Anda di halaman 1dari 18

Bladder Cancer

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/438262-overview

Medscape Reference Reference

News Reference Education MEDLINE

Bladder Cancer
Author: Gary David Steinberg, MD, FACS; Chief Editor: Bradley Fields Schwartz, DO, FACS more... Updated: Jun 19, 2013

Practice Essentials
Bladder cancer is a common urologic cancer that has the highest recurrence rate of any malignancy. In North America, South America, Europe, and Asia, the most common type is transitional cell carcinoma. Other types include squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinomas.

Essential update: High incidence of incidental prostate cancer with bladder urothelial carcinoma
According to a comprehensive analysis of 1476 radical cystoprostatectomy specimens, patients undergoing this procedure for bladder urothelial carcinoma commonly have incidental prostate cancers.[1, 2] In the study, 51% of the patients had such cancers; 37.9% had adenocarcinoma, which was not found to affect long-term survival, but 21.1% had prostatic urothelial carcinoma (PUC), which reflected spread of the bladder cancer into the prostate. Prostatic involvement could not be reliably predicted on the basis of standard variables. About half of the PUC patients had ductal carcinoma only, and half had stromal involvement.[2] Ten-year overall survival was 47.1% for patients without PUC, 43.3% for those with ductal PUC only, and 21.7% for those with stromal PUC (P < 0.001). The investigators' findings suggest that prostate-sparing cytoprostatectomy, though potentially offering better continence and sexual function, confers a considerable oncologic risk and that it may be preferable to continue to remove the prostate in this setting.

Signs and symptoms


Clinical manifestations of bladder cancer are as follows: Painless gross hematuria - Approximately 80-90% of patients; classic presentation Irritative bladder symptoms (eg, dysuria, urgency, frequency of urination) - 20-30% of patients Pelvic or bony pain, lower-extremity edema, or flank pain - In patients with advanced disease Palpable mass on physical examination - Rare in superficial bladder cancer See Clinical Presentation for more detail.

Diagnosis
Urine studies include the following: Urinalysis with microscopy Urine culture to rule out infection, if suspected

1 of 18

6/24/2013 10:34 AM

Bladder Cancer

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/438262-overview

Voided urinary cytology Urinary tumor marker testing Urinary cytology Standard noninvasive diagnostic method Low sensitivity for low-grade and early stage cancers Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) may improve the accuracy of cytology Cystoscopy The primary modality for the diagnosis of bladder carcinoma Permits biopsy and resection of papillary tumors Upper urinary tract imaging Necessary for the hematuria workup American Urologic Association Best Practice Policy recommends computed tomography (CT) scanning of the abdomen and pelvis with contrast, with preinfusion and postinfusion phases Imaging is ideally performed with CT urography, using multidetector CT Ultrasonography is commonly used, but it may miss urothelial tumors of the upper tract and small stones The diagnostic strategy for patients with negative cystoscopy is as follows: Negative urine cytology and FISH - Routine follow-up Negative urine cytology, positive FISH - Increased frequency of surveillance Positive urine cytology, positive or negative FISH - Cancer until proven otherwise No blood tests are specific for bladder cancer, but a general evaluation is necessary prior to initiating therapy with intravesical bacillus Calmette-Gurin (BCG) vaccine. Laboratory tests include the following: Complete blood count (CBC) Liver function tests Bony fraction of alkaline phosphatase assay (if bone metastasis suspected) Kidney function studies See Workup for more detail.

Management
The treatment of nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer (Ta, T1, carcinoma in situ [CIS]) begins with transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT). Subsequent treatment is as follows: Small-volume, low-grade Ta bladder cancer - An immediate single, postoperative dose of intravesical chemotherapy High-risk Ta, T1, and CIS urothelial carcinoma - Intravesical BCG vaccine Persistent or recurrent high-risk disease - Repeat resection prior to additional intravesical therapy (eg, interferon alfa or gamma); consider cystectomy for high-risk disease The treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer is as follows: Radical cystoprostatectomy in men Anterior pelvic exenteration in women Bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy (PLND), standard or extended Creation of a urinary diversion Neoadjuvant chemotherapy - May improve cancer-specific survival Chemotherapeutic regimens for metastatic bladder cancer include the following: Methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), and cisplatin (MVAC) Gemcitabine and cisplatin (GC) See Treatment and Medication for more detail.

Image library

2 of 18

6/24/2013 10:34 AM

Bladder Cancer

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/438262-overview

Cross-section through the bladder, uterus, and vagina with squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder infiltrating through the bladder wall into the vaginal wall.

Background
Bladder cancer is a common urologic cancer. Almost all bladder cancers originate in the urothelium, which is a 3- to 7-cell mucosal layer within the muscular bladder.

Transitional (urothelial) cell carcinoma


In North America, South America, Europe, and Asia, the most common type of urothelial tumor diagnosed is transitional (urothelial) cell carcinoma (TCC); it constitutes more than 90% of bladder cancers in those regions. TCC can arise anywhere in the urinary tract, including the renal pelvis, ureter, bladder, and urethra, but it is usually found in the urinary bladder. Carcinoma in situ (CIS) is frequently found in association with high-grade or extensive TCC. (See the image below.)

The classic appearance of carcinoma in situ as a flat, velvety patch. However, using special staining techniques such as 5-aminolevulinic acid, it has been shown that significant areas of carcinoma in situ are easily overlooked by conventional cystoscopy. Courtesy of Abbott and Vysis Inc.

Squamous cell carcinoma


Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the second most common cell type associated with bladder cancer in industrialized countries. In the United States, around 5% of bladder cancers are SCCs.[3] Worldwide, however, SCC is the most common form of bladder cancer, accounting for 75% of cases in developing nations (see Epidemiology). In the United States, the development of SCC is associated with persistent inflammation from long-term indwelling Foley catheters and bladder stones, as well as, possibly, infections. In developing nations, SCC is often associated with bladder infection by Schistosoma haematobium (see Etiology).

Other types of bladder cancer


Approximately 2% of bladder cancers are adenocarcinomas. Nonurothelial primary bladder tumors are extremely rare and may include small cell carcinoma, carcinosarcoma, primary lymphoma, and sarcoma (see Pathophysiology). Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder accounts for only 0.3-0.7% of all bladder tumors. High-grade urothelial carcinomas can also show divergent histologic differentiation, such as squamous, glandular, neuroendocrine, and sarcomatous features.

