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reals, 1129 1/f noise in electronic systems, 969 and limits to randomization, 970 in radioactive decay, 970 and self-organized criticality, 989 1/f^2 noise, 1082 see also Random walks 1L systems, 85-88, 893 see also Substitution systems 1/n expansion, 1040 Sqrt[2] continued fraction for, 144 digits of, 142 in musical chords, 917 and sine curves, 146 and substitution systems, 892, 904 2001: A Space Odyssey extraterrestrial artifacts in, 1183 extraterrestrial contact in, 1190 21 cm line on Pioneer 10 plaque, 1190 and water hole, 1189 24 dimensions isotropy of lattices in, 980 sphere packing in, 987 2SAT (2-satisfiability problem), 1146 3 powers of, 119, 903 Sqrt[3], and substitution systems, 904 3-regular graphs see Networks, trivalent 3/2 powers of, 121, 903 3n+1 problem, 904 cellular automaton for, 904 as precursor to my work, 879 and register machines, 100 and Turing machine 600720, 1145 see also Arithmetic systems 3SAT (3-satisfiability problem), 1146 4-color theorem see Four-Color Theorem 4 dimensions isotropy of lattices in, 980 lattices in, 930 and spacetime, 481-486 see also Four manifolds 411 services name lookups in, 1100 5 dimensions and Kaluza-Klein theory, 1028 5-fold symmetry CA patterns with, 930 5/2 multiplication system, 123 5D hypercubes and Penrose tilings, 932 60 (base) of Babylonian numbers, 902 6j symbols and spin networks, 1055 8 dimensions isotropy of lattices in, 980 sphere packing in, 986 A_4 (tetrahedral group), 1032 A_5 (icosahedral group), 938 Abacus and history of computing, 1107 and history of numbers, 902 Abacus machines, 97-102 see also Register machines ABC conjecture and nearby powers, 1166 Abelian groups axioms for, 773, 1153 CAs based on, 887, 956 shortest axioms for, 806 word problems in, 1141 see also Commutative groups Abelian semigroups see Commutative semigroups Aboav-Weaire law, 1039

Aboriginal peoples and animism, 1195 maze logos used by, 873 Absolute infinity, 1162 Absolute motion, 1042 Absorption laws (in logic), 817 Abstract algebra and models of math, 1150 see also Algebra Abstraction and children, 1102 and human intelligence, 823, 1178 in mathematics, 792, 1149 and modelling, 366 for ultimate theory of physics, 468 Abundant numbers, 910 Acceleration as equivalent to gravity, 1047 and finding geodesics, 1049 particle production by, 1062 and time dilation, 1042 Accounting detecting fraud in, 1184 Accumulation points in iterated maps, 961 Ackermann, Wilhelm (Germany, 1896-1962) and Ackermann functions, 906 Ackermann functions, 906 and Church's Thesis, 1125 and growth rates, 1162 and recursive functions, 907, 908 and symbolic systems, 897, 897' Acorns phyllotaxis in, 409 Acoustic diffusers and flat spectra, 1081 Action Einstein-Hilbert for gravity, 1052 in path integrals, 1061 Activator-inhibitor processes and animal growth, 419 and animal pigmentation, 427 and plant growth, 409 see also Reaction-diffusion processes Active cell in mobile automata, 71 Active media, 1013 and history of CAs, 878 Adaptation and complexity in biology, 383 and definition of life, 1178 and fluid flow, 823 and human intelligence, 823, 1178 in visual system, 1075 Adaptive algorithms for numerical integration, 1134 see also Genetic algorithms Adaptive Huffman coding, 1069, 1071 Addition cellular automata based on, 952 in digit sequences, 118 NC parallel algorithms for, 1142 representing numbers using, 916 Turing machines for, 760, 1144 see also Plus Addition chains, 1095 Addition formulas and logistic maps, 1098 Addition systems, 255 computational difficulty in, 1147 state transition graphs for, 961 Additive cellular automata with 3 colors, 886 basic examples of, 870 block frequencies in, 594 continuous, 922 cryptanalysis of, 1087 cryptography with, 600 in d dimensions, 1092 difference patterns in, 950 encodings of arithmetic with, 1164 enumeration of, 952 as exactly soluble models, 1133 finding periods in, 1147 fractal dimensions in, 870, 955 generalized, 1018 and generalized additivity, 952 generating functions for, 1091

higher-order, 1018 history of, 878 with limited numbers of cells, 951 and multiplication systems, 1094 NC computations of, 1149 as not universal, 694 self-emulation in, 271 self-reproduction in, 824 self-similarity in, 955 sequential versions of, 1034 and shift registers, 974-975 spacetime entropies for, 960 and spacetime symmetry, 1032 speeding up, 1094 state transition graphs for, 963 and successive differences, 1091 temporal sequences in, 960 and texture generation, 1078 two-dimensional, 824 see also Finite fields Additive processes and Gaussian distributions, 976 Additivity generalized, 952 one-sided, 604, 1088 in quantum mechanics, 1060 and surjectivity, 959 Addressing (computer memory) and computer architecture, 1108 decoder trees for, 1183 emulating with CAs, 663 Adequate connectives (universal logic functions), 1173 for reversible logic, 1098 Adjacency matrices and cycles, 958 Adjacency tensors for hypernetworks, 1029 AEA statements (predicate logic) sets associated with, 1139 universality of, 1152 Aerial reconnaissance cellular arrays used in, 1076 and recognizing artifacts, 1183 Aesthetics of music and bird songs, 1180 of physical models, 1025 of pictures in this book, 11 of ultimate theory of physics, 1026 Aether see Ether Affine transformations and 2D substitution systems, 933 Aggregation systems continuum behavior in, 331, 978 and crystal growth, 993 enumeration in, 980 generalized, 978 and growth of cities, 1014 implementation of, 978 and insect artifacts, 1011, 1184 as models of drainage, 1001 in one dimension, 979 and tumor growth, 1011 Aging non-genetic aspects of, 1014 AGM (ArithmeticGeometricMean) and computation of pi, 912 difficulty of evaluating, 1134 Agriculture history of statistics and, 1082 visible from space, 1187 Aharanov-Bohm effect, 1059 AI see Artificial intelligence Aiken, Howard H. (USA, 1900-1973) and Mark I computer, 1107 Air patterns in flow of, 376 viscosity of, 996 Airfoils characteristic shapes of, 1183 Airplanes and analogy with birds, 1100 fluid flow past, 996, 997 fracture as issue for, 995 identifying wreckage of, 1183 turbulence in flight of, 1001 AiryAi (Airy function)

asymptotic oscillation of, 917 curve of, 145 Akaike information criterion, 1083 Albertus Magnus (Germany, ~1200-1280) and mathematics in science, 859 Alczar of Seville, 874 Alchemy and history of complexity, 861 and understanding nature, 876 and universal objects, 1127 Alder, Berni J. (USA, 1925- ) and inspirational book cover, 864 and molecular dynamics, 879, 999 in Preface, xiii Alekseev, Vladimir M. (Russia, 1932-1980) and 3-body problem, 973 aleph_0 (aleph zero) and orders of infinity, 1127, 1162 and symbolic representation, 788 Alexander, James W. (USA, 1888-1971) and moves on networks, 1038 Alexander moves and general networks, 1038 and spin networks, 1055 Algae growth of, 1004 shapes of, 385, 401 Algebra axioms for, 773 Boolean, 1097 of classes, 1171 history of notation for, 1182 and history of posets, 1041 and history of proof, 1149 history of real, 1153 and models of mathematics, 1150 non-universality of basic real, 784 undecidability in, 1138 universal, 1171 use of predicate logic in, 1152 Algebraic analysis of additive CAs, 951 Algebraic cellular automata see Additive cellular automata Algebraic coding theory, 1101 Algebraic complexity theory, 1143 Algebraic computation and constraints on formulas, 945 and three-body problem, 972 see also Computer algebra Algebraic curves and linkages, 1129 in parameter space sets, 1006 Algebraic equations compared to Diophantine, 944 and linear recurrences, 906 solution of, 945 and theta functions, 1092 Algebraic forms of CA rules, 869, 884 Algebraic functions and nested digit sequences, 913 in three-body problem, 972 and Thue-Morse sequence, 890 Algebraic generating functions and hypergeometric functions, 1092 Algebraic geometry and Diophantine equations, 1164 Algebraic logic see Boolean algebra Algebraic notation and history of universality, 1109 origin of, 1182 Algebraic number fields as generalizing numbers, 1168 Algebraic number theory, 1165 Algebraic numbers, 912 CA entropies as, 958 cryptanalysis of, 1089 and Diophantine equations, 1164 and Fermat's Last Theorem, 1166 and Fibonacci-like sequences, 891 and hard hexagon problem, 959 in hierarchy of numbers, 916 and Penrose tilings, 932 and spectra, 1081 Algebraic quantum field theory (axiomatic field theory), 1057, 1065 Algebraic simplification

and iterated maps, 1098 undecidability in, 1138 Algebraic systems CAs based on, 886, 956 generators and relations in, 1169 universality of, 784 ways to use axioms in, 1159 Algebraic topology and origins of category theory, 1154 Algebraic varieties and additive CAs, 1018 Algol (computer language), 1104 Algorithmic complexity theory, 1143 Algorithmic information compared to Shannon, 1071 and computational irreducibility, 1132 and defining randomness, 1067 and definition of complexity, 1069 with respect to CAs, 1186 Algorithmic randomness defining randomness, 554 and quantum measurement, 1064 and randomness generation, 973 Algorithmically simple integers, 916 Algorithms fast types of, 1141 fastest Turing machine, 761 general structures of, 990 for math functions, 1134 optimal, 1143 see also Programs Alhambra in Granada, 874 Alien intelligence see Extraterrestrial intelligence Aliquot sums, 910 iterated, 911 Alkanes, 1194, 1194' Allometry (differential growth), 421, 1010 Alloys searching for, 1193 Almost integers, 915 alpha helices in proteins, 1003 Alphabetical order as lookup mechanism, 622 Alternative denial as name for Nand, 1173 Aluminophosphates as radiolarian analogs, 1011 Aluminum dendritic crystals in, 993 AM (amplitude modulation), 1188 Amateur science, 857 Ambiguity problem for context-free languages, 1138 Amino acid sequences and evolution, 1003 and protein folding, 988 statistics of, 1184 Ammann, Robert (USA, 1946-1994) and nested tilings, 942 Ammonite septa, 385, 1008 Amorphous materials, 994 Amphibians genetic programs of, 1002 pigmentation patterns on, 426 Amplification and chaos theory, 971 Amplifiers noise in, 302 Amplitude modulation (AM), 1188 Amplitudes in quantum theory, 541, 1062 continuous nature of, 1148 Anagni, Italy and Cosmati mosaics, 873 Analog computers and chaos theory, 971 and Gibbs phenomenon, 899 and history of computing, 1107 and history of numbers, 902 linkages in, 1129 Shannon's general purpose, 1129 sound output from, 1080 theoretical power of, 730, 1128 Analog electronics and form of radio signals, 1188 Analogy in human thinking, 627 Analysis

by extraterrestrials, 836 definition of, 549 and NP completeness, 771 and Principle of Computational Equivalence, 722 processes of, 547-635 and recognizing meaning, 826 statistical, 588-596 traditional idealization of, 736 using mathematics, 606-620 Analysis (mathematical) axioms for, 774, 1155 non-standard, 1172 Analysis of variance (ANOVA), 977 Analytic continuation of cellular automata, 1092 of mathematical functions, 1092 in quantum field theory, 1061 Analytic number theory axioms needed for, 1166 Analytical engine, 1107 Analytical results and computational reducibility, 1133 Analyticity of S matrices, 1057 in three-body problem, 972 see also Continuity Anatomy and studies of form, 967 Anaxagoras (Greece, ~500 - ~428 BC) and purpose in nature, 1185 And as associative function, 1094 axioms for, 803 axioms in terms of, 1151 and Boolean formulas, 1095 confluence of, 1037 emulated by CAs, 662, 1112 encoded as integer equation, 1160 and junctional calculus, 1170 in multivalued logic, 1175 and P completeness, 1149 and satisfiability, 1146 theorems involving, 817 truth tables for, 802, 806 words in languages for, 1173 Angelfish pigmentation pattern of, 426 Angle bisection in decorative constructions, 873 Angles of CAs on lattices, 473 in differential geometry, 1048 of images on retina, 1076 Moire patterns from, 1078 of stems in plants, 408 Angular momentum intrinsic of particles, 1046 quantization of, 1056 and spin networks, 1055 Anharmonic oscillator lack of solution to, 1133 Animal behavior, 1011 and game theory, 1104 randomness in, 970 Animal breeding as randomized algorithm, 1193 Animals branching in, 1008 camouflage of, 1077 color vision in, 1075 communication among, 1180 evolution of plans for, 395 evolution of prediction in, 1105 free will in, 752, 1135, 1136 growth of, 413-422 growth of farm, 1010 intelligence in, 825, 1178 as models for extraterrestrials, 1190 objects created by, 1184 overall forms of, 417 perception in, 827 pigmentation patterns of, 422-429 and security systems, 1183 shapes of and mathematics, 859 similarity of forms in, 421 territories of, 987 use of randomness by, 1192 Animism, 845, 1195

Anisotropy in aggregation systems, 978 in code 746, 979 of patterns on lattices, 980 of random walks, 977 Annualized models and iterated maps, 918 Anomalies (quantum field theory) as basic quantum effects, 1059 and high-mass particles, 1047 Anomalous magnetic moments, 1057, 1060 Anonymous functions and lambda calculus, 1121 Anosov maps, 921 periodic points of, 955 ANOVA (analysis of variance), 977 Ant pheromones, 1194 Antarctica Mars meteorite from, 1179 Anteaters patterns on, 1013 Antennas nesting in shapes of, 1183 Anthropic Principle, 1026 and teleology, 1185 Anthropology and history of complexity, 862 and theories of communication, 1181 Anti-reflection in acoustic diffusers, 1183 Antibodies randomness in, 970, 1184 Antichains (in posets), 1041 Antidiffusion equation, 923 Antikythera device and history of computing, 1107 identifying purpose of, 1184 Antimatter rarity of and T violation, 1019 Antiparticles and T violation, 1019 and vacuum fluctuations, 1062 Antlers growth of, 1008 Ants artificial, 931 Aphorisms, 1196 Apical meristems (in plants), 409 APL (computer language), 1104 Apollo astronauts, 1180 Apollonian packing, 986 vs. Cosmati pattern, 873 and network evolution, 1037 Apollonius (Turkey/Egypt, ~262 BC - ~190 BC) and circle packing, 986 Apoptosis (cell death), 419 Applications to biology, 383-428 to financial systems, 429-432 general issues about, 857 to mathematics, 772-821 to physics, 369-382, 433-545 summaries of, 7-11 to technology, 840-843 Apply basic example of, 853 for computing factorial, 1110 Aquinas, Thomas (Italy, 1225-1274) and argument by design, 861 AR (automated reasoning) see Automated theorem proving Arab-Norman style, 873 Arabic script, 43, 874 Arc length, 418, 1048 ArcCos and tent map, 919 Archeology and extraterrestrials, 1190 identifying purposes in, 1184 recognizing artifacts in, 1183 recognizing purposes in, 829 Arches characteristic shapes of, 1183 Archimedean solids and trivalent networks, 1029 Archimedes (Sicily, 287-212 BC) and pi, 911 and use of mathematics, 859 Architecture (building)

as affecting perception, 1106 ornament in, 872, 873 rules in, 874 study of form in, 967, 1010 Architecture (computer), 869 ArcSin and logistic map formulas, 1098 ArcTan and shift map, 919 Area and axioms for geometry, 1154 Area law for Nand expressions, 1097 Arecibo radio telescope, 1190 Argonne National Laboratory and theorem proving, 1158 Argument by design and complexity, 861 and teleology, 1185 Arguments of functions currying of, 896, 1122 and Hilbert's 13th problem, 1128 and primitive recursion, 908 Aristotle (Greece, 384-322 BC) and complexity, 861 and definition of life, 1178 and embryology, 1010 and gnomons, 1008 and history of logic, 1099 and logic in science, 860 and nature of space, 1028 and origins of randomness, 967 and purpose in nature, 1185 and theoretical biology, 1003 Arithmetic algorithmic randomness in, 1067 axioms for, 773, 1152 of Babylonians, 859 as basis for science, 44 cellular automaton based on, 614 emulated by set theory, 1160 and history of proof, 1149 and intelligence, 1178 non-locality of, 124, 731 non-standard models of, 800, 1169 and origin of math, 792, 859 Presburger, 1143, 1152 processes of, 117 recursive functions and, 907 rules in, 875 universal equation in, 786 universality in, 784 see also Peano arithmetic Arithmetic coding, 1071 Arithmetic hierarchy and oracles, 1139 Arithmetic operations and computational power, 730 performed by CAs, 639 Arithmetic progressions and Ramsey theory, 1068 Arithmetic puzzles, 875 Arithmetic recurrences, 123 and register machines, 100 Arithmetic systems, 122-124 emulating register machines, 673, 1114 history of, 1115 and Turing machine 600720, 1145 see also 3n+1 problem Arithmetization of metamathematics, 1158 ARMA processes spectra of, 1082 and texture discrimination, 1077 Armadillo skin texture of, 385 Array computers and history of CAs, 877 Arrow function (nested power) and Ackermann function, 906 and symbolic systems, 103 Arrowheads characteristic shapes of, 1183 Art as affecting perception, 1106 applications to, 841, 872 astronomical systems like, 835 and cellular automata, 872, 929 examples of ornamental, 43

and form of extraterrestrials, 1191 recognition of, 839, 874 shell patterns in, 1012 and simple rules, 42, 872 study of form in, 967, 1003, 1010 summary of relations to, 11 and visual perception, 1076 Arthropods growth of, 1011 Artichoke phyllotaxis in, 409 Artifacts on astronomical scales, 834 compared to nature, 3 created by animals, 1184 in data, 1184 on Earth from space, 1187 historical forms of, 1183 problem of recognizing, 828, 1183 in turbulence computations, 997 universe as, 1191 Artificial intelligence (AI), 628, 1099 and complexity history, 862 and defining intelligence, 1178 and extraterrestrial intelligence, 839 and free will, 1135 predicate logic and, 1152 summary of relations to, 12 and theorem proving, 1157 and visual perception, 1076 Artificial life and biological form, 1004 and natural selection, 1001 summary of relations to, 12 Artificial organs, 842 Artificial snowflakes, 992, 992' Artificial tissues, 842 ASCII versions (InputForm) of programs in notes, 854 ASICs (Application-Specific Integrated Circuits), 1097 Asparagus phyllotaxis in, 409 AspectRatio and GoldenRatio, 891 Assembler and my early programs, 854, 864 and register machines, 101, 1114 Associative algebras, 801 as generalizing numbers, 1168 Associative calculi see Multiway systems Associativity 3-argument analog of, 1171 of And and Or, 817 in Boolean functions, 1173 cellular automata based on, 886 and fast evolution, 1094 and generalized additivity, 952 in operator systems, 801 as source of self-similarity, 956 see also Flat Assyrian military drill, 875 Asteroids and chaos theory, 973 Astrology, 1135 Astronauts quarantine of, 1180 Astronomical clocks, 1184 Astronomy Babylonian, 859 extraterrestrial artifacts in, 834 geometrical patterns in, 1187 Greek, 861 and history of computing, 1107 and history of statistics, 1082 measurement errors in, 967 and prehistoric structures, 1184 radio phenomena in, 1187 randomness in, 313 and time in universe, 1021 Asymptotic freedom in QCD, 1057, 1062 Asymptotic growth rates, 1162 difficulty of finding, 1146 Asymptotic series in perturbation theory, 1060 Asymptotic states and quantum field theory, 1130 Asynchronous cellular automata

