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Europe :: Austria page last updated on November 29, 2011

Introduction ::Austria Background: Once the center of power for the large Austro-Hungarian Empire, Austria was reduced to a small republic after its defeat in World War I. Following annexation by Nazi Germany in 1938 and subsequent occupation by the victorious Allies in 1945, Austria's status remained unclear for a decade. A State Treaty signed in 1955 ended the occupation, recognized Austria's independence, and forbade unification with Germany. A constitutional law that same year declared the country's "perpetual neutrality" as a condition for Soviet military withdrawal. The Soviet Union's collapse in 1991 and Austria's entry into the European Union in 1995 have altered the meaning of this neutrality. A prosperous, democratic country, Austria entered the EU Economic and Monetary Union in 1999.

Geography ::Austria

Location: Central Europe, north of Italy and Slovenia Geographic coordinates: 47 20 N, 13 20 E Map references: Europe Area: total: 83,871 sq km country comparison to the world: 114 land: 82,445 sq km water: 1,426 sq km Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maine Land boundaries: total: 2,562 km border countries: Czech Republic 362 km, Germany 784 km, Hungary 366 km, Italy 430 km, Liechtenstein 35 km, Slovakia 91 km, Slovenia 330 km, Switzerland 164 km Coastline: 0 km (landlocked) Maritime claims: none (landlocked) Climate: temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain and some snow in lowlands and snow in mountains; moderate summers with occasional showers Terrain: in the west and south mostly mountains (Alps); along the eastern and northern margins mostly flat or gently sloping Elevation extremes: lowest point: Neusiedler See 115 m highest point: Grossglockner 3,798 m Natural resources: oil, coal, lignite, timber, iron ore, copper, zinc, antimony, magnesite, tungsten, graphite, salt, hydropower Land use: arable land: 16.59% permanent crops: 0.85% other: 82.56% (2005) Irrigated land:

Total renewable water resources: 84 cu km (2005) Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural): total: 3.67 cu km/yr (35%/64%/1%) People and448 Society ::Austria per capita: cu m/yr (1999) Nationality: Natural hazards: noun: Austrian(s) landslides; avalanches; earthquakes adjective: Austrian Environment - current issues: Ethnic groups: some forest degradation by air and soil pollution; soil Slovenes, pollution results from the use of Turks Austrians 91.1%, formercaused Yugoslavs 4% (includes Croatians, Serbs, and Bosniaks), agricultural chemicals; air pollution results from(2001 emissions by coal- and oil-fired power stations 1.6%, German 0.9%, other or unspecified 2.4% census) and industrial plants and from trucks transiting Austria between northern and southern Europe Languages: Environment - international agreements: German (official nationwide) 88.6%, Turkish 2.3%, Serbian 2.2%, Croatian (official in party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Burgenland) 1.6%, other (includes Slovene, official in Carinthia, and Hungarian, officialPollutants, in Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Burgenland) 5.3% (2001 census) Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Religions: Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Roman Catholic 73.6%, Protestant 4.7%, Muslim other 3.5%, unspecified 2%, none 12% Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 4.2%, 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling (2001 census) signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements Population: - note: Geography landlocked; 8,217,280 (July strategic 2011 location est.) at the crossroads of central Europe with many easily traversable Alpine passes country comparison and valleys; to the world: major river 93 is the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern lowlands because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures elsewhere Age structure: 0-14 years: 14% (male 590,855/female 563,300) 15-64 years: 67.7% (male 2,793,725/female 2,769,840) 65 years and over: 18.2% (male 627,456/female 872,104) (2011 est.) Median age: total: 43 years male: 41.9 years female: 44 years (2011 est.) Population growth rate: 0.034% (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 189 Birth rate: 8.67 births/1,000 population (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 214 Death rate: 10.14 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 54 Net migration rate: 1.81 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 42 Urbanization: urban population: 68% of total population (2010) rate of urbanization: 0.6% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

VIENNA (capital) 1.693 million (2009) Sex ratio: at birth: 1.051 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2011 est.) Maternal mortality rate: 5 deaths/100,000 live births (2008) country comparison to the world: 170 Infant mortality rate: total: 4.32 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 195 male: 5.23 deaths/1,000 live births female: 3.35 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 79.78 years country comparison to the world: 32 male: 76.87 years female: 82.84 years (2011 est.) Total fertility rate: 1.4 children born/woman (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 198 Health expenditures: 11% of GDP (2009) country comparison to the world: 20 Physicians density: 4.749 physicians/1,000 population (2009) country comparison to the world: 6 Hospital bed density: 7.71 beds/1,000 population (2008) country comparison to the world: 9 Drinking water source: improved: urban: 100% of population rural: 100% of population total: 100% of population (2008) Sanitation facility access: improved: urban: 100% of population rural: 100% of population total: 100% of population (2008) HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.3% (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 90 HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: