden spoon to mix or process until a wet, sticky dough is formed. Beat 5 more minutes by hand, or process for 45 more seconds. The dough will be springy and wet. Scrape dough from sides of bowl and cover with a clean, damp kitchen towel. Let rise in a warm, draft-free place until trebled in size -about 3 hours. 3. Shape the Loaves: Liberally sprinkle a work surface with flour and, without punching down, turn the dough out onto it. Sprinkle the dough and your hands with flour and press to flatten the dough into a 6- by 6-inch rectangle. Divide the dough into two equal halves, cover with the damp kitchen towel, and

let it rise for 30 minutes. Using well-floured hands, stretch each rectangle of dough to measure 5 by 10 inches. Gently turn the edges under about 1/2 inch to plump up the dough. Spread your fingers wide and, using your whole hand, lightly press the dough to flatten it to its characteristic slipper-like shape. Generously coat a baker's peel or a baking sheet with cornmeal and flip the dough over onto the peel. Rub flour over the dough surfaces, cover with a damp towel, and let rise for 30 more minutes. 4. Bake the Loaves: Place a baking stone in the lower third of the oven and preheat for at least 30 minutes (to thoroughly heat the stone) at 425 degrees F (220 degrees C). Use a quick shoveling motion to slide each loaf from the peel or baking sheet onto the hot stone. Mist the inside of the oven with 3 or 4 sprays of water and bake until loaves are golden brown, 25 to 30 minutes. Cool on a wire rack. Serve warm or at room temperature. Store in an airtight container. Makes two 5 x 10-inch loaves.

Date: May 26, 2003

Classic Blueberry Cream Scones


Servings: Makes 12 scones

Comments: Fresh blueberries are available from May through September or October so if possible use fresh. Of course, frozen blueberries can also be used in this recipe. If you are using frozen blueberries, make sure they are unsweetened. When making the scones, do not thaw the frozen blueberries as they will turn your scones blue during baking. These scones are wonderful split open and slathered with clotted or double cream, crme frache or lemon curd.

Knead the dough gently on a lightly floured surface for 30 seconds, pat it into a 3/4-inchthick round, and cut out 12 wedges or, using a 3inch cutter, cut out rounds. Arrange the wedges or rounds, 2 inches apart, on the prepared baking sheet. Brush with the additional cream, and sprinkle with sugar. Bake the scones on the middle rack of preheated oven for 15 to 18 minutes, or until they are a light golden brown. Transfer to wire cooling rack for 10 minutes before serving. Serve scones with lemon curd, double or clotted cream or crme frache. Storing and Freezing: Store scones at room temperature in an airtight container for up to 1 day or scones may also be frozen. If freezing baked scones, let scones cool completely, wrap in aluminum foil and place in plastic freezer bag and freeze for up to 1 month. To reheat, unwrap scones (thaw wrapped, if frozen) and place onto a baking sheet. Bake in a 350 degree F/180 degree C oven 8 to 10 minutes or until warm. Makes 12 scones.

Ingredients: 1/2 cup heavy cream 1 large egg 1 teaspoon vanilla extract 2 cups all-purpose flour 1/4 cup granulated sugar 1/2 teaspoon salt 1 tablespoon double acting baking powder 1/2 teaspoon baking soda 6 tablespoons (3/4 stick/3 oz./85g) chilled unsalted butter, cut into small pieces 3/4 cup fresh or frozen blueberries, (rinse and dry well if using fresh blueberries) Additional cream, for brushing tops of scones Granulated or turbinado sugar, for sprinkling over scones Instructions: Tip If using frozen blueberries, do not thaw them as the scones will turn a blue color while baking. There is no need to rinse frozen blueberries. If using fresh blueberries, make sure to rinse and dry them well. Preheat oven to 400 degrees F/200 degrees C. Lightly grease a baking sheet. Set aside. In a medium mixing bowl, whisk together the cream, the egg, and the vanilla. In a large mixing bowl sift together the flour, sugar, salt, baking powder, and baking soda. Add the butter and blend the mixture until it resembles coarse meal. Gently stir in the blueberries and add the cream mixture with a fork until the mixture forms a sticky but manageable dough.

Date: July 28, 2006

Classic Scottish Scones


Servings: 9-12 scones

Country Rye Bread


Servings: Makes 2 round loaves

Ingredients: 2 1/4 cups self-rising flour* (see note below) 1 tablespoon granulated sugar 2 teaspoons baking powder 3/4 cup (or more) chilled whole milk 1 large egg 1 tablespoon vegetable oil Extra flour (for sprinkling baking sheet with and to lightly flour work surface with) Accompaniments: (optional) Butter Jam Whipped Heavy Cream or Double or Clotted Cream Instructions: Preheat oven to 425F (220C). Sprinkle large rimmed baking sheet with flour. In a large bowl, whisk together the flour, sugar and baking powder. Whisk together the 3/4 cup milk, the egg and oil in small bowl to blend. Gradually add milk mixture to dry ingredients, tossing until moist clumps form. Turn dough out onto lightly floured surface; knead gently for several turns until dough comes together. Pat out dough to 1-inch thick round. Using a 2 1/2-inch in diameter cutter, cut out scones. Gather dough scraps; press out to 1-inch thickness and cut out more scones. Transfer to prepared baking sheet. Bake scones in preheated 425F (220C) oven until golden on top, and tester inserted into center comes out clean, about 12-14 minutes. Cool on baking sheet for 5 minutes. Transfer to basket or serving plate and serve warm with butter, jam, and whipped cream (or double or clotted cream). *Note I found that more flour was needed in this recipe to make the dough easier to work with. I recommend using at least 1/2 to 1 cup more flour (than stated in the ingredients above) to achieve a dough that is "workable" but not dry....Diana

