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A WORLD OF COMPUTERS Computer literacy/ digital literacy: current knowledge and understanding of computers and their uses.

WHAT IS A COMPUTER? Computer: electronic device, operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory, that can accept data, process data, produce results and store results for future use. Data and Information o Data: collection of unprocessed items(text, numbers, images, audio and video) o Information: conveys meaning and is useful to people. Information processing cycle: o Input (data) Output (information) o Software: collection of related instructions for a common purpose o Input, process, output o Added: storage & communication

THE COMPONENTS OF A COMPUTER Hardware: electric, electronic, and mechanical components Input devices: o Any hardware that allows you to enter data o Widely used (5): keyboard (w/ keys), mouse (pointer), microphone, scanner (printed material computer useable form) and webcam Output devices: o Convey information to one or more people o Widely used (3): printer, monitor and speakers System Unit o Case containing electronic components of the computer to process data o Circuitry is usually part of the motherboard o Main components of the motherboard: CPU(central processing unit): interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate the computer. Memory: store instructions waiting to be executed and data needed by those instructions Storage Devices o Holds data, instructions and information for future use o Storage media: keeps data, instructions and information here o Examples: USB flash drives (4b charac.), hard disks (320b charac;), optical discs [CD (650m-1b charac.), DVD (17b charac.), Blu-ray (46hrs. or 100b charac.)], memory cards o Storage device: records and retrieves data to and fro the storage media; sometimes considered input due to transferring items from storage to media

Communication devices o Enables a computer to send and receive data, instructions and information to and from one or more computers or mobile devices o Widely used: modem o Occur over cables, tel. lines, cellular radio, satellites and transmission media

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF USING COMPUTERS - User: anyone who communicates with a computer of utilizes information it generates - Advantages: o Speed o Reliability: rarely break/ fail o Consistency: error-free results o Storage: data available for processing anytime o Communications - Disadvantages: o Violation of privacy: ex. Identity theft Stop this by: 1. Shred financial documents 2. Do not click links in unsolicited emails 3. Enroll in a credit monitoring service o Public safety: crimes by unsuspected dangerous strangers o Impact on labor force: workers have been replaced by computers o Health risks: Computer addiction Technology overload: distressed when deprived of computers & mobile devices o Impact on environment: Computer manufacturing and waste are depleting the environment Green computing: reduce electricity consumed and waste generated; include recycling, regulating manufacturing processes, extending life of computers and donating or properly disposing computers NETWORKS AND THE INTERNET - network: collection of computers and devices connected together via communication devices and transmission media - Online: computer connected to a network - Resources: shared with use of network; hardware, software, data and information - Internet: worldwide collection of networks o Communication o Research o Information o Leisure - Businesses/ access providers: o Lets you connect to the internet for free/ with a fee

o Use computer + modem to connect to the internet Web (short for world wide web) o Contains billions of web pages o Web site: collection or related web pages o Social networking web sites/ online social network: share interests, ideas and stories o Blog: informal website in diary or journal format; reverse chronological order o Microblog: short messages (100-200 characters) ex. twitter o Podcasts: verbally share information, recorded audio stored into a website that can be downloaded o Web application: website allowing users to access and interact with software from any computer connected to the internet Examples: send and receive emails, arrange taxes, organize digital photos, create documents and play games o Web 2.0 sites: web sites that provide a means for users to share personal information, allow them to modify it and have software for users to access this site s/a web applications

COMPUTER SOFTWARE - Software (program): series of related instruction organized for a common purpose that tells the computer what to do and how to perform them. - Graphical user interface (GUI): interact with software using texts, graphics and images such as icons. o Icon: miniature image that represents a programs - Categories of software: o System Software Programs that control or maintain the operations of the computer and its devices Interface between user, application software and computers hardware Types of System software: Operating system: o Coordinates all the activities among computer hardware devices o Means for user to communicate with the computer and other software o Ex: Microsoft, Mac OS etc. o When computer is turned on, parts of the operating system are copied into memory from hard disk and remain in memory while comp. is on Utility Program o Maintenance type tasks o Ex: transfer digital photos to optical disc; o Manage disk drives, printers and other devices o Application Software Programs to make users more productive

Assist in tasks Ex: web browser, Word processing, spreadsheet, database and presentation software Personal management, note taking, project management, accounting, document editing, multimedia authoring, personal finance, paint etc. Available at stores and websites Installing and Running Programs o Installing: process of setting up software to work with the computer printer and other hardware. o Run: installed program is being copied from storage to memory o Execute: once in memory, the instructions can be carried out Step 1: install; insert program disk in optical disc drive Step 2: run Step 3: use or execute Software Development o Programmer (developer): develops software or writes instructions that direct computer to process information o Popular programming language: C++, Visual C#, Visual Basic, JavaScript, Java

