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performance based seismic engineering

CREATING EXCEPTIONAL VALUE

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 NATIONAL STADIUM, Beijing, China Olympic Green, Beijing, China. Architect: Herzog & De Meuron.

Arup seismic engineers specialise in the development of innovative, practical and cost-efficient solutions and consistently create exceptional value for clients.

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Arup is a world leader in the application of performance-based design techniques. Our techniques achieve significant monetary savings and other lifecycle cost benefits for developers and owners of buildings, industrial, nuclear power and petrochemical facilities (onshore and offshore) and infrastructure assets. Performance-based seismic engineering is now an established technology for the more economical design of structures to resist earthquakes. This has become possible through the marriage of stateof-the-art numerical simulation technology with experimental and field data obtained from vast research programmes in the USA and Japan into the performance of structural elements subjected to the damaging effects of strong earthquake ground motions. The performance-based approach enables us to design new structures more economically and to assess existing structures more realistically (often resulting in reduced need for retrofit). In addition, we can develop and validate by advanced

simulation innovative solutions that make stepchange improvements to the financial viability of a project. The reduced material consumption that results from the adoption of this approach also makes a positive contribution to the sustainability of new developments. Base isolation and passive energy dissipation devices are established technologies available for seismic risk mitigation. Arup has been a world leader in applying seismic isolators, Unbonded Brace and viscous/visco-elastic dampers to reduce the potential of seismic damage for new and existing structures. We present some examples of how our expertise has made a real difference to the cost, and in some cases the viability, of a variety of recent building projects. Industrial and infrastructure projects are illustrated in a separate brochure.

Clive Lewis-ArupSport

 O saka International Convention Centre The Centre and its nonlinear seismic analysis model illustrating yielding of the Unbonded BracesTM (red).

 C hina Central Television New Headquarters Architect: OMA (Ole Scheeren & Rem Koolhaas) OMA

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HIGH RISE BUILDINGS

>  St. Francis Shangri-La Place, Manila Architect: Wong & Tung International.

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Conventional code based design is unsuitable for high-rise buildings as has been recognised in Japan and China for many years. It is now increasingly understood all around the world that the performance-based procedures used in these countries are essential to ensure safe and economic designs. Arup has over 20 years experience in performancebased seismic design of high-rise buildings utilising nonlinear response history analysis. This started with the 26 storey Century Tower in Tokyo in 1985 and in 1996 we designed the Osaka International Convention Center, incorporating the innovative Nippon Steel Unbonded Brace component to enable the unusual architectural form to be delivered with superior performance in extreme earthquakes. In 2004 we designed the tallest building in Beijing, the 317m Beijing World Trade Center Mega Tower and the iconic 234m tall China Central Television Headquarters building. Our comprehensive performance-based approach enabled the designs of these ground breaking projects to be progressed on schedule and resulted in rapid approval from the Chinese Expert Review Panel.
WTIL/Shang Grand Tower Corporation

The 60 storey twin towers of St Francis Shangri-la Place, Manila, the tallest residential buildings in the Philippines, were completed structurally in 2008. These reinforced concrete buildings are located 2km from an active fault in a highly seismic region also subjected to typhoons. Originally designed to UBC 1997, performance-based analysis highlighted major deficiencies in the code seismic provisions for buildings of this type. In a major re-design of the structure, Arup introduced a novel damping system in which viscous dampers connect outriggers from the core to the perimeter columns. The damping so derived controls wind-induced motions and improves the seismic performance which was assessed directly by nonlinear response history analysis. This approach resulted in both improved seismic performance and reduced member sizes and reinforcement densities. Multi-million US dollars of savings were achieved in the super-structure alone.

>  St. Francis Shangri-La Place, Manila Schematic illustration of the central cores, outriggers, viscous fluid dampers and perimeter columns in each tower.

 U C Davis, california The Plant and Environmental Sciences building. Incorporating Unbonded Braces.

 S abiha Gken International Airport Istanbul, Turkey The entire superstructure is supported on triple-pendulum isolators.

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INCORPORATING SEISMIC PROTECTION TECHNOLOGIES

<  maison hermes building Tokyo, completed in 2001 with its viscoelastic damper stepping column system. Architect: Renzo Piano.

