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SCI 16 General Physics

Unit Information and Learning Guide 2012

Unit coordinator Dr David Parlevliet Engineering & Energy Room 2.003K Tel: 08 9360 2157 Messages: 08 9360 2433

General Physics
SCI 16

Unit Information

This information should be read in conjunction with the online learning materials which can be found on your MyUnits page.

Published by Murdoch University, Perth, Western Australia, 2012 Written by David Parlevliet, 2012 This publication is copyright. Except as permitted by the Copyright Act no part of it may in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or any other means be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or be broadcast or transmitted without the prior written permission of the publisher.

Cover Image by Nick Kim ( for education use in accordance with his use of cartoons policy. The cartoons that appear on this site are all freely available for any non-profit or educational use that you may have in mind.

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ONE TWO THREE Introduction Resources for the unit Assessment i vii ix


Introduction What is Science? Motion in a Straight Line Newtons Laws and Vectors Momentum and Energy Gravity and Projectile Motion Heat and Thermodynamics Electricity and Magnetism Wave Motion and Sound Light and Optics

1 9 13 17 21 25 29 35 39 43

Study Schedule Assignment Deadlines Assignment Submission Information Exam Information v ix xii xiii

Name Room Phone Email

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Unit Overview
Welcome to SCI16 General Physics! This is an introductory unit designed to provide a foundation for further studies in the physical sciences for students; who have not studied physics before, or whose previous study in physics was some time ago, or whose previous study in physics does not give them a sufficient grounding for further studies in the sciences.

There are no prerequisites for this unit. It is suggested that you should either have successfully completed, or be concurrently enrolled in, UNL32 or equivalent before undertaking this unit. If you do not have this mathematical background, you will need to devote extra time (beyond the nominal hours) in order to succeed in this unit.

Aims and Objectives

Unit Aims The broad aims of this unit are to: introduce students to the discipline of physics; enable students to develop skills which will help them solve problems in the physical sciences; enable students to develop skills which will help them investigate and communicate the behaviour of matter. Learning Objectives On successful completion of the unit you should be able to: Describe the behaviour of matter using the laws and models of physics Communicate scientific concepts in plain English Solve problems in physics that do not require knowledge of calculus.

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Graduate Attributes This unit will focus on the development of the following Graduate Attributes: See 1. Critical and Creative Thinking: Students will present assignments which require them to problem solve, to think critically and creatively within the context of physics. 2. Communication: students will present assignments, Laboratory reports and an examination which require them to communicate scientifically, using literacy, numeracy and information technology skills. This unit will also contribute to the development of the following Graduate Attributes: 1. Independent and lifelong learning 2. Interdisciplinarity and / or 3. In-depth knowledge of a field of study

Unit Coordinator
Your coordinator for General Physics is David Parlevliet. David is a Lecturer in Physics & Nanotechnology and has been teaching at Murdoch for several years in a range of units in physics. As well as teaching, he is a researcher in the area of Physics and Nanoscience. His research interests include solar photovoltaics, semiconductors, nano-materials and thin film deposition techniques. Away from Murdoch, he is a photographer dabbling in landscape, astrophotography and macrophotography. He is also a long-term fencer and vice-president of En Garde Fencing Club at Murdoch. Contact Details Contact details can be found on the front cover of this study guide. Always put SCI16 in the subject line to make sure your email is noticed quickly. Administrative Contact If you have any queries about your enrolment in this unit they should be directed to the OUA Liaison Team at Murdoch (please refer to your cover letter for contact details). Tutor You will be notified of your tutor at the beginning of the unit. Please write your tutors name and contact on the table of contents.

Technical Help
For technical difficulties with the LMS or Lectopia contact the IT Service Desk: or phone (08) 9360 2000

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For difficulties due to broken links or missing files, or the content of the LMS contact the Unit Coordinator.

How to Study this Unit

This unit covers the following topics: What is Science? Motion Gravity & Projectile Motion Newtons Laws and Vectors Momentum and Energy Heat and Thermodynamics Electricity and Magnetism Wave Motion and Sound Light and Optics Learning Activities This unit has a variety of learning activities to assist you in your study of SCI16 General Physics. Lectures and Essential Readings are designed to provide a focus to the unit and to introduce you to the concepts that underpin each of the topics. Laboratories and Tutorials are designed to enable you to apply what you have learnt and to develop skills which are important in the sciences, such as practical skills and working in teams. The unit also has an extensive website within the LMS (MyUnits) environment, which includes additional learning activities, assignments and audio files of lectures. Time Commitment and Attendance As this is a 3 credit point unit, we expect you to spend on average 10 hours / week for the 15 weeks of this teaching period (or 150 hours overall) working on this unit. This unit does not have any attendance requirements for OUA students. External Students and Laboratory Exercises There is no compulsory on-campus attendance for external students. However, you are welcome to attend as many of the on-campus help classes as you wish. Please contact your tutor or the unit coordinator for details about the timetable and venues. External students should use the Learning Activities section in each of the topics as the basis for your self study plan for each week.

Unit changes in response to student feedback

This unit has changed substantially over the past few years. In 2006, a focus on conceptual (rather than mathematical) physics was adopted. This change included a change in textbook and a reduction in the number of assessed learning tasks. In recognition of the changes facing students in balancing life, study and work commitments, this unit has adopted a flexible learning approach with a large number
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of learning materials available online through the universitys online learning system (also known as the LMS). In 2008, a cheaper textbook - Conceptual Physics Fundamentals 1st Edition (CPF) was selected as the required text for the unit. From 2008 onwards, external students will no longer be required to request an external experiments kit and should download the laboratory activities from the unit website. In 2010 an activity was introduced which encourages students to observe and write a report on physics out in the real world. Also in 2010 an audience response system has been trialled during the lectures. This was met with some success and will be used again in 2012. Your feedback regarding this unit is appreciated!

Important Deadlines
If you decide to withdraw from SCI16, your withdrawal request must be submitted to OUA in writing using the Online Enquiry Form on the OUA website. OUA will advise your academic provider of your withdrawal. For Murdoch University the final date for withdrawal without academic penalty is Sunday of Week 6. You are not required to advise your academic provider of your intention to withdraw from a unit. You may incur a financial penalty for withdrawal, depending on the date that OUA receives your withdrawal request. All important dates are on the OUA Academic Calendar on the OUA website. Should you withdraw Before the close of enrolment date: no penalties apply. Between the close of enrolment and the census date: financial penalties apply and you are eligible for a refund of your unit fees or remission (cancellation) of your FEE-HELP debt. After the Census Date: No refund of unit fees applicable unless you can demonstrate special circumstances. Academic penalties may apply. Special Circumstances: Information concerning special circumstances can be found on the OUA website. Students should make themselves familiar with OUAs withdrawal policy as soon as possible. Full information is available on the OUA website. From the OUA Homepage ( click on the link Changing your Study.

