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Chapter 1 : Introduction

EVENT MANAGEMENT Professor Donald Getz (1997) defines Events from two perspectives: 1. From sponsoring/ organizing viewpoint: A special Event is a one-time or infrequently occurring incidents/happenings/ experiences/episodes outside the normal programs or activities of the sponsoring/ organizing body. 2. From customer view point : An event is an incident/happening/experience/episode which creates opportunity for leisure, it also includes (any) social or cultural experience(s) outside the normal range of choice or beyond everyday experience. Dr. J. Goldblatt (1997) defines special events as A unique moment in time celebrated with ceremony and ritual to satisfy specific needs. Characteristics of Events : Events are characterized by the followings: Many of the events are once in a life time experiences They are generally expensive to stage/organize Some events usually take place over a short time span Events require long and careful planning They carry a high level of risk Events normally are very colorful. Classification of Events: This is very difficult to classify the events. Classification of events could be done from several dimensions. Classification can probably be done on the basis of size or type/category. In terms of size, events can be categorized into : Mega events, Regional events, Major events & Minor events.

According to types/category, events can be classified into : Sporting, Entertainment, Arts, Culture, Commercial and Promotional, Meetings and Exhibition, Festivals, Family, Fund raising, Miscellaneous. DISCUSSION : Events by size 1. Mega Events : Largest, generally targeted at the international markets. The Olympic games, World cup soccer and cricket etc are examples. Some of the Mega events, although not having world wide audiences and coverage, but in terms of size these are really Mega events. The examples are :Hazz- the largest congregation of muslims, Bishwa Iztema- the Largest gathering of devotee muslims in Bangladesh, Maha Kumbh Mela - the largest religious gathering on Ganges and Yumuna rivers in Allahabad, India where in the year 2001 almost 70 million Hindu pilgrims converged. This gathering takes place every 12 years. Ekushe February - the International Mother Language Day is probably another example of mega event in our country 2. Regional events : Regional events are designed to increase the appeal of a specific tourism destination or region. Some regional events attracts both local international visitors. BOISHABI, local URSsharif, etc. are the examples. 3. Major Events : These events attract significant local interest and large numbers of participants, as well as generating significant (tourism) revenue. As an example, Chinese New Year celebrations are held in capital cities. In the same way, Songkran- the New year celebration in Thailand is another example of major event. In Honolulu, the event includes many festivals and traditions for the New Year, including the Lion Dance, Lantern Festivals parades, and Dragon Boat races. Friends and relatives of the Chinese community often visit at this time. 4. Minor Events : Most events fall into this category. These are the events most popularly known as experience gathering events. Almost every town, city, county host annual events. Many times we also include the family events in this category too. 6 Events by Type/Category: Suggested categorization of events : Leisure events : (leisure, sport, recreation) Personal events: (Weddings, birthdays, anniversaries)

Events Cultural events (Ceremonial, heritage, art, folklore) Organizational events (Commercial, political, charitable, fairs, sales) In terms of type and category, several events are there as follows : 1. Sporting : Olympics games, winter Olympic, summer Olympic, world cups, national sports, regional sports, institutional sports, family sports etc. 2. Entertainments, Arts, Culture : Cultural programs, fashion show, social fairs, concerts etc. In US, around 31,700,000people attended symphony orchestra concerts in 2000. 3. Commercial , Marketing and Promotional Events : Launching of new products, perfumes, cars etc, national book fair, trade fairs, admission fair etc. 4. Meetings and Exhibitions : AGMs of the corporate bodies, convocations, welfare exhibitions etc. 5. Festivals : Religious festivals, national festivals like independence day, nobo-borsho, Thailands Songkran New Year celebration. 6. Family : Weddings, funerals, birth days etc. 7. Fundraising : Red crescent society, hospitals, mosques, warm clothes for the poor in winter, help the people in distress (flood hit) etc. 8. Miscellaneous : Religious congregation, Food festival, etc. Examples of several Types of Events : Corporate Events i) Conferences are popular and important business events. Everything about the event management of academic, medical and business conferences ii) Seminars educational events for the training of managers and employees. Most seminars are not comparable with boring lectures. Interactivity is core! iii) Meetings are common business events in large companies, perfect to discuss operational and financial strategies