see Sequential cellular automata Atanasoff, John V. (USA, 1903-1995) and early electronic computers, 1107 Atmosphere 2D fluid flow in, 999 of extrasolar planets, 1179 and origin of life, 1179 and randomness in lightning, 995 turbulence in, 1001 and weather patterns, 1177 Atomic models of crystal growth, 993 of fracture, 995 Atomic physics 6j symbols in, 1055 and quantum theory, 1056 Atomic-scale devices, 841, 1193 Atomic-scale features and future forms of perception, 1106 Atomic-scale mapping of wear, 1184 Atomism and elementary particles, 1044 as general theory, 1125 history of, 876 Atoms arrangement of in crystals, 369 and chaos theory, 310 and concept of programs, 860 early models of, 1026 and history of complexity, 861 and history of quantum theory, 1056 as knots in the ether, 1028 in models of space, 1028 as source of randomness, 967 and thermodynamics, 445, 1019 ATP and definition of life, 825 Attractors, 275 effective reversibility on, 1018 in finite systems, 961 in iterated maps, 961 and memory, 625 nested structure of, 959 and phase transitions, 341 in root finding, 1101 and structures in PDEs, 1129 in systems based on numbers, 961 in Turing machines, 961 in visual perception, 1076 Auctions game theory and, 1105 Audio representation for cellular automata, 869 for data, 1080 Auditory cortex, 1079 Auditory perception, 585-588 Augustine (Algeria, 354-430 AD) and free will, 1135 Aurora and natural radio emissions, 1187 Australia straight road in, 1187 Authentication and hashing, 1100 Autoactive decay processes, 905 Autocorrelations in shift registers, 1084 and spectra, 1080 in textures, 1076 Automata see also Cellular automata see also Finite automata see also Mobile automata Automated theorem proving, 1157 for axioms of logic, 811 and chemical synthesis, 1194 and group axioms, 1153 and paramodulation, 1156 and proof frameworks, 1177 proofs not useful from, 811, 1156 for Robbins axioms, 1151 of universality, 1115, 1127 Automatic groups, 1141 Autoplectic processes (intrinsic randomness generation), 973 Auxins (plant hormones), 1004 Auxology and recursive growth, 877, 929 Avalanches

in sandpile models, 989 in snow, 993 Average-case difficulty, 1143 Averaging in diffusion equation, 1024 and Gaussian distributions, 976 as source of continuity, 327 as source of uniformity, 353 Avoidable patterns (repetition-free sequences), 944 Axelrod, Robert M. (USA, 1943- ) and prisoner's dilemma, 1104 Axiom of choice, 774, 1154 and additive functions, 953 Axiom of infinity, 1154 Axiom of replacement, 1154 Axiom schemas, 1156, 1176 Axiom systems based on multiway systems, 1173 for basic logic, 808 for cellular automata, 794, 1168 and defining complexity, 1068 effect of expanding, 1159 enumeration of, 809 for extended set theory, 1167 forcing an operator in, 1172 general structure of, 1150 vs. generators and relations, 1169 interpreting algebraic, 1153, 1159 model theory of, 1172 for multivalued logic, 1175 and operator evolution systems, 898 for operator systems, 801 and P=NP, 1146 proving correctness of, 802, 1170 sampled by mathematics, 795 table of in mathematics, 773 theorems holding in simple, 812 and Turing machines, 1145 and universality proofs, 1127 as way to handle infinity, 788 Axiomatic quantum field theory, 1057, 1065 Axiomless formulations of logic, 1156 Axons of nerve cells, 1075 B particles time reversal violation for, 1019 Babbage, Charles (England, 1791-1871) and computers, 1107 and universality, 1110 Babylonian mathematics and calculation, 1149 and computing pi, 911 and computing Sqrt, 913 current influence of, 792 and definition of math, 859 and labelling in geometry, 1182 and math in science, 859 numbers in, 901 and primes, 908 rules in, 875 Babylonians and constellations, 1187 military drill of, 875 and rule 30 artifacts, 42 Bachelier, Louis (France, 1870-1946) and randomness in markets, 1014 Bachet's problem (operator representations), 916 Back-biased zener diodes, 970 Backpropagation in neural networks, 1102 Backtracking in 3n+1 problem, 904 in cellular automata, 1089 and proof searching, 1157 in rule 30, 605 in satisfying constraints, 941 in tiling problems, 217 Backus, John (USA, 1924- ) and computer languages, 1104 Backus-Naur form, 1104 Backward evolution in CAs, 435 Bacon, Roger (England, ~1219 - ~1292) and math in science, 859 Bacteria genetic programs of, 1002 smallest self-replicating, 1179 Bag model

as mechanistic model, 1026 Bak, Per (Denmark/USA, 1947-[2002]) and self-organized criticality, 989 Baker, Alan (England, 1939- ) and Diophantine equations, 1164 Baker's method and Diophantine equations, 1164 Baker's transformation (tent map), 150 Balance equations (rate equations), 984 Balanced binary trees, 897, 898 Balanced delimiters, 989 Ball rolling in bistable system, 341 as source of randomness, 970 Balladonia-Caiguna road, 1187 Ballistics tables and history of computing, 1107 Balls cyclic tag systems made with, 895 packing of, 349, 986 Bamboos growth of, 1004 Banach-Tarski result in set theory, 1154 Bands in Moire patterns, 1078 Bandwidth in perception, 1079 of radio signals, 1188 Banks, E. Roger (USA, 1944- ) and 1D universal CA, 1115 and 2D universal CA, 1117 Barnacles patterns on, 385 Barnsley, Michael F. (England/USA, 1946- ) and parameter space sets, 1006 and pictures of ferns, 1005 Base 1 (unary), 560, 1070 Base 2 (binary), 116 and chaos experiments, 919 history of, 902 as natural notation, 1182 in practical computers, 1108 Base 6 powers of 3 in, 614, 903 Base 10 (decimal), 116 and chaos experiments, 919 powers of 2 in, 614, 749 Base 16 (hex) digits of pi in, 912 Base 60 and history of numbers, 902 Base -2 notation, 902 Bases (number), 116 complex, 932, 933 conversions between, 1094 Fibonacci, 560, 892, 902 generalized, 902 locality of powers in, 1093 and normal numbers, 912 and substitution systems, 891 Basic forms in image compression, 574 Basic language and history of computing, 1108 and register machines, 101 Basins of attraction boundaries of, 1101 for cellular automata, 276 and phase transitions, 341 Basis functions in data compression, 574 Basket star nested pattern in, 1008 Batcher, Kenneth E. (USA, 1935- ) and sorting networks, 1142 Bats auditory system of, 1079 Battles instabilities in infantry, 1014 Bayesian inference, 595, 1083 Bays, Carter (USA, 1940- ) and 3D class 4 CAs, 949 bcc (body-centered cubic), 930 and deformable packing, 988 Voronoi diagram, 987 BDDs (binary decision diagrams), 1097 Beacons

extraterrestrial, 836 Beam buckling and chaos theory, 971 Bearings characteristic shapes of, 1183 Beat notes, 146, 1079 Beatty sequences, 890 Beauty see Art Beaver dams as animal artifacts, 1184 Beehives (in Game of Life), 964 Beehives (made by bees), 1011 Beeler, Michael D. (USA, 1944- ) and 2D Turing machines, 930 Begriffsschrift of Frege, 1149 Behaviorism, 1099, 1135 Beilstein database, 1194 Bell, Alexander Graham (USA, 1847-1922) and speech sounds, 1080 Bell, David I. (USA/Australia, 1953- ) and structures in Life, 965 Bell, John S. (England/Switzerland, 1928-1990) and quantum mechanics, 1058 Bell curve (Gaussian), 977 Bell Laboratories, xiii Bell's inequalities, 1064 history of, 1058 in quantum field theory, 1065 Belousov, Boris P. (Russia, 1893-1970) and oscillatory chemical reactions, 1013 Bnard convection, 1000 as repetitive behavior, 988 Bendix, Peter B. (USA, 1946- ) and Knuth-Bendix procedure, 1037 Benford, Frank (USA, 1883-1948) and leading digits, 914 Benford's Law, 914 and powers, 903 Bennett, Charles H. (USA, 1943- ) and logical depth, 1069 in Preface, xiii and reversibility of computation, 1020 and sphere packing, 985 Bentley, Wilson A. (USA, 1865-1931) and snowflakes, 992 Berger, Robert (USA, 1938- ) and non-periodic tilings, 943 and undecidability in tiling, 1139 Berlekamp, Elwyn R. (USA, 1940- ) and Berlekamp-Massey algorithm, 1087 Berlekamp's algorithm (for Factor), 1192 Bernoulli, Daniel (Netherlands/Switzerland, 1700-1782) and molecular theory of gases, 1019 BernoulliB (Bernoulli numbers) difficulty of evaluating, 1134 BesselI (modified Bessel function) and continued fractions, 914 and Egyptian fractions, 915 BesselJ (Bessel function) asymptotics of, 917 curve of, 145 and Klein-Gordon equation, 922 in Mie scattering, 1133 and transcendental numbers, 912 BesselY (Bessel function of second kind) in Mie scattering, 1133 Beta (volatility) of prices in markets, 1015 Beta decay parity violation in, 1019 and quantum field theory, 1057 beta sheets in proteins, 1003 Bethe lattice see Tree Bianchi classification for Einstein equations, 1053 Bianchi identity, 1049 Bias randomness to avoid, 841, 1192 Bible and origins of complexity, 861 randomness generation in, 968 and understanding nature, 876 Bibliographic information on my papers, 881 in this book, 850

Bibliometrics for axiom systems, 1153 for cellular automata, 878 Biedenharn-Elliott identity (for 6j symbols), 1055 Bifurcations and chaos theory, 972 and fluid flow, 998 in rate equations, 984 Big bang model and basic cosmology, 1055 and thermodynamics, 1021 Billiards model, 971, 1022 and thermodynamics, 446 Billion (as 1,000,000,000), 849 Billowing (in clouds), 1001 Binary alloys, 985 Binary cellular automata, 53 see also Elementary cellular automata Binary-coded decimal (BCD), 919 Binary-coded ternary, 560, 1070 Binary counter in non-periodic tiling, 219 pattern made by, 117 Turing machine acting as, 888 see also Digit sequences Binary decision diagrams, 1097 Binary mixtures of circles, 350, 985 Binary numbers, 116 history of, 902 see also Base 2 see also Digit sequences Binary operators axioms for, 805 and generalized additivity, 952 number of, 1171 possible Boolean, 806 Binary power method, 1093 Binary star system randomness in, 313 Binary trees balanced, 897, 898 as combinator expressions, 1123 infinite, 196 space of possible, 405, 1006 and symbolic expressions, 897 Binomial (binomial coefficients) article of mine on, 882 and associative CAs, 956 and balanced parentheses, 989 and Cantor set, 890 and computational reducibility, 747 and continuous CA, 922 and correspondence systems, 1139 encoded as integer equation, 1160 and encodings of arithmetic, 1164 and entropy of particles in box, 1022 equations involving, 945 and Fibonacci, 890 modulo k, 955 and nested patterns, 610 and number of conserving CAs, 1023 and number of expressions, 897, 1175 and primitive recursion, 907 and rule 90 pattern, 870 and Sierpinski pattern, 931 and trinomial coefficients, 1091 Binomial distribution and basic statistics, 1083 and pegboard, 312 Biological evolution, 383-399, 1001-1003 CA idealization of, 391 compared to technology evolution, 398, 1183 and definition of life, 824 and features of proteins, 1003 and form of DNA sequences, 1184 and intelligence, 822 and leaf shapes, 1005 major new features in, 1003 optimization strategies in, 985 of perception, 634, 1105 and shell shapes, 415 see also Natural selection Biological growth, 400-422 Eden model for, 978 history of studies of, 1003 see also Growth Biological systems compared to physical ones, 967

and definition of complexity, 1069 and extraterrestrial life, 1179 organization through partitioning in, 457 in relativity theory, 1042 and thermodynamic behavior, 453, 1021 Biology, 383-428 and argument by design, 861 attitudes in, 1001 defining features of, 824 vs. engineering, 393, 1004 Gaussian distribution in, 977 history of complexity in, 1001 mathematics in, 859 as molecular engineering, 842 molecules used in, 1194 Occam's razor in, 1025 physics applied to, 1003 probabilistic models in, 1082 purposes of systems in, 1185 randomness applied in, 1192 randomness seen in, 326, 970 regularities in, 384 summary of relations to, 8, 863 undecidability in, 1138 Biomedical applications, 9, 842 Biomedical devices and nanotechnology, 1193 Biomedical image processing, 1076 Biometric data randomness in, 970, 1014 Biprism and non-periodic tiling in 3D, 943 Birds vs. airplanes, 1100 color vision in, 1075 nests of as artifacts, 1184 patterns in flocks of, 1011 pigmentation patterns of, 426 songs of, 826, 1180 Birkhoff, Garrett (USA, 1911-1996) and equational logic, 1172 Bismuth hopper crystals, 993 Bistable systems, 341 see also Metastable states Bit reversal systems based on, 125 in Walsh transforms, 1073 BitAnd (bitwise And) in Batcher sort, 1142 in CA implementation, 865 integer equation for, 1160 patterns generated by, 871 and rule 90 pattern, 870 and Sierpinski pattern, 931 and zero boundaries, 951 Bitmaps compression of, 560 images as, 1108 lines in, 916 BitOr (bitwise Or) integer equation for, 1160 iteration of, 906 patterns generated by, 871 and representing integers, 916 and weighted randomness, 976 Bitpacking and cellular automata, 866 Bits in numbers, 116 in practical computers, 1108 see also Digit sequences Bitslicing and cellular automata, 866 Bitwise functions iterated, 906, 921 and logic in computer languages, 1173 patterns generated by, 871 Bitwise implementation of cellular automata, 866 of rule 30 center column, 871 BitXor (bitwise Xor) and Gray code, 901 iteration of, 906 and nim, 939 patterns generated by, 871 and representing integers, 916 and Sierpinski pattern, 931

sounds from, 1080 Bivalve shells, 1008 Black, Fischer (USA, 1938-1995) and options pricing, 1015 Black Cloud (science fiction), 1190 Black holes, 1053 as dual to particles, 1045 gravity theories without, 1054 Hawking radiation from, 1062 and history of gravity, 1048 and singularities in PDEs, 923 and singularity theorems, 1053 as source of decoherence, 1063 and string theory duality, 1029 and time in computation, 1130 Black-Scholes model, 1015 Blackbody radiation and quantum theory, 1056 Blinker (in Game of Life), 964 Blinker ship (in Game of Life), 964 Block (in Game of Life), 964 Block (scoping construct) and notes programs, 854 and sorting networks, 1142 Block cellular automata, 459-464 converting to ordinary CAs, 1023 implementation of, 1023 number of rules for, 1023 repetition periods in, 1023 for Schrdinger equation, 1060 and visual perception, 580 Block concatenation systems (correspondence systems), 757, 1139 Block diagrams and computer interfaces, 1103 Block encoding, 563 maximal compression in, 1071 Block maps as cellular automata, 878, 961 Blocking transformations in CAs, 269, 701, 1118 and renormalization, 955 Blocks conservation laws for, 1022 in error-correcting codes, 1101 frequencies of, 590, 1068, 1084 in rule 30 pattern, 569, 725, 871, 1127 visual patterns of repeating, 582 Blood vessels branching pattern of, 413 Blotting paper spreading on as diffusion, 978 Bluff bodies in fluid flow, 998 Blum, Lenore C. (USA, 1942- ) in Preface, xiii and random generators, 1090 Blum, Manuel (USA, 1938- ) in Preface, xiii and random generators, 1090 BMP format compression in, 1070 Boat fluid flow past, 996 on ocean as random system, 301 Bobrow, Daniel G. (USA, 1935- ) and simple Turing machines, 1143 Body-centered cubic (bcc), 930 and deformable packing, 988 Voronoi diagram, 987 Bohm, David J. (USA/England, 1917-1992) and discreteness of space, 1027 and hidden variables, 1058 Bohm-Aharanov effect, 1059 Bohr, Niels H. D. (Denmark, 1885-1962) and quantum theory, 1056 Boiling as discrete transition, 337 models of, 994 as phase transition, 981, 983 Boiling points of alkanes, 1195 difficulty of computing, 1194 Boltzmann, Ludwig E. (Austria, 1844-1906) and statistical mechanics, 1019 Boltzmann equation and H theorem, 1020 Monte Carlo studies of, 1192 Boltzmann factors and 1/f noise, 969

and Ising model, 982 and path integrals, 1061 Bones development of, 1010 facial, 1010 formation of, 420 growth of, 417, 421 Bonnet shell, 415 Book of Changes and substitution systems, 893 Book of Kells nested patterns in, 873 Boole, George (England/Ireland, 1815-1864) and axioms for logic, 1151 and Boolean functions, 1097 and continuous logic, 1175 and model for thought, 1099 Boolean algebra, 1151 as example of lattice theory, 1153 as generalizing numbers, 1168 representations of, 1171 see also Logic Boolean expressions, 1095 for cellular automata, 616, 869, 884 and defining complexity, 1069 history of, 1097 and learning theory, 1102 lower bounds in, 1143 minimizing, 1095 minimizing as NP-complete, 1145 satisfiability of, 768 Boolean functions 16 basic possible, 806 emulated by CAs, 662 emulated by rule 30, 704 generated by finite automata, 1097 number of, 1096 and quantum computers, 1148 represented by perceptrons, 1102 Boolean hypercube and layout of networks, 1031 Boolean networks, 936 and Nand expressions, 1096 as precursors to my work, 879 Boomerangs characteristic shapes of, 1183 Boone, William W. (USA, 1920-1983) and word problem for groups, 1141 Bootstrap hypothesis (in particle physics), 1044 Bora Bora symmetric shape of, 1187 Borel, F. E. J. Emile (France, 1871-1956) and defining randomness, 1068 and normal numbers, 912 Born interpretation (in quantum mechanics), 1058 Borrows in subtraction, 870 Bose-Einstein condensation, 1058 Bosons spin-statistics of, 1046 Botany, 400-412 classification in, 1004 growth processes in, 400 Bouncing of objects and randomness, 312, 971 Boundaries of 2D CA patterns, 929 and image processing, 1077 motion of in 2D CAs, 335 Boundary cases in CA classification, 240 and computational difficulty, 1147 and undecidability, 948 Boundary conditions in CA implementations, 866, 951 random, 947 and shift registers, 1088 Boundary layer (in fluid flow), 997 Boundary value problems for additive CAs, 601 as constraint satisfaction, 940 in PDEs, 923 Bounded depth logic, 1096 Bounded fan-in logic, 1096 Bourbaki group, 1150 Bowditch figures, 917 Box counting and dimensions, 933