3 of 18

6/24/2013 10:34 AM

Bladder Cancer

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/438262-overview

Phenotypes
Clinical and pathologic data indicate that at least 3 different phenotypes, as follows, exist in urothelial carcinoma[4, 5] : Low-grade proliferative lesions that develop into nonmuscle-invasive tumors; these account for approximately 80% of bladder cancers Highly proliferative invasive tumors with a propensity to metastasize CIS, which can penetrate the lamina propria and eventually progress

Clinical course
The clinical course of bladder cancer is marked by a broad spectrum of aggressiveness and risk. Low-grade, superficial bladder cancers have minimal risk of progression to death; however, high-grade nonmuscle-invasive cancers frequently progress and muscle-invasive cancers are often lethal (see Prognosis). The classic presentation of bladder cancer is painless gross hematuria, which is seen in approximately 80-90% of patients. Physical examination results are often unremarkable. (See Presentation.) Cystoscopy, cytology, and biopsy when necessary are the principal diagnostic tests (see Workup). Upon presentation, 55-60% of patients have low-grade, noninvasive disease, which is usually treated conservatively with transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) and periodic cystoscopy. Intravesical agents may also be given selectively to decrease the frequency of recurrences. The remaining patients have high-grade disease, of which 50% is muscle invasive and is typically treated with radical cystectomy or with a combination of radiation therapy and systemic chemotherapy (see Treatment). Carcinoma in situ (CIS) is managed by TURBT and instillation of chemotherapeutic or immunotherapeutic agentsmost commonly, immunotherapy with bacillus Calmette-Gurin (BCG) vaccineinto the bladder via catheter. These intravesical treatments are not effective in the 20% of patients in whom cancer has invaded the bladder wall muscle; those cases require cystectomy or a combination of radiation therapy and chemotherapy (see Treatment). Bladder cancer has the highest recurrence rate of any malignancy. Although most patients with bladder cancer can be treated with organ-sparing therapy, most experience either recurrence or progression, creating a great need for accurate and diligent surveillance (see Treatment). For more information on bladder cancer, see the following: Urine Tumor Markers in Bladder Cancer Diagnosis Cystoscopy Pathology of Urinary Bladder Squamous Cell Carcinoma Pathologic Findings in Small Cell Bladder Carcinoma Bladder Cancer Staging Bladder Cancer Treatment Protocols Bacillus Calmette-Gurin Immunotherapy for Bladder Cancer Treatment of Carcinoma In Situ Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumors Surveillance for Recurrent Bladder Cancer

Anatomy
The bladder is an extraperitoneal muscular urine reservoir that lies behind the pubis symphysis in the pelvis. At the dome of the bladder lies the median umbilical ligament, a fibrous cord that is anchored to the umbilicus and that represents the obliterated urachus (allantois). The ureters, which transport urine from kidney to bladder, approach the bladder obliquely and posterosuperiorly, entering at the trigone (the area between the interureteric ridge and the bladder neck). The intravesical ureteral orifices are roughly 2-3 cm apart and form the superolateral borders of the trigone. The bladder neck serves as an internal sphincter, which is sacrificed during a radical cystectomy. In males, the seminal vesicles, vas deferens, ureters, and rectum border the inferoposterior aspect of the bladder. Anterior to the bladder is the space of Retzius, which is composed of fibroadipose tissue and the prevesical fascia. The dome and posterior surface of the bladder are covered by parietal peritoneum, which reflects superiorly to the seminal vesicles and is continuous with the anterior rectal peritoneum. In females, the posterior peritoneal reflection is continuous with the uterus and vagina. The vascular supply to the bladder arrives primarily via the internal iliac (hypogastric) arteries, branching into the

4 of 18

6/24/2013 10:34 AM

Bladder Cancer

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/438262-overview

superior, middle, and inferior vesical arteries, which are often recognizable as lateral and posterior pedicles. The arterial supply also arrives via the obturator and inferior gluteal artery and, in females, via the uterine and vaginal arteries. Bladder venous drainage is a rich network that often parallels the named arterial vessels, most of which ultimately drain into the internal iliac vein. Initial lymphatic drainage from the bladder is primarily into the external iliac, obturator, internal iliac (hypogastric), and common iliac nodes. Following the drainage to these sentinel pelvic regions, spread may continue to the presacral, paracaval, interaortocaval, and para-aortic lymph node chains. Almost all bladder cancers originate in the urothelium, which is a 3- to 7-cell mucosal layer within the muscular bladder. Squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder can involve multiple sites; however, the lateral wall and trigone are more commonly involved by this tumor. All small cell carcinomas of the urinary system identified so far have been located in the urinary bladder, most commonly in the dome and vesical lateral wall.[6] See Bladder Anatomy.

Pathophysiology
Bladder cancer is often described as a polyclonal field change defect with frequent recurrences due to a heightened potential for malignant transformation. However, bladder cancer has also been described as resulting from implantation of malignant cells that have migrated from a previously affected site. The latter occurs less often and may account for only a small percentage of cases. Use of the common term superficial bladder cancer should be discouraged. The term implies a harmless nature, which is misleading in many instances. Because it was used to describe the disparate disorders of low-grade papillary bladder cancer and the markedly more aggressive form, carcinoma in situ (CIS), the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended it be abandoned. In its place, the term nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer should be used and qualified with the appropriate American Joint Committee on Cancer stage (ie, Ta, T1, Tis). Stage T1 cancer invades lamina propria but not the muscle of the bladder. High-grade T1 tumor associated with CIS carries a relatively high risk for disease recurrence and progression (approximately 60%). The WHO classifies bladder cancers as low grade (grades 1 and 2) or high grade (grade 3). Tumors are also classified by growth patterns: papillary (70%), sessile or mixed (20%), and nodular (10%). (See the images below.)

Papillary bladder tumors such as this one are typically of low stage and grade (T a-G1). Courtesy of Abbott and Vysis Inc.

Sessile lesions as shown usually invade muscle, although occasionally a tumor is detected at the T1-G3 stage prior to muscle invasion.

5 of 18

6/24/2013 10:34 AM

Bladder Cancer

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/438262-overview

Courtesy of Abbott and Vysis Inc.

Transitional cell carcinoma


Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) arises from stem cells that are adjacent to the basement membrane of the epithelial surface. Depending on the genetic alterations that occur, these cells may follow different pathways in the expression of their phenotype. The most common molecular biologic pathway for TCCs involves the development of a papillary tumor that projects into the bladder lumen and, if untreated, eventually penetrates the basement membrane, invades the lamina propria, and then continues into the bladder muscle, where it can metastasize. Nearly 90% of transitional cell bladder tumors exhibit this type of behavior. This progression occurs with high-grade cancers only. Low-grade cancers rarely, if ever, progress and are thought to have a distinct molecular pathway, different from the high-grade cancers and CIS. The remaining 10% of TCCs follow a different molecular pathway and are called CIS. This is a flat, noninvasive, high-grade urothelial carcinoma tumor that spreads along the surface of the bladder and, over time, may progress to an invasive form of cancer that behaves the same as invasive TCC. Many urothelial tumors are primarily composed of TCC but contain small areas of squamous differentiation, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), or adenocarcinoma.

Squamous cell carcinoma


SCC of the urinary bladder is a malignant neoplasm that is derived from bladder urothelium and has a pure squamous phenotype.[7, 8, 9] SCC of the bladder is essentially similar to squamous cell tumors arising in other organs. Because many urothelial carcinomas contain a minor squamous cell component, a diagnosis of SCC of the bladder should be rendered only when the tumor is solely composed of squamous cell components, with no conventional urothelial carcinoma component. Reportedly, SCC has less of a tendency for nodal and vascular distant metastases than does urothelial carcinoma.[10,
11]

Rare forms of bladder cancer


Adenocarcinomas account for less than 2% of primary bladder tumors. These lesions are observed most commonly in exstrophic bladders and are often associated with malignant degeneration of a persistent urachal remnant. Other rare forms of bladder cancer include leiomyosarcoma, rhabdosarcoma, carcinosarcoma, lymphoma, and small cell carcinoma. Leiomyosarcoma is the most common sarcoma of the bladder. Rhabdomyosarcomas most commonly occur in children. Carcinosarcomas are highly malignant tumors that contain a combination of mesenchymal and epithelial elements. Primary bladder lymphomas arise in the submucosa of the bladder. Except for lymphomas, all these rare bladder cancers carry a poor prognosis. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a poorly differentiated, malignant neoplasm that originates from urothelial stem cells and has variable expression of neuroendocrine markers. Morphologically, it shares features of small cell carcinoma of other organs, including the lung.

