Anda di halaman 1dari 39

KOLEKSI SOALAN BIOLOGI

BAB 4: KOMPOSISI KIMIA DALAM SEL


16 7 Diagram below shows a protein structure. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan satu struktur protein.

Which of the following are examples of this type of protein? Yang manakah antara berikut contoh-contoh protein jenis ini? I Thyroxine Tiroksina II Haemoglobin Hemoglobin III Keratin Keratin IV Pepsin Pepsin A B C D 16 I and II only I dan II sahaja I and IV only I dan IV sahaja II and III only II dan III sahaja III and IV only III dan IV sahaja

Diagram below shows the lock and key hypothesis of enzyme reaction.

8 Rajah di bawah menunjukkan hipotesis mangga dan kuncibagi tindakan enzim.

What is represented by P, Q and R? Apakah yang diwakili oleh P, Q and R? P A Enzyme Enzim B Substrate Substrat C Product Produk D Enzyme Enzim 16 9 Q Substrate Substrat Enzyme Enzim Enzyme Enzim Product Produk R Product Produk Product Produk Substrate Substrat Substrate Substrat

A housewife uses a few slices of unripe papaya to tenderize the meat she is cooking for dinner. Which of the following sequences is correct? Seorang suri rumah menggunakan beberapa keping hirisan buah betik muda untuk melembutkan daging yang dimasak untuk makan malam. Yang manakah antara berikut urutan yang betul?

P Q R S

Add the raw papaya slices Tambahkan hirisan betik muda Boil the meat Rebus daging itu Leave the meat for one and a half hour Biarkan daging tersebut selama satu jam setengah Cut the meat into small pieces Potong daging kepada hirisan kecil

A B C D 17 0

QRSP SPRQ PQRS RSQP

Diagram below shows the molecular structure of two classes of food. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan struktur molekul bagi dua jenis kelas makanan.

What are the food classes of P and Q? Apakah kelas makanan bagi molekul P dan Q? P A Protein Protein B Carbohydrate Karbohidrat C Lipid Lipid D Protein Protein 17 1 Q Lipid Lipid Protein Protein Carbohydrate Karbohidrat Carbohydrate Karbohidrat

The following information refers to the function of substance K in cell. Maklumat berikut merujuk kepada fungsi bahan K dalam sel. Medium for biochemical reactions in cells Bahan untuk tindakbalas biokimia dalam sel

Maintaining osmotic pressure of cells Mengekalkan tekanan osmotik dalam sel

What is substance K? Apakah bahan K? A Lipid Lipid B Water Air C Protein Protein D Enzyme Enzim 17 2 Diagram below shows a biochemical reaction in a cell. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan tindakbalas biokimia di dalam sel.

P + 2 H2O
Glycerol Glise rol Molecules of fatty acids Molekul asid lemak

What is substance P? Apakah bahan P? A Monoglyceride Monogliserid C Triglyceride Trigliserid 17 3 B Diglyceride Digliserid D Glyceride Gliserid

Which type of carbohydrate can be found abundantly in liver cells? Karbohidrat jenis manakah yang didapati dengan jumlah yang banyak dalam sel hati? A Starch Kanji C Glucose Glukosa B Maltose Maltosa D Glycogen Glikogen

17 4

What is the importance of cellulose in the human diet? Apakah kepentingan selulosa dalam pemakanan manusia?

A It is digested to glucose which is absorbed and used to generate energy. Ia dicernakan kepada glukosa yang akan diserap dan digunakan untuk menjana tenaga. B It is digested, absorbed and reconstituted for use as long term energy storage. Ia dicernakan, diserap dan distruktur semula sebagai tenaga simpanan untuk kegunaan jangka masa panjang. C It is digested, absorbed and reconstituted for the formation of cell wall. Ia dicernakan, diserap dan distruktur semula untuk membentuk dinding sel. D It absorbs water and adds bulks to the faeces to aid defecation. Ia menyerap air dan menambahkan pelincir pada bahan tinja untuk membantu pembuangan najis. 17 5 Diagram below shows the protein structure in haemoglobin molecule. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan struktur protein dalam molekul hemoglobin.

Which level of this protein structure is? Aras manakah yang diwakili oleh struktur protein ini? A Primary structure Struktur primer B Secondary structure Struktur sekunder C Tertiary structure Struktur tertier D Quaternary structure Struktur kuarterner 17 6 Diagram below shows the changes of protein level from quarternary structure to secondary structure through process P. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan perubahan peringkat protein dari kuarterner ke sekunder melalui proses P.