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Arup has pioneered the use of seismic protection technology to improve the performance of new and existing structures. Following our first use of the novel Unbonded BraceTM in Japan on the 26 storey Osaka International Convention Centre and then on Toyota Stadium, we introduced unbonded braces to the USA. They were first installed in the Plant and Environmental Sciences building of University of California, Davis. Subsequently this technology, combined with our performance-based design approach, numerical virtual testing and nonlinear dynamic analysis techniques, has been applied to many other projects including the Kaiser Permanente Santa Clara Medical Center building. Seismic isolation is a well established technique to reduce seismic demands on critical facilities. We conceived the worlds first application of this seismic isolation technology to a major offshore project, the Lunskoye and the PA-B gas platforms off the eastern coast of Sakhalin Island, Russia.

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Here, four Friction PendulumTM isolators (each supporting 13,000 tonnes) are installed between the topside and the concrete gravity base structures. In our design for the Sabiha Gken International Airport Istanbul, Turkey, the entire superstructure is protected by triple pendulum friction pendulum isolators, in order to meet the clients key objective of maintaining facility operations after the 475 year return period earthquake. The project, providing 160,000m2 of floor, is currently under construction. In 1997 we developed a novel design for the iconic 15 storey Maison Hermes building in central Tokyo. Inspired by traditional Japanese pagodas and temples that remain standing after major earthquakes, columns at one side of the narrow building are allowed to lift up rather than to develop tension at the foundation. The uplift is controlled by visco-elastic dampers. This unique columnbase design reduced very substantially the quantity of steel in the superstructure and the foundation requirements. The resulting cost saving was in excess of one million US dollars.

> F riction pendulum seismic isolators

Shouya Katsuta

OFFSHORE STRUCTURES

< > Malampaya offshore gas platform, Philippines Stevenson, Kinder & Scott Nonlinear seismic analysis model incorporating soil-structure interaction.

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<  Magtymguly gravity based platform Detailed modelling of the plated steel leg and pontoon. >  Lunskoye offshore gas platform The Lunskoye offshore gas platform of the Sakhalin II project.

We have extensive experience and a track record of innovation in the seismic design of offshore structures for the energy industry. We are pioneers in applying 3D non linear dynamic structural and soil-structure interaction analysis techniques to enable the most economical and reliable seismic design of both concrete and steel offshore platforms and their foundations. Conventional seismic design of gravity based platforms attempts to prevent any sliding of the structures on the seabed during earthquakes. This requires large quantities of solid ballast placed offshore after installation. We achieved a multi-million US dollar saving for the Malampaya oil and gas platform, installed in the Philippines, by making a performancebased quantified assessment of sliding assuming the quantity of solid ballast were reduced to that required for wave loading only.

The predicted sliding in the safe shutdown earthquake was within the acceptable deformation limits of the sub-sea pipelines connecting to the platform. In 2008 we completed the detailed design of the steel gravity based platform for the Magtymguly field in the Caspian Sea, offshore Turkmenistan. This comprises stiffened plated steel skirts, pontoon and lower legs, with tubular steel upper legs supporting the topside structure. Nonlinear response history analysis was employed explicitly modelling nonlinear soil-structure interaction, interaction with the adjacent well-head platform, nonlinear buckling of the stiffened plated legs and material and geometric nonlinearity in the truss legs and topside.

 Atl antic LNG Terminal, Trinidad Typical 3-d nonlinear seismic soil-pile-structure interaction analysis model.

 Atl antic LNG Terminal, Trinidad Concrete outer containment tanks under construction. Noel Whessoe Ltd.

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PAGE lng tanks TITLE

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<  simulation of nonliner tank response Full fluid-tank interaction analysis simulating uplift and elephant foot buckling.

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The seismic performance of safety-critical LNG tanks and their foundations is a key concern for public safety and the environment. LNG tanks are often founded on soft liquefiable estuarine soils and in recent projects we have been able to justify more cost-efficient designs by carrying out performance-based nonlinear soil-pile-structure interaction analyses. By explicitly analysing the nonlinear behaviour of soils and piles with the LNG tanks in a single model, we often find that the seismic forces on the tank are significantly lower than would predicted by traditional equivalent linear methods.