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Study schedule
This timetable will help you to plan your study over the semester. Teaching Week 1 Topics Conceptual Physics Fundamentals Chapter 1 p 1 12 Appendix A p373-376 Chapter 3 p30-51 Chapter 4 P52-77 Appendix B & C P377-386 Chapter 5 p78-104 Chapter 6 p105-132 Chapter 8 p160-176 Chapter 9 p177-196 Chapter 10 p198-224 Chapter 11 p225-244 Chapter 12 p246-270 Chapters 13 & 14 p271-318 Review Week Schedule Diagnostic Exercise Tutorial 1

1. What is Science?

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

2. Linear Motion

3. Newtons Laws & Vectors

Laboratory 1: Velocity Tutorial 2 Laboratory 2: Vectors and Newtons Laws * Assignment 1 Tutorial 3 Tutorial 4 * Assignment 2 Laboratory 3: Heat of Fusion Tutorial 5 * Assignment 3 Laboratory 4: Exploring Magnetism Tutorial 6 Laboratory 5: Sound and Light

4. Momentum and Energy 5. Gravity and Projectile Motion

6. Heat and Thermodynamics

7. Electricity and Magnetism

8. Waves and Sound 9. Light and Optics

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Resources for the unit

Unit materials
To undertake study in this unit, you will need regular access to: Essential textbook 1. Conceptual Physics Fundamentals 1st edition by Paul Hewitt Published by Pearson Addison Wesley, 2008. ISBN 0-321-50136-5 AND 2. QuickSmart Introductory Physics, by Turville and Vaille. Published by Pascal Press [this text will be extremely useful for SCI19 too] These are both ESSENTIAL texts. This means that you should have your own copy of both as they will be used for each topic after week 1. Other references

2012 Unit Information and Learning Guide for SCI16 General Physics (online or printed version). This specifies the minimum material you will need to do in order to successfully the unit. 2012 Laboratory Manual & Tutorial Guide for SCI16 General Physics You may wish to read further or complete more questions and problems.

Online resources

This is an online unit. You should visit the unit website AT LEAST once per week during this semester. It will be the primary method of contact. Assignments also must be submitted via this unit website. The online unit and Lectopia recordings can all be accessed from the MyUnits page. If you are unable to access the Lectopia recordings please contact the Unit Coordinator to request a copy of the recordings.

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Library resources

The library has a range of excellent physics books. If you are looking for materials to support this unit, look for books which are algebra or Conceptual Physics, rather than calculus books. Past exam papers can also be sourced via the library website.

Computing resources
In order to complete this unit you will require regular internet access. Internal and metropolitan external students may use the computing facilities in GCL1, adjacent to the Nexus Theatre off Bush Court. You will need your Murdoch student number and password to login on these machines. If you require technical assistance, including adding credit to your internet quota contact IT Service Desk on 08 9360 2000.

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You will be assessed on the basis of:
Assignments, laboratory experiments, tests, tutorial work and a final examination, carrying the following weights:
Component of Final Mark Assignments Laboratory Reports Tests Tutorial Work Final Examination Total Notes

18% 15% 10% 7% 50% 100%

Three assignments, worth 6% each. Five lab reports, worth 3% each Five tests, worth 2% each Worksheets and problems for each tutorial worth a total of 7% 50% 100%

Assessment details
There are 3 assignments, 5 tests, some tutorial work, 5 labs and a final exam. Teaching Topic Week 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 Internal Lab/Tute Schedule

Assessment Due

Diagnostic Exercise Tutorial 1 Tutorial 1 Laboratory 1 Laboratory Report 1 Tutorial 2 Tutorial 2 Laboratory Report 2 & Laboratory 2 Assignment 1 Tutorial 3 Tutorial 3 Assignment 2 Tutorial 4 Tutorial 4 Laboratory 3 Laboratory Report 3 Tutorial 5 Tutorial 5 Assignment 3 Laboratory 4 Laboratory Report 4 Tutorial 6 Tutorial 6 Laboratory 5 Laboratory Report 5 Review Week

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Diagnostic Exercise A diagnostic exercise that is common to both SCI16 and SCI19 and it is not formally assessed (does not contribute to your grade). It provides a dry run at the assignment submission process and is used by the unit coordinators to determine: Potential exemption from SCI16 for students who can demonstrate appropriate competency in physics; Your past experiences in maths and physics; and what additional support activities (such as extra tutorials) may be needed to assist you with your studies this semester. Assignments The assignments will be posted on the unit website at the start of semester so you know what you are working towards. The first and third assignments involve a series of short answer and problem solving questions. The second assignment will be a research activity and report. Some of the questions and problems may require knowledge from two or more of the topics. The questions and problems will be similar in style to the practice exercises from the textbook. You should read the assignment questions whilst reading the text book, but avoid the temptation to work "backwards" from the questions to the required reading because this may cause you to skip important parts of the reading. Where ever possible use a diagram in answering the assignment questions as good diagrams will receive marks. Tests / Tutorial Work As part of five of the tutorials, there will be a short test consisting of multiple choice questions and short answer questions. These questions will be on the content of the topic covered before the tutorial. You will also be expected to complete some set work during the tutorial and a mark will be given on the basis of a reasonable attempt at the work. You may not have enough time to get through all the work in the tutorial, but, if you have made a good attempt at the work you will get the full marks for it. This is to encourage you to keep revising throughout the unit (dont wait until the day before the exam!). The weightings of each set of tutorial work are the same. The tutorial work is included in the tutorial guide and lab manual. For external students this test and electronic copies of the tutorial materials will be available on the unit website and should be submitted during the tutorial week. Laboratory Reports There are five laboratory sessions in this unit. For each of these you will write up a brief laboratory report. You are only required to complete the pages from each of the laboratory exercises which are included in the SCI16 Laboratory Manual.

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Assignment Cover Sheets

Assignment cover sheets must accompany all assignments submitted in SCI16 and you should always keep a copy of the work. They can be downloaded from the unit website in MyUnits. NO assignment will be marked without a signed declaration on the cover page. Declaration When submitting the Assignments, the cover sheet with the declaration completed must be attached. If a cover sheet is not attached and/or declaration is not signed, your assignment will not be marked until it is attached / signed. The assignments must be completed independently. The University has strict penalties on PLAGIARISM (see below for additional information). All suspected cases of dishonesty in assessment (unauthorised working together, direct copying, ghost writing etc) are reported for investigation. Penalties may include failure of the assignment, failure in the unit and exclusion from the University.

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Assignment / Laboratory Report Submission

Assignments should be submitted as a single PDF document and must include a coversheet. PDFs can be created from scanned documents or from word processor and graphing software packages. An assignment cover page must be the first page of this document.

External students - The preferred method of submitting assignments, tests, tutorial work and lab reports is via the LMS. This provides proof of delivery and quicker turn around time. If they are unable to be uploaded they can also be emailed or postmarked no later than 4pm Friday of the week in which they are due. The tests and tutorial work will be available on-line and each must be completed in one sitting. The schedule for submission of work is organised to give you a weekly routine of assessment and feedback. The feedback will include tips on how to improve your assignments and lab reports leading to better marks in future submissions. Assignment 2 (the research activity assignment) should be put through TurnItIn, the reference checking software, and the TurnItIn report should be attached to your assignment submission. You will find instructions on how to do this if you follow the TurnItIn link from the homepage of the unit website. Deferred Submission and Late Assignments If you have exceptional personal circumstances or have been unwell you should contact the unit coordinator and seek an extension for your assignment. Please note that extensions will only be granted for valid reasons. Inability to complete an assignment due to regular work commitments are not grounds for extension. Applications for an extension have to be made prior to the due date through the unit co-ordinator. Tutors do not have the discretion to grant extensions. Applications must be made in writing (email is ok) and you should attach a medical certificate if you have been unwell. If you cannot complete all the questions in an assignment or laboratory report, you should hand in what you have completed. In this case, indicate where you are experiencing difficulty so that your tutor can provide feedback on these problems. Sometimes life happens and it is not possible to hand your work in on time. In this case contact your unit coordinator as soon as you can. Any assignments or laboratory reports that are handed in late, without prior warning, will not be marked.