Quartenary Structure Struktur kuartenari P Secondary Structure Struktur sekunder

What is process P? Apakah proses P? A Denaturation Denaturasi C Hydrolysis Hidrolisis 17 7 B Deamination Deaminasi D Condensation Kondensasi

Diagram below shows the effects of pH on the rate if reaction of enzyme Y in human alimentary canal. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan kesan pH terhadap kadar tindakan enzim Y di dalam salur alimentari manusia.
Rate of reaction of enzyme Y Kadar tindakan enzim Y

9 pH

What is enzyme Y? Apakah enzim Y? A Rennin Renin C Amylase Amilase B Trypsin Tripsin D Lipase Lipase

17 8

Diagram below shows an enzyme, P and four substrates, W, X. Y and Z. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan enzim P dan empat substrat, W, X, Y dan Z.

Substrate W Substrat W

Substrate X Substrat X

Substrate Y Substrat Y

Substrate Z Substrat Z

Which substrate W, X, Y and Z can be hydrolised by enzyme P? Substrat manakah W, X, Y dan Z boleh dihidrolisiskan oleh enzim P? A W C Y 17 9 B X D Z

The information below shows the use of an enzyme in our daily lives. Maklumat berikut merujuk kepada penggunaan sejenis enzim dalam kehidupan seharian. Tenderized meat Melembutkan daging Remove the skin of fish Menanggalkan kulit ikan Dissolved stains in clothes Melarutkan kotoran pada pakaian Based on the information above, which of the following is the enzyme? Berdasarkan pernyataan di atas, manakah menunjukkan enzim tersebut? A Lipase Lipase B Protease Protease C Amylase

Amilase D Cellulase Selulase 18 0 Which of the following monosaccharides combination produces sucrose? Yang manakah antara kombinasi monosakarida berikut menghasilkan sukrosa? A Glucose + fructose Glukosa + fruktosa B Glucose + galactose Glukosa + galaktosa C Fructose + galactose Fruktosa + galaktosa D Glucose + glucose Glukosa + glukosa 18 1 What is the process that breaks down dipeptide into amino acid? Apakah proses yang berlaku untuk memecahkan dipeptida kepada asid amino? A Condensation Kondensasi B Heating Pemanasan C Acid addition Penambahan asid D Hydrolysis Hidrolisis 18 2 Which of the following graph shows the effect of pH on the metabolic rate of the enzyme pepsin? Yang manakah antara graf berikut menunjukkan kesan pH ke atas kadar metabolisma enzim pepsin? A
Rate of reaction Kadar tindak balas

14

pH

B
Rate of reaction Kadar tindak balas

14

pH

C
Rate of reaction Kadar tindak balas

14

pH

D
Rate of reaction Kadar tindak balas

14

pH

18 3

Diagram below shows the action of an enzyme on a substrate. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan tindakan enzim ke atas suatu substrat.

X Polypeptides Polipeptida

Name substance X.

Namakan bahan X. A Starch Kanji B Protein Protein C Amylase Amilase D Pepsin Pepsin 18 4 Diagram below shows two different types of protein molecules. Rajah di bawah menunujukkan dua jenis molekul protein.

Alpha helix Heliks alpha

Beta pleated Lipatan beta

Which protein structure does these two types of molecules belong to? Apakah stuktur protein yang ditunjukkan oleh kedua-dua molekul protein itu? A Primary structure Struktur primer B Secondary structure Struktur sekunder C Tertiary structure Struktur tertier D Quarternary structure Struktur kuartener 18 5 Diagram below shows the molecule of an enzyme. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan satu molekul enzim.

Which of the following is the substrate for this enzyme? Manakah berikut adalah substrat untuk enzim tersebut? A B

18 6

Enzymes are added to biological washing powders to remove stains. Which would be the most effective enzymes in removing chocolate milk? Beberapa enzim telah dimasukkan ke dalam serbuk pencuci biologi untuk menanggalkan kekotoran. Manakah enzim yang paling berkesan untuk menanggalkan kekotoran susu coklat? A Amylase and maltase Amilase dan maltase C Protease and lipase Protease dan lipase B Amylase and catalase Amilase dan katalase D Protease and catalase Protease dan katalase

18 7

Diagram below shows the breakdown of three types of organic molecules. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan penguraian tiga jenis molekul organik.
X Y

What are X, Y and Z? Apakah X, Y dan Z?