Ingredients: 4 to 4 1/2 cups all-purpose flour 1/3 cup packed light brown sugar 2 packages Active Dry or Rapid Rise Yeast 1 tablespoon caraway seeds 1 1/2 teaspoons salt 2 cups very warm water (120 degrees to 130 degrees F) 2 tablespoons vegetable oil 2 cups rye flour 1 egg white, lightly beaten with 1 tablespoon water Instructions: In large bowl, combine 2 cups all-purpose flour, sugar, undissolved yeast, caraway seeds and salt. Gradually add very warm water and oil to dry ingredients; beat 2 minutes at medium speed of electric mixer, scraping bowl occasionally. Add 1/2 cup all-purpose flour; beat 2 minutes at high speed, scraping bowl occasionally. With spoon, stir in rye flour and enough remaining all-purpose flour to make soft dough. Knead on lightly floured surface until smooth and elastic, about 6 to 8 minutes. Place in greased bowl, turning to grease top. Cover; let rise in warm, draft-free place until doubled in size, about 30 to 45 minutes. (With Rapid Rise Yeast, cover kneaded dough and let rest on floured surface 10 minutes. Proceed with recipe.) Punch dough down. Remove dough to lightly floured surface; divide dough in half. Form each into 5-inch ball. Place on large greased baking sheet. Cover; let rise in warm, draft-free place until doubled in size, about 30 to 45 minutes. With sharp knife, make 4 slashes (1/4-inch deep) in crisscross fashion on top of each loaf. Brush with egg white mixture. Bake at 400 degrees F for 35 minutes or until done; cover with foil halfway through baking time to prevent excess browning. Remove loaves from baking sheet and let cool on wire rack. Makes: 2 round loaves.

Country Style French Bread


Servings: Makes 1 large loaf or 2 medium size loaves Comments: You could make this bread, and no other, for the rest of your baking career, and never feel cheated. It uses the sponge, or poolish, method: sort of a poor man's or woman's sourdough starter -- no feedings, little pre-planning, lots of flexibility and superb bread. I usually make this dough, sponge starter and all, in the bread machine, but you can do it by hand, processor, or stand mixer. After barbecue season, bake this bread in the conventional oven but atomize it with water to get that crisp crust. If you've always wanted crusty, hole-ridden, French-style bread, this is the ticket. Ingredients: For the Sponge Starter: (Begin 2 to 16 hours ahead) 1 cup cool-lukewarm water, preferably spring water (90 to 100F) 1/2 teaspoon active dry or instant yeast 1 1/4 cups King Arthur Unbleached Special Bread Flour (or any other brand of unbleached special bread flour) 1/4 cup King Arthur 100% White Whole Wheat or Traditional Whole Wheat Flour (or any other brand of white whole wheat or traditional whole wheat flour) For the Dough: All of the sponge starter (above) 1 cup lukewarm water, preferably spring water (l00 to 115F) 3/4 teaspoon active dry or 1/2 teaspoon instant yeast 1 tablespoon sugar 3 3/4 to 4 cups King Arthur Unbleached Special Bread Flour (or any other brand of unbleached special bread flour) 1 tablespoon kosher salt Instructions: To Make The Sponge: Stir all of the sponge ingredients together to make a thick, pudding-like mixture. Cover with plastic wrap and leave on a counter overnight or for at least 2 to 4 hours. If you're making this in a bread machine, place the sponge ingredients inside, and turn the machine on for just a few seconds to mix the ingredients together. Turn the machine off and close the cover. Let the sponge rest for 4 hours or overnight (anywhere between 2 and 16 hours is fine, the longer the better).

To Make The Dough: Stir down the sponge with a spoon and add the water, yeast, sugar, most of the flour (hold back about 1/2 cup to use if required), and salt. Knead the dough, adding more flour as necessary, to make a soft dough, 10 to 12 minutes. Note: You may also do this in your bread machine, using the Dough or Manual setting. After the dough has finished kneading, place it in a lightly greased bowl, and continue as directed below. Big Tip: Mix ingredients together using up to 80% of the flour called for. Mix into a loose, messy mass. Let the dough rest for 12 minutes. Then continue, kneading and adding additional flour as required. Overall, the dough handles better, having had a chance to absorb the flour while resting and relaxing, and you'll tend to add less flour. Place the dough in a lightly greased bowl or plastic container, cover with lightly greased plastic wrap and a damp towel, and let it rise until almost doubled (depending on the weather, this could be l to 2 hours). If you're going out, or if you prefer, let the dough rise slowly in the fridge. If your dough has been refrigerated, allow it to come to room temperature; it'll warm up and rise at the same time. After its first rise, deflate the dough gently, but don't knock out all the air; this will create those "holes" so important to French bread. Form the dough into a round ball. Place two cookie sheets atop one another, and place a semolina- or cornmeal-dusted piece of parchment paper on top. Gently place the ball of dough on the cookie sheets, seam-side down. Cover it lightly with a tea towel, and let it rise the second time until it's puffy and about 40% to 50% larger, anywhere from 45 to 90 minutes (depending on the weather, luck, and magic). Slash or cross-hatch the bread with a sharp knife or lame. Dust it with a little flour. Baking in your Grill: Preheat your grill to High. Place the bread (on the doubled-up cookie sheets) on the grill, and close the cover. Immediately reduce the heat to Medium (400F/200C), and allow the bread to bake for 25 minutes, or until it's well-browned. Reduce the heat to Low, and carefully place the bread directly on the grill. Continue to bake until completely done, about 5 minutes. For Regular (Oven) Baking: Preheat the oven to 475F/245C. Slash the bread, spritz water into the oven with a clean

plant mister, and place the bread in the oven. Reduce the heat to 425F/220C and spritz with water every few minutes for the first 15 minutes of baking. Bake the bread for about 25 to 30 minutes, or until it tests done. Makes 1 large round loaf or two medium size loaves, 10 to 12 servings. Photograph taken by Diana Baker Woodall 2003 Source: King Date: June 2, 2003 Arthur Flour

Croissants
Servings: What Makes is a 40 croissants Croissant?