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Your assignment will be marked and returned to you personally or by mail. Allow at least two weeks for marking. Assignments are not normally returned until after two weeks have elapsed to allow for approved late submissions (see above). The final assessment is due by the end of week 13. Assignment submissions cannot be accepted after the examination has commenced unless a written application for deferred assessment has been lodged with, and approved by, the head of Student Administration in accordance with the deferred assessment procedures given in Degree Regulation 46. Previous experience indicates that regular submission leads to regular feedback which is important for optimum performance in the final exam. Resubmission of Failed Assignments A student who fails an assessment task will not be able to resubmit the failed assignment or laboratory report. Students who fail the exam, but score a unit mark of greater than 45% will be offered a supplementary examination.

A 2-hour examination for this unit will be held during the OUA exam period. You will receive information in regards to venue selection and exam timetable direct from OUA Exam Services during the study period. This will be sent to you by email to your personal email account. The examination may cover material from all topics as well as the laboratory activities. The examination will be closed book and you will be permitted one A4 page of handwritten or typed notes (double sided). All students sitting for final examinations must produce photographic ID. Students may inspect their marked examination scripts and discuss the marking with the Unit Coordinator within 14 days of the posting of results (Degree Regulation 43). For further information about examinations, refer to

Attendance/participation requirements
OUA Students OUA students are not required to attend any on campus activities, but are welcome to attend help classes when they are running.

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Determination of the final grade

Your final grade will be determined by the addition of each of the component marks; Component Assignments Tutorial Tests Tutorial Work Laboratory Reports Examination % value of final grade 18% 10% 7% 15% 50%

Moderation of assignment and laboratory marks may be used to ensure consistency of marking across tutors in this unit. Students must pass (score >50%) the examination in order to pass the unit. A student who scores greater than 50% overall for the unit, but fails the examination will be awarded a supplementary assessment. See Section 11 of the current Assessment Policy regarding grades

Notation HD D C P N DNS

Grade High Distinction Distinction Credit Pass Fail Fail

Percentage Range 80 100 70 79 60 69 50 59 Below 50 The student failed to participate in assessment components that had a combined weighting of 50% or more of the final mark. 45 49* 45 49*


Supplementary Assignment Supplementary Exam

*The award of the grade SA or SX shall be at the discretion of the Unit Coordinator except where clause 11.8 applies.

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University policy on assessment

Assessment for this unit is conducted in accordance with the Assessment Policy. The version of the Assessment Policy applicable for this unit can be found at Assessment roles and responsibilities Please refer to section 8 in the current Assessment Policy Academic Integrity Murdoch University encourages its students and staff to pursue the highest standards of integrity in all academic activity. Academic integrity involves behaving ethically and honestly in scholarship and relies on respect for others ideas through proper acknowledgement and referencing of publications. Lack of academic integrity, including the examples listed below, can lead to serious penalties. Plagiarism Inappropriate or inadequate acknowledgement of original work including: Material copied word for word without any acknowledgement of its source Material paraphrased without appropriate acknowledgement of its source Images, designs, experimental results, computer code etc used or adapted without acknowledgement of the source. An assignment written by a third party and represented by a student as her or his own work. Material copied from another students assignment with her or his knowledge. Material copied from another students assignment or work without that persons knowledge.

Ghost writing



Adapted from Section 9.3 of the Assessment Policy, Plagiarism and Collusion. Find out more about how to reference properly and avoid plagiarism at: Plagiarism-checking software The University uses software called Turnitin which checks for plagiarism. The Coordinator may have added a link to Turnitin in your online unit. Please note that when you or your Unit Coordinator submit assignments electronically to Turnitin, a copy of your work is retained on the database to check collusion and future plagiarism.
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The University has a legal agreement with Turnitin that it will not share or reproduce student work in any form. Advice on using Turnitin can be found at

Non-discriminatory language Please refer to: Student appeals Murdoch University encourages students to resolve issues initially through their Unit Coordinator and/or appropriate Faculty staff member. In cases where this is not possible, the University has in place a Student Appeals process.

This process is a mechanism open to all Murdoch University students and there is no fee.

The fundamental principles of this process include:

1. natural justice and procedural fairness; 2. transparency and accountability; 3. the provision of regular procedural review; and 4. the enhancement of the appeals process and outcomes.

An appeal is not a merits based review, in other words, the committee will not reconsider a students performance to determine whether a different grade should be awarded. Rather, it is a procedural review and will investigate whether proper process has been followed. In cases where the appeal of a student is upheld by the Student Appeals Committee, the committee will consider what remedy, if any, is appropriate. Students seeking a review of a grade or mark are instead encouraged to follow the procedures set out in the Universitys complaint process at Information on the Student Appeals process can be found at

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Student complaints Please refer to Conscientious objection in teaching and assessment (This relates to an objection based on an individuals deep moral conviction of what is right and wrong) For guidelines on conscientious objection, see Students should ensure that they regularly read and understand these policies and regulations. You are required to acknowledge on the cover sheets on your assignments that you have done this. Ensure that you have read each of these policies before commencing the work required for the unit.

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His mate, Dave, told him it took more than one time at cheating to do that. Mick wasnt entirely convinced, but he didnt want to fail. So they shared an assignment. And, as it turned out, the real harm wasnt done by him failing. It was what Dave added to it that made it easy to spot the plagiarism - a mistake. You see, Dave was bad at maths, but like many other people didnt know it. So how would Mick? Thats why you should never share assignments. Failing an assignment is depressing enough Plagiarism can make you fail a whole unitor worse!

Any similarity to posters found in campus bathrooms from the Australian National Council on AIDS is purely intentional!


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General Physics

Learning Guide

How to use this Learning Guide
This unit has been designed to enable you to develop skills and knowledge using a variety of learning activities. To guide you through your learning activities, this printed Learning Guide and the online version contains topic by topic information including: Objectives and introductory notes to each topic List of required readings Study questions and practice exercises Key concepts Learning Activities This information is designed to help you move through the unit in a way which will lead to thorough, critical and reflective learning. Although the study questions/practice exercises are optional, they will help you consolidate your learning and assist you in becoming an independent learner. To use this guide, I suggest that you first check through the objectives and alongside each you should write what you already know - definitions, etc. You should then read the recommended sections from the textbook and complete the notes alongside the objectives. You can now test your understanding of the material by attempting the practice questions and problems. You will find that these are graded in the textbook from single-concept to more involved multi-concept tasks. It is important that you are able to master these more difficult tasks. Unlike most texts, Hewitt doesnt have answers in the back of the book. These will be discussed in workshops. For external students, you will be able to access these from the unit website. Intro Physics has answers in the back of the book. The examination questions consist of a mixture of written answers (similar to the questions) and numerical problems (similar to the Challenge problems), just like part of the assignments.

SCI16 Learning Guide 1

Getting the most from the topic pages

Introductory text about the topic or how it fits into the grand scheme of things

This is the time you should spend on this topic, including any assignment questions

What you need to learn!

Key equations which you need to know

The MINIMUM Reading you need to do to pass the unit

These questions will be discussed in the workshop / tutorial & you should do these BEFORE the class (you may be asked to present your answer!)

