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Chemistry51

Chapter2

ENERGY&HEAT
Energyisdefinedasthecapacityofmattertodowork. Therearetwotypesofenergy: 1. Potential (stored) 2. Kinetic(moving)

Energypossessesmany forms(chemical,electrical,thermal,etc.), andcanbeconvertedfromoneformintoanother. Inchemistry,energyiscommonlyexpressedasheat.

HeatismeasuredinSIunitsof jouleorthecommonunitof calorie.


(1cal=4.184J) Heatvs.Temperature: Althoughthesameamountof heatisaddedtobothcontainers,thetemperatureincreases moreinthecontainerwiththesmalleramount ofwater.

Heatisaformofenergyassociatedwithparticlesofmatter.Heatisthe totalenergyof allparticlesofmatter. Temperatureisameasureoftheintensityofheatorhowhotorcoldasubstanceis. Temperatureistheaveragekineticenergyofparticlesofmatter.

Chemistry51

Chapter2

TEMPERATURESCALES
Temperatureisthemeasureof howhotorcoldasubstanceis. Thermometerisaninstrumentthatmeasurestemperatureandisbasedon thermometricproperties(i.e.expansionofsolidsorliquids,colorchange,etc.) ofmatter. Threescalesareusedformeasuring temperature: 1. Fahrenheit (32 212) 2. Celsius (0 100) 3. Kelvin(absolute) (273373) Toconvertfromonescaletoanother,the followingrelationshipscanbeused: K= C+273 F=(1.8x C)+32 C=(F32)1.8 oralternately, F=[(C+40)x1.8]40 C=[F+40) 1.8]40 Examples: 1. Themeltingpointofsilveris960.8C.ConverttoKelvin. K= C+273 K=

2. Pureironmeltsatabout1800K.Whatisthistemperaturein C? C=K 273 C=

3. Onawinterdaythetemperatureis5F outside.Whatisthistemperatureonthe Celsiusscale? C=[F+40) 1.8]40= 4. Tomakeicecream,rocksaltisaddedtocrushedicetoreachatemperatureof 11C. WhatisthistemperatureinFahrenheit?

Chemistry51

Chapter2

SPECIFICHEAT
Differentmaterialshavedifferentcapacitiesforstoringheat.

Thespecificheatofasubstanceistheamountofheatrequiredto changethetemperatureof 1g ofthatsubstanceby1C.

UnitsofspecificheatareJ/gC orcal/gC.

Shownbelowarethespecificheatofsomesubstances: Substance Aluminum Copper Iron Ammonia Ethanol Water (cal/gC) 0.214 0.0920 0.0308 0.488 0.588 1.00 (J/gC) 0.897 0.385 0.129 2.04 2.46 4.184

Whenheated,substanceswith lowspecificheatgethotfasterwhilesubstanceswith high specificheatgethotataslowerrate. Whencooled,substanceswith lowspecificheatgetcool fasterwhilesubstanceswith high specificheatcool ataslowerrate. Theamountofheatlostorgainedbyasystemisdeterminedbythefollowing equation:
massof Heat= substance Q=(m)x specificheat ofsubstance changein temperature

(s)x(DT)

Chemistry51

Chapter2

Examples: 1. Determinetheamountofheatneededtoraisethetemperatureof200.gofwaterby10.0 C.(Specificheatofwateris4.184J/gC) m= s= DT= Q= 2. Calculatethespecificheatofasolidif1638Jofheatraisesthetemperatureof125gofthe solidfrom25.0to52.6 C. m= s= DT= Q=

3. Ethanolhasaspecificheatof2.46J/gC.When655Jareaddedtoasampleofethanol,its temperaturerisesfrom18.2Cto32.8C.Whatisthemassingramsoftheethanolsample? m= s= DT= Q=