For the Atlantic LNG Terminal project in Trinidad, this approach resulted in substantial cost savings in a number of ways:

25% reduction in the seismic forces on the tanks compared with that by the conventional equivalent linear method Removing the need for expensive site soil improvement Piles were designed simply for the gravity load requirement Removing the need for seismic isolators (which would have been required in conjunction with soil improvement)

The performance of piles was demonstrated to be satisfactory in the operating basis and safe shutdown earthquake events, even if it was assumed that the loose silty sand deposits suffered liquefaction. We now routinely carry out 3D nonlinear soil-pilestructure interaction analyses for LNG facilities in order to justify more economical solutions.

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Daniel Loiselle

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POWER GENERATION FACILITIES

Trawsfynydd nuclear power station, Wales Decommissioning of the two reactor buildings, and seismic design of a new intermediate level waste store building.

<  Sual Power Station, PhilippineS >  Taichung Power Station Chimney, Taiwan

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Magnox Electric Ltd 

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We have an extensive track record of value-adding projects for owners and regulators of fossil fuel and nuclear power generation facilities. We have designed numerous coal-fired power stations in seismic regions including China, Taiwan and the Philippines. Whilst conventional structures were designed to code provisions, performancebased techniques were used in the design of special structures such as tall chimneys, unloading jetties and boiler support structures to achieve reduced risk of damage and greater economy. We have conducted seismic assessment and retrofit and nuclear decommissioning projects for British Energy, British Nuclear Fuels Limited, and the UK Health and Safety Executives Nuclear Installation Inspectorate. Facilities examined include reactor buildings, reactor re-fuelling machines, waste store buildings and re-processing plant.

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bridges

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 M etsovitikos suspension bridge The 565m Span across a deep valley in northern Greece

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<  >  tappan CAPTION zeeTITLES bridge, Caption: New York Coupled sitesoil-structure interaction analysis for approach spans

<  jfk Airport, new york Soil-structure interaction analysis for roadway structures

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Arup has carried out seismic design, assessment QUOTE: and rehabilitation of a number of new and existing long-span bridges. Our cutting-edge technologies in nonlinear dynamic analysis, simulation of spatial variation of earthquake ground motions arising from local site response, loss of coherency and wave passage were employed in the design of the Metsovitikos suspension bridge in Greece. Main copy: For the rock-anchored Metsovitikos bridge, the performance-based method enabled us to quantify the sliding distances of the main cable anchorages under the safety evaluation earthquake, resulting in substantial savings in the construction costs of these gravity anchorages.

For new elevated roadways at JFK Airport we determined by nonlinear soil-structure interaction analysis that substantial savings were feasible in the piled foundations for the piers. Physical load tests on a 20 pile group on site subsequently validated our predictions. We have been involved in state of the art evaluation of options for the rehabilitation of New Yorks Tappan Zee Bridge. Studies have included nonlinear site response (including basin effects) of the alluvial soils, nonlinear soil-pile-structure interaction simulation for the multiple approach span piers, and structural utilisation checks for the main navigation spans.

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Wilkinson Eyre

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>  CAPTION TITLE PAGE TITLE AND NON-STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS EQUIPMENT > Caption:

<  FMCs Chiksan LNG loading arm Nonlinear seismic response analysis

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>  CAPTION TITLE >  CAPTION TITLE  S eismic Toppling assessment Seismic toppling assessment of cylindrical nuclear fuel transport flasks, shaking table test and numerical simulation.  v essels and pipework < < > Caption: > >  CAPTION TITLE Caption: Caption: In Caption: addition to civil, industrial and transportation structures, we also have extensive experience of the seismic design and assessment of equipment and non-structural systems. Many of these, particularly those handling hazardous materials, must meet high performance standards in order to protect public safety and the environment.

We developed a nonlinear numerical virtual <  testing technique for seismic toppling assessment CAPTION TITLE of cylindrical nuclear fuel transport flasks. This Caption: technique has been verified by shaking table tests and has become an approved technique by regulatory authorities for the demonstration of safety standards for license application. We recently applied the performance-based methodology to FMCs Chiksan LNG marine loading arms and have successfully proven the feasibility of an economical seismic design satisfying high <  CAPTION TITLE standards for life safety and environmental protection Caption: for their installation in seismic regions.

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Magnus Photos

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flange buckling Virtual testing of a steel moment frame connection.

 U nbonded Brace component Hysteresis loops from physical and virtual testing.