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Learning Activities: What you need to do, or prepare for the workshop class, or plan your study around for External Students

The key things you should know at the end of the topic

Assignment & General reminders

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Getting the most marks for numerical problems

I know that this seems overly pedantic and not at all relevant for the real world. In the lecture notes, particularly week 2, lecture 2 you will see that this approach and format for problem solving is presented. I teach this overly prescriptive approach to problem solving so that you can develop a set of problem solving skills which you can apply to almost any situation, but certainly across other areas of the sciences and engineering. To encourage this logical approach, the assignment and examination problems are all marked using this approach. Last semester a student failed the exam even though he got every answer correct, because the process of problem solving is just as, if not more, important as the correctness of the answer. You dont need to rule lines on the page, but sectioning your page is useful as it encourages you to leave white space so that I can follow what you have done. It also means that you are not overly penalised because you made an error when you wrote the numbers down from the calculator, or similar. I hope that this additional information helps you to understand why I am so pedantic about the approach!!!!

What a well formatted answer looks like

List of known's What do you know? Diagram Draw a diagram of how you understand the situation described in the question Working out You need to show your working outIm interested in your ability to solve problems, not necessarily the answer that you get

Assumptions and explanations What is the physics involved and what assumptions have you made to answer this question Relationship What equation or relationship will you use

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Marking of Assignment Problems

Learning how to solve problems is as important as getting the right answer. Being able to communicate how you solved the problem is also an important skill for a scientist to acquire. So in order to reflect this in the marking of the assignments there will be minimal marks for getting the right answer. You will get marks for: A good diagram 20% of the marks o Correct, clear and a reasonable size o Putting on the diagram all known factors A list of all known variables and an explanation of the physics stating any assumptions relating to the question, if there are any (30%) Giving the equations that will be used in their general terms 10% of the marks Calculations and working out leading to a correct answer 20% of the marks The correct answer 20% of the marks o The correct SI units o An appropriate number of significant figures

Suggestions on how to do assignment problems

First you have to get the physics right before you can attempt a numerical solution. Do not start writing down equations without any comments, or what is even worse, starting with the calculations without first stating the equations in general terms. Problem Example
A roustabout is sitting on a branch of a tree and wishes to drop vertically onto a horse galloping under the tree. The horse is travelling at 10.0m/s and the drop to the saddle is 3.00m. (a) What must be the horizontal distance between the saddle and branch when the roustabout leaves the branch? (b) How long is the roustabout in the air?

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An Example of a Good Answer: Sometimes it makes more sense to do the second part of the question first. So plan how you are going to do it. 1. Begin with a good diagram and put on the diagram all known.

2. List the known variables. Explain the physics involved. Has the situation been idealised? If so state the assumptions. g = 9.8m/s2 vx = 10 m/s vyi = 0 m/s yf = 3 m It takes the same amount of time for the roustabout to drop from the tree into the saddle as it takes for the horse to move into place. The roustabout moves a given displacement (distance between the tree branch and the saddle) at constant acceleration (g), where the initial velocity (velocity of the roustabout) is zero. The horse moves an unknown displacement (position at the start of the drop to underneath the roustabout at the end of the drop) at a constant velocity and has to be directly under the roustabout at the end of the drop. The time between the start of the drop and contact between roustabout and saddle can be found. 3. Give the equations that will be used in their general terms and do the calculations leading to a correct answer with the correct SI units and an appropriate number of significant figures. Always solve the problem in terms of a general equation before you enter numerical values. Then decide which direction is positive. The time of flight can be found from the equation yf = vyit + ayt2 so t = (2( yf - vyit) / ay) t = (2(3.00m) / 9.8ms-1)
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t = 0.78246s t = 0.782s (correct to 3 significant figures)

The distance of the horse from the tree can be found using the formula x = vxt so x = 10 x 0.782 x = 7.82 m An Example of a Bad Answer: yf = vyit + ayt2 t = (2(3.00m) / 9.8ms-1) t = 0.782s x = vxt x = 7.82 m An Example of a Really Bad Answer: x = 7.82m

About units
Every physical quantity has two components a numerical value, such as 3.5, 7.456, 5.6 x104 a physical unit, such as m, s, ms-2 The physical units are not always in SI units, they occur often in derived units, such as cm, mm, ms, y, m/s, km/h. Always include the units in your equation. Do not assume that all the terms are expressed in SI units. Once you have derived the equation which is a partial solution to your problem, you should proceed as follows: a) Enter the physical quantities as they appear in the equation, i.e. the quantities should be entered with their numerical values and the units. A good way to tackle this is to have a two-column layout. Work out the values in one column and the units in another b) Reduce all units to basic SI units and check the final units of this procedure. If the units are not correct, e.g. if you obtain m/s2 instead of the expected m/s, there is an error in the equation. This way you can partially check your result before you do any numerical calculations.

SCI16 Learning Guide 7

Remember your units have to be right. c) Work out the result of all basic numbers. d) Work out the result of all powers of ten. e) Combine the results of (b) (c) and (d) for the final answer. f) Check this result is reasonable. Compare with known numerical results. Check for order-of-magnitude only. If your answer is off by one or more powers of ten from what you expect or from what seems reasonable, then it is most likely wrong. g) Check you have the right number of significant figures i.e. you can not have more significant figures than the values given in the problem. For example in the problem given above if the horse is travelling at 10 m/s rather than 10.0 m/s then the answer can have no more than 2 significant figures so the distance from the horse to the tree is 7.8 m not 7.82 m. You should develop the ability to estimate your answer to within one order of magnitude. Important Note: You should always use this approach in all your answers, except for simple or very straightforward questions, as it will assist you to understand the physics of the problem and enable your tutor to understand what you are doing. As the assignment questions have the answers at the back of the book it is important to show your working and explain your answer to get full marks.

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TOPIC ONE What is Science?

In this first topic, you will explore some of the fundamental aspects that underpin science as a field of study. The word science comes from the Latin meaning to know and representative of common definitions of science, such as the search for truth. We could spend many years trying to define science and explain its role in society. Alas, we do not have that long! If you are interested, see the list of suggested readings on the unit website. Nominal time to complete topic 7 hours

Learning objectives
When you have completed this topic you should be able to: Define and distinguish between Hypothesis Theory Scientific Fact Scientific Law Systme international (SI) System of Units Non SI Units Explain The role of ethical behaviour in the sciences Types of and penalties for dishonesty in assessment at Murdoch University Use The scientific method in simple experiments SI units in conceptual and numerical problems SI prefixes and scientific notation in place of orders of ten

SCI16 Learning Guide 9

Essential reading 1. Conceptual Physics Fundamentals 1st ed. (CPF) a. Chapter 1, pages 1 12. b. Appendix A, pages 373376. 2. Introductory Physics, p1 - 4 3. SCI16 Tutorial Guide and Laboratory Manual Study questions and practice exercises For each topic 3 different sets of activities may be set. They are designed to increase with difficulty. Students should master the Challenge problems before moving on to the next topic. 1. Conceptual Physics Fundamentals 1st edition, Chapter: Review Questions 1, 3, 13 Exercises 1, 7 2. QuickSmart Introductory Physics There are no problems for this topic. 3. Challenge Problems There are no problems for this topic.

Learning Activities There are no laboratory or workshop activities this week, but you have preparation for next week.

Key Concepts 1. Science is a social activity, which can be described as an evolving body of knowledge about the physical and natural world as well as the process of adding to the body of knowledge. 2. The observation, experimentation and measurement of the physical and natural world is a key feature of scientific activity. 3. Scientists use a range of tools to convey scientific information, including mathematical formulae, scientific notation and units of measurement. 4. The Scientific Method is a term used to describe the principles and procedures used in the process of adding to the body of knowledge on the natural and physical world.
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5. There is a system of moral and ethical behaviour in the sciences which is very similar to the concepts of dishonesty in assessment, such as plagiarism at university. Reviewing what you have learnt
Look back over the learning objectives. What do you know already, what do you have some idea about, and what do you need to pay particular attention to in your reading? Try defining some of the terms and explaining some of the concepts before you turn to the readings. After you have done the readings for this topic, look back over the notes you made on the learning objectives. Can you add to them? Do you need to go over any section of the reading to improve your understanding? If you are happy with your progress, go on to the next topic.