Boyer-Moore theorem prover, 1158 Brachiopod form of opened, 385 Brachistochrone as exactly soluble, 1133 Brackets balanced sequences of, 897 and symbolic systems, 103 Brady, Allen H. (USA, 1934- ) and 2D Turing machines, 930 Bragg reflection, 1082 Brain of birds and bird songs, 826, 1180 computational equivalence of, 721, 844 determinism in, 1135 and free will, 750 mathematics and the, 1177 memory in, 624 physiology of human, 1098 repetitive rhythms in, 1011 source of will in, 1136 and speech generation, 826 and universals in language, 1181 visual processing in, 580 Brain coral maze-like patterns in, 1013 Brainteasers, 1104 Branch cuts (in complex plane) and equality testing, 1192 Branching in animals, 413, 1008 history of models of, 1005 in plants, 400, 1004 as producing nesting, 357 in proofs, 1155 and study of form, 967 in substitution systems, 84 Branching processes and multiway systems, 938 Branching programs register machines as, 97 Bravais, Auguste (France, 1811-1863) and phyllotaxis, 1007 Bravais, Louis F. (France, 1801-1843) and phyllotaxis, 1007 Bravais lattices, 929 Bray, William C. (USA, 1879-1946) and oscillatory chemical reactions, 1013 Breadth-first recursion in substitution systems, 1033 Breakdown as source of randomness, 302, 970 of vacuum, 1062 Breakers patterns of, 997 Breeding season bird songs in, 1180 whale songs in, 1180 Bresenham's algorithm, 916 Bricks patterns and CA updating, 885 as origin of ornament, 872 see also Block cellular automata Brillouin zones, 987 and CA lattices, 929 British Museum, 873 Brittle materials, 994 Broadband noise, 586 in electronics, 968 and SETI, 1189 Broadcasting and extraterrestrials, 836 Broadwell, James E. (USA, 1921- ) and CA fluids, 999 Broccoli shape, 385 Broglie, Louis-V.-P.-R. de (France, 1892-1987) and wave-particle duality, 1056 Bronchioles branching pattern of, 413, 1008 Bronze Age ornament, 873 Brouwer, Luitzen E. J. (Netherlands, 1881-1966) and character of math, 1176 Brownian motion randomness in, 302 see also Random walks Bruns, E. Heinrich (Germany, 1848-1919) and three-body problem, 972 Bubbles

as artificial-looking, 828 in boiling, 994 in evolving foams, 1039 Buch, Arnim (Germany, 1969- ) and automated proofs, 1158 Buchberger, Bruno (Austria, 1942- ) and Grbner basis approach, 1037 in Preface, xiii Buckling and chaos theory, 971 Buddhism, 1196 Buffon's needle (for evaluating pi), 1192 Bugs in CA programs, 866 in first universal TM, 1119 intuition from, 46, 872 and proofs about programs, 1168 in proofs of universality, 1117 in purposeful CA, 1185 in random generators, 320 in theorems, 899 Buildings purposes of early, 1184 Built-in cellular automaton function, 867 Bumpy roads and chaos theory, 304 Buntrock, Jrgen (Germany, 1958- ) and long-running TMs, 889 Burger's equation, 925 Burgess Shale fossil, 385 Burks, Arthur W. (USA, 1915- ) and cellular automata, 876 in Preface, xiii Bush, Vannevar (USA, 1890-1974) and differential analyzer, 1107 Business cycles iterated maps as models of, 918 theories of, 1015 and time series, 1083 Business systems and complexity research, 863 Busy Beaver Problem and growth rates, 1163 for register machines, 896 for symbolic systems, 897 for Turing machines, 889, 1144 Butterflies opposite wings of, 1013 pigmentation patterns of, 389 Butterfly network, 905 Byzantine style, 873 C (programming language) and chaos experiments, 919 as example of language, 1109 and history of computing, 1108 and my first CA experiments, 864 my use of, 854, 899 programs for CAs, 865 and register machines, 101 C curve from 1D substitution system, 892 from 2D substitution system, 190 C60 and spherical networks, 1049 Cabala (universal object), 1127 Cabbage phyllotaxis in, 409 Cable (wire rope) and nesting in, 874 Cactus phyllotaxis in, 409 regular shape of, 385 CAD (cylindrical algebraic decomposition), 1154 Caesar, Julius (Italy, 100-44 BC) and cryptography, 1085 Caesar ciphers, 1085 Cages (small girth networks), 1029 Cahn-Hilliard equation, 980 Calabi-Yau manifolds, 1028, 1052 Calcite hopper crystals in, 993 Calculators chaos experiments on, 919 and history of computing, 1107 reverse Polish notation in, 896 Calculus axioms for, 774 and computational reducibility, 1132

and continuous computation, 1129 equations based on, 161 history of notation for, 1182 and natural selection, 394 origin of word, 925 proofs in, 1177 role in history of science, 44 see also Propositional logic Calculus of variations and geodesics, 1049 Calculus ratiocinator of Leibniz, 1149 California Institute of Technology, xiii Calligraphy Kufi, 874 Calls of birds, 1180 Calogero-Moser model, 1133 Camouflage stripes of zebras as, 1012 use of randomness in, 1192 and visual perception, 1077 Campbell, John H. (USA, 1938- ) and patterns on shells, 1012 in Preface, xiii Cams characteristic shapes of, 1183 for randomness generation, 969 Canalizing behavior (class 2 Boolean networks), 936 Canals on Earth and Mars, 1180 Cancers from DNA errors, 970 see also Tumor growth Cannon balls packing of, 986 Canonical ensemble in 2D Ising model, 982 and path integrals, 1061 Canonical forms establishing axioms with, 1170 in multiway systems, 1036 in proof searching, 1157 and proofs in logic, 1175 see also Confluence Canonical quantization, 1057 of gravity, 1054 Canonical systems see Multiway systems Canons rules for musical, 875 Cantor, Georg F. L. P. (Germany, 1845-1918) and Cantor set, 893 and the continuum, 1127 and definition of dimension, 1030 and diagonal arguments, 1128 and digit sequences, 902 and history of numbers, 901 and real numbers, 1153 and set theory, 1154 and transfinite numbers, 1162 Cantor normal form and Goodstein sequences, 1163 for ordinal numbers, 1162 Cantor pairing function (sigma), 1127 Cantor set attractors as forming, 959 and CA cardinality, 1128 and CA state space, 869, 958 from continuous systems, 1130 generating function for, 1092 properties of, 890 Sarkovskii's theorem for, 955 and shift registers, 975 spectrum of, 586, 1081 from substitution system, 83 Cantor's diagonal argument, 1127 Capacity (dimension), 959 Capillaries branching in, 413, 1008 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM), 1015 Caps on sphere areas of, 1050 Carbon dioxide and life on Mars, 1180 Cardinality and the continuum, 1127 Cardinals

as generalizing numbers, 1168 as transfinite numbers, 1162 Cards shuffling of, 968, 974 for storing programs, 1107 CarmichaelLambda and linear congruential periods, 974 and quadratic generators, 975 Carnot, Sadi N. L. (France, 1796-1832) and thermodynamics, 1019 Carpets and 2D cellular automata, 929 Sierpinski, 188 Carrier frequencies, 835, 1188 Carrot leaves, 385, 1006 Carry digits in arithmetic, 124 non-locality of, 730 in powers, 1093, 1112 in subtraction, 870 and Turing machines, 760 Cars engine knocking in, 1194 evolution in, 1003 as randomness analogy, 304 traffic models, 1014 turning tracks of, 418 Cartesianism and matter in space, 1028 see also Descartes, Ren Cartilage as precursor of bone, 1010 Cartoons and visual perception, 1076 Cartwright, Mary L. (England, 1900-1998) and chaos theory, 971 CAs see Cellular automata Cascades of eddies, 997 Casimir, Hendrik B. G. (Netherlands, 1909-2000) and electron model, 1044 Casimir effect, 1062 and uniform spectra, 988 Casinos and randomness of dice, 969 Castel del Monte and nested architectural forms, 874 Catalan, Eugne C. (Belgium, 1814-1894) and iterated aliquot sums, 911 Catalan (Catalan's constant) and dimer problem, 959 from rational integral, 916 Catalan numbers (Binomial) and balanced parentheses, 989 and Cantor set, 890 and number of expressions, 897 Catalan's Conjecture, 1166 Catalysis repeatable randomness in, 976 Catalysts searching for, 1193 Catastrophe theory and biological form, 1004 and curved surfaces, 1009 discreteness from, 984 in rate equations, 984 summary of relations to, 12 Catch and context-free parsing, 1103 and pointer-based encoding, 1071 and testing invariances, 1022 and testing reversibility, 1017 Categoricity of axiom systems, 799, 1172, 1172' Category theory axioms for, 774 history of, 1154 and idealization of math, 1150 and spin networks, 1055 Catenary characteristic shape of, 1183 as exactly soluble, 1133 Caterpillars eating paths of, 1011 Catfish pigmentation pattern of, 426 Cats patterns in tortoiseshell, 1014

Cauchy functional equation, 953 Cauchy problem vs. constraints, 940 for general relativity, 1053 Cauchy surfaces, 1041 Cauliflower shape, 385 Causal invariance, 503 and concept of motion, 522, 529 and distributed computing, 1035 and emulated CAs, 1035 and gauge invariance, 527 for networks, 515 and quantum phenomena, 542 in simulating mobile automata, 1034 Causal networks and cosmology, 1056 curvature in, 534 difficulty of deducing, 493 as directed graphs, 1033 from evolution history, 1033 exponential growth in, 496 and general relativity, 1053 as Hasse diagrams, 1033 history of, 1032 implementation of, 1033 and information transmission, 520 invariance of, 503 loops in, 494 from mobile automata, 488, 1033 from multiway systems, 507 vs. multiway systems, 1037 in network evolution, 514 and perceived spacetime, 516 and posets, 1040 random, 1052 and replacement orders, 501 reversibility in, 495 slices through, 516 from substitution systems, 497 and torsion, 1052 Causality and Bell's inequalities, 1065 and free will, 1136 Causes compared to regularities, 352 Caustics and classical limits, 1059 discreteness from, 984 Cave paintings interpretation of, 839 purposes of, 1184 recognition of, 874 and visual perception, 1076 Cayley, Arthur (England, 1821-1895) and group theory, 1153 and iterated maps, 918 Cayley graphs, 938 cellular automata on, 930 and hyperbolic space, 1050 limiting geometry of, 1051 and network constraints, 1032 and sorting networks, 1142 Cayley's theorem as example theorem, 1159 CCITT compression standard, 1070 CCSR (Center for Complex Systems Research), xiii CDC 7600 computer, 854 CDMA and radio signals, 1188 and SETI, 1190 and shift registers, 1086 CDs (compact discs) bandwidth of, 1079 Ceiling (integer above) basic example of, 854 Celestial bodies and fate, 752 Celestial mechanics and Bohr atom, 1056 and computational irreducibility, 1133 difficulty of computation in, 1146 randomness in, 314 and three-body problem, 972 Cell complexes, 1050 Cell division in embryos, 1009 in networks, 1039 in plants, 1004

randomness in, 970 Cells (biological) adhesion of, 418 fossils of early, 1179 migration of, 418 programmed death of, 419 sensory, 577 shapes of, 1007 shapes of in plants, 404 types of, 1002 and Voronoi diagrams, 987 Cellular arrays, 877 see also Cellular automata Cellular automata 1D, 53-65 2D, 170-181 3D, 182-183 for 3n+1 problem, 904 5-neighbor 2D, 927 9-neighbor 2D, 927 additive see Additive cellular automata and aggregation, 994 from algebraic systems, 886 algorithmic information in, 1067 with associative rules, 956 asynchronous see Sequential cellular automata at-angle evolution of, 1118 attractors in, 275 axioms for, 794, 1168 and biological form, 1004 block see Block cellular automata blocking transformations in, 269, 701 Boolean formulas for, 616, 869, 1096 cardinality of, 1127 and causal invariance, 1035 and chaos history, 972 circles from, 334 classes of, 231-249 compared to Go, 875 and complexity in biology, 1001 and complexity research, 862 compositions of, 886 computational irreducibility in, 740 computational reducibility in, 744 computations in, 638-641 conservation laws in, 458, 1023 continuous, 155-160 continuous models of, 976 continuum limits of, 327 and cowrie patterns, 1012 and cryptography, 603 crystals growth and, 369 in d dimensions, 927 and data compression, 569 deducing rules for, 1089 density conservation in, 459 density transitions in, 341 difference patterns in 2D, 950 diffusion equation from, 1024 and dimensions of networks, 1030 for doubling, 832 elementary see Elementary cellular automata emulated by cyclic tag systems, 668 emulated by mobile automata, 664, 1112 emulated by other systems, 664-673 emulated by PDEs, 1129 emulated by substitution systems, 666, 1035 emulated by symbolic systems, 668, 1113 emulated by tag systems, 667, 1113 emulated by TMs, 665, 765, 1113 emulating logic circuits, 662, 1112 emulating mobile automata, 657, 1111 emulating multiplication, 661, 1112 emulating non-deterministic Turing machines, 1146 emulating other systems, 656-663 emulating register machines, 661, 1112 emulating substitution systems, 659, 1111 emulating Turing machines, 658, 1111 equivalences of rules, 883 evolution as P computation, 1142 experiments on, 112 factorization of, 956 for finding primes, 640, 1109 finite-size, 258

firing squad problem in, 1035 formulas for evolution of, 1134 fractals in, 25, 58 see also Additive cellular automata and fracture, 995 games between, 1105 Gray code sequence of, 352 from groups, 887 growth rules for 2D, 928 halting problems for, 1137 hand computation of, 42 hardware simulators for, 928 for hash codes, 622 history of, 48, 876 history of 2D, 928 history of my work on, 880 history of universal, 1115 ideal gas modelled by, 445 implementation of see CellularAutomaton implementation of 1D, 865 implementation of 2D, 927 implementation of general, 886, 927 implementation of totalistic, 886 invariant states in, 348 invertible see Reversible cellular automata as iterated bitwise maps, 921 of limited size, 258, 961 as mappings, 959 and math morphology, 1077 meaning of, 1183 memory of, 621 minimal for given sequences, 1186 and modelling history, 992 modelling with, 366 as models for crystal growth, 369 as models for fracture, 375 as models for space, 472 as models in finance, 431 as models of fluids see Cellular automaton fluids and models of traffic, 1014 with more colors, 107 from multiplication tables, 614 my first pictures of, 19, 864 my first use of, 17 Nand forms for, 619, 1096 and nanotechnology, 841 nearby rules in, 948 neighborhoods for 2D, 928 nesting in, 25, 58 see also Additive cellular automata on networks, 930, 936 non-computability in, 1128 NP completeness in, 767 number of symmetric, 886 origins of nesting in, 270 outcome of evolution in, 753 and P completeness, 1149 as parallel computers, 1109 and patterns on shells, 389 perceptrons for, 1102 with periodic initial conditions, 267 perturbations on, 325 phase transitions in, 339 and pigmentation patterns, 427 possible sequences from, 1186 from powers, 1093 for powers of 3, 903 probabilistic, 591 purpose in, 830 quantum analogs of, 1147 quantum-dot, 1193 for quantum systems, 1060 r=1 see Elementary cellular automata r=1/2, 806, 885 r=3/2, 1088 with random initial conditions, 224-228 random initial conditions for 2D, 246 random mutations in, 391 as randomness generators, 973 and reaction-diffusion, 427, 1013 and regular languages, 1138 repetitive behavior in, 267 reversible see Reversible cellular automata

rotational invariance in 2D, 473 as rule-based systems, 860 rule numbering for, 53 in sandpile models, 989 for Schrdinger equation, 1060 second-order see Reversible cellular automata and self-gravitating systems, 1021 self-reproducing, 1179 from semigroups, 887 sequences of rules in, 241 sequential, 1034 and shell patterns, 423, 1012 and shift registers, 975, 1088 smooth shapes in, 333 spectra of, 1082 speed of light in, 518 for squaring, 639, 1109 state space of, 869, 958 states vs. digit sequences, 950 as statistical tests, 596 structures in, 281-296 structures in as particles, 525 and study of form, 967 surjective, 280 symmetry in 2D, 927 synchronization in, 1035 as syntax checkers, 1109 technology applications of, 841 as texture generators, 578, 1078 thermodynamic behavior in, 443 three-color, 60 and tiling problems, 1139 time vs. space in, 481 as too rigid for ultimate theory, 467 totalistic see Totalistic cellular automata ultimate theory of physics and, 1026 undecidability in, 753, 1136, 1138 universal, 644-656, 675 universal 2D, 693 for Voronoi diagrams, 987 weighted totalistic, 427 Cellular automaton fluids, 378-382 as application of randomness, 1192 compressible flow in, 1000 detailed issues with, 999 and generalized fluid flow, 1000 history of, 999 my papers on, 882 on square grids, 999 Cellular logic systems, 877 Cellular spaces see Cellular automata Cellular structures and networks, 1039 from superposed waves, 984 Cellular telephones radio signals from, 1188 and shift registers, 1086 CellularAutomaton (in Mathematica), 867 framework for, 886 Cellulose and rigidity of plants, 1004 Celtic art, 43, 873 Census data and soundex system, 1100 as source of randomness, 968 Center for Complex Systems Research, xiii Center-surround cells in visual system, 1075 Central groupoids, 1171 Central Limit Theorem, 329, 976 and differences in 2D CAs, 950 history of, 977 and nesting, 990 and typical data, 1083 Central pattern generators (in animals), 1011 Ceremonial functions, 830 Cerenkov light, 984 CFD (computational fluid dynamics), 1000 Chain (unbranched) hydrocarbons, 1194 Chains in evaluation, 907 in hashing, 1100 in posets, 1041 Chains (metal) characteristic shapes of, 1183