Genetic factors in pathogenesis


Divergent, yet interconnected and overlapping, molecular pathways are likely responsible for the development of noninvasive and invasive bladder tumors. Somatic mutations in fibroblast growth receptor3 (FGFR-3) and tumor protein p53 (TP53) in tumor cells appear to be important early molecular events in the noninvasive and invasive pathways, respectively. FGFR-3, Ras, and PIK3CA mutations occur with high frequency in noninvasive tumors, leading to upregulation of Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK).[12, 13] Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 9 is among the most frequent genetic alterations in bladder tumors and is considered an early event.[14] Large numbers of genomic changes have been detected using karyotyping and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis in urothelial carcinoma. Numerically common are losses of 2q, 5q, 8p, 9p, 10q, 18q, and Y. Gains of 1q, 5p, 8q, and 17q are frequently present, and high-level amplifications can be found; however, the target genes in

6 of 18

6/24/2013 10:34 AM

Bladder Cancer

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/438262-overview

the regions of amplifications have not been conclusively identified.[15] Alterations in the TP53 gene are noted in approximately 60% of invasive bladder cancers. Progression-free survival is significantly shorter in patients with TP53 mutations and is an independent predictor of death among patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer.[16] Additionally, alterations in retinoblastoma (Rb), PTEN, and p16 are common in high-grade invasive cancers.[17] Overexpression of JUN, MAP2K6, STAT3, and ICAM1 and molecules associated with survival (Bcl-2, caspase-3, p53, survivin), as well as insensitivity to antigrowth signals (p53, p21, p16, pRB), has been demonstrated.[18] In advanced disease, multiple mechanisms may lead to tumor progression. These include those that promote proliferation, survival, invasion, and metastasis, as well as those that involve deficiencies in DNA damage repair and the finding of stemlike cells. In addition to tumor cell alterations, the microenvironment may promote tumor growth by paracrine influences, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production and aberrant E-cadherin expression. Finally, a growing body of research over the last decade indicates that epigenetic alterations may silence tumor suppressor genes and that they represent important events in tumor progression.[19, 20, 21]

Etiology
Up to 80% of bladder cancer cases are associated with environmental exposure. Tobacco use is by far the most common cause of bladder cancer in the United States and is increasing in importance in some developing countries. Smoking duration and intensity are directly related to increased risk.[22, 23, 24] The risk of developing bladder carcinoma is 2-6 times greater in smokers than in nonsmokers. This risk appears to be similar between men and women.[25] Nitrosamine, 2-naphthylamine, and 4-aminobiphenyl are possible carcinogenic agents found in cigarette smoke. Occupational exposure to aromatic amines or aniline dyes is presumed to be the cause of bladder cancer in up to 25% of cases. Numerous occupations associated with diesel exhaust, petroleum products, and solvents (eg, auto work, truck driving, plumbing, leather and apparel work, rubber and metal work) have also been associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer. In addition, increased bladder carcinoma risk has been reported in persons, including the following, who work with organic chemicals and dyes: Beauticians Dry cleaners Painters Paper production workers Rope-and-twine industry workers Dental workers Physicians Barbers People living in urban areas are also more likely to develop bladder cancer. The etiology in these cases is thought to be multifactorial, potentially involving exposure to numerous carcinogens. Several medical risk factors are associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer, including the following: Radiation treatment of the pelvis Chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide - Increases the risk of bladder cancer via exposure to acrolein, a urinary metabolite of cyclophosphamide[26] Spinal cord injuries requiring long-term indwelling catheters - A 16- to 20-fold increase in the risk of developing SCC of the bladder No convincing evidence exists for a hereditary factor in the development of bladder cancer. Nevertheless, familial clusters of bladder cancer have been reported.

Schistosomiasis
In many developing countries, particularly in the Middle East, Schistosoma haematobium infection causes most cases of bladder SCC. In a study from Egypt, 82% of patients with bladder carcinoma harbored S haematobium eggs

7 of 18

6/24/2013 10:34 AM

Bladder Cancer

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/438262-overview

in the bladder wall. In egg-positive patients, the tumor tended to develop at a younger age (with SCC predominant) than it did in egg-negative persons. A higher degree of adenocarcinoma has also been reported in schistosomalassociated bladder carcinomas.[27] Along with S haematobium , the species S mansoni and S japonicum are responsible for schistosomiasis in humans. The eggs reside in the pelvic and mesenteric venous plexus. In the bladder, a severe inflammatory response and fibrosis secondary to the deposition of Schistosoma eggs is common. (See the image below.)

Histopathology of bladder shows eggs of Schistosoma haematobium surrounded by intense infiltrates of eosinophils and other inflammatory cells.

The eggs are found embedded in the lamina propria and muscularis propria of the bladder wall. Many of the eggs are destroyed by host reaction and become calcified, resulting in a lesion commonly known as a sandy patch, which appears as a granular, yellow-tan surface lesion. In normal epithelial cells, S haematobium total antigen reportedly induces increased proliferation, migration, and invasion and decreases apoptosis.[28] Keratinous squamous metaplasia has been associated with the increased risk of developing SCC, with approximately one half of the cases arising subsequent to the metaplasia.[29, 30] The majority of schistosomiasis-related cases of SCC will arise in the setting of chronic cystitis.[31] Chronic irritation secondary to lithiasis,[7, 8] urinary retention, and indwelling catheters has also been linked to the development of SCC.[8]

Other squamous cell carcinoma risk factors


Having bladder diverticula may increase an individuals chance of developing SCC.[32] Rarely, bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) treatment for CIS has been reported to lead to development of SCC.[33] Development of bladder cancer at a younger age has been associated with bladder exstrophy.[34, 35, 36, 37] SCC has also been described in urachal remnants.[38, 39, 40, 41, 42] Coffee consumption does not increase the risk of developing bladder cancer. Early studies of rodents and a minority of human studies suggested a weak connection between artificial sweeteners (eg, saccharin, cyclamate) and bladder cancer; however, most recent studies show no significant correlation.

Epidemiology
Occurrence in the United States
The American Cancer Society predicted that 72,570 new cases of bladder cancer will be diagnosed in the United States in 2013 and that 15,210 people will die of the disease.[43] The incidence of bladder cancer increases with age, with the median age at diagnosis being 65 years; bladder cancer is rarely diagnosed before age 40 years.[44] Bladder cancer is about 3 times more common in men than in women. Over the past 2 decades, however, the rate of bladder cancer has been stable in men but has increased in women by 0.2% annually.[45] The male predominance in bladder cancer in the United States reflects the prevalence of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). With SCCin contrast to TCCthe male-to-female incidence ratio is 1:2. Bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in men in the United States, after prostate, lung, and colorectal cancer, but it is not among the top 10 cancers in women. Accordingly, more males than females are expected to die of bladder cancer in 2013, with 10,820 deaths in males versus 4,390 in females.[43] Nevertheless, women generally have a worse prognosis than men.