==============================

Country Style Sour Cream Bread


Servings: Makes 1 round loaf (8-10 slices) Ingredients: 1 cup sour cream, at room temperature 3 tablespoons water 2-1/2 to 3 cups all-purpose flour, divided 1 package active dry yeast 2 tablespoons sugar 1-1/2 teaspoons salt 1/4 teaspoon baking soda Vegetable oil or nonstick cooking spray 1 tablespoon poppy or sesame seeds Instructions: Stir together sour cream and water in small saucepan. Heat over low heat until temperature reaches 120 to 130F (48-54C). Do not boil. Combine 2 cups flour, yeast, sugar, salt and baking soda in a large bowl. Spread sour cream mixture evenly over flour mixture with rubber spatula. Stir until well blended. Turn out dough onto lightly floured surface. Turn out onto lightly floured surface. Knead about 5 minutes adding enough of remaining flour to make a smooth and elastic dough. Grease large baking sheet. Shape dough into ball; place on prepared sheet. Flatten into 8-inch circle. Brush with oil. Sprinkle with poppy or sesame seeds. Invert large bowl over dough and let rise in warm place 1 hour or until doubled in bulk. Preheat oven to 350F (180C). Bake 22 to 27 minutes or until golden brown. Remove immediately from baking sheet; cool on wire rack. Makes 1 round loaf (8-12 slices). Date: June 21, 2003

Definition: [kwah-SAHN; KWAH-sawn; kruhSAHNT] The origin of this flaky, buttery-rich yeast roll dates back to 1686, when Austria was at war with Turkey. In the dead of night a group of bakers, hearing Turks tunneling under their kitchens, spread the alarm that subsequently led to the Turkish defeat. In turn, the vigilant bakers were awarded the privilege of creating a commemorative pastry in the shape of the crescent on the Turkish flag. Croissant is the French word for "crescent." Originally, the croissant was made from a rich bread dough. It wasn't until the early 1900s that a creative French baker had the inspiration to make it with a dough similar to puff pastry . . . and so a classic was born. Croissants can be made with buttered layers of yeast dough or puff pastry. They're sometimes stuffed (such as with a stick of chocolate or cheese) before being rolled into a crescent shape and baked. Croissants are generally thought of as breakfast pastries but can also be used for sandwiches and meal accompaniments. Source: The New Food Lover's Companion, Second Edition, by Sharon Tyler Herbst Ingredients: 2 eggs 21 ounces cold water 1 1/2 ounces fresh yeast 4 ounces sugar 9 ounces dry milk 14 ounces high gluten flour 6 ounces cornstarch 1 ounce salt 8 1/2 ounces (2 sticks + 1 tablespoon) butter Egg wash (1 egg beaten with 1 tablespoon water) Instructions: Mix all ingredients except the butter for 5 minutes on first speed in a mixer. Continue to mix for another 5 minutes on second speed. Once all ingredients have combined, remove dough from mixing bowl, wrap in plastic, and place in the refrigerator for 20 minutes. Flatten the butter out into an 8 by 8-inch square shape. Roll out the dough into a 14 by 14-inch square shape, with the corners pointing towards you. Place the butter on the dough, with the corners placed opposite the corners of the dough. Fold in the corners of the dough over the butter

to the center, sealing all the seams. Wrap dough in plastic, and refrigerate for 20 minutes. Remove the dough from the refrigerator, and roll the dough out approximately 18 inches in a rectangle. Then fold one end to the center, and fold other end, overlapping each fold. This is what we call a three-fold. Wrap dough and refrigerate for 20 minutes. Repeat same process one more time, and refrigerate. Remove dough from refrigerator, and roll out until dough is a rectangle that is approximately 1/8-inch thick. Halve the dough lengthwise, and then cut each section into 10 triangles. Roll each triangle from base of triangle to tip, shape it into a crescent, and place on a baking sheet lined with parchment paper. Lightly brush each croissant with some egg wash. Let the croissant rise for 1 hour or until they have doubled in size. Preheat oven to 375 degrees F/190 degrees C. Place croissants in oven and bake for 10 to 15 minutes, until golden brown. Prep Time: 1 Cook Time: Inactive Prep Makes 40 croissants. Date: April 8, 2003 ============================== hour 30 15 Time: 20 minutes minutes minutes

Instructions: The Starter: Mix the starter ingredients together until smooth, cover, and let rest at room temperature overnight. Combine all of the dough ingredients and mix and knead them together -- by hand, mixer or bread machine, until you've made a soft, somewhat smooth dough; it should be cohesive, but the surface should still be a bit rough. Allow the dough to rise, covered, for 3 hours, gently deflating it and turning it over after 1 hour, and again after 2 hours. Turn the dough out onto a lightly greased or floured work surface. Divide it into 12 pieces, shape the pieces into balls, and firm them up by rolling them under your lightly cupped fingers on an unfloured work surface. Place the rolls on a parchment-lined baking sheet, cover them, and let them rise for 1 1/2 to 2 hours, until they've doubled in size. Refrigerate them for several hours, or overnight. Remove the rolls from the refrigerator, and brush them with a wash made of 1/2 cup water mixed with 1 tablespoon egg white (you won't use up all the wash). Slash a 1/4-inch deep cut across the top of each roll, and bake them in a preheated 425F (220C) oven for 20 to 25 minutes, until they're a deep golden brown. Remove them from the oven, and cool on a wire rack. For an extracrisp crust, allow them to cool in the turned-off, door-propped-open oven. Yield: 12 rolls. Reviews Reviewer: Janice Rosenberg This recipe was exactly what I wanted. I replaced 1 1/2 cups of the King Arthur with whole wheat flour, added 1 tablespoon of soy flour and 2 tablespoons of oat bran. Before I made the dough into rolls, I kneaded in raisins and chopped toasted walnuts. I allowed the rolls to rest overnight in the fridge and was delighted with the baked results. These rolls freeze well, too.

Crusty Hard Rolls


Servings: Yield: 12 rolls Ingredients: Starter 1/2 cup water 1 cup King Arthur Unbleached All-Purpose Flour 1/8 teaspoon instant yeast Dough All of the starter 3 1/2 cups King Arthur Unbleached All-Purpose Flour 1 cup water 1 1/2 teaspoons salt 1/4 teaspoon instant yeast

Dark Chocolate Chip Scones


Servings: 24 Ingredients: 3-1/4 cups all-purpose flour 1 tablespoon plus 1 teaspoon baking powder 2 cups (12-oz. pkg.) HERSHEYS SPECIAL DARK Chocolate Chips 2 cups chilled whipping cream 2 tablespoons butter, melted 1/2 cup granulated sugar 1/4 teaspoon salt 1/2 cup chopped nuts (optional) Additional sugar Confectioners' sugar (optional) Instructions: 1. Preheat oven to 375 degrees F (190 C). Lightly grease 2 baking sheets. 2. Stir together flour, 1/2 cup sugar, baking powder and salt in large bowl. Stir in chocolate chips and nuts, if desired. 3. Stir whipping cream into flour mixture, stirring just until ingredients are moistened. 4. Turn mixture out onto lightly floured surface. Knead gently until soft dough forms (about 2 minutes). Pat dough into 4-1/2 x 16-inch rectangle about 1-1/4 inches high. Divide rectangle into 12 smaller rectangles each measuring 1-1/2 by 4 inches. Cut each rectangle diagonally, forming a total of 24 triangles.* Transfer triangles to prepared baking sheets, spacing 2 inches apart. Brush with melted butter and sprinkle with additional sugar. 5. Bake 15 to 20 minutes or until lightly browned. Serve warm, sprinkled with confectioners' sugar, if desired. Makes 24 scones. Note: Rectangles can also be cut crosswise into smaller rectangles about 1-1/2 by 2 inches.