Chaitin, Gregory J. (USA/Argentina, 1947- ) and algorithmic randomness, 1068 and experimental math, 899 in Preface, xiii and randomness in arithmetic, 1067 and universal objects, 1127 Chaitin-Kolmogorov complexity see Algorithmic information Chalk fracture in, 994 Champernowne, David G. (England, 1912-2000) and normal numbers, 912 Champernowne number, 913 continued fraction of, 915 Change of variables and amount of computation, 732 Changes in initial conditions, 252 Chaos (book), 971 Chaos theory artifacts in computations on, 1184 audio studies of, 1080 and Bianchi IX cosmology, 1053 and computational irreducibility, 1133 and computer experiments, 899 and continuous computation, 1128 and divergence of geodesics, 1049 executive toys illustrating, 1183 and financial markets, 1015 and fluid flow, 381 and free will, 752, 971, 1135 and hard sphere gases, 1022 history of, 971 and history of complexity research, 862 and history of numbers, 901 and history of randomness, 968 in iterated maps, 149-155 as limit on science, 1135 and Lyapunov exponents in CAs, 950 and my work on CAs, 19 in ODEs, 922 and origin of randomness, 304-314 and QCD, 1061 and quantum measurement, 1063 and recognizing chaos, 972 and solar system, 973 summary of relations to, 13 and thermodynamics, 1020 in three-body problem, 972 and turbulence, 997 and weather prediction, 1178 Chaperone molecules, 988 Characteristic polynomials and CA entropies, 958 Characteristica universalis (universal language), 1109, 1149 Charcoal in archeology, 1183 Charge conservation of, 527, 1022 and gauge invariance, 1045 quantization of, 528, 1046 Charge carriers and thermal noise, 968 Chartres maze at, 873 Chat, Hugues (France, 1961- ) and CA classes, 948 and continuous CAs, 922 ChebyshevT (Chebyshev polynomials) and logistic map formulas, 1098 Checkerboard generated by rule 250, 25 as updating pattern, 982 Cheetah pigmentation pattern of, 426 Chemical kinetics rate equations in, 984 Chemical networks and origin of life, 1179 Chemical perception, 1105 Chemical processes and animal growth, 419 and animal pigmentation, 427 and plant growth, 409 randomness from, 970 and reaction-diffusion, 1012, 1013 Chemical synthesis basic theory for, 1194

and nanotechnology, 1193 Chemistry as analog of science in this book, 843 arguments for atoms in, 876 and computational irreducibility, 1193 and definition of life, 825 interesting compounds in, 1194 of martian soil, 1179 networks with analogies in, 1040 success of math in, 859 Chemotherapy search for compounds for, 1193 Chervil (cow parsley) shape of wild, 385 Chess programs for, 1099 Chi-rho page (of Book of Kells), 873 Child development, 1102 history of, 1099 and language, 630 Children and animism, 1195 and concept of programs, 1177 and free will, 1136 and purposes in nature, 1185 randomness in games of, 968 recognition of intelligence in, 825 China Pascal's triangle in, 870 Chinese lattice, 874 Chinese Remainder Theorem and encoding of lists, 1120 and GCD array, 1093 Chips (integrated circuits) and Boolean minimization, 1097 and history of CAs, 877 and history of computing, 1108 and Nand, 1173 randomness sources on, 970 Chirality of molecules and definition of life, 1178 Chirping (of radar pulses), 1188 Chladni figures, 984 Chloroplast form of, 385 Choice axiom of, 774, 1154 Chomsky, Noam (USA, 1928- ) and generative grammars, 939 and models of language, 1104 and universals in language, 1181 Chomsky hierarchy (of formal languages), 939 Chords (musical), 917 in audio for CAs, 869 perception of, 587, 1079 waveforms of, 146 Chorus (natural radio signals), 1187 Christianity and free will, 1135 rejecting animism, 1195 Christoffel symbols, 1049 Chromatic number of networks, 1029 Chromaticity values, 1074 Chromosomes random distribution into, 970 Chunks (in short-term memory), 1102 Church, Alonzo (USA, 1903-1995) and Church's Thesis, 1125 and defining randomness, 1068 and lambda calculus, 1121 and models of computation, 879 and number combinators, 1122 and origins of universality, 1110 and undecidability, 1136 Church numerals in combinators, 1122 in symbolic systems, 897 Church-Rosser property, 1036 for combinators, 1122 for symbolic systems, 898 Church's Thesis, 1125 Cicero, M. Tullius (Italy, 106-43 BC) and free will, 1135 Cilia symmetries in, 1007 Ciphers, 598 see also Cryptography

Circadian rhythms, 1011 Circle method (in number theory), 1165 Circle packings, 349 history of, 985 with unequal circles, 350 Circles areas of, 1050 and constructible reals, 1129 lattice points inside, 910 in ornamental art, 873 Circuits (logic) and computational complexity theory, 1148 and DNF, 1095 layout of, 985 minimal sizes of, 1096, 1143 multilevel minimization in, 1096 and names for operators, 1173 as network system analog, 193 optimal blocks in, 1193 and P completeness, 1149 in practical computers, 1108 as representing functions, 1095 use of Nand in, 806 Circular (cyclic) boundary conditions, 255 Circular growth in 2D cellular automaton, 178, 979 in 2D random walks, 329 in aggregation systems, 331, 978 Circular reflector caustics from, 984 chaos from, 311 Circular shapes of heavenly bodies, 875 Circumference (of networks), 1029 Cirrus clouds pattern formation in, 947 Cissoids, 875 Citations for cellular automata, 878 in this book, 850 Cities growth patterns of, 1014 lack of nesting in, 874 pattern of lights of, 1187 Civet pigmentation pattern of, 426 Clam shell growth of, 414 Class 1 behavior, 231 and non-universality, 694 as origin of uniformity, 353 and reversible CAs, 1018 Class 2 behavior, 231 attractors in, 275 in class 3 systems, 269 and limited size, 255 and non-universality, 694 in reversible CAs, 1018 and transition graphs, 962 Class 3 behavior, 231 in 2D cellular automata, 248 attractors in, 278 class 2 behavior in, 269 in continuous CAs, 922 in early neural nets, 1102 and finite-size periods, 258 and fracture patterns, 995 localized structures in, 526 in power cellular automata, 1093 randomness in, 261 in reversible CAs, 1018 and transition graphs, 962 universality in, 698 see also Rule 30, 90, etc. Class 4 behavior, 231, 235-239 in 2D cellular automata, 248, 948 in 3-color 2-neighbor CAs, 1116 in 3-color totalistic CAs, 948 in 3D cellular automata, 949 attractors in, 278 as between class 2 and 3, 240 in continuous CAs, 244, 922 and defining complexity, 1069 and extraterrestrials, 839 fluctuations in, 960 and history of universality, 1115 number of structures in, 1047 particle collisions in, 540

in reversible CAs, 440, 1018 structures in, 281-296 and universality, 691 see also Rule 110, etc. Class field theory and almost integers, 915 Classes, theory of (in foundations of math), 1151, 1171 Classes of cellular automata, 231-249 chaos in, 250 entropies in, 960 frequencies of, 948 history of, 948 undecidability of, 948 Classes of systems universality of, 1123 Classification in biology, 1003 of plants, 1004 Classification schemes undecidability of, 1138 Classifier systems (sequential substitution systems), 894 Clausius, Rudolf J. E. (Germany, 1822-1888) and thermodynamics, 1019 Clay in archeology, 1183 self-replication in, 1179 Clebsch-Gordan coefficients and spin networks, 1055 Cliques and discrete packings, 987 Clock and Descartes on complexity, 861 as model of planets, 860 as seed for random generator, 970 Clocksprings characteristic shapes of, 1183 Closed curve as origin of repetition, 355 Closed forms, 1133 for 3-body problem, 972 for logistic map, 1098 for nested patterns, 610 see also Exact solutions see also Formulas Closed systems thermodynamics in, 455 Clothes parametrizations of, 1010 Clothoid curve, 418 Cloud seeding, 992 Cloud streets discreteness in, 984 as repetitive, 988 Clouds patterns of, 377 snowflake formation in, 372, 992 turbulent convection in, 1001 and weather prediction, 1178 Club of Rome (world models), 862 Cluster analysis and Voronoi diagrams, 987 Clusters in aggregation systems, 332, 978 in diffusion-limited aggregation, 994 in sphere packings, 986 Clusters (in networks), 510, 1039 total numbers of, 1029 CM-1 (Connection Machine) computer, 854 CMOS FETs and Nand, 1173 CNF (Conjunctive Normal Form), 1095 and satisfiability, 1146 Coal and interesting chemicals, 1194 Coarse-graining and defining randomness, 1068 history of, 1020 in thermodynamics, 448 Coarsening in cellular structures, 1039 Coastlines origin of shapes of, 1001 Coats of animals patterns on, 426 Cobol and history of computing, 1108 Coccolithophorid shape of, 385

Cocconi, Giuseppe (Italy/USA/Switzerland, 1914- ) and SETI, 1189 Cochlea and audio perception, 1079 Cochrane, Canada and patterns from space, 1187 Cockle shell growth of, 415 Codd, Edgar F. (USA, 1923-[2003]) and universal CAs, 1117 Code in notes to this book, 854 see also Programs Code (hash), 622 Code (machine), 101 Code 10 and my CA history, 882 Code 12 and Ulam systems, 929 Code 20 attractors in, 958 as candidate for universality, 1115 excluded blocks in, 958 halting probability in, 964 persistent structures in, 281, 284 transient lengths in, 964 Code 52 as candidate for universality, 692 phase transition in, 981 Code 52 (2D) domains in, 980 Code 111 (2D) domains in, 980 Code 177 randomness from, 64 Code 204 (2D) self-reproduction in, 824 Code 224 (2D) see Game of Life Code 237 nesting in, 65 Code 293 (2D) domains in, 980 Code 294 localized structures in, 526 Code 295 (2D) domains in, 980 Code 357 persistent structures in, 282, 286 from simple seed, 69 Code 420 as additive CA, 886 nesting in, 63 Code 468 (2D) isotropy in, 473 Code 600 repetition in, 62, 69 Code 686 and Ulam systems, 929 Code 686 (2D) isotropy in, 473 Code 746 (2D) circular shape from, 178, 334, 979 interior of, 929 isotropy in, 473 Code 843 and computational reducibility, 738 Code 867 examples based on, 868 Code 870 and computational reducibility, 738 Code 912 randomness in, 64 Code 920 (2D) domains in, 980 Code 942 (2D) nested pattern from, 171 slices through, 928 Code 948 nesting in, 65 Code 976 (2D) domains in, 336, 980 phase transition in, 340 Code 1041 complex behavior in, 66 Code 1329 persistent structures in, 282 from simple seed, 62

Code 1599 complex behavior in, 69, 70 and computational irreducibility, 738, 740 and free will, 750 Code 1635 complex behavior in, 66, 67 Code 1659 class 4 behavior in, 238 Code 1749 nesting in, 65 Code 1815 class 4 behavior in, 236 and universality, 692 Code 1893 localized structures in, 526 nested domains in, 360 Code 2007 class 4 behavior in, 237 Code 2040 randomness in, 64 Code 2043 class 4 behavior in, 239 Code 2049 complex behavior in, 66, 68 Code 2058 from simple seed, 69 Code 3702 (2D) examples based on, 868 Code 29408 shape produced by, 980 Code 174826 shape produced by, 929, 980 Code 175850 shape produced by, 980 Code 1004600 and undecidability, 754, 1137 Code books and cryptography, 1085 in sound compression, 1080 Codes error-correcting, 1101 Huffman, 564 Shannon-Fano, 1069 for totalistic CAs, 60 for Turing machines, 888 see also Cryptography Codewords in block encoding, 563 in error-correcting codes, 1101 self-delimiting, 1071 Coding theory algebraic, 1101 and block emulations, 1119 CoefficientList and Sierpinski pattern, 931 Coffee grains, 986 Cognition see Thinking Cogs characteristic shapes of, 1183 Cohen, Paul J. (USA, 1934- ) and continuum hypothesis, 1155 Coherence and definition of purpose, 830 and human will, 1136 Coherent states (in quantum theory), 1059 Coherent structures in QCD, 1061 in turbulent fluids, 997 see also Localized structures Coiling in animals, 413 Coin tossing randomness from, 305, 971 in water, 971 Coincidences and randomness, 967 Coins maze patterns on, 873 packing of identical, 349 Cold War and beliefs about SETI, 1191 Collagen repetitive structure of, 1003 Collatz problem, 904 see also 3n+1 problem Collect analog in Boolean formulas, 1095

Collective behavior general theory of, 3 Collectives and defining randomness, 1068 Collisions and chaos theory, 971 on inspirational cover, 17 law for in rule 110, 964 of planets, 973 in rule 110, 684 of structures in rule 110, 294 and thermodynamic model, 445 Colonization of galaxy, 839 Color and pictures in this book, 851 vision, 577, 1074 Color charges and QCD, 1057 Coloration of animals, 426, 1012 Coloring of networks, 1029, 1031 Combinatorial chemistry, 1193, 1194 Combinatorial optimization, 985 Combinatorial physics, 1027 Combinatorial topology, 1051 Combinatorics posets in, 1041 and substitution systems, 893 undecidability in, 1138 Combinators behavior of, 712 emulating cellular automata, 1123 emulating rule 110, 713 halting in, 897 history of, 1121 and history of universality, 1110 as idealization of math, 1150 and network systems, 936 as precursors to my work, 879 properties of, 1122 single universal, 1123 and symbolic systems, 102, 898 as symbolic systems, 711 as universal systems, 711 and variables in axioms, 1156 Combinatory algebra, 1172 Comet orbits and Gaussian distribution, 977 Common subexpressions in equation solutions, 945 in multilevel logic, 1096 and networks, 1040 and speedups, 1094 Communication animal, 1180 between computers, 1182 and definition of intelligence, 826 of effects in CAs, 252 with ETs in science fiction, 1191 theories of, 1181 and use of language, 630 Communications systems and data compression, 549, 560 and layout of networks, 1031 and shift registers, 878 simulations of, 968 and theories of communication, 1181 Commutative see Orderless Commutative Boolean functions, 1173 Commutative diagrams in category theory, 1154 Commutative groups axioms for, 773, 1153 decidability for, 1160 enumeration of, 805 and forcing by axioms, 1172 incompleteness of theory, 1160 shortest axioms for, 806 total number of, 1172 see also Abelian groups Commutative monoids enumeration of, 952 and generalized additivity, 952 Commutative rings, 1153 Commutative semigroups Cayley graphs of, 938 enumeration of, 805, 1173 word problems in, 1141

Commutativity of And, 817 and generalized additivity, 952 in operator systems, 801 of Or, 817 proof in Nand axioms, 775 and speedups in evolution, 1095 unprovability in reduced arithmetic, 800 Commuting operations and causal invariance, 1036 Companding in sound compression, 1080 Comparative anatomy and studies of form, 967 Competition between programs, 1105 in phase transitions, 983 Compile and CA evolution, 865 Compiled languages, 1109 Compiler generators, 1104 Compilers for functional languages, 898 optimal code searches in, 1193 and register machines, 1114 Compiling see Emulation Complement and finite set theory, 1171 Complement cellular automaton, 883 Complete bases for data, 1072 for logic, 1173 Complete graphs and planarity tests, 1045 Completely connected sets and discrete packings, 987 Completeness vs. Incompleteness Theorem, 1159 meanings of, 1152 in multiway systems, 782, 797 of number representations, 1070 in predicate logic, 1152 of real algebra, 1154 see also Universality (computational) Completeness theorem for equational logic, 1172 for first-order logic, 1167 Completion algorithms for, 1037 and automated proofs, 1158 in multiway systems, 782 Complex analysis and growth shapes, 1010 and S matrix theory, 1057 Complex bases, 932 Complex maps, 933, 933' Complex numbers and branching patterns, 1005 cellular automata based on, 886 as defining poset, 1041 and multiway systems, 939 not related to complexity, 1069 as number generalizations, 1168 powers of, 1094 and Sierpinski pattern, 931 Complex plane nested patterns in, 1093 Complex rules with simple behavior, 351 Complex systems research and defining complexity, 1069 history of, 20 organizational structure of, 862 Complexity adaptive value of, 1002 and animism, 845 applications of, 841 biology as prime example of, 383 in biology vs. thermodynamics, 1003 compared to randomness, 557 definition of, 557-559 and definition of life, 824 explaining in biology, 396 explaining phenomenon of, 735-737 formula size as measuring, 1096 history of definitions of, 1068 of human thinking, 628

of individual integers, 916 ingredients for, 1131 limited by natural selection, 392 as limited in biology, 391 of logic circuits, 1096 and lossy compression, 574 of math formulas, 1068 in mathematics, 772 in models, 364 mystery of in nature, 2 and Principle of Computational Equivalence, 719 of proofs in math, 777 from random initial conditions, 228 in rule 110, 39 and science, 861 as special to humans, 844 and theology, 861 of Turing machine rules, 1119 in Turing machines, 709 and universality, 643 Complexity engineering, 882 Complexity theory history of, 862 summary of relations to, 13 Complexity theory (computational complexity theory), 1142 Composite heads in symbolic expressions, 896 Compositeness of elementary particles, 1044 Composition (music) with substitution systems, 1080 Compositions of cellular automata, 886 of functions, 896 of polynomials in iterated maps, 1098 Compound leaves, 1005 Compounds chemical, 1194 Compressible flow (in fluids) see Supersonic flow Compression audio, 1080 of CA patterns, 562 and computational reducibility, 746, 1134 and computer communication, 1182 of data, 560-576 in extraterrestrial signals, 836 lossy, 572 maximal in block encoding, 1071 in mobile automata, 72, 488 and recognition of meaning, 827 software for, 1069 Compton scattering, 1060 Computability see Decidability Computable reals, 1128 Computation analog, 730, 1128 in cellular automata, 638-641 as conceptual foundation, 5 continuous, 730, 1128 efficiency of, 758 math notation for, 1182 minimal systems for specific, 832 not for definite tasks, 715 notion of, 637-714 reversible, 1018 and thermodynamic behavior, 444 thermodynamics of, 1018, 1020 universality as basis for study of, 674 see also Computing see also Programs Computation universality history of, 1109 see also Universality Computational complexity theory, 758, 1142 and computational irreducibility, 1132 of computing pi, 912 and defining randomness, 1068 and definition of complexity, 1069 of math function evaluation, 1134 and Principle of Computational Equivalence, 766 summary of relations to, 14 Computational Equivalence, Principle of, 715-846 see also Principle of Computational Equivalence Computational fluid dynamics, 1000 and Navier-Stokes, 996 Computational geometry

and nearest neighbors, 1101 recursive algorithms in, 1142 and Voronoi diagrams, 987 Computational irreducibility, 737-750 and chemistry, 1193 and complexity, 748 and computational complexity theory, 1148 and epistemology, 1196 and extraterrestrial trade, 1191 and free will, 750 and Gdel's Theorem, 788 history of, 1132 and human responsibility, 1136 and intractability, 758 introduction to, 6 and limits of science, 1135 in mathematics, 779 my discovery of, 881 in operator systems, 815 origins of, 1133 and Principle of Computational Equivalence, 738 in QED, 1060 and three-body problem, 972 ubiquity of, 745 and weather prediction, 1178 Computational learning theory, 1102 Computational neuroscience and visual perception, 1076 Computational reducibility, 738 in additive CAs, 1094 and associative evolution, 1094 as basis for existing science, 741 and compression, 746 and engineering, 829 and exact solutions, 1133 examples of, 744, 747 in network of theorems, 821 and regularities, 746 Computational science, 44 Computational work and computational irreducibility, 739 Computer-aided design (CAD) and discrete surfaces, 1050 Computer algebra and computer experiments, 899 and Feynman diagrams, 1057 and gravity theory, 1048 see also Algebraic computation Computer art, 11 Computer-assisted proofs see Automated theorem proving Computer experiments basic, 23 and chaos theory, 899 and computational irreducibility, 1132 and continuous systems, 167 and ergodicity, 1020 and iterated maps, 919 lack of meaningful, 898 and learning about this book, 856 methodology of, 108-113 my first on CAs, 880 my need to do more, 20 on natural selection, 1002 problems with chaos in, 919 and solitons, 899 and symbolic computation, 899 and theorems, 899 for this book, 46, 111, 854 Computer graphics and discrete surfaces, 1050 and history of modelling, 992 and models of plant growth, 1005 and models of shell shapes, 1008 and nesting, 934 and substitution systems, 893 surface roughness in, 996 textures in, 1077 use of randomness in, 841, 1192 Computer interfaces graphical vs. language, 631 history of, 1102 Computer languages and context-free grammars, 939 and history of computing, 1108 and human thinking, 627 influence on thinking of, 1181 logic primitives in, 1173