iv) Team Building Events a key to develop and motivate teams in companies and divisions. Everything about the planning of professional team building events v) Trade Shows exhibitions where companies can present and demonstrate their latest products. A professional presentation is crucial vi) Business Dinners a long-standing corporate tradition to conclude fiscal years, celebrate new milestones or to get in contact with key customers vii) Golf Events golf tournaments or retreats. Those events aim to acquire new customers, to increase customer loyalty or to motivate employees viii) Press Conferences perfect business events to promote new products, launch marketing campains or to inform the shareholders and public about financial issues ix) Networking Events are personal marketing galas. Such events are great opportunities for contact establishment and personal marketing x) Incentive Travelare perfect to reward and to motivate employees or to increase customer loyalty and retention. Everything about incentive travel: xi) Opening Ceremonies are held to start conventions, annual meetings and other events that last for two or more days. Find everything about opening events xii) Product Launches are critical for the successful market introduction of some products. A perfect product presentation might also increase the media coverage xiii) Theme Parties events that devote to a special topic. Popular events are casino nights or Halloween parties. Ideas and planning tips xiv) VIP Events are used to increase customer loyalty. Professional planners organizing VIP events that ultimately increase organizers revenues xv) Trade Fairs are a great opportunity to present your latest products to customers and business partners. xvi) Shareholder Meetings are yearly and obligatory events to inform a corporation's shareholders about company issues and to elect the Board of Directors xvii) Award Ceremonies are great events to honor and motivate key staff or to acquire and retain customers. Event planners are able to organize events to remember xviii) Incentive Events motivate employees or close the ties to customers. Event managers are planning events that help to enhance customer loyalty

xix) Board Meetings focus on strategic goals and visions. The event venue and the planning process should reflect the prestigious nature of these meetings xx) Executive Retreats escapes from stressful work schedules and the day-to-day business. Learn how they should stimulate free thinking and creativity 8 Private Events xxi) Weddings should be the most important days in the life of brides, grooms and their families. Professional event managers help to plan the events xxii) Birthdays require seldom a professional event manager, but there are exceptions. Find out how event managers can help you to make your party a success xxiii) Wedding Anniversaries celebrate milestones in a couple's life together. Ideas and hints that help you to plan those events or find professional even managers xxiv) Family Events are great opportunities to assemble whole families. We offer hints and ideas to plan perfect family events like birthdays, weddings, etc. Characteristics of Events : The characteristics of events are as follows : Uniqueness Personal interactions Perishability Ritual or ceremony Ambience and services Special Events Intangible Labor-intensive Fixed timescale

Uniqueness : Key element of all special events is their uniqueness; each one will be different. Even the similar event if hold frequently, varies in participants, surroundings, number, decoration, ambience etc. Perishability : Events are highly perishable. Intangibility : Event is service, entertainment, satisfaction. All these are intangible. Ritual and ceremony : many modern ceremonial events are fossilized or reinvented versions of old traditions. The get-up of the event may change, but the rituals of doing it still continues. Ambience and service : of all the characteristics, ambience is one of the most important to the outcome. An event with the right ambience can be huge success. Personal interaction : In all the events, personal touch is a very important issue. It signifies warmth. Frequent and intimate contact with the guests, friends and relatives is an added characteristic of special events. Hosts and entertainers also mix up with the guests; otherwise which is not possible in other situations. Fixed timescale : Events have a fixed timescale, cannot be carried on indefinitely. Timescale could be very short to longer like in the Olympic games, world cups etc. A Very rare Event in Bangladesh : Full solar eclipse in 2010 Look at the Diamond Ring which you may not see in next 100 years.