8 of 18

6/24/2013 10:34 AM

Bladder Cancer

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/438262-overview

The incidence of bladder cancer is twice as high in white men as in black men in the United States. However, blacks have a worse prognosis than whites.[45, 46] Limited data indicate that small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder probably has the same epidemiologic characteristics as urothelial carcinoma. Patients are more likely to be male and older than 50 years.[47, 48]

International occurrence
Worldwide, bladder cancer is diagnosed in approximately 275,000 people each year, and about 108,000 die of this disease. In industrialized countries, 90% of bladder cancers are TCC. In developing countriesparticularly in the Middle East and Africathe majority of bladder cancers are SCCs, and most of these cancers are secondary to Schistosoma haematobium infection. Recent studies report that urothelial carcinoma is the most common urologic cancer in China. In Africa, the highest incidence of SCC has been seen in schistosomal-endemic areas, notably Sudan and Egypt, where SCC ranges from two thirds to three quarters of all malignant tumors of the bladder. In recent years, a few studies from Egypt have shown a reversal of this trend due to the better control of schistosomiasis in the region, whereas in other parts of Africa the association is unchanged.[11, 49, 50] Increased smoking incidence is believed to have contributed to the shift in Egypt toward TCC, which has a stronger smoking association.

Prognosis
Untreated bladder cancer produces significant morbidity, including the following: Hematuria Dysuria Irritative urinary symptoms Urinary retention Urinary incontinence Ureteral obstruction Pelvic pain The recurrence rate for superficial TCC of the bladder is high. As many as 80% of patients have at least 1 recurrence. The most significant prognostic factors for bladder cancer are grade, depth of invasion, and the presence of CIS. In patients undergoing radical cystectomy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer, the presence of nodal involvement is the most important prognostic factor. To date, there is no convincing evidence of genetic factors affecting outcome.[51] Nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer has a good prognosis, with 5-year survival rates of 82-100%. The 5-year survival rate decreases with increasing stage, as follows: Ta, T1, CIS 82-100% T2 63-83% T3a 67-71% T3b 17-57% T4 0-22% Prognosis for patients with metastatic urothelial cancer is poor, with only 5-10% of patients living 2 years after diagnosis. The risk of progression, defined as an increased tumor grade or stage, depends primarily on the tumor grade, as follows: Grade I 2-4% Grade II 5-7% Grade III 33-64%

Prognosis in carcinoma in situ


CIS in association with T1 papillary tumor carries a poorer prognosis. It has a recurrence rate of 63-92% and a rate of progression to muscle invasion of 50-75% despite intravesical BCG. Diffuse CIS is an especially ominous finding; in one study, 78% of cases progressed to muscle-invasive disease.[52]

9 of 18

6/24/2013 10:34 AM

Bladder Cancer

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/438262-overview

Prognosis in squamous cell carcinoma


Tumor stage, lymph node involvement, and tumor grade have been shown to be of independent prognostic value in SCC.[53, 54] However, pathologic stage is the most important prognostic factor. In one relatively large series of 154 cases, the overall 5-year survival rate was 56% for pT1 and 68% for pT2 tumors. However, the 5-year survival rate for pT3 and pT4 tumors was only 19%.[51] Several studies have demonstrated grading to be a significant morphologic parameter in SCC.[51] In one series, 5-year survival rates for grade 1, 2, and 3 squamous cell carcinoma was 62%, 52%, and 35%, respectively.[51] In the same study of patients undergoing cystectomy, the investigators suggested that a higher number of newly formed blood vessels predicts unfavorable disease outcome. In SCC, the survival rate appears to be better with radical surgery than with radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy. In locally advanced tumors, however, neoadjuvant radiation improves the outcome.[55] Sex and age have not been prognostically significant in SCC.[51]

Prognosis in small cell carcinoma


Patients with small cell carcinoma of the bladder usually have disease in an advanced stage at diagnosis, and they have a poor prognosis.[56, 57, 58] Overall median survival is only 1.7 years. The 5-year survival rates for stage II, III, and IV disease are 64%, 15%, and 11%, respectively.[59]

Recurrent bladder cancer


Bladder cancer has the highest recurrence rate of any malignancy (ie, 70% within 5 y). Although most patients with bladder cancer can be treated initially with organ-sparing therapy, most experience either recurrence or progression. The underlying genetic changes that result in a bladder tumor occur in the entire urothelium, making the whole lining of the urinary system susceptible to tumor recurrence. Risk factors for recurrence and progression include the following[60, 61] : Female sex Larger tumor size Multifocality Larger number of tumors High tumor grade Advanced stage Presence of CIS The time interval to recurrence is also significant. Patients with tumor recurrences within 2 years, and especially with recurrences within 3-6 months, have an aggressive tumor and an increased risk of disease progression.

Contributor Information and Disclosures


Author Gary David Steinberg, MD, FACS The Bruce and Beth White Family Professor and Vice Chairman of Urology, Director of Urologic Oncology, Section of Urology, Department of Surgery, The University of Chicago Medical Center and Cancer Center Gary David Steinberg, MD, FACS is a member of the following medical societies: American Association for Cancer Research, American College of Surgeons, American Society of Clinical Oncology, American Urological Association, Socit Internationale d'Urologie (International Society of Urology), Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons, and Society of Urologic Oncology Disclosure: Predictive Biosciences Consulting fee Consulting; Abbott Molecular Consulting fee Consulting; Endo Pharmaceuticals Consulting fee Consulting; Bioniche Consulting fee Consulting; Tengion Consulting fee Consulting; Archimedes Consulting fee Review panel membership; PhotoCure Review panel membership; Taris Biomedical Consulting fee Review panel membership; Cold Genesys None Other Coauthor(s) Kush Sachdeva, MD Southern Oncology and Hematology Associates, South Jersey Healthcare, Fox Chase Cancer Center Partner

10 of 18

6/24/2013 10:34 AM

Bladder Cancer

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/438262-overview

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Bagi RP Jana, MD Associate Professor of Medicine (Genitourinary Oncology), Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of Texas Medical Branch Bagi RP Jana, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Cancer Society, American Medical Association, American Society of Clinical Oncology, and Southwest Oncology Group Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Chief Editor Bradley Fields Schwartz, DO, FACS Professor of Urology, Director, Center for Laparoscopy and Endourology, Department of Surgery, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine Bradley Fields Schwartz, DO, FACS is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Surgeons, American Urological Association, Association of Military Osteopathic Physicians and Surgeons, Endourological Society, Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons, and Society of University Urologists Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Additional Contributors Sujeet S Acharya, MD Resident Physician, Department of Surgery, Section of Urology, University of Chicago Division of the Biological Sciences, The Pritzker School of Medicine Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Brendan Curti, MD Director, Genitourinary Oncology Research, Robert W Franz Cancer Research Center, Earle A Chiles Research Institute, Providence Cancer Center Brendan Curti, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians, American Society of Clinical Oncology, Oregon Medical Association, and Society for Biological Therapy Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Edward M Gong, MD Fellow, Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, Children's Hospital Boston Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Mark H Katz, MD Fellow in Urologic Oncology and Minimally Invasive Surgery, University of Chicago Medical Center Mark H Katz, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Urological Association, Endourological Society, and Society of Urologic Oncology Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Hyung L Kim, MD Associate Professor, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference Disclosure: Medscape Salary Employment Dan Theodorescu, MD, PhD Paul A Bunn Professor of Cancer Research, Professor of Surgery and Pharmacology, Director, University of Colorado Comprehensive Cancer Center Dan Theodorescu, MD, PhD is a member of the following medical societies: American Cancer Society, American College of Surgeons, American Urological Association, Medical Society of Virginia, Society for Basic Urologic Research, and Society of Urologic Oncology Disclosure: Key Genomics Ownership interest Co-Founder-50% Stock Ownership; KromaTiD, Inc Stock Options Board membership