X A Carbohydrate Karbohidrat B Carbohydrate Karbohidrat C Protein Protein D Protein Protein 18 8

Y Fat Lemak Protein Protein Carbohydrate Karbohidrat Fat Lemak

Z Protein Protein Fat Lemak Fat Lemak Carbohydrate Karbohidrat

What is the main carbohydrate reserve in liver cells? Apakah jenis karbohidrat utama yang disimpan dalam sel hati? A Glucose Glukosa B Glycogen Glikogen C Lactose Laktosa D Starch Kanji

18 9

Which of the following is formed from condensation of 3 molecules of fatty acids and 1 molecule of glycerol? Yang manakah antara berikut terbentuk daripada kondensasi 3 molekul asid lemak dan 1 molekul gliserol? A Glycogen Glikogen B Lipid Lipid C Starch Kanji D Urea Urea

19 0

Statements below show the hydrolysis of 4 different types of carbohydrates. Pernyataan dibawah menunjukkan hidrolisis 4 jenis karbohidrat yang berbeza.

M: N: O: P:

Maltose + water glucose + glucose Maltose + air glukosa + glukosa Galactose + water glucose + lactose Galaktosa + air glukosa + laktosa Sucrose + water glucose + fructose Sukrosa + air glukosa + fruktosa Fructose + water glucose + sucrose Fruktosa + air glukosa + sukrosa

Which is correct? Yang manakah benar? A M and N only M dan N sahaja B O and P only O dan P sahaja C N and O only N and O sahaja D M and O only M dan O sahaja 19 1 The statement describes a characteristic of enzyme maltase. Pernytaaan di bawah menerangkan tentang satu ciri enzim maltase. Maltase can speed up both the hydrolysis and condensation process. Maltase boleh mempercepatkan kedua-dua tindakbalas hidrolisis dan kondensasi. Which of the following refers to the characteristic above? Yang manakah antara berikut merujuk kepada ciri tersebut? A Specific in action Spesifik dalam tindakan B Reversible reaction Tindakbalas berbalik C Required in small quantity Diperlukan dalam kuantiti yng kecil D Not destroyed after reaction Tidak termusnah diakhir tindakbalas 19 2 Diagram below shows the structures of a substrate and an enzyme.

Rajah di bawah menunjukkan struktur substrat dan enzim.


D C

Substrate Substrat

Enzyme Enzim

Which of the labeled parts A, B, C and D is the active site? Antara A, B, C dan D, yang manakah tapak aktif? 19 3 What is the level of protein structure for haemoglobin? Apakah peringkat struktur protein bagi hemoglobin? A Primary structure of protein Struktur primer protein B Secondary structure of protein Struktur sekunder protein C Tertiary structure of protein Struktur tertier protein D Quarternary structure of protein Struktur kuartener protein 19 4 Diagram below shows the process of formation of a triglyceride molecule. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan proses pembentukan molekul trigliserida.

+ X
What is process X? Apakah proses X? A Hydrolysis Hidrolisis C Condensation Kondensasi 19 5 B

+ 3 H2O

Dialysis Dialisis D Assimilation Asimilasi

Diagram below shows the mechanism of an enzymatic reaction. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan mekanisma tindakbalas enzim.

R What are P, Q and R? Apakah P, Q dan R? P A Enzyme Enzim B Substrate Substrat C Products Produk D Substrate Substrat 19 6 Q Substrate Substrat Enzyme Enzim Enzyme Enzim Products Produk R Products Produk Products Produk Substrate Substrat Enzyme Enzim

Diagram below shows a shirt with a blood stain before and after being washed with detergent containing enzyme. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan baju dengan kesan darah sebelum dan selepas dibasuh dengan pencuci mengandungi enzim.

Blood stain Kesan darah Before Sebelum After Setelah

Which are the most suitable enzyme and temperature to give the result shown? Yang manakah enzim dan suhu yang paling sesuai untuk menghasilkan keputusan seperti di atas? Enzyme Enzim A Lipase Lipase B Protease Protease Temperature Suhu 37C 18C

C Lipase Lipase D Protease Protease 19 7 Haemoglobin is an example of a Hemoglobin adalah contoh A primary structure of protein struktur protein primer B secondary structure of protein struktur protein sekunder C tertiary structure of protein struktur protein tertier D quarternary structure of protein struktur protein kuartener 19 8 Diagram below shows a molecule of an enzyme. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan molekul enzim.

18C 37C

Which are the suitable substrates for this enzyme? Yang manakah substrat yang sesuai untuk enzim ini? I II

III

IV

A I and II I dan II C I and III I dan III 19

II and III II dan III D II and IV II dan IV

Diagram below shows the biochemical processes which involves molecule K, molecule M

and enzyme L which takes place in organ X. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan proses biokimia yang melibatkan molekul K, molekul M dan enzim L yang berlaku di dalam organ X.
Muscle cells Sel otot Hepatic portal vein Vena portal hepar
+

Organ X K M

Liver Hati

+ ... ...