and P equivalence, 764 redundancy in, 1086 and universality, 642 see also Languages (computer) Computer programs in notes, 853 see also Programs Computer science education and this book, 855 structure of algorithms in, 990 summary of relations to, 10, 863 undecidability in, 1138 Computer simulations see Simulations Computerized data taking, 992 Computers communication between, 1182 and definition of intelligence, 822 and discoveries in this book, 46 free will for, 1135 future of, 1196 future technology of, 841 historical cost of using, 45 and history of CAs, 876 physical components in, 1195 quantum, 1147 randomness in, 970 and rule-based systems, 860 and universality, 642 used in creation of book, 854 Computing causal invariance in distributed, 1035 history of, 1107 intuition from, 40, 46, 872 number representations in, 1070 see also Computation Concatenation as semigroup operation, 938, 1172 Concatenation sequences, 913 block statistics in, 594 continued fractions for, 915 difficulty of CAs producing, 1186 and pointer-based encoding, 1072 sounds from, 1080 Conchoids (math curves), 875 Concurrent systems and causal invariance, 1035 Condensates topological defects in, 1045 Conditional entropies and texture discrimination, 1077 Conditional probabilities and Bayes's theorem, 1083 Cone cells in color vision, 1074 Cone shells growth of, 414 neurotoxins from, 1011 patterns on, 423 Cones in Lorentzian spaces, 1051 Confinement in QCD, 1061 Confluence, 1036 for combinators, 1122 and generalized aggregation rules, 979 getting using completion, 1037 in multiway systems, 507 in symbolic systems, 1113 see also Canonical forms see also Church-Rosser property Conformal mappings and flatness in growth, 1007 and hypergeometric functions, 1092 and transformation of biological forms, 1010 Conformal transformations and gauge invariance, 1045 Conformations of proteins, 1184 Congruence in axioms of geometry, 1154 Conifers branching in, 1004 Conjugacy in additive systems, 952 and CA conservation laws, 1023 in iterated maps, 921 Conjugate systems and reversible cellular automata, 961 Conjunction

as name for And, 1173 Conjunctions in human languages, 1173 starting sentences with, 849 as words for logic functions, 1173 Conjunctive Normal Form (CNF), 1095 and resolution method, 1157 Connected clusters in percolation theory, 983 Connection Machine computer my use of, 854, 881 Connections (on fiber bundles), 1045 Connectives possible Boolean, 806 in well-formed formulas, 1150 Connectivity of branching patterns, 1006 in network evolution, 1039 of networks, 1029 Conscious thinking and free will, 1135 in visual perception, 582 Consciousness and quantum theory, 1058, 1063 see also Intelligence see also Thinking Conservation laws, 458-464 in cellular automaton fluids, 379 finding in CAs, 1022 for particles in 2D CA, 445 in PDEs, 923 in physics, 1022 for quantum probabilities, 1059 in three-body problem, 972 topological, 1045 undecidability of, 1138 for vector quantities, 1024 Conserved quantities from algebraic structures, 1023 Conserved traits, 395 Consistency of arithmetic, 1160, 1163 of axiom systems, 1168 in multiway systems, 797 Consistency of action and human will, 1136 Consonants sound of, 1079 and soundex system, 1100 Constancy color, 1074 Constancy (K) combinator, 1121 Constants mathematical, 136-144 in operator systems, 1169 Constants of motion in three-body problem, 972 see also Conserved quantities Constellations patterns of, 583, 1187 and SETI, 1189 Constraints in 1D systems, 940 axioms as, 803 as basis for uniformity, 354 biological schemes for satisfying, 985 and concept of purpose, 829, 1185 in correspondence systems, 1139 Darwinian evolution and, 386 defining networks using, 483 as determining spacetime networks, 482 difficulties in modelling with, 368 enumerating cases satisfying, 959 and mathematical thinking, 1177 vs. mechanisms, 940 in multiway systems, 766 as NP problems, 1142 on operators, 1172 PDEs as, 923 for periodic behavior in CAs, 954 and Principle of Computational Equivalence, 729 probability of violating, 343 problem of satisfying, 342-351 producing complexity with, 351 proofs as systems based on, 1157 and quasicrystal growth, 994 in random systems see Markov random fields

rule 30 repetition as, 266 satisfied by operators, 805 self-assembly and, 1011, 1193 systems based on, 210-221 undecidability of satisfying, 756 and undecidability of tiling, 1139 Constructibility and intuitionism, 1158 Constructible reals, 1129 Constructions of 48-gon, 873 vs. computer experiments, 108 and purposes, 830 rules in geometrical, 875 of universal CA, 648, 675 Constructive proofs and computer experiments, 899 Consumer electronics use of randomness in, 1192 use of statistics in, 1082 Contact (movie) extraterrestrial contact in, 1190 Context and recognition of purpose, 830 and theories of communication, 1181 Context-free languages, 939, 1103 math notation as, 1182 parentheses and, 989 patterns generated by, 1091 PCP and, 1139 pumping lemma for, 944 random, 1084 rule 184 as recognizing, 1109 undecidability in, 1137 Context-sensitive languages, 939 Continental drift as non-math theory, 859 Continued fraction map (Gauss map), 914, 955 Continued fractions, 143, 914-915 and billiard systems, 971 computation of, 914 and digital slopes, 916 and encoding of reals, 1127 generalized, 914 history of, 915 and iterated maps, 919 and multiplication systems, 903 and Pell equation, 944 and phyllotaxis, 411 as precursors to my work, 878 and quadratic Diophantine equations, 1164 and sine curves, 147 ContinuedFraction, 914 see also Continued fractions Continuity and axioms of topology, 1155 of CA mappings, 869 and confusion about Gdel's Theorem, 1132 and the continuum, 1127 and difficulty of computer experiments, 899 discreteness from, 337 in genetic programs, 1002 in geometry axioms, 1154 and mathematical intuition, 925 in natural selection and engineering, 394 nesting as historical counterexamples in, 934 origins of, 327-336, 463-464 origins of in fluids, 379 and Principle of Computational Equivalence, 729 of space, 472 Continuous cellular automata, 155-160 additive, 1092 cardinality of, 1128 classification of, 948 history of, 921 implementation of, 921 as models of boiling, 994 as models of phyllotaxis, 1007 and probabilistic rules, 976 for quantum mechanics, 1059 with random initial conditions, 243 Continuous computation, 730, 1128 Continuous functions additivity of, 953 cellular automaton maps as, 961 evaluation of, 1134 number of, 1127 Continuous models

of crystal growth, 993 of fracture, 995 Continuous Pascal's triangle, 922 Continuous systems and Church's Thesis, 1126 vs. discrete systems, 167 emulating discrete, 731, 1129 isotropy in, 980 in physics, 729 and undecidability, 1138 Continuous truth values, 1175 Continuous variables invention of, 901 models with, 368 Continuum, the, 1127 Continuum equations see Partial differential equations Continuum Hypothesis, 1127 in set theory, 1155 and truth from incompleteness, 1167 unprovability of, 1163 Continuum limits different forms of, 1023 for diffusion equation, 1024 of networks, 1030 Contours in landscapes, 1001 in visual perception, 578 Contractive mappings, 277, 959 Contradictions and proofs of undecidability, 1137 as scheme for proofs, 1177 Control theory and artificial intelligence, 1099 and complex behavior, 841 and cybernetics, 862 time series in, 1083 Convection, 1000 and history of pattern, 947 maze patterns in, 1013 patterns of, 377 repeatable randomness in, 976 repetitive cells in, 988 and snowflake development, 372 Convention in languages, 1181 Convergence of fractal dimensions, 933 of isotropy in finite differences, 980 of iterated maps, 918 of metric expansion, 1050 in multiway systems, 507, 1036 in natural selection, 392 in negotiation processes, 430 of PDE solutions, 924 in plant phyllotaxis, 410 Convergent evolution, 397 Convergent series as exact solutions, 1133 Conversation and defining intelligence, 1178 Convolution in visual perception, 1075, 1076 see also ListConvolve Convolutional codes and CA encodings, 1119 Conway, John H. (England/USA, 1937- ) and 2D Turing machines, 930 and arithmetic recurrences, 1115 and Game of Life, 877, 880, 949 and iterated run-length encoding, 905 and non-periodic tilings, 943 in Preface, xiii and recursive sequences, 907 and universality of Life, 1117 Cook, Matthew (USA, 1970- ) and cyclic tag systems, 895 and polyomino tiling, 943 in Preface, xii and rule 110, 1115 Cook, Stephen A. (USA/Canada, 1939- ) and NP completeness, 1143 Cooking recipes, 1193 Cooley-Tukey transform, 1074 Cooperation theories of evolution of, 1104 Coordinate singularities in general relativity, 1048, 1053 Coordinates

and multiway strings, 1036 for network nodes, 478 Copernican astronomy and extraterrestrial life, 1180 and history of gravity, 1047 vs. ideas of this book, 844 Copy operations and Nand expressions, 1096 Coral as animal artifacts, 1184 Coral reefs symmetry of, 1187 Coralbells (plant), 1006 Crdoba, Great Mosque of, 873 Core collapse in self-gravitating systems, 1021 Core memory of early computer, 864 Cores of elementary particles, 527 Corn structure of, 385 Corner-overlapping patterns, 941 Corners in code 976, 980 Cornu spiral, 418 Corollaries defining features of, 1176 Coronas (in splashes), 988, 1000 Corpuscular theories, 876, 1024 Correlation entropy, 959 Correlations in 2D Ising model, 982 and Bell's inequalities, 1064 between digits, 902 and CA difference patterns, 950 in CA evolution, 953 in class 3 CAs, 949 and defining communication, 827 and defining complexity, 1069 in DNA sequences, 1184 in H theorem, 1020 in human languages, 1086 in noise with given spectrum, 969 and non-standard diffusion processes, 1024 in phase transitions, 989 in quantum theory, 543 in random environments, 304 and random networks, 1039 in random patterns, 584 and randomness tests, 595, 1085 and spectra, 587, 1082 in stirring and shaking, 969 in visual textures, 1078 see also ListCorrelate Correspondence systems (PCP) NP completeness in, 1145 and undecidability, 757, 1139 Corrugation in ammonite septa, 1008 in animal development, 418 characteristic shape of, 1183 in tissue sheets, 413 Cortex auditory, 1079 sensorimotor, 1099 visual, 580 Cos (cosine) and area of circle on sphere, 1050 and Bell's inequalities, 1064 and limit of 6j symbols, 1055 and logistic map formulas, 1098 and nested radicals, 915 and tent map, 919 Cosets and state transition graphs, 963 Cosh in solution of catenary, 1133 in solution of logistic map, 1098 Cosine transform in data compression, 1070, 1074 Cosmas (Italy, ~1210 - ~1235) and mosaic patterns, 873 Cosmati mosaic work, 873 Cosmic microwave background and alignment of time, 1022 as analog of ether, 1042 and galaxy formation, 1021

and history of gravity, 1048 and initial conditions, 1026 origin of uniformity of, 1055 as source of radio noise, 1187 Cosmic rays particles produced by, 1044, 1047 as possible artifacts, 1187 Cosmological principle (uniformity of universe), 1055 Cosmological term (in Einstein equations), 1052 and inflationary universe, 1055 and vacuum solutions, 1053 Cosmology and Anthropic Principle, 1185 basic issues in, 1055 and Einstein equations, 1053 and ether in, 1042 formation of galaxies in, 1021 and history of gravity, 1048 my work in, 17, 864 network models of, 1056 and Second Law, 1020, 1021 and simple initial conditions, 1026 topological defects in, 1045 see also Universe Cot (cotangent) and shift map, 919 Coth continued fraction for, 914 and solution of Ising model, 982 Countable models of operator systems, 1172 Counter Turing machine acting as, 888 Counter machines (register machines), 97-102, 896 Counterfactuals (quantum values), 1064 Counterpoint rules of musical, 875 Countries of people in the index, 852 Coupled map lattices, 155-160, 922 see also Continuous cellular automata Coupling constants in quantum field theory, 1057 and renormalization group, 955 Coupon collector's test, 1085 Courant condition (for PDEs), 924 Covalent forces and virtual electrons, 1060 Cover of inspirational book, 17, 864 of this book, 851 Covers in Boolean minimization, 1095 Cow parsley shape of, 385 Cowe, Russell J. (UK, 1946- ) and shell patterns, 1012 Cowfish pigmentation pattern of, 426 Cowrie shells growth of, 415, 1008 patterns on, 1012 CP violation (time reversal violation), 1019 CPT invariance, 1019 Crackling in natural radio emissions, 1187 Cracks nesting of, 988 randomness of, 374 Craters circular shapes of, 1187 as landscape elements, 1001 Creation myths as models, 992 Creeping flow, 377 Crete maze at Knossos on, 873 Criminal law free will in, 1135 Crinkling patterns of, 996 Critical exponent in 2D Ising model, 982 Critical pairs in completion algorithms, 1037 Critical phenomena and nesting, 989 and phase transitions, 981

and scale invariance, 955 Crossovers in genetics, 970 Crosstalk and Walsh functions, 1073 Crowds motion of people in, 1014 Crumpling patterns of, 996 Crushing (of solids), 995 nesting in, 988 and sphere packing, 986 Crust (of Earth) and origin of life, 1179 patterns on, 1001 Crutchfield, James P. (USA, 1955- ) and Markov models, 1084 in Preface, xiii Cryptanalysis of additive cellular automata, 601 and dead languages, 1185 and defining randomness, 1068 history of, 1086 and history of computing, 1107 of linear congruential generators, 1089 and meaning of programs, 1183 and rule 30 NP completeness, 770 of shift registers, 1087 of Vigenre ciphers, 599 Cryptography, 598-606 as application of randomness, 1192 and defining randomness, 1068 with digit sequences, 1089 electronic randomness for, 968 as example of technology, 840 and hashing, 1100 history of, 1085 and history of complexity, 49 as process based on rules, 875 quantum, 1058 random keys for, 970 and recognizing meaning, 827 and shift registers, 878, 1086 Crystal growth, 369-373 history of, 993 models of, 993 Crystal lattices systems on, 169, 929 Crystals as artificial-looking, 828 Brillouin zones in, 988 diffraction patterns in, 1082 effect of seeds on, 992 formation as phase transition, 983 fracture in, 374 hopper, 993 lack of continuum limit for, 327 as not artifacts, 1183 randomness in shapes of, 373 as self-organizing systems, 824 shapes of, 929 trivalent network and, 1030 Csc (cosecant) and Moire patterns, 1078 Cube-free sequences, 944 Thue-Morse and, 890 Cube network, 476 transformed to tetrahedron, 1038 Cube roots and Cantor set generating function, 1092 digits of, 141 Cubes equations involving sums of, 945 produced by CAs, 1186 Cubic equations and computational reducibility, 1132 Diophantine, 1164 as exactly soluble, 1133 iterative solutions to, 1101 size of solutions to, 945 Cubic graphs see Networks, trivalent Cubic lattices cellular automata on, 182 class 4 rules on, 949 as crystal lattices, 929 random walks on, 977 Voronoi diagrams for, 987

Cuboid and 3D cellular automata, 927 Cucumber leaves, 1006 Cultural relativism not connected to relativity, 1042 Culture and character of perception, 635 and defining intelligence, 1178 and recognizing intelligence, 825 and response to events, 827 Curie point in Ising model, 981 Curl and vector potential, 1045 Curry, Haskell B. (USA, 1900-1982) and combinators, 898 Currying and combinators, 1122 of function arguments, 896 Curvature of curves, 1049 curves defined by, 418, 1009 in differential geometry, 1048 of fronts in crystal growth, 993 gauge fields as, 1045 of growing tissue, 1007 higher-dimensional, 1009 in non-integer dimensions, 1051 in plant growth, 412 in rivers, 1001 singularities in, 1053 Curves curvature of, 1049 Lissajous, 917 mathematical, 145-148 space-filling, 893 Cusps in light caustics, 984 Custering in 2D cellular automata, 877 Cut elimination in proofs, 1155 Cuttlefish communication by, 1181 pigmentation pattern of, 426 Cybernetics and biology, 1004 and computational irreducibility, 1132 and definition of complexity, 1068 and free will for machines, 1135 history of, 862 and models of thinking, 1099 as precursor to my work, 879 and self-reproduction, 1179 summary of relations to, 14 Cycles in attractors, 958 longest in networks, 1029, 1031 in random networks, 963 and repetition periods, 950 in shift rules, 963 shortest in networks, 1029 in state transition graphs, 961 Cyclic see Repetitive Cyclic addition systems, 255, 950 state transition graphs for, 961 Cyclic boundary conditions in CA implementation, 866 periods in CAs with, 950 Cyclic groups decomposition into, 1172 Cyclic multiplication, 257, 950 state transition graphs for, 961 Cyclic negation in multivalued logic, 1175 Cyclic shift instructions, 951 Cyclic subgroups and nested patterns, 956 Cyclic tag systems, 95 emulated by rule 110, 678 emulated by tag systems, 1113 emulating cellular automata, 668 emulating tag systems, 669, 1116 generalizations of, 895 implementation of, 895 mechanical version of, 895 and pointer-based encoding, 1071 random initial conditions in, 949

randomness generation in, 920 vs. shift registers, 1088 Cyclones (in weather), 1178 Cyclotomic (cyclotomic polynomials) and shift register periods, 975 and solution of logistic map, 1098 Cylinders in curved space, 1050 and definition of Ricci tensor, 534 fluid flow past, 996 Cylindrical algebraic decomposition, 1154 Cypress leaves, 1006 D0L systems, 82-85 see also Substitution systems, neighbor-independent D1L systems, 85-87 da Vinci, Leonardo (Italy, 1452-1519) and fluid turbulence, 997 and geometrical rules, 878 and math in science, 859 and phyllotaxis, 1007 and rule-based pictures, 875 and theory of lunes, 873 Daedalus as designer of maze, 873 Daisies phyllotaxis in, 409 regular form of, 385 Damping and attractors, 957 of fluid perturbations, 381 Dante Alighieri (Italy, 1265-1321) and rhyming schemes, 875 Dappled patterns from 2D cellular automata, 428 Darwin, Charles R. (England, 1809-1882) and Origin of Species, 1001 and origins of complexity, 861, 861' Darwinian evolution, 386 summary of relations to, 14 see also Natural selection Data analysis of, 548 artifacts in, 1184 information content of, 1181 recognizing meaning in, 826 Data compression, 560-576 history of, 1069 lossy, 572 practicalities of, 1069 two-dimensional, 567 see also Compression Data Encryption Standard (DES), 1085 and history of CAs, 960 as randomness generator, 975 Data processing and history of computing, 1107 Data structures and network systems, 936 Databases as analogy for memory, 621 of chemical compounds, 1194 Dataflow systems and causal invariance, 1035 Dates conventions for in book, 851 Daubechies wavelets, 1074 Davis, H. Chandler (USA/Canada, 1926- ) and dragon curves, 893 Davis, Martin D. (USA, 1928- ) and Diophantine equations, 1161 in Preface, xiii Davis-Putnam rules, 1171 Dawn chorus natural radio signals and, 1187 DCT (discrete cosine transform), 1074 de Broglie, Louis-V.-P.-R. (France, 1892-1987) and wave-particle duality, 1056 de Bruijn, Nicolaas G. (Netherlands, 1918- ) and maximal sequences, 1089 de Bruijn networks, 940 and CA attractors, 957 and local conservation laws, 1023 for shift registers, 1089 and sorting networks, 1142 de Moivre, Abraham (France/England, 1667-1754) and Gaussian distribution, 977 de Morgan's law (in logic), 817 Dead languages, 1184