11 of 18

6/24/2013 10:34 AM

Bladder Cancer

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/438262-overview

References
1. Harding A. Prostate often involved in bladder cancer. Medscape Medical News [serial online]. June 4, 2013;Accessed June 17, 2013. Available at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/805284. 2. Bruins HM, Djaladat H, Ahmadi H, Sherrod A, Cai J, Miranda G, et al. Incidental cancer of the prostate in patients with bladder urothelial carcinoma: comprehensive analysis of 1476 radical cystoprostatectomy specimens. J Urol . May 23 2013;[Medline]. 3. Rous SN. Squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder. J Urol . Nov 1978;120(5):561-2. [Medline]. 4. Escudero DO, Shirodkar SP, Lokeshwar VB: Bladder Carcinogenesis and Molecular Pathways. Available at http://Cancer Drug Discovery and Development. Accessed 2011 23-41. 5. Spruck CH 3rd, Ohneseit PF, Gonzalez-Zulueta M, Esrig D, Miyao N, Tsai YC, et al. Two molecular pathways to transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Cancer Res. Feb 1 1994;54(3):784-8. [Medline]. 6. Trias I, Algaba F, Condom E, Espaol I, Segu J, Orsola I, et al. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. Presentation of 23 cases and review of 134 published cases. Eur Urol . Jan 2001;39(1):85-90. [Medline]. 7. Bessette PL, Abell MR, Herwig KR. A clinicopathologic study of squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder. J Urol . Jul 1974;112(1):66-7. [Medline]. 8. Faysal MH. Squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder. J Urol . Nov 1981;126(5):598-9. [Medline]. 9. Lagwinski N, Thomas A, Stephenson AJ, Campbell S, Hoschar AP, El-Gabry E, et al. Squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder: a clinicopathologic analysis of 45 cases. Am J Surg Pathol . Dec 2007;31(12):1777-87. [Medline]. 10. El-Sebaie M, Zaghloul MS, Howard G, Mokhtar A. Squamous cell carcinoma of the bilharzial and non-bilharzial urinary bladder: a review of etiological features, natural history, and management. Int J Clin Oncol . Feb 2005;10(1):20-5. [Medline]. 11. Heyns CF, van der Merwe A. Bladder cancer in Africa. Can J Urol . Feb 2008;15(1):3899-908. [Medline]. 12. Tomlinson DC, Baldo O, Harnden P, Knowles MA. FGFR3 protein expression and its relationship to mutation status and prognostic variables in bladder cancer. J Pathol . Sep 2007;213(1):91-8. [Medline]. [Full Text]. 13. Eswarakumar VP, Lax I, Schlessinger J. Cellular signaling by fibroblast growth factor receptors. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. Apr 2005;16(2):139-49. [Medline]. 14. Fadl-Elmula I. Chromosomal changes in uroepithelial carcinomas. Cell Chromosome. Aug 7 2005;4:1. [Medline]. [Full Text]. 15. Knowles MA. Molecular subtypes of bladder cancer: Jekyll and Hyde or chalk and cheese?. Carcinogenesis . Mar 2006;27(3):361-73. [Medline]. 16. Salinas-Snchez AS, Lorenzo-Romero JG, Gimnez-Bachs JM, Snchez-Snchez F, Donate-Moreno MJ, Rubio-Del-Campo A, et al. Implications of p53 gene mutations on patient survival in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder: a long-term study. Urol Oncol . Nov-Dec 2008;26(6):620-6. [Medline]. 17. Miyamoto H, Shuin T, Ikeda I, Hosaka M, Kubota Y. Loss of heterozygosity at the p53, RB, DCC and APC tumor suppressor gene loci in human bladder cancer. J Urol . Apr 1996;155(4):1444-7. [Medline]. 18. Karam JA, Lotan Y, Karakiewicz PI, Ashfaq R, Sagalowsky AI, Roehrborn CG, et al. Use of combined apoptosis biomarkers for prediction of bladder cancer recurrence and mortality after radical cystectomy. Lancet Oncol . Feb 2007;8(2):128-36. [Medline]. 19. Campbell SC, Volpert OV, Ivanovich M, Bouck NP. Molecular mediators of angiogenesis in bladder cancer. Cancer Res. Mar 15 1998;58(6):1298-304. [Medline]. 20. Chan KS, Espinosa I, Chao M, Wong D, Ailles L, Diehn M, et al. Identification, molecular characterization, clinical prognosis, and therapeutic targeting of human bladder tumor-initiating cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Aug 18 2009;106(33):14016-21. [Medline]. [Full Text].

12 of 18

6/24/2013 10:34 AM

Bladder Cancer

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/438262-overview

21. Sanchez-Carbayo M, Socci ND, Lozano J, Saint F, Cordon-Cardo C. Defining molecular profiles of poor outcome in patients with invasive bladder cancer using oligonucleotide microarrays. J Clin Oncol . Feb 10 2006;24(5):778-89. [Medline]. 22. Brennan P, Bogillot O, Cordier S, Greiser E, Schill W, Vineis P, et al. Cigarette smoking and bladder cancer in men: a pooled analysis of 11 case-control studies. Int J Cancer. Apr 15 2000;86(2):289-94. [Medline]. 23. Fortuny J, Kogevinas M, Chang-Claude J, Gonzlez CA, Hours M, Jckel KH, et al. Tobacco, occupation and non-transitional-cell carcinoma of the bladder: an international case-control study. Int J Cancer. Jan 5 1999;80(1):44-6. [Medline]. 24. Kantor AF, Hartge P, Hoover RN, Fraumeni JF Jr. Epidemiological characteristics of squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the bladder. Cancer Res . Jul 1 1988;48(13):3853-5. [Medline]. 25. Freedman ND, Silverman DT, Hollenbeck AR, Schatzkin A, Abnet CC. Association between smoking and risk of bladder cancer among men and women. JAMA. Aug 17 2011;306(7):737-45. [Medline]. [Full Text]. 26. Stein JP, Skinner EC, Boyd SD, Skinner DG. Squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder associated with cyclophosphamide therapy for Wegener's granulomatosis: a report of 2 cases. J Urol . Mar 1993;149(3):588-9. [Medline]. 27. El-Bolkainy MN, Mokhtar NM, Ghoneim MA, Hussein MH. The impact of schistosomiasis on the pathology of bladder carcinoma. Cancer. Dec 15 1981;48(12):2643-8. [Medline]. 28. Botelho M, Ferreira AC, Oliveira MJ, Domingues A, Machado JC, da Costa JM. Schistosoma haematobium total antigen induces increased proliferation, migration and invasion, and decreases apoptosis of normal epithelial cells. Int J Parasitol . Aug 2009;39(10):1083-91. [Medline]. 29. Ahmad I, Barnetson RJ, Krishna NS. Keratinizing squamous metaplasia of the bladder: a review. Urol Int. 2008;81(3):247-51. [Medline]. 30. Khan MS, Thornhill JA, Gaffney E, Loftus B, Butler MR. Keratinising squamous metaplasia of the bladder: natural history and rationalization of management based on review of 54 years experience. Eur Urol . Nov 2002;42(5):469-74. [Medline]. 31. Newman DM, Brown JR, Jay AC, Pontius EE. Squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder. J Urol . Oct 1968;100(4):470-3. [Medline]. 32. Faysal MH, Freiha FS. Primary neoplasm in vesical diverticula. A report of 12 cases. Br J Urol . Apr 1981;53(2):141-3. [Medline]. 33. Yurdakul T, Avunduk MC, Piskin MM. Pure squamous cell carcinoma after intravesical BCG treatment. A case report. Urol Int. 2005;74(3):283-5. [Medline]. 34. STUART WT. Carcinoma of the bladder associated with exstrophy. Report of a case and review of the literature. Va Med Mon (1918). Jan 1962;89:39-42. [Medline]. 35. Ribeiro JC, Silva C, Sousa L, Garca P, Santos A. [Squamous cell carcinoma in bladder extrophy]. Actas Urol Esp. Jan 2005;29(1):110-2. [Medline]. 36. Gupta S, Gupta IM. Ectopia vesicae complicated by squamous cell carcinoma. Br J Urol . Aug 1976;48(4):244. [Medline]. 37. Rieder JM, Parsons JK, Gearhart JP, Schoenberg M. Primary squamous cell carcinoma in unreconstructed exstrophic bladder. Urology . Jan 2006;67(1):199. [Medline]. 38. Sheldon CA, Clayman RV, Gonzalez R, Williams RD, Fraley EE. Malignant urachal lesions. J Urol . Jan 1984;131(1):1-8. [Medline]. 39. Lin RY, Rappoport AE, Deppisch LM, Natividad NS, Katz W. Squamous cell carcinoma of the urachus. J Urol . Dec 1977;118(6):1066-7. [Medline]. 40. SHAW RE. Squamous-cell carcinoma in a cyst of the urachus. Br J Urol . Mar 1958;30(1):87-9. [Medline]. 41. Chow YC, Lin WC, Tzen CY, Chow YK, Lo KY. Squamous cell carcinoma of the urachus. J Urol . Mar 2000;163(3):903-4. [Medline].