Enzyme L Enzim L

Glycogen Glikogen

Name molecule K, molecule M, enzyme L and organ X. Namakan molekul K, molekul M, enzim L dan organ X. Molecule K Molekul K A Sucrose B C D 20 0
Sukrosa Glucose Glukosa Maltose Maltosa Lactose Laktosa

Molecule M Molekul M
Glucose Glukosa Maltose Maltosa Glucose Glukosa Galactose Galaktosa

Enzyme L Enzim L
Sucrase Sukrase Maltase Maltase Maltase Maltase Lactase Laktase

Organ X
Duodenum Dudenum Ileum Ileum Ileum Ileum Duodenum Duodenum

Diagram shows the structure of DNA. Rajah menunjukkan struktur DNA.


P Q R

What are P, Q and R? Apakah P, Q dan R? P A Nucleotide Q


Phosphate group Kumpulan fosfat

R
Deoxyribose sugar Gula deoksiribosa

Nukleotida

B C D 20 1

Phosphate group Kumpulan fosfat Phosphate group Kumpulan fosfat Nitrogenous base Bes bernitrogen

Deoxyribose sugar Gula deoksiribosa Nucleotide Nukleotida Phosphate group Kumpulan fosfat

Nitrogenous base Bes bernitrogen Nitrogenous base Bes bernitrogen Nucleotide Nukleotida

Diagram shows the reaction of an enzyme based on lock and key hyphothesis. Rajah menunjukkan tindakbalas enzim berdasarkan hipotesis mangga dan kunci.

Based on diagram, determine the properties of an enzyme. Berdasarkan rajah, kenalpasti sifat-sifat enzim. A Enzyme action is not specific. Tindakan enzim tidak spesifik. B Enzyme remains unchanged at the end of the reaction. Enzim kekal tidak berubah di akhir tindakbalas. C Enzyme reactions are reversible. Tindakan enzim adalah berbalik. D Enzymes speed up the rates of chemical reaction. Enzim mempercepatkan kadar tindakbalas kimia. 20 2 Which of these carbohydrates is insoluble in water? Karbohidrat yang manakah tidak larut dalam air? A Starch Kanji C Glucose Glukosa 20 3 B Maltose Maltosa D Galactose Galaktosa

Which of the following elements is required by plants for manufacturing amino acids? Manakah antara elemen berikut yang diperlukan oleh tumbuhan bagi membina asid amino? A Nitrogen Nitrogen C Phosphorus Fosforus B Magnesium Magnesium D Manganese Manganese

20 4

Diagram below shows the basic DNA structure. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan struktur asas DNA.

P S R
What are P, R and S? Apakah P, R dan S? P A Nucleotide B C D 20 5 R
Phosphate Fosfat Deoxyribose sugar Gula deoksiribosa Nucleotide Nukleotida Phosphate Fosfat

S
Deoxyribose sugar Gula deoksiribosa Nitrogenous base Bes bernitrogen Nitrogenous base Bes bernitrogen Nucleotide Nukleotida

Nukleotida Phosphate Fosfat Phosphate Fosfat Nitrogenous base Bes bernitrogen

Which of the following represents the hydrolysis of polypeptides? Antara yang berikut, yang manakah mewakili hidrolisis polipeptida? A B C D Polypeptides water + dipeptides Polipeptida air + dipeptida Dipeptides water + polypeptides Dipeptida water + polypeptida Dipeptides + water polypeptides Dipeptida + water polypeptida Polypeptides + water dipeptides Polipeptida + air dipeptida

20 6

Which of the following are extracellular enzymes? Antara berikut, yang manakah merupakan enzim luar sel? I Amylase Amilase II Pepsin Pepsin III Trypsin Tripsin

A I and II I dan II B I and III I dan III 20 7

C II and III II dan III D I, II and III I, II dan III

Diagram below shows the action of an enzyme on a substrate molecule. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan tindakan satu enzim ke atas satu molekul substrat.

R S P Q

What is S if P is lactase, Q is lactose and R is glucose? Apakah S jika P ialah laktase, Q ialah laktosa dan R ialah glukosa? A B C D 20 8 Maltose Maltosa Glucose Glukosa Fructose Fruktosa Galactose Galaktosa

Which combination of two monosaccharides below will produce sucrose? Antara gabungan dua unit monosakarida berikut, yang manakah menghasilkan sukrosa? A Glucose + lactose Glukosa + laktosa B Glucose + fructose Glukosa + fruktosa C Glucose + glucose Glukosa + glukosa D Fructose + lactose Fruktosa + laktosa

20 9

Diagram below shows a type of molecular structure of protein. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan sejenis struktur molekul protein.

What is the type of the structure? Apakah jenis struktur itu? A Primary Primer B Secondary Sekunder C Tertiary Tertier D Quarternary Kuarternari 21 0 Diagram below illustrates the mechanism of the action of an enzyme on a substrate. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan cara enzim bertindak ke atas substrat.