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PAGE TITLE VIRTUAL TESTING

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<  Numerical simulation of cyclic loading of stocky brace for CCTV New Headquarters

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Numerical simulation is widely used in many applications (e.g. car crashworthiness design) to reduce the need for expensive and time consuming multiple physical tests. Arup has developed, validated and applied numerical virtual testing on many seismic design and retrofit projects. Advanced simulation software can capture all the features of the behaviour of steel components and was used to develop an improved design for steel moment resisting frames by reducing the width of beam flanges near the column. This prevents weld fracture and beam flange buckling resulting in greater assured ductility and sustained strength. We used both numerical simulation and full scale tests to obtain approval from the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development for the application of Unbonded Braces to hospital projects in California. This program examined the performance of both the brace components themselves and of their connections and interactions with building frames. Validation simulations of a number of full scale laboratory tests of unbonded brace components and frames at UC Berkeley gave excellent agreement, giving confidence that simulation could be used to test alternative design configurations.

The post-buckling behaviour of the braces in the China Central Television Headquarters building is critical for the performance of this building. Based on the confidence obtained from previous validation studies, numerical virtual testing was employed to establish the brace post-buckling axial forceaxial deformation relationship and the acceptance limit on axial shortening, saving considerable time and cost relative to full scale physical tests. These studies were accepted by the Chinese Expert Review Panel.

>  The simulated brace postbuckling axial force axial deformation hysteresis relationship

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 A mercian School in Japan Seismic assessment and retrofit.

 Esso Refinery, Fos-sur-Mer, France

 i ndustrial plant, japan Non-code compliant truss beam and model used for virtual testing

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ASSESSMENT PAGE TITLE AND RETROFIT OF EXISTING STRUCTURES

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 S eismic retrofit of Industrial plant

Main copy: We have extensive knowledge and experience of assessing and retrofitting existing structures. We have applied the performance-based approach combined with advanced nonlinear dynamic analysis to many types of existing structure ranging from buildings to petrochemical facilities in many parts of the world including California, Japan, Turkey, Europe and Asia. We are able to provide full financial risk assessment services, for instance, probable maximum loss estimates. Our nonlinear analysis capabilities enable us to quantify more accurately seismic resistance and inelastic deformation capacities of existing structures, thereby minimising (and sometimes eliminating) structural retrofit costs. We applied these techniques to the assessment of the performance of noncode compliant truss beam and built up column assemblies at an existing industrial building in Japan. The ability of our simulation software to replicate cyclic physical tests on back-to-back double angle struts formed the basis for simulations of complete truss assemblies, permitting strength and deformation limits to be established for the whole building. At Essos Refinery in Fos-sur-Mer, France we designed an alternative retrofit for reinforced concrete structures supporting large petrochemical vessels. The original proposal by others required major strengthening to all the beams and columns with a construction programme of a month. Applying the performance-based approach, we designed a retrofit using carbon fibre wrap to one level of beams only, which was completed in 72 hours. This delivered substantial savings in material and construction cost and minimised indirect monetary losses.

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Frank van Haalen

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PAGE TITLE STADIUM AND AUDITORIUM STRUCTURES

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 NATIONAL STADIUM, Beijing, China Olympic Green. Architect: Herzog & De Meuron.

<  Toyota STADIUM, Toyota City, Japan Architect: Kisho Kurokawa.

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<  Taichung Metropolitan Opera House Practical design of complex reinforced concrete shell structure.

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>  CAPTION TITLE >  CAPTION TITLE > Caption: and auditorium structures are often Caption: Stadium characterised by large open spaces and unique irregular structures, not utilising typical building-code structural systems. Our experience in performancebased seismic design and advanced numerical simulation has enabled us to design and gain statutory approval for many such structures in seismic regions over the past 15 years. <  We utilised these methods for the seismic design of CAPTION TITLE both the Water Cube Aquatic Center and the 330 Caption: m span roof structure of the Beijing National Olympic Stadium, the Birds Nest. In the latter case, the performance-based approach permitted a reduction of steel in many of the large box section members and enabled us to utilise the limited inelastic

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deformation capacity and the redundancy of this structure to satisfy the collapse prevention requirement under a very rare earthquake. In addition to saving a large amount of steel, this project also achieved rapid approval from the Chinese Expert Review Panel in 2004. Architect Toyo Itos vision for the Taichung Metropolitan Opera House, Taiwan, presented a huge engineering challenge. The structure, a honeycomb of doubly curved reinforced concrete shells housing various auditoria, required a highly advanced nonlinear analysis to justify its performance in earthquakes. Our nonlinear analysis using newly developed sophisticated reinforced concrete shell elements gained timely approval by the Taiwan expert review panel in 2008, and was able to justify substantially lower wall thicknesses than the original scheme design.