13 of 18

6/24/2013 10:34 AM

Bladder Cancer

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/438262-overview

42. Fujiyama C, Nakashima N, Tokuda Y, Uozumi J. Squamous cell carcinoma of the urachus. Int J Urol . Oct 2007;14(10):966-8. [Medline]. 43. American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts and Figures 2013. Accessed March 22, 2013. Available at http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/content/@epidemiologysurveilance/documents/document/acspc036845.pdf. 44. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology. Bladder Cancer, v.1.2012. Available at http://www.nccn.org. Accessed May 31, 2012. 45. Siegel R, Naishadham D, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2012. CA Cancer J Clin. Jan-Feb 2012;62(1):10-29. [Medline]. 46. Dawson C, Whitfield H. ABC of Urology. Urological malignancy--II: Urothelial tumours. BMJ . Apr 27 1996;312(7038):1090-4. [Medline]. [Full Text]. 47. Abrahams NA, Moran C, Reyes AO, Siefker-Radtke A, Ayala AG. Small cell carcinoma of the bladder: a contemporary clinicopathological study of 51 cases. Histopathology. Jan 2005;46(1):57-63. [Medline]. 48. Lohrisch C, Murray N, Pickles T, Sullivan L. Small cell carcinoma of the bladder: long term outcome with integrated chemoradiation. Cancer. Dec 1 1999;86(11):2346-52. [Medline]. 49. Gouda I, Mokhtar N, Bilal D, El-Bolkainy T, El-Bolkainy NM. Bilharziasis and bladder cancer: a time trend analysis of 9843 patients. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst. Jun 2007;19(2):158-62. [Medline]. 50. Felix AS, Soliman AS, Khaled H, Zaghloul MS, Banerjee M, El-Baradie M, et al. The changing patterns of bladder cancer in Egypt over the past 26 years. Cancer Causes Control . May 2008;19(4):421-9. [Medline]. 51. Elsobky E, El-Baz M, Gomha M, Abol-Enein H, Shaaban AA. Prognostic value of angiogenesis in schistosoma-associated squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. Urology . Jul 2002;60(1):69-73. [Medline]. 52. Griffiths TR, Charlton M, Neal DE, Powell PH. Treatment of carcinoma in situ with intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin without maintenance. J Urol . Jun 2002;167(6):2408-12. [Medline]. 53. Pycha A, Mian C, Posch B, Haitel A, Mokhtar AA, El-Baz M, et al. Numerical chromosomal aberrations in muscle invasive squamous cell and transitional cell cancer of the urinary bladder: an alternative to classic prognostic indicators?. Urology. May 1999;53(5):1005-10. [Medline]. 54. Shaaban AA, Javadpour N, Tribukait B, Ghoneim MA. Prognostic significance of flow-DNA analysis and cell surface isoantigens in carcinoma of bilharzial bladder. Urology . Mar 1992;39(3):207-10. [Medline]. 55. Ghoneim MA, Ashamallah AK, Awaad HK, Whitmore WF Jr. Randomized trial of cystectomy with or without preoperative radiotherapy for carcinoma of the bilharzial bladder. J Urol . Aug 1985;134(2):266-8. [Medline]. 56. Cheng L, Pan CX, Yang XJ, Lopez-Beltran A, MacLennan GT, Lin H, et al. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: a clinicopathologic analysis of 64 patients. Cancer. Sep 1 2004;101(5):957-62. [Medline]. 57. Shahab N. Extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma of the bladder. Semin Oncol . Feb 2007;34(1):15-21. [Medline]. 58. Mackey JR, Au HJ, Hugh J, Venner P. Genitourinary small cell carcinoma: determination of clinical and therapeutic factors associated with survival. J Urol . May 1998;159(5):1624-9. [Medline]. 59. Choong NW, Quevedo JF, Kaur JS. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. The Mayo Clinic experience. Cancer. Mar 15 2005;103(6):1172-8. [Medline]. 60. van Rhijn BW, Burger M, Lotan Y, Solsona E, Stief CG, Sylvester RJ, et al. Recurrence and progression of disease in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer: from epidemiology to treatment strategy. Eur Urol . Sep 2009;56(3):430-42. [Medline]. 61. Fernandez-Gomez J, Solsona E, Unda M, Martinez-Pieiro L, Gonzalez M, Hernandez R, et al. Prognostic factors in patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer treated with bacillus Calmette-Gurin: multivariate analysis of data from four randomized CUETO trials. Eur Urol . May 2008;53(5):992-1001. [Medline]. 62. Cha EK, Tirsar LA, Schwentner C, Christos PJ, Mian C, Hennenlotter J, et al. Immunocytology is a strong