Dead time in randomness generators, 303 Deadlocks using randomness to avoid, 841, 1192 Dean's Eye cathedral window, 873 Debugging intuition from, 872 and proofs about programs, 1168 Decidability, 753 see also Undecidability Decimal numbers, 116 recurring, 138 Decimation in additive CA patterns, 955 and self-similarity in rule 90, 870 Decimation systems, 909 and firing squad problem, 1035 Decision analysis and causal networks, 1033 Decision making and game theory, 1104 Decision problem and history of universality, 1110 Decision procedures see also Algorithms see also Undecidability Deck of cards perfect shuffle of, 974 Decoding see Cryptanalysis Decoherence (in quantum mechanics), 1063 Decompilers, 1184 Deconstructionism and limitations of science, 1196 and postmodernism, 1196 and theories of communication, 1181 Decorative art, 43, 872 see also Art Decrement function combinators for, 1122 Decrement-jump instructions in register machines, 97 Dedekind, J. W. Richard (Germany, 1831-1916) and axioms for arithmetic, 1152 and categoricity of models, 1172 and primitive recursion, 907 and real numbers, 1153 DedekindEta difficulty of evaluating, 1134 Deduction automated mathematical, 1157 of cellular automaton rules, 1089 in mathematics, 775 of rules from data, 592 see also Intelligence see also Perception Deep inelastic scattering, 1044 Deep theorem definition of, 1176 Defects as localized structures, 990 topological, 1045 Deficient numbers, 910 Definability of operations in arithmetic, 1163 Definitions and character of principles, 1126 of existing sciences, 863 of intelligence, 822, 1178 of life, 823, 1178 of mathematics, 859 of purpose, 829 Deformable objects packing of, 988 Degrees of unsolvability (arithmetic hierarchy), 1126, 1139 Dehn, Max W. (Germany, 1878-1952) and word problem for groups, 1141 Deism, 1196 Deity see God del and isotropy, 980 Delay equations and road traffic flow, 1014 Delay lines and history of CAs, 877 Delayed choice experiments, 1059 Delete

and Boolean minimization, 1095 and recursive sequence, 906 DeleteCases and minimal finite automata, 957 and pattern-avoiding sequences, 944 Delimiters balanced and nesting, 989 Delta functions and spectra, 1081 Deltas (of rivers) nesting in, 988 Democratic hypothesis (in particle physics), 1044 Democritus (Greece, ~460 - ~370 BC) and atomism, 876 and extraterrestrial life, 1180 Demodulation (substitution) in proofs, 1155 Dendrimers, 1194 Dendrites in nerve cells, 1075 Dendritic crystal growth, 371, 993 Dendritic erosion patterns, 1001 Dendritic patterns in 2D cellular automata, 171 in 2D substitution systems, 188 Denominators and continuous CA background, 922 minimal in rational numbers, 950 Densest packings, 986 Density of circle packings, 986 of difficult problems, 1147 in percolation theory, 983 in tag systems, 894 of universal systems, 1126 Density in cellular automata, 265, 953 conservation of, 458 diffusion of in block, 463 estimates of, 953 as non-computable, 1128 phase transition in, 341 undecidability of limiting, 1138 Density perturbations and sound in fluids, 1000 Dentin mammoth ivory, 873 Denudation (in landscapes), 1001 Deposition and landscape structure, 1001 see also Aggregation systems Depth for combinator expressions, 1123 and Horton stream order, 1001 and symbolic systems, 897 Depth-first recursion in substitution systems, 1033 Depth-first traversal of backtracking trees, 1089 Depths of logic expressions, 1096, 1096', 1148 Derandomization of randomized algorithms, 1192 Derivations in formal languages, 1103 in mathematics, 775 Derivative (differential derivative) as composite head, 896 and relation to DigitCount, 902 Derivatives (financial), 1015 DES (Data Encryption Standard), 1085 and history of CAs, 960 as randomness generator, 975 Desborough Mirror, 873 Descartes, Ren (France/Netherlands, 1596-1650) and complexity in biology, 861 and discrete space, 1027 and equiangular spirals, 1008 and snowflakes, 992 and sums of three squares, 910 and theoretical biology, 1003 and Turing test, 1099 Deserts landscape in, 1001 Design in nature and origin of complexity, 861 and teleology, 1185 Det (determinant) and Hadamard matrices, 1073

metric related to volume by, 1050 and NC computations, 1149 and polynomial time, 1146 and testing for dimension, 1031 and zeta functions, 959 Detachment rule in axioms, 1150 and proofs, 1155 Determinism and fate, 967 and free will, 750, 1135 and Gdel's Theorem, 1132 vs. probability in models, 588 Deterministic chaos recognizing, 972 see also Chaos theory Deterrents, 1136 Deutsch, David (England, 1953- ) in Preface, xiii and quantum computers, 1147 Development (in biology), 400-428 see also Growth Developmental constraints on forms of organisms, 387 Developmental pathways invariance of in evolution, 395 /dev/random (randomness pool), 970 DFA (deterministic finite automaton), 957 see also Finite automata Diabolus in musica (tritone), 917 Diagnosis and causal networks, 1033 Diagonal arguments, 1128 and Ackermann function, 907 and computational complexity, 1143 and the continuum, 1127 Diagonal bands in rule 30, 28 Diagonalization and Church's Thesis, 1125 and growth rates, 1162 and recursive functions, 908 Diameters of networks, 1029 Diamond shape generated by CAs, 171 Diatoms forms of, 385, 1011 Dice and legal randomness, 1068 randomness from, 305, 968, 969, 971 Dicotyledons (plants) branching in, 1004 symmetries in, 1007 Dictionaries as lookup mechanism, 622 Dictionary-based encoding, 565, 1071 Difference approximations see Finite differences Difference engines, 1107 Difference patterns in CAs, 251 probabilistic estimates of, 953 properties of, 949 for reversible rules, 1018 Difference tables patterns in, 1091 Difference vectors in multiway system states, 937 Differential analyzer, 1107 Differential equations for almost periodic functions, 917 attractors in, 961 compression of time in, 732 and continuous computation, 732, 1129 and curves from curvature, 1009 exact solutions to, 1133 existence of solutions to, 940 and financial markets, 1015 for fluid convection, 971 for GegenbauerC, 1091 for geodesics, 1049 machines for solving, 1107 modelling with, 366 for noisy vacuum tubes, 971 numbers generated from, 916 ordinary, 922 partial, 161-164 renormalization group, 955 second-order CAs and, 1018

and special functions, 1092 and time series, 1083 and universality, 1129 and weather prediction, 1178 see also Partial differential equations Differential geometry, 1048 and shell growth, 1009 Differential growth in animals, 421 and folding, 417 history of, 1010 in horns, 413 in shells, 414 Differentiation (biological) in biological evolution, 386 Differentiation (mathematical) and computability, 1128 Diffie, Whitfield (USA, 1944- ) and cryptography, 1089 in Preface, xiii Diffraction exactly soluble problems in, 1133 and image processing, 1077 path integral theory of, 1061 patterns from, 1082 Diffuse reflection and surface roughness, 996 Diffusion and biological growth, 419 in block cellular automata, 463 in continuous CAs, 156 and crystal growth, 993 and harmonic growth, 1008 in model of boiling, 994 non-standard, 1024 of plant hormones, 404 in plant phyllotaxis, 1007 Diffusion equation, 163 derivation of in CAs, 1024 emerging from block CAs, 464 minimal approximation to, 1024 origin of, 922 as parabolic equation, 940 and path integrals, 1057 and random walks, 978 and Schrdinger equation, 1060 Diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA), 979, 994 and biological form, 1004 and lightning, 995 and randomness tests, 1085 Digestive systems branching structures in, 1008 Digit count sequences, 905 Digit reversal systems, 125-127, 905 Digit sequences, 116-127, 136-142 and 2D substitution systems, 931 amplification of, 308 arbitrary operations on, 1091 and arithmetic coding, 1071 and chaos theory, 149-155, 307-314 in complex bases, 933 of complex numbers, 1094 computable, 1128 and computational reducibility, 743, 747 computing nth elements of, 912 in computing powers, 615 conversion between bases, 1094 correlations within, 902 cryptography with, 1089 and data compression, 560 and diagonal arguments, 1128 evidence for randomness in, 912 and fast evolution rules, 1094 Fibonacci, 560 and formulas for nesting, 608 history of, 902, 1182 and history of chaos theory, 971 and history of computing, 1107 implementation of, 901 in iterated maps, 149 leading elements in, 914 and linear congruential generators, 318 for mathematical functions, 1134 multiplicative, 902 and multiway systems, 207 for negative numbers, 942 nested, 913 non-locality in, 124

in non-periodic tiling pattern, 219 normal, 912 operations in terms of, 731 as origins of nesting, 358 of pi, 136 of pi and universe, 1027 of pi as precursors, 878 on Pioneer 10 plaque, 1189 of powers, 614, 903 as procedures for making numbers, 143 randomness in, 967 of rational numbers, 138 reversal and Walsh functions, 1073 reversal of, 905 see also Digit reversal systems robustness of, 920 self-delimiting, 560 of square roots, 139 and substitution systems, 891 for transfinite numbers, 1162 and trees, 891 and Turing machines, 760 see also Sequences Digital computation compared to analog, 730, 1128 Digital electronics as avoiding noise, 302 and practical computers, 1108 Digital filters (FIR) and sequential CAs, 1035 Digital image processing see Image processing DigitCount, 902 and 3n+1 problem, 904 and additive CAs, 1092 basic example of, 854 and computational reducibility, 747 in densities from rule 90, 953 as inverse recursive sequence, 906 and nested networks, 1037 and operator representations, 916 and recursive sequences, 131, 906 and rule 90 pattern, 870 and solution of logistic map, 1098 and Thue-Morse sequence, 890 Dilation, time see Time dilation Dilation (in mathematical morphology), 1077 Dimensional analysis and fluid flow, 996 and Kolmogorov spectrum, 997 and Planck length, 1027 Dimensions above 3 and reality in math, 860 of attractors in CAs, 958 in axioms of geometry, 1154 definitions of, 1030 differential geometry of non-integer, 1051 fractal, 933 general effects of, 170 in network systems, 936 of networks, 478, 533 of physical space, 515 of posets, 1041 Dimer problem, 959 Diminished fifth curve of, 146 Diophantine equations and algorithmic randomness, 1067 assuming randomness in, 1165 and axiom systems, 1166 as constraint systems, 944 cubic, 1164 enumeration of, 1165 Hilbert's Tenth Problem and, 1161 history of, 1164 largest solutions for quadratic, 1164 linear and polynomial time, 1146 and Moire patterns, 1078 and multiway systems, 1157 NP completeness and quadratic, 1146 table of, 790 and undecidability, 787, 1138 universal, 786, 1164 Diophantus (Egypt, ~246 - ~330 AD) and Diophantine equations, 944 Diploid cells and randomness in biology, 970

Dirac, Paul A. M. (England, 1902-1984) and history of quantum mechanics, 1056 Dirac delta functions, 1081 Dirac equation discretization of, 1060 as simple model, 1025 Directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) causal networks as, 1033 Directed network systems, 1040 Directed percolation (probabilistic cellular automaton), 591, 976 Directional entropies in cellular automata, 960 Directional reversibility in cellular automata, 1017 Dirichlet domains, 987 and CA lattices, 929 Disassemblers (decompilers), 1184 Discharge tubes randomness from, 969 Discontinuities and catastrophe theory, 1009 and phase transitions, 981 Discontinuous functions, 901, 918 Discord perfect (tritone), 917 Discrete packings, 987 Discrete space, 472 history of in math, 1050 history of in physics, 1027 and quantum gravity, 1055 Discreteness and atomism, 876 averaging out of, 327 in computer programs, 976 in models vs. continuous, 368 origins of, 337 and Principle of Computational Equivalence, 729 in space, 984 Discretization of PDEs, 924 Discrimination learning of in neural nets, 1102 Disjunction as name for Or, 1173 Disjunctive Normal Form (DNF), 616, 1095 lower bounds on Xor in, 1143 multilevel, 1096 and proof lengths in logic, 1175 and proofs of axiom systems, 1170 Disk (computer) traffic randomness from, 970 Disks packing of, 350 Dislocations patterns of in fracture, 375 Dispersion relations and repetitive behavior, 988 Display hacks for nested patterns, 932 as precursors to my work, 879 Displays of 3D cellular automata, 927 and history of computing, 1108 lines on digital, 916 studying CAs using, 46 Dissipative structures and history of complexity, 862 and reaction-diffusion, 1013 Distances defined by geodesics, 1048 defined on networks, 478 general properties of, 1030 non-symmetric and torsion, 1052 Distribute and powersets, 1171 Distributed computing and causal invariance, 1035 and computer experiments, 899 Distributive laws (in logic), 817 Distributivity and additive CAs, 952 Districting and Voronoi diagrams, 987 Dithering, 1077 Divaricate patterns on shells, 423 Divergence in chaos theory, 153, 307, 921 Divergent series in QED, 1060

Diversity of animal shapes, 421 in biological organisms, 395 in branching patterns, 402 of leaf shapes, 401 Divide (/) and NC computations, 1149 in terms of digits, 139 Divide-and-conquer algorithms, 1094, 1141 Divination (fortune-telling), 1135 Divine proportion (GoldenRatio), 890 Divisibility as defining poset, 1041 of numbers, 132 see also GCD Division in groups, 1153 Divisors and cycles in shift rules, 963 distribution of, 909 and maximal periods, 950 DivisorSigma (number of divisors), 135, 910 iteration of, 911 DLA see Diffusion-limited aggregation DNA 1/f noise in, 969 in Arecibo radio message, 1190 and definition of complexity, 1069 and definition of life, 825, 1178 as evolutionary artifact, 1184 extraterrestrial messages in, 1184 fingerprinting, 970 and genetic programs, 1002 and nanotechnology, 1193 NP completeness in, 1146 random changes in, 970 use of randomness in, 1192 DNF see Disjunctive Normal Form Do (Do loop) for computing factorial, 1110 Documentation length as definition of complexity, 1069 Dodecahedron in deformable packings, 988 elongated, 930 network of, 476, 1049 rhombic, 929, 986, 987 rhombo-hexagonal, 930 trapezoid-rhombic, 986 Dogs and sense of smell, 827 Dolphins communication by, 1180 and sense of fluid motion, 827 Domains in 2D cellular automata, 335 effective rules for in CAs, 980 and repetitive behavior, 356 Domino problems, 211-221 approximate solutions to, 345 enumeration in, 959 undecidability in, 1139 see also Tilings Don't care elements (in Boolean formulas), 1095 Doodles rule-based, 875 Dot (dot product) as associative function, 1094 and differential geometry, 1048 Dot-coms as speculative stocks, 1015 Double-angle formulas and iterated maps, 1098 Double exponential growth in primitive recursive functions, 908 Double negation law of, 817 Doubling using cellular automata, 832 using combinators, 1122 Doubling map and chaos theory, 149, 306 computational difficulty in, 1147 periods in, 257 see also Shift map Draft lottery randomness of, 969

Drag coefficients, 998 for airplanes, 997 Dragon curves, 189, 893, 932 Drainage patterns and landscape structure, 1001 seen from space, 1187 Drake, Frank D. (USA, 1930- ) and SETI, 1189 Drake equation, 1191 Drawing lots, 968, 1192 Drawing straws, 968 Drexler, K. Eric (USA, 1955- ) and nanotechnology, 1193 Drill (military) use of rules in, 875 Drip tips of leaves, 1005 Drop (drop elements) basic example of, 853 Droplets in 2D cellular automata, 980 Drops in water streams, 984 Drugs and brain function, 1099 from cone shells, 1011 origins of current, 1194 random trials of, 1192 searching for, 842, 1193 and spider webs, 1184 Drums as sending signals, 827 sound from, 1079 DSolve see also Differential equations see also Partial differential equations Duality between And and Or, 1151 between evolution and causal network, 496 between particles and extended objects, 1044 in string theory, 1029 Ductile materials, 994 Duhem, Pierre M. M. (France, 1861-1916) and chaos theory, 971 Dummy variables in predicate logic, 1152 Dunes (sand) repetitive patterns of, 1187 Dungeons & Dragons shapes of dice in, 971 Duplication formulas (functional relations) and function evaluation, 1134 and logistic map formulas, 1098 Drer, Albrecht (Germany, 1471-1528) and parametrizing growth, 1010 Dust as seed for crystals, 369, 992 Dutch logic operations in, 1173 Dyadic order for Walsh functions, 1073 Dyadic pure predicate logic, 1152 Dynamic programming and CA implementation, 869 and recursive sequences, 906 Dynamic spin systems, 982 Dynamic triangulation and quantum gravity, 1054 Dynamical symmetry breaking, 1047 Dynamical systems theory and 1D constraints, 941 and cellular automata, 960 and continued fractions, 915 and digit sequences, 901 finite automata in, 958 and history of CAs, 877 and history of chaos theory, 971 and history of complexity, 862 and my work on CAs, 880 and ODEs, 922 and spectra in, 1081 summary of relations to, 14 e (exponential constant) continued fraction for, 144 digits of, 142 as not from rational integral, 916 and random networks, 963 e-commerce use of randomness in, 1192

E8 (group) lattice isotropy of, 980 and sphere packings, 987 Eanna temple, 873 Ear lobes folding in formation of, 417 Early computers and cellular automata, 45 Early universe particles surviving from, 1047 and thermodynamics, 1021 Ears operation of, 585, 1079 see also Auditory perception Earth conditions for life on, 1179 and extrasolar planets, 1179 formation of the, 1179 origin of life on, 1179 viewed from space, 835, 1187 Earth-Moon-Sun system, 313, 972 Earthquakes 1/f noise in, 969 and fracture, 374 Earthworks as artifacts, 1184 Eastern philosophy, 1195, 1195', 1196 ECAD multilevel logic in, 1096 Ecology and complexity research, 863 of extraterrestrial colonization, 1191 iterated maps and models in, 918 Economics applications to, 429-432 and complexity in science, 861 and computational irreducibility, 1132 and extraterrestrial trade, 1191 and free will, 1135 history of models from, 1015 iterated maps and models in, 918 and notion of purpose, 1185 and pragmatic theory of law, 1136 quantitative laws in, 1014 successes of math in, 859 ed (text editor) and regular expressions, 958 and substitution systems, 894 Eddies in fluid flow, 376 Eddington, Arthur S. (England, 1882-1944) and models of the universe, 1025 Eddy viscosities, 997 Eden, Murray (USA, 1920- ) and aggregation systems, 978 Eden model, 331, 978 see also Aggregation systems Edge detection in images, 1077 and scale invariance, 1076 Edgerton, Harold E. (USA, 1903-1990) and splashes, 1000 Edison, Thomas A. (USA, 1847-1931) and searching for materials, 1193 Education and defining intelligence, 1178 and exact solutions, 1133 and recognizing intelligence, 825 and the science in this book, 855 EDVAC (computer) and early CA, 1117 EEG, 1099 Eel pigmentation pattern of, 426 Effective computability see Decidability Effectively computable sets, 1138 Efficiency of computations, 758 Efficient causes, 1185 Efficient Market Hypothesis, 432, 1015 Egg randomness in fertilization of, 970 Egmont volcano circular shape around, 1187 Egyptian art, 873 Egyptian fractions, 915 Egyptian mathematics, 1149 and evaluation chains, 1095 and pi, 911