Easy Corn Tortillas


Servings: Makes 12 (6-inch) or 18 (4-inch) tortillas Comments: The basic bread of Mexico, freshly made corn tortillas have a rich, earthy aroma and a wonderful flavor to which store-bought varieties simply can't compare. Masa harina, a Mexicanstyle cornmeal, provides authentic flavor and texture. A comal, an old-fashioned Mexican stove-top griddle, is the ideal cooking surface. A large cast iron griddle that fits across two burners works even better since you're able to cook more tortillas at one time. Shaping tortillas by hand is a technique that takes some practice. A handy tool even the artisans use is a tortilla press. By using a press, you'll skip the work of shaping tortillas, and get right to eating them instead!

Ingredients: 2 cups masa harina (or golden corn flour) Pinch of salt 1 cup lukewarm water, or as needed Instructions: MAKING MASA DOUGH: In a large bowl, combine the masa harina and salt. Gradually stir in the 1 cup lukewarm water until smooth. The dough should be slightly sticky and form a ball when pressed together. To test, flatten a small ball of dough between your palms or 2 sheets of plastic wrap. If the edges crack, add more lukewarm water, a little at a time, until the edges are smooth. Divide the dough into 12 or 18 pieces, depending upon the size tortillas you need. Roll each piece into a ball. Place the balls on a plate and cover with a damp kitchen towel. Heat a dry griddle, cast-iron frying pan, or comal (see note above) over medium heat. FORMING TORTILLAS: Slit open a resealable plastic bag and use the plastic to line the lower surface of an opened tortilla press, allowing it to extend slightly beyond the edges. Place a ball of dough in the center of the press, top with a second piece of plastic and close the press to flatten the dough. Open the press and carefully peel off the plastic. COOKING TORTILLAS: Lay the tortillas, on the preheated griddle and cook, pressing the top gently with your fingertips

Source: Date: February 27, 2004

Hershey's

to make it puff and turning once, until it appears cooked but not browned, 30-45 seconds on each side. As the tortillas are cooked, transfer them to a kitchen towel and let cool briefly, then stack and wrap in the towel to keep moist and warm. Makes 12 (6-inch) or 18 (4-inch) tortillas. DO-AHEAD TIP: Cool the tortillas, wrap in plastic wrap and store in the refrigerator for up to 1 week. To reheat for serving, sprinkle each tortilla with a few drops of water and heat on a preheated nonstick pan for 10-15 seconds on each side. Stack on a kitchen towel and wrap to keep warm until serving.

English Muffins
Servings: Makes 18 English Muffins This round, rather flat (about 3 inches in diameter by 1 inch high) "muffin" is made from a soft yeast dough that, after being formed into rounds, is baked on a griddle. It can be made at home but is readily available commercially in an assortment of flavors including sourdough, whole wheat, raisin, cinnamon and cornmeal. English muffins are halved before toasting. In order to produce a surface with the proper peaks and craters (which adds to their crunchy texture and provides plentiful pockets for butter and jam), English muffins must be fork-split and gently pulled apart. Using a knife to cut them in half will not produce the desired result. Source: edition, The Food Lover's Companion, 2nd 1995 by Sharon Tyler Herbst.

Easy Flour Tortillas


Servings: Makes 10 tortillas Ingredients: 3 cups all-purpose flour 3 teaspoons baking powder 1 teaspoon salt Pinch of sugar (optional) 3 tablespoons vegetable oil (more for softer tortillas) 1 cup water Instructions: Mix together flour, baking powder, salt, sugar and oil. Add water and mix with hands. Divide into 10 small balls. Roll each flat with rolling pin and cook on very hot ungreased griddle until lightly brown on each side. Makes 10 tortillas.

Topped with butter and jam, homemade English muffins are a real treat any day of the year. They'll keep for several days stored in a plastic bag, or for several weeks in the freezer. That is, if there are any left by the end of the day. Ingredients: 1 cup 3 tablespoons butter, 2 tablespoons 1 cup warm water 1 package (1/4-ounce) Cornmeal 5 1/2 to 6 cups 1 teaspoon salt milk pieces honey F/45 C) dry yeast flour

cut (110 active

into

all-purpose

Instructions: 1). Combine the milk, butter, and honey in a medium-size saucepan. Warm the mixture over medium-low heat until the butter starts to melt, then whisk it briefly. Remove the pan from the heat and allow the liquid to cool until lukewarm. 2). While the milk cools, pour the water into a medium-size mixing bowl and sprinkle the yeast over it. Stir the liquid gently with a fork. Set the bowl aside for 5 to 10 minutes, until all of the yeast has dissolved. 3). Line two baking sheets with waxed paper and sprinkle on a generous amount of cornmeal. (This is where you'll set the muffins to rise.) 4). Pour the cooled milk into the dissolved yeast and gently stir the mixture until well blended. Add 3 cups of flour and the salt to the liquid and

beat the mixture vigorously with a wooden spoon until smooth (about 100 strokes). Beat in enough of the remaining flour, about 1/3 cup at a time, so that the dough is firm enough to knead and no longer sticky. 5). Scrape the dough from the bowl onto a floured surface. Dust the top of the dough with flour. Flour your hands as well, and knead the dough for 3 to 4 minutes. Let the dough rest for about 5 minutes. 6). Roll out the dough with a rolling pin, starting in the middle and pushing the pin from the center out, until the dough is a half inch thick. 7). Cut the dough into circles with a 3 1/2-inch biscuit or cookie cutter. Gather and reroll the scraps and cut out more circles (you should end up with 18). 8). Transfer the muffins to the prepared baking sheets, spacing them well apart. Sprinkle cornmeal on the tops. Cover the muffins with a dry, lightweight towel and let them rise until they are almost doubled in height,about 35 to 45 minutes. 9). When the muffins have risen, heat a large, heavy, ungreased skillet over medium heat. (If you have two skillets, you may want to prepare both so you can cook more muffins at once.) Or you can use an electric griddle heated to 300 F (150C). Carefully lift the muffins from the waxed paper and place them in the heated pan or griddle, spacing them an inch or so apart. You should be able to fit 4 or 5 muffins in each pan. 10). Cook the muffins for about 10 minutes on each side, using a spatula to flip them. You may have to adjust the heat if the muffins are browning too quickly or slowly. Transfer each batch of cooked muffins to a wire rack to cool before splitting with fork tines, and toasting them. Serve muffins warm with butter and jam, jelly or preserves. Makes 18 English Muffins.