14 of 18

6/24/2013 10:34 AM

Bladder Cancer

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/438262-overview

predictor of bladder cancer presence in patients with painless hematuria: a multicentre study. Eur Urol . Jan 2012;61(1):185-92. [Medline]. 63. Strittmatter F, Buchner A, Karl A, Sommer ML, Straub J, Tilki D, et al. Individual learning curve reduces the clinical value of urinary cytology. Clin Genitourin Cancer. Sep 2011;9(1):22-6. [Medline]. 64. Lotan Y, Roehrborn CG. Cost-effectiveness of a modified care protocol substituting bladder tumor markers for cystoscopy for the followup of patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder: a decision analytical approach. J Urol . Jan 2002;167(1):75-9. [Medline]. 65. Grossfeld GD, Litwin MS, Wolf JS Jr, Hricak H, Shuler CL, Agerter DC, et al. Evaluation of asymptomatic microscopic hematuria in adults: the American Urological Association best practice policy--part II: patient evaluation, cytology, voided markers, imaging, cystoscopy, nephrology evaluation, and follow-up. Urology . Apr 2001;57(4):604-10. [Medline]. 66. Murphy WM, Crabtree WN, Jukkola AF, Soloway MS. The diagnostic value of urine versus bladder washing in patients with bladder cancer. J Urol . Sep 1981;126(3):320-2. [Medline]. 67. Lokeshwar VB, Soloway MS. Current bladder tumor tests: does their projected utility fulfill clinical necessity?. J Urol . Apr 2001;165(4):1067-77. [Medline]. 68. [Best Evidence] Grossman HB, Soloway M, Messing E, Katz G, Stein B, Kassabian V, et al. Surveillance for recurrent bladder cancer using a point-of-care proteomic assay. JAMA. Jan 18 2006;295(3):299-305. [Medline]. 69. Al-Sukhun S, Hussain M. Molecular biology of transitional cell carcinoma. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol . Aug 2003;47(2):181-93. [Medline]. 70. Halling KC, Kipp BR. Bladder cancer detection using FISH (UroVysion assay). Adv Anat Pathol . Sep 2008;15(5):279-86. [Medline]. 71. Soloway MS, Briggman V, Carpinito GA, Chodak GW, Church PA, Lamm DL, et al. Use of a new tumor marker, urinary NMP22, in the detection of occult or rapidly recurring transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary tract following surgical treatment. J Urol . Aug 1996;156(2 Pt 1):363-7. [Medline]. 72. Babjuk M, Oosterlinck W, Sylvester R, Kaasinen E, Bhle A, Palou-Redorta J, et al. EAU guidelines on non-muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder, the 2011 update. Eur Urol . Jun 2011;59(6):997-1008. [Medline]. 73. Hall MC, Chang SS, Dalbagni G, Pruthi RS, Seigne JD, Skinner EC, et al. Guideline for the management of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (stages Ta, T1, and Tis): 2007 update. J Urol . Dec 2007;178(6):2314-30. [Medline]. 74. Greene LF, Page DL, Fleming D, et al. American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Cancer Staging Manual. 6th ed. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag; 2002. 75. [Guideline] Stenzl A, Cowan NC, De Santis M, Jakse G, Kuczyk MA, Merseburger AS, et al. The updated EAU guidelines on muscle-invasive and metastatic bladder cancer. Eur Urol . Apr 2009;55(4):815-25. [Medline]. 76. Ploeg M, Kums AC, Aben KK, van Lin EN, Smits G, Vergunst H, et al. Prognostic factors for survival in patients with recurrence of muscle invasive bladder cancer after treatment with curative intent. Clin Genitourin Cancer. Sep 2011;9(1):14-21. [Medline]. 77. Serretta V, Galuffo A, Pavone C, Allegro R, Pavone-MacAluso M. Gemcitabine in intravesical treatment of Ta-T1 transitional cell carcinoma of bladder: Phase I-II study on marker lesions. Urology. Jan 2005;65(1):65-9. [Medline]. 78. Sylvester RJ, van der Meijden AP, Witjes JA, Kurth K. Bacillus calmette-guerin versus chemotherapy for the intravesical treatment of patients with carcinoma in situ of the bladder: a meta-analysis of the published results of randomized clinical trials. J Urol . Jul 2005;174(1):86-91; discussion 91-2. [Medline]. 79. Witjes JA, Hendricksen K. Intravesical pharmacotherapy for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer: a critical analysis of currently available drugs, treatment schedules, and long-term results. Eur Urol . Jan 2008;53(1):45-52. [Medline].

15 of 18

6/24/2013 10:34 AM

Bladder Cancer

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/438262-overview

80. Zaharoff DA, Hoffman BS, Hooper HB, Benjamin CJ Jr, Khurana KK, Hance KW, et al. Intravesical immunotherapy of superficial bladder cancer with chitosan/interleukin-12. Cancer Res. Aug 1 2009;69(15):6192-9. [Medline]. [Full Text]. 81. Islam MA, Bhuiyan ZH, Shameem IA. Intravesical adjuvant therapy using mitomycin C. Mymensingh Med J . Jan 2006;15(1):40-4. [Medline]. 82. Herr HW, Dalbagni G, Donat SM. Bacillus Calmette-Gurin without maintenance therapy for high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Eur Urol . Jul 2011;60(1):32-6. [Medline]. 83. Schmidbauer J, Witjes F, Schmeller N, Donat R, Susani M, Marberger M. Improved detection of urothelial carcinoma in situ with hexaminolevulinate fluorescence cystoscopy. J Urol . Jan 2004;171(1):135-8. [Medline]. 84. Jichlinski P, Guillou L, Karlsen SJ, Malmstrm PU, Jocham D, Brennhovd B, et al. Hexyl aminolevulinate fluorescence cystoscopy: new diagnostic tool for photodiagnosis of superficial bladder cancer--a multicenter study. J Urol . Jul 2003;170(1):226-9. [Medline]. 85. Hungerhuber E, Stepp H, Kriegmair M, Stief C, Hofstetter A, Hartmann A, et al. Seven years' experience with 5-aminolevulinic acid in detection of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Urology . Feb 2007;69(2):260-4. [Medline]. 86. Kausch I, Sommerauer M, Montorsi F, Stenzl A, Jacqmin D, Jichlinski P, et al. Photodynamic diagnosis in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer: a systematic review and cumulative analysis of prospective studies. Eur Urol . Apr 2010;57(4):595-606. [Medline]. 87. Waknine Y. FDA Approves Cysview for Cystoscopic Detection of Papillary Bladder Cancer. Medscape Medical News, June 4, 2010. Available at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/722923. Accessed January 10, 2013. 88. Standard or Extended Pelvic Lymphadenectomy in Treating Patients Undergoing Surgery for Invasive Bladder Cancer. ClinicalTrials.gov. ClinicalTrials.gov. Available at http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show /NCT01224665. Accessed January 4, 2013. 89. Mukesh M, Cook N, Hollingdale AE, Ainsworth NL, Russell SG. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: a 15-year retrospective review of treatment and survival in the Anglian Cancer Network. BJU Int. Mar 2009;103(6):747-52. [Medline]. 90. Ehdaie B, Maschino A, Shariat SF, Rioja J, Hamilton RJ, Lowrance WT, et al. Comparative outcomes of pure squamous cell carcinoma and urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation in patients treated with radical cystectomy. J Urol . Jan 2012;187(1):74-9. [Medline]. 91. Brinkman MT, Karagas MR, Zens MS, Schned A, Reulen RC, Zeegers MP. Minerals and vitamins and the risk of bladder cancer: results from the New Hampshire Study. Cancer Causes Control . Apr 2010;21(4):609-19. [Medline]. [Full Text]. 92. O'Donnell MA, Lilli K, Leopold C. Interim results from a national multicenter phase II trial of combination bacillus Calmette-Guerin plus interferon alfa-2b for superficial bladder cancer. J Urol . Sep 2004;172(3):888-93. [Medline]. 93. Nepple KG, Lightfoot AJ, Rosevear HM, O'Donnell MA, Lamm DL. Bacillus Calmette-Gurin with or without interferon a-2b and megadose versus recommended daily allowance vitamins during induction and maintenance intravesical treatment of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. J Urol . Nov 2010;184(5):1915-9. [Medline]. 94. Kamat AM, Dickstein RJ, Messetti F, Anderson R, Pretzsch SM, Gonzalez GN, et al. Use of fluorescence in situ hybridization to predict response to bacillus Calmette-Gurin therapy for bladder cancer: results of a prospective trial. J Urol . Mar 2012;187(3):862-7. [Medline]. [Full Text]. 95. Barlow L, McKiernan JM, Benson MC. Long-term survival outcomes with intravesical docetaxel for recurrent nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer after previous bacillus Calmette-Gurin therapy. J Urol . Mar 2013;189(3):834-9. [Medline]. 96. Schmidbauer J, Witjes F, Schmeller N, Donat R, Susani M, Marberger M. Improved detection of urothelial carcinoma in situ with hexaminolevulinate fluorescence cystoscopy. J Urol . Jan 2004;171(1):135-8. [Medline].