Which of the following statement is true? Antara pernyataan berikut, yang manakah benar? A Enzymes reaction is specific. Tindakan enzim adalah spesifik. B Enzymes are denatured at temperature 100C. Enzim ternyahasil pada suhu 100C. C The activity of enzyme is affected by pH. Tindak balas enzim dipengaruhi oleh pH. D Enzymes change shape at the end of the reaction. Enzim berubah bentuk pada akhir tindak balas. 21 1 Diagram below is a graph showing the effects of temperature on the rate of enzyme reaction. Rajah di bawah ialah graf yang menunjukkan kesan suhu ke atas kadar tindakbalas enzim.

Rate of enzyme reaction Kadar tindakbalas enzim

A B

D
10 20 30 40 50 60

Temperature ( C) Suhu ( C)

If the temperature is increased further, which curve A, B, C or D will be the shape of the curve after 30C? Jika suhu terus ditingkatkan, manakah lengkung yang paling sesuai, A, B, C atau D, untuk mewakili lengkung bagi suhu melebihi 30C? 21 2 Diagram below shows a structure of plasma membrane. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan struktur membran plasma.

What is P? Apakah P? A B C D 21 3 Cholesterol Kolestrol Phospholipid Fosfolipid Carbohydrate Karbohidrat Carrier protein Protein pembawa

The figure below show the breaking down of a complex molecule by an enzyme. Which of the molecules A, B, C or D represents the substrate? Rajah menunjukkan proses penguraian molekul kompleks oleh enzim. Antara molekul A,B,C dan D, yang manakah mewakili substrat?

21 4

Diagram below shows an experiment to study the activity of enzyme. The test tube are kept at 37C for an hour Rajah di bawah menunjukkan satu eksperimen untuk mengkaji tentang aktiviti enzim. Semua tabung uji tersebut dibiarkan pada suhu 37C selama 1 jam.

10ml of pepsin + 1ml 10ml of boiled pepsin of hydrochloric acid + 1ml of hydrochloric + solid egg white acid + solid egg white 10ml pepsin + 1ml asid 10ml pepsin yang dididihkan hidroklorik + putih telur+ 1ml asid hid roklorik + putih telur

10ml of water + 1ml 10ml of pepsin + 1ml of hydrochloric acid of sodium hydroxide + solid egg white solution + solid egg white 10ml air + 1ml asid 10ml pepsin + 1ml larutan hidroklorik + putih telurnatrium hid roksida + putih telur

Which of the following is not true about this experiment? Antara berikut manakah tidak benar berkaitan eksperimen tersebut? A B C D 21 5 Pepsin can digest solid egg white. Pepsin boleh mencernakan pepejal telur putih. Pepsin is active in an acidic medium. Pepsin aktif dalam medium berasid. Pepsin is active in an alkaline medium. Pepsin aktif dalam medium berasid. Pepsin is most active at 37C. Pepsin bertindak paling aktif pada suhu 37C.

Which of the following is not true about enzymes? Antara berikut yang manakah tidak benar tentang enzim?

A Enzymes are highly specific. Enzim adalah sangat spesifik. B Enzymes cannot be destroyed. Enzim tidak dapat dimusnahkan. C Enzymes are needed in big quantities. Enzim diperlukan dalam kuantiti yang banyak. D Enzymes are synthesised in the ribosomes. Enzim disintesis di dalam ribosom. 21 6 The graph below shows the optimum pH of enzyme M and N in its reaction. Graf di bawah menunjukkan pH optimum bagi enzim M dan N di dalam tindakbalasnya.
Rate of reaction Kadar tindakbalas M N

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

pH

What is enzyme M and N? Apakah enzim M dan N? A B C D 21 7 M Pepsin Pepsin Amylase Amilase Pepsin Pepsin Trypsin Tripsin N Trypsin Tripsin Trypsin Tripsin Amylase Amilase Amylase Amilase

Diagram below shows three structure of protein. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan tiga struktur protein.

What are structure P, Q and R? Apakah struktur P,Q dan R? P A B C D 21 8


Primary Primer Quaternary Kuartener Quaternary Kuartener Secondary Sekunder
X Y

Q
Secondary Sekunder Primary Primer Secondary Sekunder Primary Primer

R
Quaternary Kuartener Secondary Sekunder Primary Primer Quaternary Kuartener

Amino acid +Amino acid Asid amino + Asid amino

dipeptide + water dipeptida + air

What is process X and Y? Apakah X dan Y? X Hydrolysis Hidrolisis Condensation Kondensasi Hydrolysis Hidrolisis Condensation Kondensasi Y Condensation Kondensasi Hydrolysis Hidrolisis Hydrolysis Hidrolisis Condensation Kondensasi

A B C D 21 9

Diagram below shows a hydrolysis process by an enzyme. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan proses hidrolisis oleh enzim.