Concept developing and Designing of an Event entails three interrelated steps, such as : 1. Developing the Concept 2. Analyzing the Concept 3. Designing the Event Developing the Concept : Concept development is like model or prototype development. If concept is sound, the event is expected to be successful. There are numerous elements that need to be considered in developing an event concept. We are discussing these in the following paragraphs: PURPOSE OF EVENTS: Purpose of Events may be quite different. It is difficult to identify individual purpose of an event as it may encompass more than one purpose. However broadly the purposes may be of two types : INFORMATION & ENTERTAINMENT. The whole event must be organized in line with the purpose. Apart, some of the events may merely be commercial, i.e. money making; some may be without this motive. THEME OF THE EVENT: Theme of the event should be linked to the purpose. The theme should be compatible with guest needs and consistent in all respect. For example, adoption of color scheme which is repeated on all items produced for the event, such as tickets, programs, uniforms, dcor, posters and others. There are an endless number of potential themes; some examples include the following : historical geographical and cultural sporting film, music, entertainment artistic food objects oriented (i.e. flowers, animals, books etc.)

VENUE FOR THE EVENT: The event manager should try to select an unusual venue in preference to a standard venue requiring decoration only to match the theme. Accordingly lighting, sound, and catering should provide challenges in unusual settings. The followings are the examples of unusual venues : historical sites tunnels amusement park orchard vineyard museum aquarium 12 Apart, many of the events are organized in convention centers, auditorium etc. When considering the choice of event venues, the following factors should be considered : - Potential to fulfill the purpose - ambience location access by public transport parking seating capacity features (stages) cost of decoration, sound, lighting cost of labor food and beverage facilities safety and others. EVENT AUDIENCES: Needs of all participants must be considered before finalizing the concept. Who will be the audiences, what will be their needs and wants, their temperaments, feelings, values and beliefs etc are important things to consider. One interesting example : once a well-known wheelchair athlete was invited to give a presentation before the audiences. The event centre was unable to provide a ramp to the stage. She was lifted by the human beings to the stage in front of several hundred audiences ! Is it befitting for the guest? Or for the audiences?

FINANCIAL CONSIDERATIONS: Must be very careful so that initial financial estimates dont get out of control. In addition its necessary to determine the sources of funds. Who will fund the event? Will there be any sponsor? If yes, what are the terms and conditions? TIMING OF THE EVENTS : Timing is often linked up with season or weather. Most important time factors are : season day of the weak time of the day duration EVENT TEAM, CONTRACTORS, OTHER STAKEHOLDERS : The skills of the Event team and the contractors (for lighting, decorating, sound, catering etc) are an important consideration at concept development. Stakeholders such as, local people and social leadership, police, emergency service, environmental protection agency - all are very important to take into consideration before finalizing the events.

Analyzing the Concept:

How far the concept is innovative, competitive, and costly ? In addition, we have to study the country laws to find if the event is contradictory to any law. The important points in Concept analysis are : 1. Competition : looking at the timing, nature and duration of other events organized by our competitor. 2. Regulations : countrys law, parking, environment-friendliness, traffic, noise pollution etc 3. Marketing : how would we go for marketing the event? Will it be a successful and profitable venture? 4. Community Impact : impact of the event on local or wider community and others. 5. Risk : weather is a great risk factor. Apart, consideration of other risks in advance is also necessary. 6. Revenue and Expenditure : at the concept development stage, we should be very careful about the financial feasibility and fund availability for the event.

DESIGNING THE EVENT Designing is creative. Event is a creative process. Therefore the followings are the main creative elements that must be considered when designing then event : Theme : THEME IS A COMPLEX CONCEPT. In fact, total effect of many creative issues may be called as theme. The theme should ideally appeal to all senses : tactile(physical), smell, taste, visual, and auditory. Layout : Layout of different components at the event venue/site may tremendously influence theme of the event. Discomfort from layout may originate from : Too much open space or being in cramped space. Too much light or insufficient light Too long wide table where you are far away to talk to those opposite people Too much being stuck with people on your left and right location of the stage. Dcor : Fabrics, decorative items, stage props, table setting, floral arrangements etc are important. Suppliers : suppliers of all commodities including catering. Example Olympic games in Australia had to feed every day 125,000 people. And needed 400,000 hotdogs, 275,000 pounds of beef, 275,000 bottles of water, 30,000 pounds of cheese, 18,000 pounds of pasta. Technical requirement : mainly use of technology Entertainment : In many events entertainment is central, for others, it is peripheral. Catering : Nothing makes participants at an event more frustrated than delays in serving food or poor quality food.