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First of all, I would like to express my gratefulness to Allah S.W.T for without His blessing I would not have completed this assignment. My deepest appreciation is to my lecturer, who has spent his precious time to give a valuable advice, guidance and assistance in completing this assignment. His patience and knowledge has open up new perspective for me.

My appreciation also goes to my colleagues for supporting me, and helping me to carve my words. Besides that, thanks to my classmates who have supported and granted me gifts of knowledge and memories.

Last but not least, my earnest appreciation for people who are close to me, my parents, family and friends, who always believe in me and encourage me through this assignment work out.

The purpose of ethics is formed generally used for yourself and the community at large. Professional code of ethics is one of the 'remote control' social used as a guide to self-discipline in a more ethical manner. It serves as the basis for carrying out various work better and more organized. In education is often applied to the conduct and good practice for students so they can practice throughout life.

However, there are certain factors that cause a person to violate ethics as family influence factors (family Influence), the influence of friends (Peer Influence), life (life experience), personal values and moral principles (personal value and Morals) and condition factor (situation factors). Often when an organization faced with ethical problems, then the last way to resolve it is to refer to the law to control the situation.

During assignments of thinking and ethical theory, we can understand the basic principles of the theory of virtue ethics. In addition, we are able to distinguish and describe the types of theory and the theory of right action.

We are also able to identify the relationship between professional ethics of self-interest, culture and religion. Additionally, learn and understand the use ethical theory to the professionals. Appreciation and understanding of the professional person is on their way of thinking and ethical theory is important to encourage these people continue to do good and to uphold the truth in the interest of all.

The theory of ethics is often used by professionals to serve as a guide when faced with ethical dilemmas. Professionals can use this theory to more clearly see the justification of their public responsibilities. Besides, they have to emphasize ethical values of individual rights and actions that can benefit the public.

There are many definitions of ethics given by various parties from time to time. The term ethics is derived from the Greek word 'ethos' which means specific to the characters and personality.

Gluck (1986:176) has defined ethics as 'philosophical study of morality'. Shea (1988: 17) defines ethics as "the principles that govern individual behave or profession" and as "a common standard of behaviour" lives in whatever actions the commission. Effectiveness lies in the ethical principles of the individual without self-discipline and mental strength that high a person cannot achieve the desired level of ethics.

2.1 Definition of Ethics in Islam Morality and ethics in Islam, though different is known as moral. Morality is an Arabic word, the plural of the word khuluq. Morals include the habits, manners, dignity and other noble or positive act done by an individual. In terms of terminology, morality can be summarized as a psychiatric condition that will shape human behaviour. According to the Islamic perspective, morality is a science or study of faith systems (I'tiqadat) the study of the pros and cons of the behaviour with the objective of practising the ethics but not for the importance of studying human behaviour in relation to God's fellow human beings and the universe .

2.2 Definition of Ethics according to the dictionary According to the third edition of the dictionary, ethics means morality or moral values to be holding an individual or groups (associations, employment and others).

2.3 Definition of values and ethics in terms of language Value is defined as the belief that drives a person or an institution to act in accordance with the selection based on the core values of the society. Acceptance and appreciation of the core values of the community will ensure well-rounded citizens is in the conduct of public relations ethics, social and cultural knowledge.

Ethical meaning is responsibility and consequences of one's behaviour on society. Every member of the community or organization is obliged to understand the responsibilities of the role and behaviour of an individual.


Ethics began in ancient times when Greek philosophers just focus on the moral goodness. Socrates is a challenging approach and encourages his colleagues to think about good health and spirits. The main idea is Socrates about ethics in relation to convince people that morality. Socrates said that happiness is impossible obtained without a good moral and ethical action will not interfere with other people but he considers unethical people as weak and having unhealthy psychological.

Plato studied the relationship of ethics to human personality. Moral goodness is a balance and harmony among the differences that exist in the soul. Moral goodness is a need for good health but the true spirit is difficult to achieve. Through Plato, moral goodness is in the intellectual. Aristotle, he determines moral goodness from other perspective and Socrates where he states that moral virtue has little to do with intellectual but more in the nature (character) or personality. Plato and Socrates also stated that ethical has a close relationship between moral values, healthy and personality. However all three of these philosophers thought that the welfare of a person and are entirely dependent on one's hands.

If the first highlighted ethical and rational moral goodness, modern ethics focuses more on determining the properties of ethics through action. Modern ethics has formed two competitive nature of the actions that have internal ethics requires moral status of the consequences (Consequences) that been done whether the action is right or wrong.

1. Statement of ethical theory

Descriptive ethics is a discipline that deals with the history of the moral system. Descriptive ethics tells how members of the community should behave, what rules are used and practiced in the society and so on. Descriptive ethics of human awareness that there are different moral systems is relative in this world of Islamic ethics, Christians, Buddhists, Hindus and others. It consolidates ethics form or character of an existing system without making moral judgments, judgment and decision of the system.