Fancy Double Drizzled Chocolate Chip Scones


Servings: 6-8 Scones Comments: "These luscious scones can be drizzled with dark and white chocolate, and dusted with powdered sugar or left plain. Either way, they will be the hit of your brunch or afternoon tea. Serve with Creme Fraiche or Devonshire Clotted Cream, and enjoy with coffee or tea"....................Diana Ingredients: 3 cups all-purpose flour 4 teaspoons baking powder 3/4 teaspoon salt 1/3 cup granulated sugar 3/4 cup cold unsalted butter 3/4 cup light or heavy cream 1 large egg 1 teaspoon vanilla extract 1 cup (8 oz.) semi-sweet chocolate chips Garnish-Optional 3 oz. semi-sweet 3 oz. white Confectioner's Optional Creme Devonshire chocolate chips, melted chocolate, melted** sugar Fraiche*, Clotted Extras: or Cream*

Instructions: Preheat oven to 425 degrees F. Stack two baking sheets together and line top one with parchment paper (if baking scones freeform). Or, spray six to eight 3 1/2 inch individual tart tins with nonstick cooking spray. In a food processor, place flour, sugar, salt and baking powder. Process to combine. Add the butter and pulse to cut it into dry mixture. Process until you have a coarse, mealy texture. Turn mixture out into a large bowl. Make a well in the center and add egg, vanilla and most of the cream. Stir to make a soft dough. Fold in chocolate chips. Texture should be between a dough and a firm batter. With an ice cream scoop, drop scone dough into tart tins or onto baking sheet. Bake until lightly browned (15-18 minutes). Remove from oven and cool in tart tins or on baking sheet until slightly cooled, about 15 minutes.

Place parchment paper or waxed paper under cooling racks; transfer cooled scones to racks. Drizzle both melted chocolates over scones. After the chocolate has set, dust tops of scones with confectioners' sugar. Place scones on serving plate. Serve slightly warm or at room temperature with Creme Fraiche or Devonshire Clotted Cream (optional). Makes 6-8 scones. *Note: Creme Fraiche and Devonshire Clotted Cream can be found in most large supermarkets in the dairy section, or at gourmet food stores, especially those that specialize in British and European food items. Also, they may be purchased online at: iGourmet.com **Tip: When melting White Chocolate, be careful not to burn it. White Chocolate or milk chocolate will burn much easier than dark chocolate as they have a much higher milk solid content. When melting white chocolate or milk chocolate, place chocolate in a double boiler on very low heat. Stir constantly, and keep your eye on it continually while melting.

Flour Tortillas
Servings: Makes 12 (6-inch) tortillas Comments: Only slightly more difficult to make than corn tortillas, because of the increased elasticity of the dough, these thin wheat-flour disks of northern Mexico are wonderful served with grilled meats. If you like, you can shape them a day or two in advance and store them in the refrigerator, to be cooked just before serving. Ingredients: 2 1/2 cups all-purpose flour 1/3 cup plus 2 tablespoons vegetable shortening 1 teaspoon salt 1 cup warm water Instructions: In a bowl, combine the flour, shortening and salt. Using your fingers, rub the ingredients together until completely combined and the mixture looks crumbly. Mix in the warm water until the ingredients come together in a ball. Knead the dough in the bowl until smooth, about 3 minutes. Divide the dough into 12 equal pieces and roll each piece into a ball. Place the balls on a plate and cover with a kitchen towel or plastic wrap. Let rest in the refrigerator for at least 30 minutes or as long as overnight. On a lightly floured board, roll out each ball into a thin 6-inch round, frequently turning the rounds over to prevent sticking. Lay the rounds in a single layer on the lightly floured board, cover with kitchen towels and let rest for 30 minutes. Or stack between pieces of parchment paper or waxed paper, wrap well in plastic wrap and refrigerate for up to 2 days. To cook, heat a dry griddle or heavy nonstick frying pan over medium heat. One at a time, cook the tortillas, turning once, until puffy and slightly golden, 30-45 seconds on each side. Transfer to a platter lined with a kitchen towel and let cool briefly, then stack and wrap in a damp towel to keep warm. When all the tortillas are cooked, serve immediately. Or let cool, wrap in plastic wrap and store in the refrigerator for up to 5 days. To reheat, wrap the tortillas in aluminum foil and place in a preheated 350 degree F/180 degree C oven for about 15 minutes. Makes 12 (6-inch) tortillas.

Food Processor Pizza Dough


Servings: Makes two 12-inch pizza rounds Ingredients: 1 tbsp. active dry yeast 1 tsp. sugar 1 cup warm water (105 to 115F/40C to 46C) 3 cups all-purpose flour 1 tsp. salt 2 tbsp. extra-virgin olive oil Instructions: In a small bowl, dissolve the yeast and sugar in the warm water and let stand until foamy, about 5 minutes. In the bowl of a food processor fitted with the dough blade, combine the flour and salt and process with 3 or 4 pulses. With the motor running on the dough speed, slowly add the yeast mixture, allowing each addition to be absorbed before adding more. Continue processing until the dough forms a ball and cleans the sides of the bowl, about 1 minute, then process for 1 minute more. Coat the inside of a large bowl with the olive oil and place the dough in the bowl. Cover with a clean kitchen towel and let the dough rise in a warm place until doubled in size, about 1 12 hours. Divide the dough in half and roll out as directed in the pizza recipe.