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Jeremy Stern

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 h ysteresis loops for some element types in LS-DYNA

Seismic isolator

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Stocky Steel Brace

PAGE TITLE ANALYSIS CAPABILITIES

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 almaty financial district north, kazakhstan Non linear response history analysis of a 45 storey building using LS-DYNA.

Main copy: In addition to conventional structural analysis software such as ETABS, SAP2000 and Perform3D, Arup has utilised the nonlinear dynamic analysis code LS-DYNA extensively for performance based seismic analysis since 1985. LS-DYNA has advantage of an extremely fast explicit solver running in parallel processing, which makes practical the analysis of much larger and more detailed analysis models than any other program available. In addition, Arup has worked in conjunction with the authors of LS-DYNA, LSTC, to develop a large number of new features specifically for seismic analysis over the past 20 years. We use LS-DYNA for all major performance-based analysis tasks including nonlinear analysis of structures, foundations, soils, fluids, dampers and isolators - and the dynamic interactions between all these components. Representing the performance of reinforced concrete structures in earthquakes by numerical simulation is a major challenge due to the inherent complexity of the material behaviour. Arup has recently developed new material models for use in shell element representations of reinforced concrete walls in LS-DYNA. The performance of the model was validated by simulation of shake table tests conducted by NUPEC in 1994. The test investigates the dynamic response of a squat (shear governed) shear wall specimen under imposed base accelerations, at levels of response ranging from fully elastic to collapse. We constructed a model of the reinforced concrete shear wall in LS-DYNA and applied the base accelerations used in the shake table test. The performance of the numerical model was examined by comparing the force versus displacement response of the top of the wall. Very good agreement was achieved with that of the test specimen.

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>  comparison of hysterisis loops for shake table test and LS-dyna simulation of nupec squat shear wall

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Zhou Ruogu Architecture Photography

ARUP

Arup is a global design and business consulting firm. Outstanding solutions, innovation and value characterise our work. Delivered by 10,000 staff based in 90 countries around the world, our services are available to clients singly or in combination, to suit their needs. Selected Clients Shell Global Solutions, The Hague, The Netherlands / ExxonMobil Development Company, Houston, Texas, USA / FMC Technologies, Sens, France / Esso, Marseille, France / ChevronTexaco San

>  NATIONAL AQUATIC CENTRE (THE WATER CUBE), beijing, china Architect: PTW (Australia), CCDI (China Construction Design Institute) Ben McMillan

Francisco, USA / Kajima Corporation / Atlantic LNG / Procter & Gamble, Brussels, Belgium / Ford Otosan, Turkey / The Disney Corporation / Sakhalin Energy Investment Company, Sakhalin, Russia / Nuclear Installation Inspectorate, UK / British Energy, UK / British Nuclear Fuel Limited, UK / Rolls Royce Marine Power, UK / Capital Partners, Almaty, Kazakhstan / China World Trade Centre CO Ltd, China / China Central Television, China / Beijing Capital International Airport, China / National Statdium Co Ltd, China / Edsa Properties Holdings Inc, Manila, Philippines / Beijing State-owned Assets Management Co Ltd, China

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Front COVER: Central TV New Headquarters OMA Ole Scheeren & Rem Koolhaas ITEM: PLP 09.08 5295-01

Global Michael Willford T +44(0)20 7755 2224 E michael.willford@arup.com London Xiaonian Duan T +44 (0)20 7755 4234 E xiaonian.duan@arup.com Dubai Kubilay Hicyilmaz T +971 (0)4 501 3333 E kubilay.hicyilmaz@arup.com

Hong Kong Andrew Mole T +852 2268 3095 E andrew.mole@arup.com Beijing Goman Ho T +86 10 5960 1160 E goman.ho@arup.com New York Damian Grant T +1 212 897 1415 E damian.grant@arup.com

San Fransisco Ibbi Almufti T +1 415 946 1632 E ibrahim.almufti@arup.com Sydney Mark Arkinstall T +61 (0)2 9320 9509 E mark.arkinstall@arup.com Los Angeles Atila Zekioglu T +1 310 312 4700 E atila.zekioglu@arup.com

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