Which of a structure labeled A, B, C and D represent the enzyme? Antara struktur berlabel A,B, C dan D, manakah mewakili enzim? 22 0 During vigorous exercise, what are the end products of anaerobic respiration inhuman muscle tissues? Semasa senaman cergas, apakah hasilan akhir pernafasan anaerobik dalam tisu otot manusia? A Carbon dioxide and water Karbon dioksida dan air B Ethanol and carbon dioxide Etanol dan karbon dioksida C Lactic acid and energy Asid laktik dan tenaga D Lactic acid and carbon dioxide Asid laktik dan karbon dioksida 22 1 What are the contents of carbohydrates? Apakah kandungan karbohidrat? A Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen Karbon, hidrogen, oksigen dan nitrogen B Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen Karbon, hidrogen dan oksigen C Carbon and hydrogen Karbon dan hidrogen D Carbon and oxygen Karbon dan oksigen 22 2 The equation below shows the formation of disaccharides through the process X. Persamaan di bawah menunjukkan pembentukan disakarida melalui proses X.

C6 H12O6 + C6 H12O6
What is the name of process X? Apakah nama bagi proses X? A Hydrolysis and condensation

C12H22011+ H2O

Hidrolisis dan kondensasi B Condensation Kondensasi C Hydrolysis Hidrolisis D Photolysis Fotolisis 22 3 The following shows the formation of a sucrose molecule. Yang berikut menunjukkan pembentukan molekul sukrosa.
Glucose + Molecule R Glukosa Molekul R Sucrose + Water Sukrosa Air

What is molecule R? Apakah molekul R? A Glucose Glukosa C Fruktose Fruktosa 22 4 B Lactose Laktosa D Galactose Galaktosa

Which of the following are true about saturated fats? Yang manakah antara berikut benar tentang lemak tepu? I Low content of cholesterol Kandungan kolesterol rendah II Solid form at room temperature Berbentuk pepejal pada suhu bilik III Maximum content of hydrogen atoms Kandungan atom hidrogen maksimum IV At least one double bond between the carbon atoms Sekurang-kurangnya satu ikatan ganda-dua di antara atom-atom karbon A C I and IV only I dan IV sahaja II and III only II dan III sahaja B I, II and III only I, II dan III sahaja D II, III and IV only II, III dan IV sahaja

22 5

Diagram below shows the action of an enzyme. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan tindakan suatu enzim.

+
Subtrate Enzy me Substrat Enzim Enzy m e Enzim Products Hasil

What is shown by the diagram? Apakah yang ditunjukkan melalui rajah ini? A Enzyme is a protein. Enzim ialah satu protein. B Enzyme and substrate are specific. Enzim dan substrat adalah spesifik. C Enzyme is denatured by temperature. Enzim ternyahasli oleh suhu. D Enzyme speeds up the biochemical reaction. Enzim mempercepatkan tindak balas biokimia. 22 6 Diagram below shows the action of an enzyme sucrase on sucrose. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan tindakan enzim sukrase ke atas sukrosa.
P Q R S

What is P, Q, R and S? Apakah P, Q, R dan S? P A Sucrose Sukrosa B Sucrase Sukrase C Sucrose Sukrosa D Sucrase Sukrase 22 7 Q Sucrase Sukrase Sucrose Sukrosa Sucrase Sukrase Sucrose Sukrosa R Glucose Glukosa Glucose Glukosa Galactose Galaktosa Galactose Galaktosa S Fructose Fruktosa Fructose Fruktosa Glucose Glukosa Fructose Fruktosa

Diagram (a) shows a set-up of apparatus to study the action of pepsin on protein. Diagram (b) shows the result of the experiment after one hour. Rajah (a) menunjukkan satu set radas untuk mengkaji tindakan pepsin ke atas protein. Rajah (b) menunjukkan keputusan eksperimen tersebut selepas satu jam.

Thermometer Janhgkasuhu Test tube Tabung uji Water bath at 37 C Kukusan air pada suhu 37 C Cloudy Keruh 2 ml albumen solution + 1 ml 1% pepsin solution + 2 drops dilute hy drochloric acid 2 ml larutan albumen + 1 ml 1% larutan pepsin + 2 titis asid hid roklorik cair

Diagram (a) Rajah (a)

Clear Jernih

Diagram (b)
Rajah (b)

The experiment in diagram (a) is repeated using 4 ml of 1% boiled pepsin. Which of the following is the result of the experiment after one hour? Eksperimen dalam rajah (a) diulang dengan menggunakan 4 ml 1% pepsin yang dididihkan. Antara yang berikut, yang manakah merupakan keputusan eksperimen tersebut? A B