French Sourdough Bread


Servings: Makes 2 loaves Comments: This flavorful loaf begins the night before with a sponge, which not only gives it great taste, but excellent keeping qualities. Ingredients: For The Sponge: 1/4 teaspoon French Sourdough Starter (may be purchased online at: kingarthurflour.com) or use 1/4 tsp. prepackaged sourdough starter 2 cups Unbleached All-Purpose Flour 1 cup warm water For The Dough All of the sponge (above) 3 cups Unbleached All-Purpose Flour 3/4 cup warm water 1 1/2 teaspoons sea salt 1/2 teaspoon instant yeast Instructions: The Sponge: Combine the sponge ingredients and allow the mixture to rest for 18 to 20 hours at room temperature. When ready, the sponge should have expanded, and developed bubbles and a pleasing aroma. (You may do this step up to 7 days ahead, then refrigerate until ready to use.) The Dough: Combine all of the dough ingredients (including all of the sponge) and mix them together by hand, mixer or bread machine until they're well-combined. Allow the mixture to rest for 20 to 30 minutes. This resting period, the autolyse, allows the gluten to relax, and the flour to absorb the water. Knead the dough by hand, mixer or bread machine until it's firm, slightly sticky, and elastic. Allow the dough to rise, covered, for 2 to 3 hours in a moderately warm spot (not over 90F/32C), or until it's puffy (though not necessarily doubled in bulk).

Turn the dough out onto a lightly greased work surface, divide it in half, and form each half into a round. Let the rounds rest, covered, for about 20 minutes. Form the rounds into the desired shape (round, oval, or baguette). Note: raising the loaves in a couche or dough-rising basket will help them achieve a thick, chewy crust. Let the loaves rise, covered, for 2 or more hours. They should almost double in size. Preheat your oven to 475F (246C) for 30 minutes. Turn the loaves onto a piece of parchment paper placed on a baker's peel (if you're using a baking stone), or onto a parchment-lined baking sheet. Slash the loaves several times using a lame, a sharp knife or a razor blade. Spritz them with water, and place them in the oven. Spritz them with water again after 30 seconds, again after 1 minute, and once more at 2 minutes. Then turn the oven down to 450F (232C) and bake for 18 to 25 minutes. The bread should be golden and sound hollow when tapped; its internal temperature should read 195F (90C) on an instant-read thermometer. Remove the bread from the oven, and transfer it to a rack to cool. Note: For nice big fissures (gaps or holes) in your loaves' interior, dust them with flour, cover, then refrigerate overnight. Next day, remove the loaves from the fridge, and let them rest, covered, at room temperature while you preheat your oven for 30 minutes. Uncover and bake as directed above. Makes: 2 loaves.

Herb Cheese Biscuits


Ingredients: 3 1/2 cups all-purpose flour 2 tsp. baking powder 1 tsp. each baking soda and salt 1 cup (2 sticks) cold unsalted butter, cut into 1/4-in. pieces 1 cup finely shredded cheddar cheese 2 tbsp. chopped fresh parsley 1 1/4 cups buttermilk 1 large egg Plus 2 tbsp. milk, beaten Instructions: Preheat oven to 400 degrees F (200 C). Lightly grease baking sheet with butter. In large bowl, whisk flour, baking powder, baking soda and salt. With pastry blender, cut in butter until mixture resembles coarse cornmeal. Stir in shredded cheese and chopped parsley. Stir in buttermilk with fork until dough forms (add more buttermilk, 1 tbsp. at a time, if too dry). Place dough on lightly floured surface; shape into ball (do not overwork dough). Pat out 3/4 inch thick. Using floured 2 1/2 inch biscuit cutter, cut out biscuits; transfer to prepared baking sheet. Reroll scraps; cut out biscuits (about 18 total). Brush tops with egg wash. Bake 15 to 18 minutes, until golden brown. Remove from oven and serve immediately. Makes approximately 18 biscuits.

About 2 cups unbleached all-purpose flour 1 tablespoon salt Vegetable oil, for oiling bowl Egg Wash: 1 large egg, lightly beaten with 1 tablespoon water Extra rolled oats, for sprinkling top of loaves Instructions: Heat milk in a 1 1/2 to 2-quart saucepan over low heat until hot but not boiling, then remove pan from heat and stir in oats. Let stand, uncovered, stirring occasionally, until cooled to warm. Stir together water, yeast, and 1 teaspoon honey in a small bowl; let stand until foamy, 5 minutes. (If mixture doesn't foam, discard and start over with new yeast.) Stir yeast mixture, melted butter, and remaining honey into cooled oatmeal. Stir together whole-wheat flour, 1 1/2 cups unbleached flour, and salt in a large bowl. Add oat mixture, stirring with a wooden spoon until a soft dough forms. Turn out onto a well-floured surface and knead with floured hands, adding just enough of remaining unbleached flour to keep from sticking, until dough is smooth, soft, and elastic, about 10 minutes (dough will be slightly sticky). Form dough into a ball and transfer to an oiled large bowl, turning to coat. Cover bowl loosely with plastic wrap and a kitchen towel; let rise at warm room temperature until doubled in bulk, 1 to 1 1/2 hours. Lightly butter 2 (8 x 4-inch) loaf pans. Turn out dough onto a lightly floured surface and knead several times to remove air. Divide dough in half and shape each half into a loaf, then place 1 loaf in each buttered pan, seam side down, tucking ends gently to fit. Cover loaf pans loosely with a kitchen towel and let dough rise in a draftfree place at warm room temperature until doubled in bulk, about 1 hour. Put oven rack in middle position and preheat oven to 375F/190C. Lightly brush tops of loaves with some of egg wash and sprinkle with oats, then bake until bread is golden and loaves sound hollow when tapped on bottom, 35 to 40 minutes. (Remove 1 loaf from pan to test for doneness. Run a knife around edge of pan to loosen.) Remove bread from pans and transfer to a rack to cool completely, about 1 1/2 hours. Note: Bread keeps, wrapped in plastic wrap at room temperature for up to 4 days. Makes 2 loaves.