Assessment The DIAGNOSTIC EXERCISE is due this week. General Reminder Internal students You need to make sure that you have signed up for a workshop class.

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TOPIC TWO Motion in a Straight Line

Almost any activity involves movement. The movement may be 'fast' or 'slow', in one direction as in a sprint race or in a complicated pattern as in dancing. In this topic we are concerned with the simplest motion: in one direction - a straight line. We can also describe this as motion in one dimension in space. With this simplification we can begin to understand the meaning of terms such as velocity and acceleration. Nominal time to complete topic 10 hours

Learning objectives
When you have completed this topic you should be able to: Define

Acceleration Force Free fall Gravity Particle

Distinguish Between Displacement and distance Speed and velocity Instantaneous and average speed Instantaneous and average velocity Explain How to calculate velocity and acceleration from graphs and measurements of displacement and time What units are used to describe motion Use The equations of motion to solve problems in non accelerating and uniformly accelerating situations: d Some texts use different symbols in o v= t these formulae v f + vo d is interchangeable with s o v = vf is interchangeable with v, when u 2 is used in place of vo or vi v f vo o a = t o v f = v o + at
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o o

2 d = vo t + 1 2 at

v f = vo + 2ad

Graphs to illustrate linear motion The laws of linear motion to explain the motion of particles Essential reading 1. Conceptual Physics Fundamentals, Chapter 3, pp 30 51 2. Introductory Physics, Sections 2.1, 2.2 and 2.3 (dont worry about the material on differentiation) Study questions/Practice exercises 1. Conceptual Physics Fundamentals Exercises Problems 2. Quicksmart Introductory Physics Chapter 2 1, 5, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14, 16 3. Challenge Problems a. An electron placed in an electric field accelerates uniformly from rest to a speed v while travelling a distance x. i. What is the acceleration of the electron? ii. Calculate the acceleration in ms-2 for an electron that starts from rest and reaches a speed of 1.8x107ms-1 over a distance of 0.10m iii. Calculate the time required for the electron to attain this speed. b. The speed of a toy rocket shooting straight upwards increases from v to V at a uniform rate in a time t. i. How far does the rocket travel during this time? ii. Calculate the distance (in m) covered if the initial rocket speed is 110ms-1 and increases uniformly to 250ms-1 in a period of 3.5s c. Chris tosses a ball straight upwards at a speed v. Ignoring air drag; i. How long does the ball take to reach its highest point? ii. Calculate the time in seconds that it takes for the ball to reach its highest point when thrown upwards at 32ms-1. iii. Calculate the maximum height of the ball.

Chapter 3 25, 26, 30 7, 9

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d. Using a problem solving approach and the following; the present world population is approximately 6 billion, this is 5% of the total number of people who have ever lived on Earth and there is approximately 0.1 moles of air molecules in each breath. 1 mole is 6.023 x 1023 molecules. How does the number of people who ever lived compare to the number of air molecules in a single breath? Learning Activities This weeks tutorial includes: An icebreaker The M&M Science activity. Tutorial 1 Key Concepts 1. The velocity, acceleration, time interval or position of an object can be determined by knowing information about the other quantities. 2. Scalar quantities have only a magnitude component, whereas vector quantities have both magnitude and direction. Review You should now start reviewing the previous topics in preparation for the assignment. If you found you were struggling with any of the problems, ask your tutor for help. Assessment The Tutorial 1 (Test & Tutorial Work) is to be submitted by 4pm Friday.

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TOPIC THREE Newtons Laws and Vectors

In topic two we considered motion in one direction but of course life isn't always that simple so we need a way of handling other directions. It is convenient to distinguish among physical quantities according to whether they are directional or non-directional in space. Those variables that have a direction in space are called vector quantities or vectors; those described fully by their magnitude alone are called scalar quantities or scalars. Examples are: Scalars: distance, speed, time, mass, frequency, energy, work. Vectors: displacement, velocity, acceleration, force, momentum. Thus distance and speed are defined as scalar quantities and denote magnitudes alone; displacement and velocity are defined as vectors and must have their directions specified. In printed text, vector quantities are often denoted by bold type; scalars by italic type. Rather than throwing ourselves into a full consideration of vector motion in many dimensions we are taking an interlude to consider vectors in static situations. In this case we shall be using vectors to represent forces. We won't be neglecting motion altogether though, since force and motion are connected via Newton's Laws of Motion, which form the core of this topic. Nominal time to complete topic 20 hours (this topic will be studied over two weeks)

Learning objectives
When you have completed this topic you should be able to: Define and Distinguish Between Scalar and Vector quantities Force Inertia Friction Mass and Weight Resultant Equilibrium Explain The nature of action and reaction The causes of motion

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State Use

Newton's Laws of Motion (Newtons 1st, 2nd and 3rd Laws)

Newtons 2nd Law F = ma to calculate the acceleration of an object subject to an unbalanced force Essential reading 1. Conceptual Physics Fundamentals a. Chapter 4, pp 52 77 b. Appendix B & C pp377 -286 2. Introductory Physics a. Chapter 1 (1.1 1.7) Vectors b. Chapter 3 (3.1 - 3.6) Newtons Laws Study questions/Practice exercises 1. Conceptual Physics Fundamentals: Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Exercises 11, 12 1, 4, 11, 15, 27, 42 Problems 1, 7, 8, 11, 14 2. Introductory Physics Chapter 1 Even questions up to and including question 12. 3. Introductory Physics Chapter 3 Even questions up to and including question 12. 4. Challenge Problems a. Mark exerts a force F on two crates, one in front of the other. Crate A has mass m, while crate B has a smaller mass, 0.5m. The crates are mounted on tiny rollers and move with negligible friction. i. Draw a vector diagram for the system consisting of Crate A and Crate B. ii. What is the acceleration of the two crate system? iii. Draw a vector diagram for Crate B. How big a force acts on Crate B while Mark continues pushing? iv. Draw a vector diagram for Crate A. How big a force acts on Crate A while Mark continues pushing? v. What would be different in this problem if Crates A and B were interchanged? vi. A friend says that Crate A accelerations because Marks hand push it, but Crate B has no force on it so just rides along with Crate A. What physics is your friend missing?

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b. Gymnast Alana of mass m is suspended by a pair of vertical ropes attached to the ceiling. i. What is the tension in each rope if she is hanging straight down? ii. What are the rope tensions if they comprise a V-shape, each at an angle , with the ceiling? iii. Suppose that Alana has mass 55kg. Calculate answers for the tension in the pair of vertical ropes, and for when they are 53 to the ceiling c. A street lamp is suspended by 2 cables, one at angle 1 and the other at 2, as shown. i. Find the tension in each cable for a lamp of mass m. ii. Calculate the two tensions when the mass of the lamp is 15kg, 1 is 40 and 2 is 60 Learning Activities Week 3 In this weeks workshop you will Complete the Velocity activity from the Laboratory Manual. Week 4 This weeks tutorial includes: Tutorial 2 What makes a good lab report? Marking criteria for Assignment 2 Tutorial questions

Key Concepts 1. We can interpret and predict the behaviour of particles in motion using Newtons Laws. 2. When the sum of all of the forces acting on an object is zero, the object is at equilibrium.