16 of 18

6/24/2013 10:34 AM

Bladder Cancer

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/438262-overview

97. Jichlinski P, Guillou L, Karlsen SJ, Malmstrm PU, Jocham D, Brennhovd B, et al. Hexyl aminolevulinate fluorescence cystoscopy: new diagnostic tool for photodiagnosis of superficial bladder cancer--a multicenter study. J Urol . Jul 2003;170(1):226-9. [Medline]. 98. Hungerhuber E, Stepp H, Kriegmair M, Stief C, Hofstetter A, Hartmann A, et al. Seven years' experience with 5-aminolevulinic acid in detection of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Urology . Feb 2007;69(2):260-4. [Medline]. 99. Fradet Y, Grossman HB, Gomella L, Lerner S, Cookson M, Albala D, et al. A comparison of hexaminolevulinate fluorescence cystoscopy and white light cystoscopy for the detection of carcinoma in situ in patients with bladder cancer: a phase III, multicenter study. J Urol . Jul 2007;178(1):68-73; discussion 73. [Medline]. 100. Jocham D, Witjes F, Wagner S, Zeylemaker B, van Moorselaar J, Grimm MO, et al. Improved detection and treatment of bladder cancer using hexaminolevulinate imaging: a prospective, phase III multicenter study. J Urol . Sep 2005;174(3):862-6; discussion 866. [Medline]. 101. Stenzl A, Burger M, Fradet Y, Mynderse LA, Soloway MS, Witjes JA, et al. Hexaminolevulinate guided fluorescence cystoscopy reduces recurrence in patients with nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. J Urol . Nov 2010;184(5):1907-13. [Medline]. 102. Hermann GG, Mogensen K, Carlsson S, Marcussen N, Duun S. Fluorescence-guided transurethral resection of bladder tumours reduces bladder tumour recurrence due to less residual tumour tissue in Ta/T1 patients: a randomized two-centre study. BJU Int. Oct 2011;108(8 Pt 2):E297-303. [Medline]. 103. Tilki D, Reich O, Svatek RS, Karakiewicz PI, Kassouf W, Novara G, et al. Characteristics and outcomes of patients with clinical carcinoma in situ only treated with radical cystectomy: an international study of 243 patients. J Urol . May 2010;183(5):1757-63. [Medline]. 104. Davis JW, Castle EP, Pruthi RS, Ornstein DK, Guru KA. Robot-assisted radical cystectomy: an expert panel review of the current status and future direction. Urol Oncol . Sep-Oct 2010;28(5):480-6. [Medline]. 105. Chang SS, Cookson MS. Radical cystectomy for bladder cancer: the case for early intervention. Urol Clin North Am . May 2005;32(2):147-55. [Medline]. 106. Snchez-Ortiz RF, Huang WC, Mick R, Van Arsdalen KN, Wein AJ, Malkowicz SB. An interval longer than 12 weeks between the diagnosis of muscle invasion and cystectomy is associated with worse outcome in bladder carcinoma. J Urol . Jan 2003;169(1):110-5; discussion 115. [Medline]. 107. Standard or Extended Pelvic Lymphadenectomy in Treating Patients Undergoing Surgery for Invasive Bladder Cancer. ClinicalTrials.gov. Available at http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01224665. Accessed November 13, 2012. 108. Raghavan D, Burgess E, Gaston KE, Haake MR, Riggs SB. Neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy approaches for invasive bladder cancer. Semin Oncol . Oct 2012;39(5):588-97. [Medline]. 109. Winquist E, Kirchner TS, Segal R, Chin J, Lukka H. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Urol . Feb 2004;171(2 Pt 1):561-9. [Medline]. 110. Grossman HB, Natale RB, Tangen CM, Speights VO, Vogelzang NJ, Trump DL, et al. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus cystectomy compared with cystectomy alone for locally advanced bladder cancer. N Engl J Med. Aug 28 2003;349(9):859-66. [Medline]. 111. Herr HW, Faulkner JR, Grossman HB, Natale RB, deVere White R, Sarosdy MF, et al. Surgical factors influence bladder cancer outcomes: a cooperative group report. J Clin Oncol . Jul 15 2004;22(14):2781-9. [Medline]. 112. Griffiths G, Hall R, Sylvester R, Raghavan D, Parmar MK. International phase III trial assessing neoadjuvant cisplatin, methotrexate, and vinblastine chemotherapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer: long-term results of the BA06 30894 trial. J Clin Oncol . Jun 1 2011;29(16):2171-7. [Medline]. [Full Text]. 113. Saxman SB, Propert KJ, Einhorn LH, Crawford ED, Tannock I, Raghavan D, et al. Long-term follow-up of a phase III intergroup study of cisplatin alone or in combination with methotrexate, vinblastine, and doxorubicin in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma: a cooperative group study. J Clin Oncol . Jul 1997;15(7):2564-9. [Medline].

17 of 18

6/24/2013 10:34 AM

Bladder Cancer

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/438262-overview

114. Sternberg CN, de Mulder P, Schornagel JH, Theodore C, Fossa SD, van Oosterom AT, et al. Seven year update of an EORTC phase III trial of high-dose intensity M-VAC chemotherapy and G-CSF versus classic M-VAC in advanced urothelial tract tumours. Eur J Cancer. Jan 2006;42(1):50-4. [Medline]. 115. von der Maase H, Sengelov L, Roberts JT, Ricci S, Dogliotti L, Oliver T, et al. Long-term survival results of a randomized trial comparing gemcitabine plus cisplatin, with methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, plus cisplatin in patients with bladder cancer. J Clin Oncol . Jul 20 2005;23(21):4602-8. [Medline]. 116. [Best Evidence] von der Maase H, Sengelov L, Roberts JT, Ricci S, Dogliotti L, Oliver T, et al. Long-term survival results of a randomized trial comparing gemcitabine plus cisplatin, with methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, plus cisplatin in patients with bladder cancer. J Clin Oncol . Jul 20 2005;23(21):4602-8. [Medline]. 117. Iwasaki K, Obara W, Kato Y, Takata R, Tanji S, Fujioka T. Neoadjuvant gemcitabine plus carboplatin for locally advanced bladder cancer. Jpn J Clin Oncol . Feb 2013;43(2):193-9. [Medline]. 118. Bellmunt J, Thodore C, Demkov T, Komyakov B, Sengelov L, Daugaard G, et al. Phase III trial of vinflunine plus best supportive care compared with best supportive care alone after a platinum-containing regimen in patients with advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelial tract. J Clin Oncol . Sep 20 2009;27(27):4454-61. [Medline]. Medscape Reference 2011 WebMD, LLC

18 of 18

6/24/2013 10:34 AM