Honey Oatmeal Wheat Bread


Servings: Makes 2 (8 x 4-inch) loaves Ingredients: 2 cups whole milk 1 cup old-fashioned rolled oats (not quick-cooking) 1/2 cup warm water (105-115F) 2 tablespoons active dry yeast (from 3 packages) 1/2 cup mild honey 1/4 cup (1/2 stick/2 oz./56g) unsalted butter, melted and cooled, plus additional for buttering pans 3 cups stone-ground whole-wheat flour

Honey Wheat Bread or Rolls


Servings: Makes 2 loaves or 2 1/2 dozen rolls Ingredients: 1/2 cup warm water (110F to 115F/43C to 46C) 2 packages (4 1/2 tsp.) active dry yeast 2 cups non-fat milk 1/4 cup margarine 1/3 cup honey 1/4 cup brown sugar 2 1/2 teaspoons salt 1/2 cup wheat germ (optional) 2 tablespoons wheat gluten (optional) 3 cups whole wheat flour, divided 4 to 4 1/2 cups bread flour, divided Instructions: Preheat

Honey Whole Wheat Nut Bread


Servings: Makes 1 loaf Comments: Try substituting walnuts for the pine nuts in this very tasty bread, and serve with butter and honey or a creamy soft cheese such as a nice mild brie. Ingredients: 2 to 2-1/2 cups all-purpose flour 1 cup whole wheat flour 1 package fast rising yeast 1 teaspoon salt 1/2 teaspoon ground ginger 3/4 cup buttermilk 1/4 cup honey 1/4 cup water 2 tablespoons unsalted butter 1/2 cup lightly toasted pine nuts or use 1/2 cup walnuts, toasted, and coarsely chopped Honey-For Glaze Instructions: In large bowl, combine 1-1/2 cups all-purpose flour, whole wheat flour, undissolved yeast, salt and ground ginger. Heat buttermilk, 1/4 cup honey, water and butter until very warm (120 to 130F/50 to 55 C); stir into dry ingredients. Stir in enough remaining all-purpose flour to make soft dough. Knead on lightly floured surface until smooth and elastic, about 6 to 8 minutes. Cover; let rest 10 minutes. Knead in pine nuts. Shape dough into 5-inch round loaf. Place on large greased baking sheet. Cover; let rise in warm, draft-free place until doubled in size, about 40 to 60 minutes. With sharp knife, make 4 slashes (1/2-inch deep) in crisscross fashion across top of loaf. Bake at 350 F (180 C) for 35 to 40 minutes or until done. Remove from oven; brush top of loaf with honey. Remove from sheet; cool on wire rack. Bread Machine Variation (all-size machines): Measure 2 cups all-purpose flour, 1 cup whole wheat flour and other ingredients into bread machine pan as suggested by manufacturer; use. Process on dough/manual cycle. When complete, remove dough to floured surface; knead in additional flour if necessary to make dough easy to handle. Shape dough and proceed as directed. Makes 1 loaf.

oven

to

375F/190C.

In a large mixing bowl, dissolve yeast in warm water. Let stand 10 minutes. Warm milk to 110F to 115F/43C to 46C; stir in margarine, honey, brown sugar and salt; cool to lukewarm. Add milk mixture to yeast; add wheat germ, wheat gluten, 2 cups whole wheat flour and 3 cups bread flour. With an electric mixer, beat for 3 minutes. Stir in remaining cup whole wheat flour and additional bread flour as needed to make stiff dough. Place dough on a floured board and knead for 10 minutes or until dough is smooth and elastic. Dough will be slightly sticky to the touch. Place dough in bowl coated with non-stick cooking spray, turning once to coat the top. Cover and let rise in warm place, free from draft, until doubled in size, about 75 minutes. Punch down and let dough rest for 10 minutes. Divide dough into 2 portions. Shape each portion into a loaf. Using a rolling pin, roll each portion into a 9 x 14-inch rectangle. Starting at short end, roll dough tightly; pinch dough to seal ends (or if making rolls, shape dough into rolls.) Place loaves in two 9 x 5-inch loaf pans coated with nonstick cooking spray (or place rolls of dough on baking sheets coated with non-stick cooking spray), cover and let rise in warm place until doubled, about 1 hour. Bake for 35 minutes or until loaves sounds hollow when tapped with fingers. (If making rolls bake for about 15 minutes or until golden). To prevent a dark crust cover loaves the last 15 minutes (cover rolls after 5 to 7 minutes of baking). Remove from pans and brush with butter. Cool thoroughly before storing. Makes 2 loaves or 2 1/2 dozen rolls.

Kenny's Cinnamon Bun Scones


Ingredients: Scones: 2 cups all-purpose flour 1 cup rolled oats, quick or old fashioned, uncooked 1/4 cup PLUS 2 tablespoons granulated sugar 1 tablespoon baking powder 1/4 teaspoon salt 8 tablespoons (1 stick/4 oz./113g) unsalted butter or margarine, chilled and cut into pieces 3/4 cup milk 1 egg, lightly beaten 1 teaspoon vanilla extract 1/2 cup toasted chopped pecans 2 teaspoons ground cinnamon For the Glaze: 3/4 cup confectioners' sugar 3 to 4 teaspoons orange juice or milk Instructions: Preheat oven to 425 degrees F (220 degrees C). Spray a cookie sheet with non-stick cooking spray. In large bowl, combine flour, rolled oats, 1/4 cup granulated sugar, baking powder and salt; mix well. Cut in butter with pastry blender or two knives until mixture resembles coarse crumbs. In a small bowl, combine milk, egg and vanilla; blend well. Add to dry ingredients all at once; stir with fork or rubber spatula until dry ingredients are moistened. In another small bowl, combine remaining 2 tablespoons granulated sugar with the toasted chopped pecans and cinnamon; mix well. Sprinkle evenly over dough in bowl; gently stir batter to swirl in cinnamon mixture (Do not blend completely.) Drop dough by 1/4 cupfuls 2 inches apart on prepared cookie sheet. Bake scones for 11-13 minutes or until golden brown. Remove to wire rack and let cool for 5 minutes. Glaze: In a small bowl, combine confectioners' sugar and enough orange juice for desired glaze consistency; mix until smooth. Drizzle over top of warm scones. Serve warm. Makes 12 scones.