Chemistry51

Chapter2

ENERGY&NUTRITION
Thefoodsweeatprovideenergyforourbodies.Vitaminsandmineralsare necessaryforhealthbuthavelittleenergyvalue. Carbohydratesarethemainsourceoffuelforthebody,butwhentheirreserves areexhausted,fatsandthenproteinscanbeusedfor energy. Inthefieldofnutrition,theenergyfromfoodismeasuredinunitsof Calories(Cal). OneCalorieisequalto1000caloriesor1kilocalorie(kcal). Inthelaboratory,foodsareburnedinacalorimetertodeterminetheirenergy.A sampleoffoodisburnedinthecalorimeter,andtheenergyreleasedisabsorbedby watersurroundingthecalorimeter.Theenergyofthefoodcanbecalculatedfromthe massofthefoodandthetemperatureincreaseofthewater. Examples: 1. A2ozservingofpastaprovides200Cal.WhatistheenergyvalueofpastainCal/g? Step1: Given 200Cal/2oz
English English factor

Need Cal/g
Metric English factor

Step2:

oz

lb

Step3:

16oz 1lb

and

454g 1lb

Step4:

200Cal 16oz 1lb x x =4Cal/g 2oz 1lb 454g

2. A2.3gsampleofbutterisplacedinacalorimetercontaining1900gofwaterata temperatureof17C.Afterthecompletecombustionofthebutter,thewaterhasa temperatureof28C.WhatistheenergyvalueofbutterinCal/g? m= s= DT= Q=

Chemistry51

Chapter2

ENERGYCONTENTOFFOOD
Theenergyvalueoffoodsarethekilocaloriesorkilojoulesobtainedfromthecomplete combustionof1gofacarbohydrate,fatorprotein. FoodType Carbohydrate Fat Protein kJ/g 17 38 17 kcal/g 4 9 4

Example: 1. Whatistheenergyvalue(inCal)forapieceofchocolatecakethatcontains34gof carbohydrate,10goffatand5gofprotein?(Calculateanswerto2sigfigs.)

2. A1oz(28g)servingofoatbranhotcerealwithhalfacupofwholemilkcontains22gof carbohydrate,7goffat,and10gofprotein.Ifyoueattwoservingsoftheoatbranfor breakfast,howmanykilocalorieswillyouobtain?(Calculateanswerto2sigfigs)

Chemistry51

Chapter2

CLASSIFICATIONOFMATTER
Matterisanythingthathasmass,andoccupiesspace. Mattercanbeclassifiedbyitsphysicalstateassolid,liquid orgas.

Solid: Denselypackedmatterwith definiteshapeandvolume. Particleshavestrongforcesofattractiontowardseachother. Solidsarenotverycompressible Liquid: Looselypackedmatterwith definitevolumebutindefiniteshape. Particleshavemoderateforcesofattractiontowardseachotherandaremobile. Liquidsareslightlycompressible. Gas: Verylooselypackedmatter with nodefiniteshape orvolume. Particleshavelittleornoforcesofattraction towardseachother. Gasesareverycompressible.

SUMMARYOFPROPERTIESOFMATTER
State Solid Liquid Gas Shape Definite Indefinite Indefinite Volume Definite Definite Indefinite Particles Densely packed Mobile Farapart Compressibility Veryslight Slight High

Chemistry51

Chapter2

CLASSIFICATIONOFMATTER
Mattercanalsobeclassifiedbyitscompositionas puresubstanceor mixture.

Element: Puresubstancethatismadeupofonly onetypeofatom. Examplesinclude:gold,copper,hydrogen. Compound: Puresubstancethatismadeupof twoormoreelementschemically combinedtogether. Propertiesareuniquecomparedtoitscomponents. Smallestparticleisamolecule. Examplesinclude:water,salt,aspirin. Classifyeachofthefollowingsubstancesaselement,compoundormixture.