Meta-Ethics refers to the rules and regulations relating to the conduct of good and evil. It leads to the statement that tells what to do and what is right. It assess, criticize and make decisions on the system as well as explaining a moral law that is considered the best, not the moral law of the existing and readily accepted.

Normative ethics to produce the moral standard system based on the existing system. Normative ethics we realize that not all moral values change with changing times but there remained preserved despite changing culture. This is known as absolute value and usually is associated with a religion. Golden Rule is a classic example of normative ethical principles. If they want people to do good things for us, we should do well also to others.

2. Theory and schools of thought

Schools of thought on a theory that was different. Teleology is a theory which sees the pros and cons of an action. An action is unknown whether good or bad until looking at the impact. Deontology theories based on fundamental principles of human duty. This theory is derived from the Greek word, Deon of duty which refers to an individual duty.

Individuals are entitled to put the value of either good or otherwise. Personal feelings involved in evaluating and determining the pros and cons of an action. Objective moral code is also free of the interests of individuals. Good and bad are not based on individual behaviour but exist by nature.

Naturalism considers an act is good or bad depends on the experience fun. 'Good' is due to the fact the quality of natural forms such as human needs, bring happiness, enjoyment and so on to humans. While Non-Naturalism was moral is something unique and cannot be classified A behaviour is good because it is good.

Relativism considers the impacts of each good by one community may not be regarded as such by the rest of society. As an example, the Western society gives different moral values for similar behaviour. Meanwhile, the absolutism of the opinion morality differs from one culture to another. However the principle is the same universal hope. For example, all societies place a high value on the right.


Ethical education should start at home up to the level of higher education. This being the case, the competent authorities such as the Ministry of Education and the Curriculum Development Centre is closely related to education should pay attention how ethical education can be implemented. In line with the National Education Philosophy "to produce a balanced and harmonious intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically based on the belief and devotion to God. This effort is designed to produce Malaysian citizens who are knowledgeable, competent, honourable, responsible and capable of achieving well-being and contribute to the betterment of family, community and nation. "

At low levels such as civics and citizenship (PSK), Moral education, Islamic education needs to be updated to emphasize the importance of ethics and morals. Teacher important part is to be the catalysts of knowledge disseminating knowledge and education to all students. Application of values and morality in teaching and learning are more likely to form the desired ethics for the future. Similarly, while in higher education, ethical education should be applied early and compulsory for all graduates. With this ethical education can lead graduates to come out to deal with the complex realities of life. Ethical education can also educate a person to think rationally and determine an act done, whether good or bad.

As an independent nation, Malaysia stressed that emphasizes the principles of rule of ethics to every citizen in accordance with the fifth and tenets of good behaviour and morality. With this ethical education is certainly able to form a Malaysian society that is required by their religious beliefs that emphasize more on the right. For example, Muslims need to live a life based on the Quran and Sunnah in order not to deviate faith and morals. Thus able to form a civil society (based modern Qur'an).

Steps towards ethical education

For civics and citizenship (PSK), Moral and Islamic education, teaching time and content to be added over the next lesson focuses on ethical education. This can be applied in group activities, collaborative learning and so on. Not only that, other subjects can also be incorporated elements of ethics in the teaching and learning process

Governments and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to expand and poster campaign to promote ethics in organizations such as the wearing of the badge "I'm anti-corruption" worn by each member of the Royal Malaysian Police. This is intended to alert both parties that corruption is cursed and must practice combat.

Organization or community activities such as lectures, forums, seminars, exhibitions and so on should always insert positive elements and ethical in such programs undertaken by religious talk. In addition to the mass media and the electronic media need to be ethical in disseminating information to the public because the two media has a huge influence in the dissemination of information to the community.

Besides government bodies such as the Ministry of Information Malaysia must play an important role enhancing the delivery of media and information materials to all segments of society and not just focus on an organization only. For example, campaigns descriptions Clean, Efficient and Trustworthy touted must live and continue to always be a guide to every member of the community. Legislature is to gazette all of that well known. For example, law enforcement is able to curb corruption. An action dismiss toward criminal offenders, especially if they are involved in a government stooge. Punishment such as whipping or jail time has an effect if the sentences was handed down, regardless of status offenders and adopt a wonderful position.

Government's aspirations for the best talent for the future by involving youth in the program of the National Service Training Centre (NS) as has been proven over filling the application of moral values and ethical form better individuals through the programme of community service. Additional programs such form that the individual has a strong identity.


For an individual who will be entering the workforce, they need to be prepared and applied ethics training sufficient in itself. For example, to ensure the teaching, each candidate must undergo UKELP to assess the extent to which the values and character that is within the individual.