22 8

Which of the following carbohydrates is disaccharide? Yang manakah antara karbohidrat berikut merupakan disakarida? A Fructose Fruktosa C Starch Kanji B Lactose Lactosa D Galactose Galaktosa

22 9

Diagram below shows the hydrolysis process of a fat molecule. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan proses hidrolisis satu molekul lemak. Enzyme W Enzim W X What are W, X and Y? Apakah W, X dan Y? Enzyme W Enzim W A P and S P dan S B P and R P dan R C R and Q R dan Q D Q and S Q dan S Enzyme X Enzim X R and Q R dan Q Q and S Q dan S P and S P dan S P and R P dan R Enzyme Y Enzim Y R and Q R dan Q Q and S Q dan S P and S P dan S P and R P dan R

+ Y

23 0

Diagram below shows a mechanism of enzyme reaction. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan satu mekanisme tindak balas enzim.

Substrate Substrat + Enzyme Enzim Enzyme-substrate complex Komplek enzim substrat + Product Hasil

Which statement can be deduced from the diagram? Pernyataan yang manakah boleh disimpulkan dari rajah itu? A B C D 23 1 Enzyme action is specific. Tindakan enzim adalah spesifik. Enzyme is denatured at 50C. Enzim dinyahasil pada suhu 50C. Enzyme is destroyed at the end of the reaction. Enzim dimusnahkan pada akhir tindak balas. Enzyme reaction can be inhibited by heavy metals. Tindak balas enzim boleh direncat oleh logam berat.

Diagram shows the lock and key hypothesis of enzyme reaction. Rajah menunjukkan hipotesis kunci dan mangga bagi tindak enzim.

Which of the following is represented by X, Y and Z if W is lactose? Antara berikut yang manakah diwakili oleh X, Ydan Z jika W ialah laktosa? X A Maltase Maltase B Lactose Laktosa C Lactase Laktase D Sucrase Sukrase 23 2 Y Glucose Glukosa Glucose Glukosa Galactose Galaktosa Fructose Fruktosa Z Glucose Glukosa Galactose Galaktosa Glucose Glukosa Glucose Glukosa

Diagram shows a type of molecular structure of carbohydrate. Rajah menunjukkan satu jenis struktur molekul karbohidrat.

What is the name of the carbohydrate? Apakah nama karbohidrat tersebut? A Glucose Glukosa C Starch Kanji 23 3 B Glycogen Glikogen D Cellulose Selulosa

Diagram shows one type of protein structure. Which of the following is an example of the structure? Rajah menunjukkan satu jenis struktur protein. Yang manakah antara berikut adalah contoh untuk struktur itu?

A Keratin Keratin C Enzyme Enzim 23 4 What are the contents of carbohydrates? Apakah kandungan karbohidrat? A B C

Silk Sutera D Haemoglobin Hemoglobin

Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Karbon, hydrogen, oksigen dan nitrogen. Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Karbon, hydrogen dan oksigen. Carbon and hydrogen.

D 23 5

Karbon dan hydrogen. Carbon and oxygen. Karbon dan oksigen.

Which of the following is not lipid? Yang manakah di bawah bukan lipid? A Waxes Lilin C Phospholipids Fosfolipid B Antibodies Antibodi D Steroids Steroid

23 6

The plotted graph shows the hydrolysis of starch by amylase in different temperature. Which of the following curve is the optimum temperature? Graf di atas diplotkan untuk menunjukkan proses hidrolisis kanji oleh amilase pada suhu yang berbeza. Di antara lengkung graf yang diplotkan, lengkung yang manakah merupakan bersuhu optimum?
Quantity of starch /mgcm Quantity of kanji /mgsm -3 10
-3

A B

5 D 0 1 2 3 4 5

6 7 8 Time / minute Masa / minit

23 7

Diagram shows experiment to study photosynthesis. What is function of sodium hydrogen carbonate solution used in this experiment? Rajah menunjukkan eksperimen untuk mengkaji fotosintesis. Apakah fungsi larutan natrium hidrogen karbonat di dalam eksperimen ini?

Cut end of plant facing upwards Tumbuhan yang dipotong hujung menghadap ke atas

0.02% sodium hydrogen carbonate solution 0.02% larutan natrium hidrogen karbonate

A Reducing agent Agen penuruan C Oxidation agent Agen oksidasi 23 8

B Provide carbon dioxide Membekalkan karbon dioksida D Hydrolysis agent Agen hidrolisis

Which of the following is not true about enzymes? Antara berikut yang manakah tidak benar tentang enzim? A Enzymes are highly specific. Enzim adalah sangat specifik. B Enzymes cannot be destroyed. Enzim tidak dapat dimusnahkan. C Enzymes are needed in big quantities. Enzim diperlukan dalam kuantiti yang banyak. D Enzymes are synthesized in the ribosomes. Enzim disintesis di dalam ribosom.