Egyptian pyramids, 874 Ehrlich, Paul (Germany, 1854-1915) and chemotherapy, 1193 Eigenvalues and dimension of networks, 1031 of distance matrices, 1031 and entropies of CAs, 958 and fractal dimensions for additive rules, 955 of nested systems, 1081 nesting in pattern of, 1130 of random matrices, 918, 977 Eikonal approximation, 1061 Einstein, Albert (Germany/Switzerland/USA, 1879-1955) and EPR experiment, 1058 and general relativity, 1047 and math in science, 860 and particles as gravity, 1054 and quantum theory, 1056 and special relativity, 1041 and unified field theory, 1028 Einstein equations, 1052 exact solutions to, 1133 as examples of PDEs, 161, 923 history of, 1047 matter vs. space in, 1028 quantization of, 1054 specifying curvature of space, 531 vacuum solutions to, 1053 Einstein-Hilbert action and spin networks, 1055 Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) experiment, 1064 Elasticity theory and fracture, 995 Electric breakdown, 302, 995 see also Lightning Electric fields particle production in, 1062 Electric light bulb filaments, 1193 Electricity as defining feature of life, 1178 Electromagnetic fields and gauge invariance, 1045 quantization of, 1056 and radioactive randomness, 970 and relativistic invariance, 1041 theories of based on space, 1028 as ultimate constituents, 1024 and virtual photons, 1060 Electromagnetic radiation and information transmission, 1069 Electromagnetic signals see Radio signals Electromechanical machines as computers, 1107 and finite automata, 958 Electron diffraction and visualizing fracture, 995 Electron levels in nested potentials, 1081 Electron-photon scattering, 1060 Electronic computers and Church's Thesis, 1125 history of, 1107 and history of universality, 1110 numbers in history of, 902 and proofs of universality, 1117 Electronic design and Boolean formulas, 1097 Electronic noise, 302, 968 randomness from, 969 Electronics making reliable, 981 and studying complexity, 862 Electrons discovery of, 1024, 1044 as initiators of randomness, 303 lack of intuition about, 537 limits on sizes of, 1044 magnetic moment of in QED, 1060 mass of, 1046 in practical computers, 1108 theories of structure of, 1044 wave-particle duality of, 1056 Elegant theorem definition of, 1176 Element in set theory, 1155 Elementary cellular automata, 53, 883

emulation of rules by, 705 legal rules for, 948 my first pictures of, 19, 864 with random initial conditions, 232, 424 rule equivalences, 883 table of Boolean forms for, 884 uniqueness of patterns from, 956 as universal logic functions, 1174 see also Cellular automata see also Rule 30, Rule 90, etc. Elementary functions difficulty of evaluating, 1134 and math impossibilities, 1137 numbers generated from, 916 vs. special functions, 1092 Elementary particles, 525-530 decays and time quantization, 1032 detection of, 969 discovery dates of, 1043 as dual to black holes, 1045 enumerating in networks, 1045 interactions between, 539 known types of, 1043 and limit of networks, 1030 masses of, 528, 1046 motion of, 528 motion of along geodesics, 531 motion of through network, 536 quantum threads between, 544 searching for additional, 1047 spin of, 1046 in unified field theory, 1028 upper limits on mass of, 1047 Elements of Euclid, 909 Elephants communication by, 1181 Elkies, Noam D. (USA, 1966- ) and nearby powers, 1166 in Preface, xiii Elliott 903 computer my use of, 854, 864 Elliptic curves and Diophantine equations, 1164, 1165 and Fermat's Last Theorem, 1166 Elliptic equations (PDEs), 923, 940 Elliptic functions and background for PDE, 924 difficulty of evaluating, 1134 and logistic map formulas, 1098 EllipticK (elliptic integral) in 2D Ising model, 982, 1133 EllipticTheta (elliptic theta functions) and algebraic equations, 1092 as generating function, 1092 nested patterns from, 1093 and quintic equations, 945, 1133 and runs of digits, 914 Embeddings of networks, 193, 476, 1031 Embryos development of, 417, 419, 1009 history of study of, 1004, 1010 pigmentation precursors in, 425 randomness in, 970 Emergence of order from randomness, 223 Emergent behavior general theory of, 3 Emotions and learning, 1102 Empirical mathematics see Experimental mathematics Empiricism and theories of communication, 1181 and visual perception, 1076 Emulation between cellular automata, 1118 by universal CA, 652 and computational irreducibility, 742 rates of, 765 and universality, 642 see also entries for specific systems Encoding arithmetic, 1071 of arithmetic by set theory, 1160 block, 563 dictionary-based, 565 Huffman, 564

in mathematics, 815 pointer-based, 565 run-length, 560 theory of cellular automaton, 1118 of three colors by two, 655, 1111 in universal CA, 652 and universality proofs, 1126 Encryption see Cryptography Encyclopedia Britannica leaf shapes in first edition of, 1005 Endogenous randomness see Intrinsic randomness generation Endomorphisms cellular automata as, 959 and generalized additivity, 952 Endpapers in this book, 851 Energy and advanced technology, 1191 in gravity theory, 537 heat as form of, 1019 Energy conditions and general relativity, 1053 Energy conservation in cellular automata, 458 in Einstein equations, 1052 in Ising model CAs, 982 in network evolution, 529 in PDE, 923 in physics, 1022 and thermodynamics, 445 in three-body problem, 972 Energy levels in nested potentials, 1081 Energy minimization and adaptation, 823 in chemistry, 1194 and NP completeness, 1146 in proteins, 988, 1003 and purpose, 831 and quasicrystals, 994 Energy-momentum tensor in Einstein equations, 1052 Engineering avoiding complexity in, 723 vs. biological evolution, 393 vs. biological forms, 1004, 1180 and computational reducibility, 829 correctness proofs in, 1157 fracture as issue in, 995 future of, 840 historical forms in, 828, 1183 and history of complexity, 862 intuition from, 40 optimization of designs in, 1193 of universal systems, 678 and universality proofs, 698 used in building computers, 822 English and cryptanalysis, 599 frequency of letters in, 1069 hashing of words in, 1100 logic operations in, 1173 redundancy of, 1086 ENIAC (computer) and digits of pi, 911 and history of computing, 1107 Enigma rotor machine, 1085 Ensembles evolution of in CAs, 278 in Ising model, 982 in rule 37R, 457 in statistical mechanics, 1020 in statistics, 593 Entanglement (in quantum theory), 544 as basic quantum effect, 1059 and Bell's inequalities, 1064 Entrails of goats and fortune-telling, 968 Entropy as algebraic number in CA, 958 analogy of to amount of computation, 1133 vs. biological complexity, 1003 in block encoding, 1071 in cellular automata, 958 as defining CA classes, 960 and definition of life, 1178 estimation of, 959, 1084

history of, 1019 and Lyapunov exponents, 960 measure, 959 origins of increasing, 441-457 of particles in box, 1022 and redundancy of text, 1086 and repetitive CA behavior, 954 of rule 30 mapping, 1087 and self-organization, 948 spacetime, 960 temporal, 960 in thermodynamic systems, 448 undecidability of in CAs, 958, 1138 see also Second Law of Thermodynamics Entscheidungsproblem (decision problem), 1110 Enumeration of alkanes, 1194 balanced parenthesis strings, 989 CA periodic points, 954 CAs to find doubling rules, 832 cases in proofs, 1177 commutative monoids, 952 cycles in shift rules, 963 finite automata, 957 programs, 758 reachable states in CAs, 958 string constraints, 1140 surjective cellular automata, 959 tiling configurations, 959 Turing machines, 888, 1120 Envelopes masking patterns on, 1077 Environmental sciences math morphology in, 1077 and systems theory, 862 Epicureans and atomism, 876 and complexity, 861 and contents of space, 1028 Epicurus (Greece, 341-270 BC) and randomness, 967 Epicycles as examples of models, 992 Epistemology and computational irreducibility, 1132 and Gdel's Theorem, 1167 implications for, 1196 and models vs. reality, 365, 991 EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen) experiment, 1064 epsilon_0 (transfinite ordinal), 1162 and unprovability in arithmetic, 1163 epsilon-delta arguments, 1177 Equal ( == ) calculus of expressions, 1170 in multivalued logic, 1175 non-universality of, 1174 truth tables for, 802 Equality testing randomized methods in, 1192 Equational logic automated proofs in, 1158 proofs in, 1172 Equational systems vs. modus ponens, 1151 operator systems as, 801 see also Operator systems Equations antidiffusion, 923 axioms as, 1153 computation based on, 731 and concept of purpose, 1185 as constraints, 940 and defining mathematics, 860 as defining numbers, 916 in different axiom systems, 812 difficulties in models with, 368 difficulties of solving, 1129 in history of science, 44 integer see Diophantine equations linear, 940 ordinary differential, 922 partial differential, 161-164 sequence, 1141 for sequences, 944, 1141 for snowflakes, 372 of state and gravity, 1053 for strings, 944, 1141

time vs. space in, 1032 undecidability of integer, 787 see also Burger's equation see also Differential equations see also Diffusion equation see also Diophantine equations see also Dirac equation see also Einstein equations see also Functional equation see also Hodgkin-Huxley equation see also KdV equation see also Klein-Gordon equation see also KPZ equation see also Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation see also Laplace equation see also Lorenz equations see also Maxwell's equations see also Navier-Stokes equations see also Nonlinear Schrdinger equation see also Partial differential equations see also Polynomial equations see also Quartic equations see also Quintic equations see also Schrdinger equation see also Sine-Gordon equation see also Transcendental equations see also van der Pol equation see also Wave equation Equiangular spirals generated from curvature, 418 in shells, 1008, 1008' Equidistribution and concatenation sequences, 913 of digit sequences, 912 of sequences, 903 statistical test for, 1084 in three-squares problem, 910 Equilibrium approach to, 449 in chemical reactions, 984 in early universe, 1055 in Ising model, 982 and quantum measurement, 1063 in random networks, 1038 in self-gravitating systems, 1021 in thermodynamic systems, 450 Equivalence between logic expressions, 775 in context-free languages, 1138 of NP-complete problems, 1145 in operator systems, 801 Principle of Computational see Principle of Computational Equivalence topological of manifolds, 1051 undecidability in problems of, 1138 see also Universality Equivalence operations and confluence, 1036 Equivalence principle, 530, 1047 and gravitational energy, 1054 and particle production, 1062 Equivalential calculus, 803, 1170 possible models of, 805 theorems in, 813 Eratosthenes (Egypt, 276-195 BC) and prime sieve, 909, 909' Erector sets and history of CAs, 876 Erf (error function) in diffusion equation, 1024 Ergodic theory history of, 1020 Ergodicity in dynamic spin systems, 982 of hard sphere gas, 1022 and Lissajous figures, 917 and rule 37R, 457 in search process, 347 vs. Second Law, 1020 Ermentrout, G. Bard (USA, 1954- ) and patterns on shells, 1012 ERNIE (randomness generator), 969 Erosion and landscape structure, 1001 in mathematical morphology, 1077 Error-correcting codes, 1101 and data compression, 1069 found by searches, 1193

and Hadamard matrices, 1073 and quantum computers, 1148 and sphere packings, 986 and Voronoi diagrams, 987 Error-diffusion algorithm, 1077 Errors of measurement and history of statistics, 1082 and origin of randomness, 967 Escapements characteristic shapes of, 1183 Escher, Maurits C. (Netherlands, 1898-1972) and ornamental art, 874 Esperanto (artificial language), 1103 Espresso, 1097 Essential incompleteness, 1159 Essential singularities in QED perturbation theory, 1060 Essential undecidability, 1159 Estimation of entropies, 959 in statistics, 1083 Ethane, 1194 Ether (physics) atoms as knots in, 1044 as content of space, 1028 discrete model for, 1027 history of, 1024 and theory of light, 1041 Ethernet randomization in, 1192 Ethics and free will, 750 and responsibility, 1136 Euclid (?Egypt, ~300 BC) and axioms for geometry, 1154 and foundations of math, 1149 and math in science, 859 and mathematical induction, 1152 and nature of space, 1028 and perfect numbers, 911 and primes, 909 theorem network of, 1176 and theory of lunes, 873 Euclidean geometry systematic proofs in, 1177 Euclid's algorithm and ContinuedFraction, 915 and GCD, 1093 as iterative algorithm, 1141 running time of, 1147 Euler, Leonhard (Switzerland/Russia/Germany, 1707-1783) and continued fractions, 914, 915 and a cubic Diophantine equation, 1165 and differential geometry, 1009 and equations for geodesics, 1049 and Fermat's Last Theorem, 1166 and number theory, 878 and perfect numbers, 911 and primes, 909 Euler circuits and polynomial time, 1146 EulerGamma (Euler's constant) and Egyptian fractions, 915 and growth of DivisorSigma, 910 as not from rational integral, 916 as transcendental number, 912 EulerPhi (totient) and cycles in shift rules, 963 and cyclic multiplication, 950 and encoding of lists, 1120 and GCD pattern, 1093 and RSA cryptography, 1090 and shift register periods, 975 Euler's formula for planar networks, 1038 and spherical networks, 1049 Europa and extraterrestrial life, 1179 Evaluation schemes and recursive sequences, 906 Evens and Odds game, 1105 Event horizons and black hole formation, 1053 and particle production, 1062 and time and computation, 1130 Events causal network of, 488 Evil

and free will, 1135 Evoked potentials, 1098 Evolution theory summary of relations to, 14 see also Biological evolution Exact solutions, 1133 for additive CAs, 610, 951 and computational irreducibility, 1132 for dimer problem, 959 for hard hexagon model, 959 for Ising model, 982 for iterated map periodic points, 955 for Kondo model, 1057 lack of for 3-body problem, 972 for logistic map, 1098 and math functions, 610 for multiway systems, 1168 to Navier-Stokes equations, 996 for shift map, 919 for Turing machines, 1144 see also Closed forms Excess (flicker) noise, 969 see also 1/f noise Excitable media, 1013 Excluded blocks from 1D constraints, 941 in cellular automata, 278, 958 in code 20, 958 Excluded middle law of in logic, 817, 1158 Exclusion principle (in quantum theory), 1059 Executive toys and chaos theory, 1183 plasma-filled globes as, 995 Exhaustive search, 217, 343 and cryptanalysis, 604 and mechanism vs. purpose, 838 for optimal programs, 842 Existence of solutions to constraints, 940 to Navier-Stokes equations, 997 in PDEs, 923 Exists in predicate logic, 1151 and r.e. sets, 1139 Exogenous randomness, 301-314 in cellular automata, 947 Exoskeleton in arthropods, 1011 Exp (exponential function) and canonical ensemble, 982 continued fractions for, 144 difficulty of evaluating, 1134 digits of values of, 141 in Gaussian distribution, 976 as non-computable, 1128 and path integrals, 1061 Expand Boolean analog of, 1095 Expansion of universe, 1055 and arrow of time, 1021 and cosmological term, 1052 and Einstein equations, 1053 and network evolution, 530 and particle production, 1062 and relativity history, 1048 and thermodynamics, 455 Experience and perception, 547, 634 Experimental design and Hadamard matrices, 1073 Experimental mathematics foundations of, 793 and foundations of math, 821 history of, 899 practical methods in, 1090 summary of relations to, 14 this book as work of, 863 see also Computer experiments Experiments and computational irreducibility, 748 crucial for this book, 23-39 detecting fraud in, 1184 experience of modelling and, 991 and learning from this book, 856 problems with chaos, 919 repeatable randomness in, 326, 976 and thermodynamic initial conditions, 444 ExpIntegralEi (exponential integral)

and Egyptian fractions, 915 Explicitness in design of Mathematica, 1177 importance of, 880 Exploratory computer experiments, 46 Exponent of groups, 1172 Exponential distribution in laws for human behavior, 1014 of mobile automaton periods, 887 Exponential divergence in chaos theory, 921 Exponential growth in biology, 1010 in combinators, 713, 1123 in Makanin's algorithm, 1141 of modes in PDEs, 988 in multiway systems, 207 in primitive recursion, 908 in proof sizes, 1155 in substitution systems, 82, 890 in Turing machines, 762, 1144 Exponential system periods in, 257 Export and image compression, 1074 Expressions number of Nand, 1175 numbering of, 1170 representing integers, 916 representing numbers, 143 structure of symbolic, 896 in symbolic systems, 102 EXPTIME (exponential time), 1143 Extended objects in quantum field theory, 1057 ExtendedGCD and linear congruential cryptanalysis, 1089 and linear Diophantine equations, 944, 1164 Extensive quantities in cellular automata, 1022 Extrapolation of data, 549 Extrasolar planets, 1179 Extraterrestrial intelligence, 822 history of, 1180 messages to send, 1189 and perception, 550 perception by, 635 search for, 1188 Extraterrestrial life, 825, 1179 Extreme value distribution as general result, 977 for random walks, 978 Extrinsic curvature and Einstein equations, 1052 and initial value general relativity, 1053 Extrinsic randomness, 301-314 Eyes appearance of data to, 577 of flies, 385 randomness in saccades of, 1011, 1192 Fabric wrinkling of, 996 Face-centered cubic (fcc) lattice, 930 sphere packing, 986 Voronoi diagram, 987 Faces (geometrical) in deformable packings, 988 and discrete spaces, 1051 in planar networks, 1038 Faces (human) development of bones in, 1010 parametrization of, 1010 random variations in, 1192 recognition of, 626 Faceted crystal growth, 370 Factor (polynomial factorization) analog for Boolean formulas, 1095 and cycles in shift rules, 963 and quadratic congruential generators, 975 randomized algorithm for, 1192 and shift register periods, 975 Factorial (n!) encoded as integer equation, 1160 and examples of universality, 1110 and hypersphere volume, 1050 leading digits in, 914 and number of reversible block cellular automata, 1023

number with digits at, 914 and QED perturbation series, 1060 as recursive sequence, 906 and transcendental numbers, 914 see also Gamma Factorial2 (double factorial) and isotropic tensors, 980 Factories and self-reproducing systems, 876 FactorInteger (integer factorization) and arithmetic system encoding, 1115 basic methods for, 1090 difficulty of evaluating, 1134 and Fermat's Last Theorem, 1166 and multiplicative digit sequences, 902 and MultiplicativeOrder, 1147 and NP completeness, 1146 and number of commutative groups, 1172 and quantum computers, 1148 running times for, 1090 unique domains for, 915 Factorization of cellular automata, 956 False definition from And and Not, 817 Falsifiability of models, 365 Faltings theorem (Mordell conjecture), 1164 Family trees and substitution systems, 893 Fano, Robert M. (USA, 1917- ) and data compression, 1069 Farey sequences, 916 Farm animals growth of, 1010 Fast algorithms, 1141 Fast Fourier transform (FFT) recursive algorithm for, 1142 see also Fourier Fast Walsh transform, 1073 Fastest programs, 760 Fate vs. randomness, 967, 1135 Fax data compression in, 1070 fcc (face-centered cubic) lattice, 930 sphere packing, 986 Voronoi diagram, 987 Feasible computations, 1143 see also Polynomial time Feathers coloration of, 1012 Feature detection as basis for perception, 549 in human visual system, 577 Fedorov, Evgraf S. (Russia, 1853-1919) and shapes of 3D domains, 929 Feedback control and cybernetics, 862 in growth of bones, 1010 in visual system, 1075 Feedback shift registers, 974 see also Shift registers Feigenbaum, Mitchell J. (USA, 1944- ) and computer experiments, 899 and iterated maps, 921 in Preface, xiii Feigenbaum's constant, 913 Fejes Tth, Lszl (Hungary, 1915- ) and circle packing, 985 Fermat, Pierre de (France, 1601-1665) and Fermat's Last Theorem, 1166 and primes, 909 Fermat primes conjecture as unsolved problem, 1166 Fermat's Last Theorem, 1166 and Diophantine equations, 1164 as having long proof, 779 and number theory history, 910 and sparse solutions, 945 Fermat's little theorem, 909 Fermat's principle (in optics), 1061 Fermi, Enrico (Italy/USA, 1901-1954) and computer experiments, 879, 899 and extraterrestrial contact, 1191 and statistical mechanics, 1020 Fermi-Pasta-Ulam experiment, 1020 Fermilab