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Assessment Laboratory report 1 Velocity is due 4pm Friday of week 3. Tutorial 2 (Test & Work) is to be submitted by 4pm of the Friday of week 4.

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Momentum and Energy

This topic is probably better described by bangs and crashes as momentum and energy are of central importance in collisions. It is also intimately related Newtons Laws. Nominal time to complete topic 10 hours

Learning objectives
When you have completed this topic you should be able to: Define and Distinguish Between Momentum and impulse Elastic and inelastic collision System and isolated system Kinetic energy Potential energy Potential energy in springs Mechanical energy Work Power Explain How Newton's Third Law is equivalent to the law of conservation of momentum The work energy relationship How energy changes between different forms during motion The situations to which the law of conservation of energy may be applied How kinetic energy and momentum are different to each other State Use The law of conservation of momentum to describe the effects of interactions between objects or particles The following equations o Ft = mv o mv o = mv f
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the law of conservation of momentum The law of conservation of energy Newton's Second Law in terms of momentum change The law of equivalence of mass and energy

o PE = mgh 2 o KE = 1 2 mv o W = Fd o W = Fx 2 o F =1 2 kx o W = KE W o P= t Essential reading 1. Conceptual Physics Fundamentals Chapter 5, pp 78 104 2. Introductory Physics Chapter 4 3. Introductory Physics Chapter 5 4. Introductory Physics Chapter 6

Study questions/Practice exercises 1. Conceptual Physics Fundamentals Chapter 5 Exercises 2, 8, 27, 40, 50 Problems 4, 7, 9, 11, 12 2. Introductory Physics Chapter 4 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 12 3. Introductory Physics Chapter 5 2, 4, 6, 8 4. Introductory Physics Chapter 6 1, 3, 5, 6, 10, 11, 13 5. Challenge Problems a. Andrew finds that a force F is required to push a crate of mass m up a plank of length L into a truck whose platforms is a vertical distance h above the road. i. How much work does Andrew do in pushing the crate up the plank? ii. Calculate Andrews work input if the crate has a mass of 100kg, the length of the plank is 5.0m, the applied force is 490N, and the platform is 1.2m above the road. iii. What is the increase of potential energy of the crate once on the platform? iv. How much work did Andrew do in overcoming friction?
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v. What is the efficiency of the plank? b. Toyota Prius of mass m and velocity v travelling north on the Murdoch Drive collides, at the intersection of Murdoch Dr and South St, with a Honda Civic Hybrid with mass M and velocity V, but travelling west on South St. i. What is the magnitude and direction of the resulting momentum of the vehicles if it is an inelastic collision? ii. Calculate the resulting momentum if the mass of the Prius is 1325kg, mass of the Civic is 1190kg and their initial speeds were both 18ms-1 c. Two minutes into launch, the space shuttle Discovery jettisons, or releases, the Solid Rocket Boosters are after the fuel has run out. At this point, the shuttle is doing 4828km/h. i. What is the average acceleration experienced by the crew on board the Discovery during these two minutes? ii. How does this compare to the acceleration due to gravity experienced by the Astronauts on the ground? iii. If the commander of the Discovery, Eileen Collins has a mass of 60kg, what is her average weight during this first two minutes of space flight? iv. How much kinetic energy does Eileen Collins have the moment the boosters are jettisoned?

Learning Activities In this weeks workshop you will Complete Laboratory 2 Vectors and Newtons Laws. Assessment Laboratory report 2 Vectors and Newtons Laws is due 4pm Friday of week 5. Assignment 1 is due by 4pm Friday of week 5.

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TOPIC FIVE Gravity and Projectile Motion

We are going to finish our look at mechanics, or motion by looking at the behaviour of projectiles. A projectile is any object which is moving through the air (or space) under the influence of gravity. If you think about the path that a ball, say a cricket or tennis ball behaves after it has been hit, it follows a curved path and because of this we need to describe its motion in terms of two directions, x-direction (forwards or backwards) and the y-direction (up and down). Nominal time to complete topic 10 hours

Learning objectives
When you have completed this topic you should be able to: Define and distinguish between Gravity and gravitational fields Projectile motion Use The equations of motion to calculate the vector components of an object following the path of a projectile mm F =G 122 d Inverse square laws

Essential reading 1. Conceptual Physics Fundamentals, Chapter 6 pp 105 132 2. Introductory Physics, Section 2.4

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Study questions/Practice exercises 1. Conceptual Physics Fundamentals Chapter 6 Exercises Problems Introduction to Physics All questions related to section 2.4

1,5, 9 2, 4, 5, 6

2. Challenge Problems a. In a new twist on the birthday party game, a piata hangs from the branch of a very tall tree. Nathan aims and fires a small rock from the ground at an angle above the horizontal. He fires it at velocity vo. The rock strikes the piata just as it reaches the top of it trajectory. i. Ignoring air resistance, what is the speed with which the rock hits the piata? ii. Calculate the speed of the rock when it hits the piata assuming an initial speed of 9.0ms-1 and an angle of 65 with respect to the ground. iii. How high is the piata? iv. How long will it take the lollies inside the piata to hit the ground once the piata breaks? b. Matt, an extreme sport enthusiast, drops from a helicopter that is flying at velocity v slightly downward at and angle with respect to the horizontal. i. What is Matts initial velocity when he drops from the helicopter? ii. What is Matts velocity t seconds later? iii. How long will it take Matt to land in the safety net a vertical distance y below? iv. Find Matts velocity when he lands on the net and his time in the air if the helicopters velocity is 12ms-1 at an angle of 15 below the horizontal and is 26m above the safety net when he begins his drop. c. A ball is tossed upwards with initial velocity components of 88.2ms-1 vertical and 8.0 ms-1 horizontal. The location of the ball is shown at 3s Ignore air resistance and use g = 9.8 ms-2. Write the values in the boxes for ascending velocity components and your calculated resultant velocities on the downward path. Show your working, or reasoning for each box

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d. Consider two identical 1.0kg blobs of water on opposite sides of the Earth, one on the side facing the Moon and the other on the side farthest away from the Moon. i. Calculate the gravitational force on the Moon on the blob on the side of the Earth closes to the Moon. Hint: you will find the information you need on the inside front or back cover of the textbook. Earth Moon distance is calculated centre to centre) ii. Calculate the gravitational force of the Moon on the blob on the side of the Earth farthest away from the Moon iii. Calculate the percentage difference between these two forces Fnear Ffar x100 % Fnear iv. How does this difference relate to the existence of tides on the Earth?

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Learning Activities This weeks tutorial includes: Tutorial 3 Diagrams Self review of your draft of assignment 2 Tutorial Questions Key Concepts 1. When an object moves in more that one dimension, vectors are used to describe the motion. 2. When an object moves in a circle, angular methods are used to describe the motion. Review Look back over the notes you made on the learning objectives. Can you add to them? Do you need to go over any section of the reading to improve your understanding? If you are happy with your progress, go on to the next topic. Assessment Tutorial 3 (Test & Work) is to be submitted by 4pm of the Friday of week 6.