In addition, as Muslims have to deal with the religion as a bulwark in the face of challenges and trials in the era of globalization. This is due to the influence and pressure of life and ethics often affect existing stake in them. For example, white collar crime and economic crime occurs in many forms, including corruption, cyber crime, misappropriation of assets, check and credit card fraud, money laundering and so on. This is included in one of the 5 factors that shape individual ethics of situational factors (situation factors)

Offences relating to ethics

1. Definition of corruption
Corruption can be defined as "a reward or a benefit obtained as a result of doing a job that should not be done". Corruption not only can be given or received in the form of money but also in material form. In general corruption means that power has been given to abused and act for their own benefit and to be "favouritism" in action.

Abu Hurairah RA. It has been said: "The Messenger of Allah has cursed those who love to give bribes and those who prefer to receive bribery in terms of the law to punish" Prophet Muhammad. Which means: "Providers and recipients of corruption will both go to hell".

Corruption is an act of extortion committed by a person in order to get help and benefit himself. Corruption usually used as a shortcut for someone to enjoy luxurious life or in other words to want to become rich in a short time. Normally people do not think of this culture adverse effects will occur, but they are only thinking of profit to themselves.


2. Causes of corruption in general

Among the violations of the root cause of corruption, is the factor conditions (situation factors). For example, as part of civil enforcement, they are very prone to corruption when corrupt intelligence by offering prizes of bribery or absence of the witness was then and the desire to get something for its own sake, then without thinking, then they even accept bribes. When once they get caught and saved from punishment, it will likely be something feared. Such action will likely happen again at a later time.

If examined newspaper reports of late, many high-ranking civil officials have been investigated by the Anti-Corruption Agency (ACA) and their cases are still under investigation and the trial. This has tarnished the image of the government organization that basically fascism trust in various fields. Like the saying goes "expect, fence eat rice '. Those found guilty could face a bleak future as the punishment was not only destroy their careers, but they had to explain more than double the value of the feed they receive.

The second factor is the cause of corruption and personal morality (personal values and Morals). This weakness is also due to lack of faith and godly person. A person knows that corruption is prohibited by religion and law, but do well with a thousand and one personal reasons. Attitude of someone who is too concerned with success, status and often act based on financial personal gain regardless of the impact on others.

The next factor is due to the weakness and organizational management. Poor leadership resulted in less supervision, no monitoring, sluggish jobs, more inclined toward the occurrence of fraud in particular corruption.


3. Resolving Ethical Dilemmas

Ethical theory can help to identify ethical issues and find logical reasons for solving the problems faced by professionals. In addition to the ethical theory can help people solve a problem with the availability of relevant information.

The facts are likely to be detrimental to society should be given immediate attention. Ethical theory is in the order of importance. Based on the arrangement, professionals can solve problems that occur. In addition, it can enhance the ability of a person to make judgments and assessments.

4. Identify Ethical Obligations

Ethical theories used to make the specification of the responsibilities of a professional. Through the theory of utilitarianism, this theory asserts that a person performs an action to maximize the good consequences of output produced products and projects.

The obligations theory emphasized that safety is paramount and cannot be questioned. Rights theory emphasizes that the basic assumption of this theory is not cause accidents to others. In addition, this theory also states that an engineer must respect the rights of ethics for those involved in the work he does.


Ethics education should be fostered in schools, in institutions of higher learning in the workplace and beyond. Ethics education will provide guidelines on code of professional ethics. Ethics is designed to regulate the conduct of the professionals so that they can use their knowledge, expertise and skills available to the benefit of all parties. To achieve this purpose professional work ethics play an important role to make ethical and successful society. However, the mechanism for controlling human behaviour should be beyond professional ethics. This is because there are many factors that influence and determine the behaviour of an individual and his decision.

Therefore, other factors such as the necessities of life, life values, law enforcement, education, religion, culture, etc. should be taken into account so that create a living environment that constantly motivate an individual to do something that only benefits coming and the good of all. Ethics should be learned and practiced in daily life and in all our actions. Effectiveness lies in the ethical principles of the individual. Without self-discipline and mental strength that high a person can not achieve the desired ethics. When ethical problems cannot be addressed, then the last resort is law enforcement. When this happens of course it is too late to be corrected because of course there is the punishment that awaits those who are guilty. In conclusion it can be concluded that the ethics inherent in a person with the discipline and strength of the individual self.

In conclusion, thoughts and theories of ethics among professionals is not intended to teach them about good or bad right one in what is happening in the routine of their profession. This is because each of the values in thought and theory of ethics, there is already in their lives since the beginning of their studies prior to becoming a professional. Appreciation and understanding of one's professional about their way of thinking and ethical theory is important to encourage these people continue to do good and to uphold the truth in the interest of all.