Chemistry51

Chapter2

MIXTURES
Mixture: Twoormoresubstancesphysicallycombinedtogether. Propertiesaresimilartothoseofitscomponents. Canbeseparatedeasilybyaphysicalprocess. Twotypes:heterogeneousandhomogeneous.

Heterogeneous: Mixture thatisnonuniformincomposition. Examplesinclude:vegetablesoup,cement,saladdressing. Homogeneous: Mixturethatisuniformincomposition. Commonlyreferredtoassolution. Examplesinclude:gasoline,sodapop,saltsolution.

Separationofamixturethroughphysicalmethods

Separationofacompound throughchemicalmethods

Chemistry51

Chapter2

PHYSICAL&CHEMICALPROPERTIES
Thecharacteristicsofasubstancearecalleditsproperties. Physicalpropertiesarethosethatdescribethematter without changingits composition.Examplesaredensity,color,meltingandboilingpoints,andelectrical conductivity. Chemicalpropertiesarethosethatdescribehowmatterbehavesincombinationwith othermatter,andinvolvechangeinitscomposition. Examplesareflammability, corrosion,andreactivitywithacids.

Examples: Identifyeachofthefollowingpropertiesasphysicalorchemical: 1. Oxygenisagas

2.

Heliumisunreactive

3.

Waterhashighspecificheat

4.

Gasolineisflammable

5.

Sodiumissoft&shiny

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Chemistry51

Chapter2

PHYSICAL&CHEMICALCHANGES
Changesinphysicalpropertiesofmatterthatdo notinvolvechangeinitscompositionarecalled physicalchanges. Examplesaremelting,evaporationandotherphase changes.Physicalchangesareeasilyreversible.

Achangethataltersthechemicalcomposition of matter,andformsnewsubstanceiscalleda chemicalchange.

Examplesareburning,rusting,andreactionwithacids. Chemicalchangesarenoteasilyreversible,andarecommonlycalledchemicalreactions. Examples: Identifyeachofthefollowingchangesasphysicalorchemical: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Cookingfood Mixingsugarintea Carvingwood Burninggas Foodmolding

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Chemistry51

Chapter2

CHANGEOFSTATE
Whenmatter releasesorabsorbsenergywithoutachangeintemperature,phasechange occurs(e.g.melting,evaporation). Thecommonphasechangesareasfollows:

liquid solid freezing


on evaporati liquid gas condensation

fusion m elt ing

soli d gas deposit io n


sublimati o n

Phasechangesthatinvolveabsorptionofheatarecoolingprocesses. Phasechangesthatinvolvereleaseofheatarewarmingprocesses.

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Chemistry51

Chapter2

HEAT&COOLINGCURVES
Whenheatisadded toice,it absorbstheheat without achangeintemperature,causingaphasechange. Similarly,whenheatisadded tohotwater,a phasechange occurswithoutanincreaseintemperature.

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Chemistry51

Chapter2

HEATOFFUSION&VAPORIZATION

HeatofFusion (Hf) Thequantityofheat requiredtomelt1gofsolid

HeatofVaporization (Hv) Thequantityofheatrequired toevaporate1gofliquid

Foranysubstancetheheatofvaporizationisgreaterthantheheatoffusion.

Theamountof heat,releasedorabsorbedduringphasechange,dependsontheamount of substanceandtheheatofvaporization orheatoffusion. Q=massxheatoffusion Q=massxheatofvaporization

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Chemistry51

Chapter2

Examples: 1. Howmuchheatisrequiredtomelt50goficeat0C?Heatoffusionforiceis80cal/g. m= Hf = Q=???

2. Howmuchheatisrequiredtovaporize50.0gofwaterat100C?Heatofvaporizationfor wateris540cal/g. m= Hv= Q=???

3. Calculatetheamountofheatrequiredtochange25goficeat0Ctowaterat30.0C.

30C

0C solidliquid

Q total=Qmeltice+QchangeT Q meltice =mxHf = Q changeT =mxsxDT= Q total=

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