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TOPIC SIX Heat and Thermodynamics

This topic is the start of a new module on the properties of materials. In the first part you will look at the difference between heat and temperature and the effect these have on and between materials. In the second part we will look at what happens to substances when they change between the phases of matter solid, liquid and gas (we wont worry about plasma in this unit.). We also introduce thermodynamics, which literally means heat and work, so this topic is all about applying what we have already learnt about energy and work from mechanical systems to matter. This may come in handy for both Energy Studies students and those doing thermodynamics. Note: we are going to assume that you have already looked at the phases of matter solid, liquid and gas and how they behave within the context of sciences that you have studied before. If you havent, or it has been a while, you should review the relevant material. Nominal time to complete topic 20 hours (studied over 2 weeks)

Learning objectives
When you have completed this topic you should be able to: Define and Distinguish Between Temperature and temperature scales Absolute zero Heat Internal energy Specific heat capacity Thermal expansion Conduction Convection Radiation Insulation Evaporation, condensation and sublimation Boiling Thermodynamics Latent heat of fusion Latent heat of vaporisation Phase change Entropy Efficiency of heat engines
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Explain How heat transfer occurs in materials and how it can be prevented Newtons Law of Cooling How the sun is able to provide energy for life on Earth The unusual behaviour of water, particularly around 4C The processes of boiling and freezing How a heat pump works How a heat engine works What happens to substances when they undergo a phase change, in terms of energy The laws of thermodynamics

The following equations: o L = L T o o o o o

Q = Q = Q = U mL mc T Pt = Q +W

W Qin T Tcold o = hot Thot

Essential reading 1. Conceptual Physics Fundamentals, Chapter 8, pp 160 176 2. Conceptual Physics Fundamentals, Chapter 9, pp 177 196 Study questions/Practice exercises 1. Conceptual Physics Fundamentals, Chapter 8 Exercises 2, 7, 11, 21 Problems 1, 2, 4, 5, 8 2. Conceptual Physics Fundamentals, Chapter 9 Exercises 3, 6, 32, 43 Problems 1, 4 2. Challenge Problems a. Energy is needed to change the phase of water to steam i. What quantity of heat must be added to m grams of liquid water at To to turn it into steam at 100C? ii. Calculate the quantity of heat that must be added to 133g of water at 32C to turn it into steam at 100C?
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b. Some houses in Australia have instantaneous, or on demand water heaters which heat water for washing and bathing. Rather than storing the hot water in large tanks, these heaters start heating the water when you turn the hot tap on, and heat the water only whilst the hot tap is on. When you shower, suppose that you use x litres of hot water each minute. Hint: 1L of water has a mass of 1kg). i. How much energy is required to raise the temperature of x L of hot water from Tcold to Thot? ii. How much power is required to heat x L of water from Tcold to Thot in one minute? iii. Calculate the power rating for a perfectly efficient heater designed to heat 3.0L of water from 15C to 50C each minute. c. A small geothermal power plant in Europe uses hot water from the ground as a high temperature reservoir and the outside air as the low temperature reservoir. Hot ground water enters the plant at a temperature To and leaves the plant at a slightly lower temperature Tf. Waste heat is ejected to the environment at a temperature Tc. Hot ground water of mass m kg is pumped through the power plant each second. i. How much heat is supplied to the power plant each second? (hot groundwater is cooled from To to Tf). ii. What is the theoretical maximum efficiency of the geothermal plant, if the temperature of the hot reservoir is taken to be the average of To and Tf)? iii. What is the maximum power output of the geothermal plant? iv. At this geothermal plant, 5.8kg per second of hot groundwater enters the plant at To =79.6C and leaves the plant at 79.4C. In winter the temperature of the outside air is Tc = -0.4C. Calculate the theoretical power output of the geothermal plant. d. A six pack of Dole cola contains m grams of liquid. Suppose that you wanted to place ice into a perfectly insulating esky to cool the cans down from Ts to a final temperature Tf. The ice is initially at a temperature Ti. i. How much ice would you need as a minimum? Hint: the final state of the ice will be water and assume that the properties of the aluminium can are exactly the same as the cola i.e. ignore the presence of the can. ii. Calculate the mass of ice, initially at -5C, needed to cool 2.1kg of canned Dole cola from 23C to perfect
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drinking temperature of 4C. e. Your half-finished cup of coffee has cooled down to a temperature Tc. You like your coffee to be at the perfect temperature Tp. You put your cup, containing x mL of coffee, into the microwave. Assume 1mL of coffee has a mass of 1g. (5 marks for the total of all 3 parts) i. How much energy will it take to restore your coffee to its perfect temperature? Assume that coffee has the same thermal properties as water and that the cup itself gains negligible heat from the microwave. ii. The microwave delivers energy to the coffee at a rate of P watts. How much time should you set the microwave to heat your coffee to the perfect temperature? iii. If the microwave delivers 750W to the coffee, how long will it take to reheat the 140mL of the coffee from 22C to 83 C? Learning Activities Week 7 The weeks tutorial includes: Tutorial Questions. Week 8 In this weeks workshop you will Complete Laboratory 3 Heat of Fusion.

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Key Concepts 1. Heat is a form of energy. 2. Heat is transferred either by conduction, convection or radiation. 3. Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of a substance. 1. The temperature of a substance doesnt increase during a phase change. 2. Heat pumps do work to transfer heat. 3. Heat engines use heat to produce work. 4. The laws of thermodynamics are some of the key laws of physics. Assessment Tutorial 4 (Work) is due by 4pm Friday of week 7. Assignment 2 is due by 4pm Friday of week 7. Laboratory report 3 Newtons Laws & Vectors is due 4pm Friday of week 8. General Reminder The exam is fast approaching If you havent started preparing for the exams, you should start now!

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TOPIC SEVEN Electricity and Magnetism

Although we cant see them, electricity and magnetism are all around us in the natural world and they are intricately related to each other. How many times have you felt the bite of a static electric shock perhaps walking on synthetic carpet or when you accidentally touch someone who is pushing a trolley through the supermarket? We can also see, but hopefully not experience, electricity in the form of lightening. Nominal time to complete topic 20 hours (This topic will be studied over two weeks)

Learning objectives
When you have completed this topic you should be able to: Define and distinguish between Electricity Electrostatics Electric fields Electric potential energy Electric potential Magnetism Magnetic fields Magnetic force Electromagnets Electromagnetic induction Generator Transformer Explain the type of interaction observed between electric charges the different methods of electrostatically charging objects the electric field patterns of isolated point charges, two point charges and flat plates Use
F = kq 1q 2 d2 V d

F = qE


F = qvB

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Essential reading 1. Conceptual Physics Fundamentals Chapter 10 pp198 224 Chapter 11, pp 225 - 244 2. Introductory Physics Section 15.1 15.3 Section 17.1 17.3 Study questions/Practice exercises 1. Conceptual Physics Fundamentals Chapter 10 Exercises 1, 4, 7 Problems 2, 4,

Chapter 11 11, 15, 31, 36, 38, 50

2. Introductory Physics, chapter 15 1 7 inclusive 3. Introductory Physics, chapter 17 1,2 4. Challenge Problems a. A young girl with long (50cm) hair touches the Van de Graaff generator at a science museum and her hair stands on end. If she stands with outstretched arms so that her head is 50cm from the dome and the charge on the generator is 3C i. what force does an electron at the end of her hair experience? ii. What is the force on an electron at her scalp? b. Two identical particles which charge q are separated by a distance d and repel each other with force F. i. By how much does the force change if each charge is doubled, which the distance remains unchanged? ii. By how much does the force change if each charge is doubled and the distance between them also doubles? iii. By how much does the force change if the charge on only one particle doubles and the distance doubles? c. Calculate and compare the gravitational and electrical forces between an electron and a proton separated by 10-10m. Should Atomic Physicists ignore the effect of gravity within an atom based
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on what you have calculated? d. A certain parallel plate capacitor has a plate separation d and a potential difference between the plates of V. If the electric field between the plates is uniform. i. What is the strength of the electric field F ? ii. Calculate the strength of the electric field if the distance apart is 0.05m and a multimeter shows a 100V potential difference between the plates. (NB 1 Vm-1 is equivalent to 1 NC-1) iii. If the acceleration of a charged particle between the plates is a when it is halfway between the plates, why will the particle experience the same acceleration if it is only one quarter the distance between the plates? Defend your answer. e. Ink jet printers spray charged drops of ink onto paper. An electric field in the printer head produces a force on the ink drops i. Find the electric field strength that produces a force of 2.8x10-4N on a drop having a charge of 1.6x10-10C ii. If the electric field were increased in strength by 10%, by what factor would the force on the charged drops increase? Learning Activities Week 9 This weeks tutorial includes: Tutorial 5. Error analysis. Tutorial questions. Week 10 In this weeks workshop you will Complete laboratory 4 Exploring Magnetism.