23 9

Which of the following graph best represents the effect of pH on the rate of reaction of enzymes secreted by the pancreas? Antara graf berikut, yang manakah paling sesuai untuk menunjukkan kesan pH ke atas kadar tindak balas enzim yang dirembeskan oleh pankreas? A
Rate of reaction Kadar tindak balas

14

pH

B
Rate of reaction Kadar tindak balas

14

pH

C
Rate of reaction Kadar tindak balas

14

pH

D
Rate of reaction Kadar tindak balas

14

pH

24 0

Diagram below shows a dirty shirt which will be cleaned using a detergent containing enzyme. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan sehelai baju kotor yang akan di basuh dengan menggunakan serbuk pencuci mengandungi enzim.

Which of the following treatment is the fastest to clean the grease? Antara berikut, yang manakah rawatan paling cepat membersihkan tompok minyak

tersebut? A
40 OC

B
20 OC

Detergent with Amylase Pencuci dengan amilase

Detergent with amylase Pencuci dengan amilase

C
30 OC

D
40 OC

Detergent with protease Pencuci dengan protease

Detergent with lipase Pencuci dengan lipase

24 1

Diagram below shows an organic compound. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan sejenis sebatian organik.

Which of the following enzyme can hydrolyse the organic compound? Antara enzim berikut, yang manakah boleh menghidrolisis sebatian organik tersebut? A Lipase Lipase C Protease Protease 24 2 B Zimase Zimase D Sucrase Sukrase

Diagram shows the effects of temperature on the rate of an enzyme reaction. Rajah menunjukkan kesan suhu ke atas kadar tindak balas enzim.

Rate of enzyme Kadar tindak balas enzim

0 C

37 C

Temperature Suhu

60C

Which of the following statement is correct? Yang manakah pernyataan di bawah betul? A When the temperature is low, the rate enzyme reaction is high. Apabila suhu rendah, kadar tindak balas enzim tinggi. B When the temperature is high, the rate of reaction is not accelerated. Apabila suhu tinggi, kadar tindak balas enzim tidak bertambah. C When the temperature is optimum, the rate of enzyme reaction is maximum. Apabila suhu optimum, kadar tindak balas enzim maksimum. D When the temperature is beyond the optimum, the rate of enzyme reaction is increase. Apabila suhu meningkat sehingga optimum, kadar tindak balas enzim akan bertambah. 24 3 Diagram shows the relationship between the rate of enzyme reaction and substrate concentration. Rajah menunjukkan perkaitan antara kadar tindak balas enzim dan kepekatan substrat.

Rate of enzyme reaction Kadar tindak balas enzim

1.0 0.5

Substrate concentration Kepekatan substrat

Which of the following statement is true? Pernyataan manakah yang benar? A The rate of enzyme reaction is directly proportional to substrate concentration. Kadar tindak balas enzim berkadar terus dengan kepekatan substrat. B When the concentration of substrate increase, the rate of enzyme reaction increase until it reach at certain concentration. Apabila kepekatan substrat bertambah, kadar tindak balas enzim bertambah hingga mencapai kepekatan tertentu. C When the concentration of substrate increase, the rate of enzyme reaction decrease until it reach at certain concentration. Apabila kepekatan substrat bertambah, kadar tindak balas enzim berkurang hingga mencapai kepekatan tertentu. D When the concentration of substrate decrease, the rate of enzyme reaction increase until it reach at certain concentration. Apabila kepekatan substrat berkurang, kadar tindak balas enzim bertambah hingga mencapai kepekatan tertentu. 24 4 Diagram shows structure protein A and structure protein B. Rajah menunjukkan struktur protein A dan struktur protein B.

State the factors that affect the changes of structure protein A to structure protein B. Nyatakan faktor yang menyebabkan perubahan struktur protein A kepada struktur protein B. pH pH II Temperature Suhu III Salt concentration Kepekatan garam IV Humidity Kelembapan A I only I sahaja C I and II only B II only II sahaja D I, II, III and IV I

I dan II sahaja 24 5

I, II, III dan IV

Diagram below shows the organelles in an animal cell. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan organel-organel di dalam satu sel haiwan. P Q R S

Which of the organelles P, Q, R and S are involved in the synthesis and secretion of extracellular enzymes? Yang manakah antara organel P, Q, R and S terlibat dalam sintesis dan perembesan enzim luar sel? A P, Q and R P, Q dan R B P, Q and S P, Q dan S C Q, R and S Q, R dan S D P, R and S P, R dan S