CATEGORIES OF COMPUTERS - Convergence: no clear cut of classification of computers - Categories: o Personal computers: IPOS activities by itself W/ processor, memory and one or more input, output and storage devices PC- any personal computer based on IBM design (ex. Dell and Toshiba); windows operating system Apple- Mac OS operating systems Types of personal computers: desktop and notebook Desktop computers: system unit, input and output devices fit entirely on or under a desk or table o Mobile computers and mobile devices Mobile computer- carry from place to place Mobile device: small enough to hold in your hand Notebook computer (laptop) Netbook (type): some have touch screens Tablet PCs: letter sized slate; interact w/ screen using finger or digital pen o Design: Convertible tablet = with keyboard o Design: Slate tablet = no keyboard Mobile devices Carried in pockets Some are internet enabled Smartphones and PDAs: o One handed opertation

o Calendar, appoinrment book, address book, calculator o Types of messages sent: Text message: short note, 300 characters Instant message: internet based Picture message: use of camera phones Video message: short video clip (30 sec.); video phone o PDA (personal digital assistant): w/ calendar, appointment, address book, calculator, notepad; no phone capabilities and may not be internet abled E-book reader o Used primarily for reading e-books Handheld computers: o Ultra-Mobile PC (UMPC) o Fits in one hand o People w/ jobs that move from place to place Portable media players: o Store, organize and play digital media o Music, videos, TV o w/ ear buds Digital Cameras: o Take pictures and store them digitally Game Consoles Single or multiplayer video games Input: controller Output: tv screen Storage: hard disk, optical disc, memory card Xbox, Nintendo Wii, PS 3 Firs in 1 hand Server: controls access to hardware, software and other resources; centralized storage Terminal: used for accessing data, information and programs on a server; device with a monitor, keyboard and memory Mainframes Can handle hundreds of users at a time Store huge amount of data Employees payroll, inventory etc Super computers: Fastest, most powerful Fastest computer: quadrillion instructions in 1 second! Applications: complex sophisticated mathematical calculations Large scale: medicine, weather forecast, automotive design, online banking, nuclear energy resource

o Embedded Computers Special purpose Consumer electronics Home automation devices Automobiles Process controllers and robotics Computer devices and office machines EXAMPLES OF COMPUTER USAGE 1. Home user a. Type letters b. Research c. Personal finance d. Taxes e. Inventory f. Maintenance schedules g. Reference softwares: encyclopedias, medical dictionaries, atlas etc h. Entertainment software: games, compose music i. Educational software 2. Small Office/ Home office User a. Any company with 50 employees b. Access the internet (addresses, directions, postal codes, flights, shipping etc.) c. E-commerce arena to manage business on the web d. Work with basic software business e. Industry specific types of software 3. Mobile User a. Work away from main ffice b. Sales representatives, real estate agents, insureance agents, meter readers, package delivery, journalists, students etc. 4. Power User a. Workstation: Capabilities of a desktop b. Engineers, scientists, graphic artists etc c. Industry specific software 5. Enterprise user: a. 100-1000s of employees b. enterprise computing: huge network of computers with huge needs c. communication of employees at different locations d. process high volumes of transactions everyday e. e-commerce websites f. marketing department: desktops to publish marketing literature g. accounting department: software for accounts receivable, payable, billin, general ledger and payroll abilities h. word processing, spreadsheet databasm presentation software i. telecommuting: work away from companies workplace COMPUTER APPLICATION IN SOCIETY 1. Education

2. Finance a. Balance checkbooks, pay bills etc b. Online banking c. Online investing buy and sell stocks without a broker 3. Government a. Up to date information via government websites b. NCIC- FBIs national crime Information Center though in vehicle computers, finger print readers etc. 4. Health Care a. Doctors use medical health software for assisting in diagnosis b. Docs email patients c. Pharmacists use computers to file insurance claim d. Robots deliver medication to nurses e. Hospitals and doctors use computer to maintain and access patient records f. Assist docs and nurses in medical test g. Monitor vital signs h. Computer controlled devices in surgery for precision i. Telemedicine: conference of doctors through computers j. Telesurgery: robots perform surgery 5. Science a. Cameras to the body etc 6. Publishing 7. Travel a. Navigation system 8. Manufacturing a. CAM (computer aided manufacturing) i. Ex: robots make cars