Key Concepts 1. We can explain the behaviour of charged particles in fields using Coulombs law of electrostatics 2. Electricity and magnetism are intricately related

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Assessment Assignment 3 is due by 4pm Friday of week 9. Tutorial 5 (Test & Work) is to be submitted by 4pm of the Friday of week 9. Laboratory report 4 Exploring Magnetism is due by 4pm Friday of week 10.

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TOPIC EIGHT Wave Motion and Sound

The Boxing Day Tsunami demonstrated that waves could carry enormous amounts of energy. In this topic, we start by looking at the causes and forms of waves and finish by looking at sound waves, which are a form of longitudinal wave. In the next topic, we will look at light, which is a form of transverse wave. Nominal time to complete topic 10 hours

Learning objectives
When you have completed this topic you should be able to: Define

Frequency Wave speed Wavelength Plane wave Standing (stationary) waves Beats Resonance Fundamental frequency Harmonic

Distinguish Between Transverse and longitudinal waves Compression and rarefaction Constructive and destructive interference Nodes and antinodes of standing waves Explain The origin of beats in the addition of waves The interaction of two waves travelling in the same direction State

How sound is produced How sound is transmitted

v = f

Displacement-time and displacement-distance graphs to explain wave motion

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Essential reading 1. Conceptual Physics Fundamentals, Chapter 12, pp 246 -270 2. Introductory Physics, Chapter 13

Study questions/Practice exercises 1. Conceptual Physics Fundamentals, Chapter 12 Exercises Problems 2. Introductory Physics, Chapter 13 Even questions from 6 16 inclusive 3. Challenge Problems a. A rule of thumb for estimating the distance between you and a thunderstorm is to divide the number of seconds between seeing the lightening flash and hearing the thunder by three. Does this rule of thumb have a scientific basis? Hint: The speed of light is 3.00x108 ms-1. The speed of sound is 343 ms-1 at 20C and standard atmospheric pressure. b. Light travels at 3.00x108 ms-1 through a vacuum and for most practical purposes through air at this speed as well. i. Find the wavelength of light of frequency 5.09 x 1014 Hz emitted by a sodium lamp. ii. What is the frequency of light whose wavelength is 5.5 x 10-7 m? c. At RTRFMs In the Pines concert, you leave the venue to meet your friends out on the main road and listen to the same concert broadcast on RTRFM 92.1MHz. i. Which do you hear first, the sounds from the radio or the sound from the concert stage? ii. If there is a delay of 0.5s between the radio signal and the sound from the stage, how far from the stage are you? (assume that the radio signal is instantaneous compared with the speed of sound, because radio waves travel at the speed of light, not the speed of sound) iii. Pretend that some way, the radio signal travelled all the way around the world before reaching you. How far away from the stage would you have to sit so that the sound from the stage and the sound from the radio arrive at the same time?
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22, 24, 25 4, 6, 10

Learning Activities This weeks tutorial includes: - Tutorial 6. - Exam preparation. - Tutorial questions - Challenge question. Key Concepts 1. Waves are a special form of motion which can transmit energy. 2. There are two different forms of waves; transverse and longitudinal waves. 3. Sound waves are longitudinal waves which can be produced from open and closed pipes as well as stretched strings. Assessment Tutorial 6 (Test & Work) is to be submitted by 4pm of the Friday of week 11.

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TOPIC NINE Light and Optics

Because the eye is uniquely adapted to 'see' a narrow band of radiation we call it visible light. Many great scientists have undertaken the study of such light and it continues to be the source of fascination for modern researchers. Thus we have many theories and explanations and many technical devices constructed to make use of the properties of visible light. Nominal time to complete topic 10 hours

Learning objectives
When you have completed this topic you should be able to: Define

Electromagnetic wave Electromagnetic spectrum Refractive index Diffraction Polarization

Distinguish Between Reflection, refraction and diffraction State and Use The law of reflection The law of refraction (Snells Law) Huygenss Principle Discuss

The origin of the single and double slit interference patterns Interference in thin films Essential reading 1. Conceptual Physics Fundamentals Chapter 13 pp 271 293 Chapter 14 pp 294 - 318 2. Introductory Physics Sections 14.1, 14.4 and 14.5

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Study questions/Practice exercises 1. Conceptual Physics Fundamentals Chapter 13 Exercises 1, 8, 11, 26 Problems 6, 8

Chapter 14 3, 11, 23, 34, 49 5, 3

2. Introductory Physics, Chapter 14 1, 2, 3, 13, 14, 17 3. Challenge Problems a. Rainbows are formed when white light from the Sun meets raindrops in the atmosphere. Water has an index of refraction of n = 1.3311 for red light and n = 1.3330 for yellow light. (2.5 marks) i. If the sunbeam shines on a raindrop at an angle of 41 with respect to the normal at a particular point of the drop, what is the angle of refraction in the drop for red light refracted at that point? ii. What is the angle for yellow light? iii. Light for both colours travels at very nearly the same speed in air. Which one is slowed down more when it enters the drop? Defend your answer. b. A pool table has dimensions W x L. A pool ball strikes the cushion at an angle to the normal as shown in the diagram. i. Assuming the ball obeys the law of reflection, at what angle does it bounce from the cushion? ii. How far does it travel before it strikes the opposite cushion? iii. Under what conditions will the ball not obey the law of reflection (hint: the phrase to put English on the ball is used to describe one situation) c. Light travels at different speeds in glass and in diamond i. Find the ratio of the speed of light in glass (n=1.50) to the speed of light in diamond (n = 2.42) ii. Once light is inside a diamond it may reflect from an inner surface. How does the angle of reflection inside the diamond compare with the angle of incidence in the diamond? d. A beam of light is incident upon a plane mirror at angle, . The
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mirror is then rotated a bit by angle as indicated in the sketch. i. By how much is the angle of reflection changed? ii. A beam is incident at an angle of 30 with the normal and reflects onto a vertical screen 10m away. If you rotate the mirror by 2 how far will the spot of the light on the screen move? Learning Activities In this weeks workshop you will Complete laboratory 5 Sound & Light. Key Concepts 1. Light travels as an electromagnetic wave 2. Light can be reflected, refracted, diffracted or polarized 3. When light waves interact with each other, this is known as interference Thats all folks! Last Chance to Get Help! You should now start reviewing the previous topics in preparation for exam. If you found you were struggling with any of the problems, ask your tutor for help or send in partially complete answers if necessary. Assessment Laboratory report 5 Sound & Light is due by 4pm of the Friday of week 12. General Reminder All Students NO work will be graded after Friday of the Review Week (13). If you are unable to submit work by this deadline, you MUST apply for deferred assessment.

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