Lemon Curd and White Chocolate Filled Scones


Servings: 6-8 Ingredients: 2 cups all-purpose flour 1/4 cup granulated sugar 1 tablespoon baking powder 1/4 teaspoon salt 1/4 cup (1/2 stick/2 oz/56 g) cold unsalted butter, cut into small pieces 2/3 cup buttermilk 1/8 cup crystalized ginger, finely chopped or 1 tablespoon fresh ginger root, finely grated or 1/2 teaspoon ground ginger 1/2 cup white chocolate chips or chunks 1/2 cup store-bought lemon curd Demerara sugar or coarse white sugar (optional) Topping (optional) White chocolate, for drizzling over scones* (see note below about melting chocolate)

Instructions: Preheat oven to 400 degrees F (200 C). Lightly spray one cookie sheet with non-stick cooking spray. Mix together flour, sugar, baking powder and salt in a large mixing bowl. Cut in cold butter with a pastry blender or with 2 criscrossing knives, until mixture resembles fine crumbs. Stir in buttermilk, ginger and white chocolate chips (or chunks) until dough leaves side of bowl and forms a ball. Divide dough in half. Place half of dough on prepared cookie sheet; pat or roll into a 7-inch circle. Spread lemon curd over dough to within 1/2inch of edge. Pat or roll remaining dough into a 7inch circle; gently place over lemon curd. Gently pinch edges to seal. Sprinkle top with demerara sugar or coarse white sugar, if desired. Cut surface of dough into 8 wedges, making cuts 1/4 inch deep (do not cut into lemon curd). Bake in preheated 400 degree F (200 C) oven for 18-20 minutes or until golden brown. Let cool for 5 minutes before drizzling melted white chocolate over top.

Maple-Pecan Scones
Topping: Melt white chocolate and drizzle over top of scones in a zig-zag design. Cut scones into wedges. Serve warm or at room temperature. Store scones in an airtight container at room temperature. Makes *Note: Melting 6-8 scones. Servings: 12 scones Ingredients: 2 cups all-purpose flour 1/2 cup granulated sugar 2 teaspoons baking powder 1/4 teaspoon salt 6 tablespoons (3/4 stick) chilled unsalted butter, cut into pieces 1/2 cup chopped pecans, toasted 3/4 cup whipping cream 2 large egg yolks 1 1/4 teaspoons maple extract 1 egg, beaten to blend with 1 teaspoon water (for glaze) Instructions: Preheat oven to 425F (215 - 220C). Line large baking sheet with parchment paper. Mix flour, sugar, baking powder, and salt in large bowl. Using fingertips, rub in butter until mixture resembles coarse meal. Stir in (toasted) chopped pecans. Whisk cream, egg yolks, and maple extract in medium bowl to blend. Pour over flour mixture; stir until moist clumps form. Turn dough out onto lightly floured work surface and knead gently until smooth, about 4 turns. Pat dough out to 1/2-inchthick round. Using 2-inch-diameter fluted cutter, cut out scones. Gather scraps. Pat out dough and cut out additional scones. Transfer scones to prepared baking sheet. Brush with egg glaze. Bake until scones are browned and tester inserted into center comes out clean, about 16 minutes. Cool slightly. Serve warm or at room temperature. Makes about 12.

Chocolate

Melt chocolate in the top of a double boiler over hot, not boiling, water (too high a temperature changes the flavor and color). Speed up melting by first cutting the chocolate into small pieces, so that more surface area is exposed to the heat. Stir chocolate constantly while melting to keep the temperature consistent throughout. You can also melt chocolate in the microwave. Heat dark chocolate on medium heat (50% power) and milk and white chocolate on low heat (30% power). Stir every 15 seconds, heating the chocolate until just melted (stop when the chocolate is partially melted and stir to melt the remainder). TIPS: Make sure the melting pan does not touch the water in the bottom pan or it will become too hot. Remember, chocolate is an oil-based product, and oil and water don't mix. Be careful not to drip any water into the chocolate. One drop of moisture in the chocolate makes it tighten and become unsatisfactory for dipping. Thoroughly dry all spoons, whisks, and bowls used for stirring or melting chocolate. If chocolate starts to harden after melting, add enough vegetable oil to liquefy. Source for Melting Chocolate: Linda Stradley What's Cooking America http://www.whatscookingamerica.net

New York Style Pretzels


Servings: Makes 8 Comments: Serve with yellow mustard. large pretzels

Using both hands, carefully add 3 pretzels, 1 at a time, to boiling water and cook, turning over once with tongs, until pretzels are puffed and shape is set, about 3 minutes. Transfer parboiled pretzels to a rack to cool. Repeat with remaining 5 pretzels in 2 batches. Line baking sheet with parchment paper and oil paper, then arrange pretzels on sheet. Brush pretzels lightly with some of egg and sprinkle with pretzel salt. Bake until golden brown and lightly crusted, about 35 minutes. Cool 15 minutes, then serve warm. Notes: Dough can be mixed and kneaded in a standing electric mixer fitted with dough hook. Pretzels are best the day they are made. (When they are kept overnight, salt may dissolve.) Pretzel salt may be purchased online at: kingarthurflour.com, americanspice.com, amazon.com and many other stores on the internet.

Ingredients: 1 tablespoon granulated sugar 1 (1/4-oz) package active dry yeast (2 1/2 teaspoons) 3 3/4 to 4 cups all-purpose flour 1 large egg, lightly beaten 2 teaspoons pretzel salt* (see notes) Special equipment: parchment paper Instructions: Stir together sugar, yeast, and 1 1/2 cups lukewarm water (105F to 110F - 40C to 43C) in a glass measuring cup, then let stand until foamy, about 5 minutes. (If mixture doesn't foam, discard and start over with new yeast.) Whisk together 3 1/2 cups flour and 1 tablespoon table salt in a large bowl. Add yeast mixture and stir with a wooden spoon until it forms a dough. Dust work surface with 1 tablespoon flour, then turn out dough and knead, gradually dusting with just enough additional flour to make a smooth sticky dough, about 8 minutes. (Dough needs to be somewhat sticky to facilitate rolling and forming into pretzels). Return dough to bowl and cover bowl tightly with plastic wrap, then let dough rise in a draft-free place at warm room temperature until doubled in bulk, about 45 minutes. Turn out dough onto a clean work surface and cut into 8 equal pieces. Using your palms, roll 1 piece back and forth on a clean dry work surface into a rope about 24 inches long. If dough sticks to your hands, lightly dust them with flour. Twist dough into a pretzel shape. (Dough will retract as you form the pretzel.) Transfer pretzel with your hands to an oiled baking sheet and form 7 more pretzels in same manner with remaining dough, spacing them 1 1/2 inches apart. Let pretzels stand, uncovered, about 20 minutes. Meanwhile, put oven rack in upper third of oven and preheat oven to 425F/220C. Bring a wide 6-quart pot of water to a boil.

Source: Adapted from Gourmet Magazine March 2004 Date: February 28, 2007