circular shape of, 1187 Fermions and basic quantum effects, 1059 and classical limits, 1059 spin-statistics of, 1046 Ferns branching in, 401, 1004 and iterated function systems, 1005 Ferrite core memory, 864 Ferrites as components in technology, 1195 Ferrofluids maze-like patterns in, 1013 phyllotaxis-like patterns in, 1007 Ferromagnetic materials Ising model for, 981 phase transitions in, 981 Fertilization randomness in, 970 Feynman, Carl R. (USA, 1962- ) and cryptanalysis of rule 30, 1087 in Preface, xiii Feynman, Richard P. (USA, 1918-1988) and cryptanalysis of rule 30, 1087 and discrete quantum models, 1060 and discreteness of space, 1027 and path integrals, 1057 and physics and computation, 1126 in Preface, xii, xiii, xiv Feynman diagrams, 1060 exact calculations of, 1133 history of, 1057 Monte Carlo methods in, 1192 not as mechanistic model, 1026 in QCD, 1061 for quantum gravity, 1054 and random networks, 1039 vs. space networks, 1040 and spin networks, 1055 FFT (fast Fourier transform) digit reversal sequences in, 905 implementation of, 1074 multiplication using, 1093 recursive algorithm for, 1142 see also Fourier Fiber bundles and continuum limits of networks, 1030 and gauge theories, 1045 Fiber optics vs. broadcasting, 1188 Fibers (biological) and folding of tissue, 417 Fibonacci, Leonardo (Pisano) (Italy, ~1170 - ~1250) and digital numbers, 902 and Fibonacci numbers, 891 and rabbit populations, 1002 and tables of primes, 910 and trees, 893 Fibonacci (Fibonacci sequence) difficulty of making with CAs, 1186 and entropy in rule 32, 958 generalized, 891 generalized for randomness generation, 975 generating function for, 1091 as initial condition for rule 60, 1091 leading digits in, 914 and multiway system states, 205 and multiway systems based on numbers, 939 number with digits at, 914, 1070 in ordering of math constructs, 1177 and plant phyllotaxis, 1006 and polyominoes, 943 as precursors to my work, 878 properties of, 890 and prosody, 875 and randomness generators, 975 and recursion history, 907 as recursive sequence, 128 and rule 150 pattern, 885 as solution to Diophantine equation, 1161 and spectral maxima, 1081 and substitution systems, 82, 890 as term in continued fraction, 913 uniform distribution mod 1, 904 as values of polynomial, 1161 Fibonacci multiway system, 205 Fibonacci number representation, 560, 1070 and multicolor encodings, 1111

as non-power base, 902 and substitution systems, 892 Fibonacci substitution system, 83 and cyclic tag system, 895 and cyclic tag systems, 96 in music, 875 and Penrose tilings, 932 properties of, 890 and sine curves, 147 spectrum of, 586, 1081 two-dimensional, 932 Field Museum of Natural History, 1011 Field operators measurement of, 1065 Field theory (in abstract algebra), 1153 axioms for, 773 decidability with ordering predicates, 1159 and generalizing numbers, 1168 universality of, 1159 see also Finite fields Field theory (physics) history of, 1024 nonlinear PDE as, 923 quantum, 1061 see also Quantum field theory Fields (agricultural) patterns of from space, 1187 Fifths (musical chords) curves of, 146 perfect, 1079 Fig leaves, 1005 Figurate numbers, 911 Filters (for data) cellular automata as, 225 in visual perception, 1076 Filters in posets, 1040 Final cause, 1185 Final theory see Ultimate theory of physics Financial systems applications to, 429-432 data from as source of randomness, 969 history of models of, 1015 meaning of random data in, 1183 simulations of, 968 using randomness to verify contracts in, 968 FindMinimum and network layouts, 1031 FindRoot difficulty of evaluating, 1134 iterative algorithm for, 1141 Fine structure constant (alpha) numerology for, 1025 and perturbation theory, 1057 Fine tuning and self-organized criticality, 989 Fingerprints origin of patterns in, 1013 randomness in, 1014 Fingers formation of human, 419 Finite automata and attractors for CAs, 277 and Boolean functions, 1097 and CA encodings, 1119 and defining complexity, 1069 and formulas for nesting, 608 and groups, 1141 history of, 958 lower bounds in, 1143 minimization of, 957 as networks, 957 probabilistic, 1084 and regular languages, 939 and semigroups, 1153 and soundex system, 1100 spectra of, 1081 and substitution systems, 891, 931, 1091 total number of, 957 Finite axiomatizability, 1176 Finite complement languages, 941 2D generalizations, 959 and excluded blocks, 958 and repetition in 1D CAs, 954 Finite differences and CA diffusion, 1024 and continuous CAs, 921 explicit schemes and sequential cellular automata, 1035

and history of CAs, 876 isotropy in, 980 methods based on, 940 neighborhood compared to cellular automata, 928 for PDEs, 924 and reaction-diffusion, 1013 Finite element methods, 940 Finite fields as not universal, 1160 see also Additive cellular automata see also Field theory (in abstract algebra) Finite groups axioms for, 1176 Cayley graphs of, 1032 as extraterrestrial messages, 1190 rules for, 938 Finite impulse response and sequential CAs, 1035 Finite-size scaling in Ising models, 983 Finite-size systems, 255-260, 961 Finite state machines see Finite automata Finitely presented groups see Groups Finitistic mathematics, 1158 Finkelstein, David R. (USA, 1929- ) and discreteness of space, 1027 in Preface, xiii Finnish logic operations in, 1173 Fins (heat exchanger) characteristic shapes of, 1183 Fire as artifact, 1183 as basis for universe, 1125 as visible from space, 1187 Firing of neurons in neural networks, 1102 repeatable randomness in, 976 Firing squad problem (in cellular automata), 876, 1035 First digits, 914 of powers, 903 First Law of Thermodynamics, 1019 First-order phase transitions, 981 Fisher, Ronald A. (England, 1890-1962) and random number tables, 968 Fisher-Tippett distribution, 977 Fishes color vision in, 1075 iterated maps for populations of, 918 pigmentation patterns of, 389, 426 shapes of related by transformations, 1010 Fishhooks characteristic shapes of, 1183 Fit (least-squares fit), 1083 Fitness optimization of in biology, 386 and purpose, 1185 Fitting of models, 589, 1083 Fitting of clothes and allometry, 1010 FitzGerald, George F. (Ireland, 1851-1901) and relativity theory, 1041 FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, 1041 Five-body problem, 1130 Five-fold symmetry in biology, 1007 cellular automata with, 930 and Penrose tilings, 932, 943 in quasicrystals, 994 Five-neighbor rules (in CAs), 927 Fixed points in 1D cellular automata, 224, 954 in 2D cellular automata, 954 as attractors, 276 of blocking transformations, 270, 955 in combinator evolution, 712, 1122 for differential equations, 961 in Game of Life, 964 in iterated maps, 955, 961 in Mathematica, 1137 of pigmentation patterns, 427 in recursive evaluation, 906 of sandpile model, 989 and satisfying constraints, 348 in symbolic systems, 897

undecidability of, 1138 FixedPoint and gradient descent, 985 undecidability in, 1138 FixedPointList and length prefixed numbers, 1070 and prime implicants, 1095 Flagellated microorganisms random motion of, 970 Flames as self-organizing systems, 824 as self-reproducing, 1178 Flash photography and forms of splashes, 1000 Flat (associative) and associative CAs, 886, 956 and Boolean functions, 1173 and confluence property, 1037 and fast evolution rules, 1094 and generalized additivity, 952 and sequential substitution systems, 894 Flat spectra, 1081 Flatness (geometry) of growing sheets of tissue, 1007 Flatten basic examples of, 853 and correspondence systems, 1139 generalized to 2D, 931, 1073 generalized to any dimension, 932 and sequence equations, 944, 1141 Flatworm pigmentation pattern on, 426 Flicker noise, 969 see also 1/f noise Flint arrowheads, 1183 Floating-point computation and arithmetic coding, 1071 and chaos experiments, 919 Flocks of birds patterns in, 1011 Floor (integer below) basic example of, 854 and digital slopes, 916 encoded as integer equation, 1160 and nesting in sine curves, 917 and three-body problem, 973 Flory exponents, 978 Flow of fluids, 376-382 see also Fluid flow Flowcharts and causal networks, 1033 and computer interfaces, 1103 and defining complexity, 1069 and systems theory, 862 Flowering plants growth of, 1004 Flowers phyllotaxis in, 409, 1007 symmetries of, 1007 Floyd-Steinberg algorithm, 1077 Fluctuations in cellular automata densities, 954 of entropies in class 4, 960 and initiating crystal growth, 992 in market prices, 429 order in universe as, 1020 in recursive sequences, 130 and shot noise, 968 spectrum of in turbulence, 997 in thermodynamics, 447 violating Second Law in rule 37R, 453 Fluid convection and Lorenz equations, 971 Fluid flow, 376-382 analog of in crowds, 1014 analog of in sand, 1001 as analogy for networks, 535 as analogy for quantum field theory, 1059 in bird songs, 826, 1180 in chaos toys, 1183 community studying, 1000 continuity of vs. space, 472 and continuous idealizations, 729 as continuous limit, 327 past cylinders, 998 discrete models for, 999 generalizations of, 1000 and intelligence, 822, 837

and memory, 823 minimal cellular automata showing continuity of, 464 as model for animal growth, 1010 and my work on CAs, 881 and random fertilization, 970 sensed by dolphins, 827 solving PDEs in, 924 two-dimensional, 999 and weather, 1177 Fluid turbulence, 376 and history of complexity, 862 see also Turbulence Fluttering, 971 Flux tubes in QCD, 1061 Fluxions invention of, 901 Fly eye form of, 385 FM (frequency modulation) in radio signals, 1188 FM synthesis curves from, 918 sounds from, 1079 Foams evolution of, 1039 model for ether as, 1027 and Voronoi diagrams, 987 Focusing as origin of discreteness, 984 Fold basic example of, 853 for computing factorial, 1110 and pairwise sorting, 1142 and paths in networks, 957 and primitive recursion, 907 in random recursive function, 908 and repeated squaring, 1094 and unwinding primitive recursion, 907 Folding and forms of animals, 417 Folding map, 150 FoldList basic example of, 853 and implementing proofs, 1155 and nested patterns, 931 and random walks, 977 and Sierpinski pattern, 931 understanding operation of, 1177 Folk theorem in game theory, 1104 Fonts in this book, 852 Foods odors in, 1105 Foot (animal) development of, 419 For (For loop) for computing factorial, 1110 Foraging randomness in, 1002, 1011, 1192 ForAll in predicate logic, 1151 Forces and gauge invariance, 1045 Forcing of nested patterns, 942 of operators, 1172 Forcing, method of and unprovability, 1163 Forecasting weather, 1178 see also Predictability Forests of stunted trees as additive cellular automata, 878 Forks characteristic shapes of, 1183 Form historical study of, 967 living vs. non-living, 1003 of organisms see Growth Form factors and sizes of particles, 1044 Formal cause, 1185 Formal experiments and philosophy of science, 1197 see also Computer experiments Formal languages and CA encodings, 1119

and constraint systems, 944 and my work on CAs, 881 of networks, 1040 and substitution systems, 893 undecidability in, 1137 see also Languages (abstract) Formal logic, 1151 see also Logic Formal power series and regular languages, 957 Formal systems as foundation of math, 1176 and foundations of science, 1197 in mathematics, 1150 transfinite hierarchy of, 1159 Formants in speech sounds, 1079 Formatting hacks and nested patterns, 932 Formula language of Frege, 1149 Formulario project of Peano, 1149 Formulas analysis with, 606-620 based on Nand, 1097 Boolean, 616, 1095 for cellular automata, 869, 1134 and computational irreducibility, 737 and computational reducibility, 1134 constraints on, 945 for primes, 909 and Principle of Computational Equivalence, 728 in three-body problem, 972 see also Exact solutions Fortran and chaos experiments, 919 and computer language history, 1104 as example of language, 1109 and history of computing, 1108 my use of, 854 Forts nested architecture of, 874 Fortune-telling, 968, 1192 Fossil record common features across, 395 and complexity in biology, 389 of early life, 1179 of leaf shapes, 1005 symmetries in, 1007 Foundations of mathematics, 772-821 and history of universality, 1110 schools in, 1176 and SETI, 838 Foundations of modelling, 363 Foundations of science, 1196 Four-color printing rosettes in, 1078 Four-Color Theorem and coloring of networks, 1029 graph grammars in proof of, 1040 as having long proof, 779, 1156 Four-manifolds equivalence of, 1051, 1138 Four squares problem, 910 Four-vectors in relativity theory, 1042 Fourier, J. B. Joseph (France, 1768-1830) and Fourier analysis, 1072, 1072' Fourier (Fourier transform), 1074 of 2D nested patterns, 1082 and data compression, 1074 implemented by diffraction, 1077 and JacobiSymbol, 1081 multiplication using, 1093 of number theory functions, 911 and power spectra, 969 and quantum computers, 1148 and random walks, 977 recursive algorithm for, 1142 and spectra, 1080 Fourier series, 917, 1072 Fowle, Frank F. (USA, 1877-1946) and Walsh transforms, 1073 Fractal dimension, 933 of additive CAs, 870, 955, 1092 of Apollonian packing, 986 and defining complexity, 1069

as entropy, 959 of fracture surfaces, 995 of reversible CAs, 1018 of rule 90, 870 of strange attractors, 961 and texture discrimination, 1077 of Weierstrass functions, 918 Fractal geometry and history of numbers, 901 Fractal network, 197 Fractals and 1D substitution systems, 83 and 1/f noise, 969 in 2D cellular automata, 171 and 2D substitution systems, 187 in additive cellular automata, 270 and biological form, 1004 in cellular automata, 58 and complex maps, 933 and computer experiments, 899 in Cosmati mosaics, 873 and fluid turbulence, 997 and general study of form, 967 history of, 934 and history of complexity, 862 and history of modelling, 992 in landscape structure, 1001 and my work on CAs, 19 in network evolution, 509 origins of, 357-360 and plant branching, 1005 as precursors to my work, 880 and price fluctuations, 1014 from random initial conditions, 273 in rule 90, 25 in self-gravitating systems, 1021 snowflake shapes as, 371 summary of relations to, 15 and texture generation, 1077 see also Nesting Fraction systems, 1115 Fractional integration and 1/f noise, 969 Fractional linear transformations and continued fractions, 914 and nested patterns, 933 FractionalPart and chaos theory, 308 and continuous CAs, 922 difficulty of evaluating, 1134 iterated map based on, 955 and Lorenz equations, 971 in model of boiling, 994 of powers, 121 Fractons, 1081 Fractran (universal fraction system), 1115 Fracture, 374-375 history of, 995 models of, 995 phenomenology of, 994 as randomness source, 968 sound of, 1079 Fraenkel, Abraham A. (Germany/Israel, 1891-1965) and set theory, 1154 FrameMaker and layout of this book, 852 Frameworks for mathematical proofs, 1177 Fraud detection in random data, 1184 Freckles coloration of, 1012 Fredkin, Edward (USA, 1934- ) and CA self-reproduction, 1179 and cellular automata, 877, 879 and discreteness of space, 1027 in Preface, xiii and reversible CAs, 1018 and universe as CA, 1026 Free group network for, 196 Free semigroup, 938 Free will, 750-753 and chaos theory, 971 and computational irreducibility, 1132 and defining randomness, 1067 implications for, 1197 and randomness, 967

Freeways and growth of cities, 1014 Freezing of water, 370 Frege, F. L. Gottlob (Germany, 1848-1925) and axioms for logic, 1151 and character of math, 1176 and foundations of math, 1149 and logic as basis for science, 860 and predicate logic, 1152 Frenet frames and growth of shells, 1009 Frequencies of blocks, 555, 1068, 1084 of leading digits, 914 in statistics, 589 of words, 1014 Frequency modulation (FM), 1188 Frequency spectra, 1080 and acoustic diffusers, 1183 in auditory perception, 585 in data compression, 1072 in human hearing, 1079 in musical notes, 917 in natural radio emissions, 1187 of noise, 968 of random walks, 977 and SETI, 835 Frequency test, 1084 FresnelC (Fresnel integral) in half-plane diffraction, 1133 FresnelS (Fresnel integral) and Cornu spiral, 1009 Freudenthal, Hans (Netherlands, 1905-1990) and Lincos language, 1189 Friction origins of, 996 randomness in, 970, 1193 and self-organization, 947 Friedberg, Richard M. (USA, 1935- ) and intermediate degrees, 1130 Friedman, William F. (USA, 1891-1969) and cryptanalysis, 1086 Frogs pigmentation patterns of, 426 and sound of Cantor set, 586 FromDigits and additive CAs, 951 basic example of, 854 and carries, 1094 implementation of, 901 and recursive functions, 1121 Fronts (weather), 1178 Froths evolution of, 1039 Fruit packing of spherical, 986 Fruit flies genetic programs of, 1002 Fuchsian groups and hyperbolic space, 1050 Full shifts (in dynamical systems theory), 961 Fullerenes and nanotechnology, 1193 as spherical networks, 1049 as synthesized molecules, 1194 FullForm and axioms as strings, 1156 as parse tree, 1103 FullSimplify and iterated maps, 1098 and proofs, 1158 and undecidability, 1138 Function see Purpose Function (pure function) basic examples of, 853 and lambda calculus, 1121 and recursive functions, 907 Function evaluation searches for optimal algorithms in, 1193 Functional analysis and spectra, 1081 Functional equation for additivity, 953 and function evaluation, 1134 for ModularLambda, 1093 and solving logistic map, 1098

for spectra, 1081 Functional integrals see Path integrals Functional iteration (iterated mapping), 149, 918 Functional languages and combinators, 898 Functional operations examples of in Mathematica, 853 FunctionExpand and constructible reals, 1129 Functions applied to digit sequences, 731 computed by TMs, 1144 history of concept of, 1109 mathematical, 145-148 notion of in mathematics, 898 possible Boolean, 806 rapidly growing, 1162 standard in mathematics, 1091 structural representations of, 896 systems based on symbolic, 102 see also Mathematical functions Fundamental domains and repetition, 607 Fundamental groups (of manifolds), 1051 Fundamental theory see Ultimate theory of physics Fur coloration of, 1012 Furrowing in animal growth, 418 Fusion (S) combinator, 1121 Future, 1196 artifacts in, 829 data compression in, 836, 1069 extraterrestrials portrayed in, 1190 of science in this book, xi, 856 of technology, 1195 see also Predictability Fuzzy arithmetic and generalizing numbers, 1168 Fuzzy logic, 1083, 1175 Fuzzy searching, 623 g (general intelligence factor), 1178 Gabor functions in visual system, 1075 Gacs, Peter (USA, 1947- ) in Preface, xiii and transitions in CAs, 981 Gaia Hypothesis, 1195 Galaxies distribution of, 1021 and expansion of universe, 1055 formation of, 455, 1021 formation of and my work, 880 formation of and Voronoi diagrams, 987 patterns in, 835 and Second Law, 1021 and simple initial conditions, 1026 Galaxy colonization of, 1191 radio emission in, 1188, 1188' Galena hopper crystals in, 993 Galilean invariance in cellular automata fluids, 999 in fundamental physics, 522 and relativity, 1042 Galilei, Galileo (Italy, 1564-1642) and Galilean invariance, 1041 and math in science, 859 and models vs. reality, 991 and nature of gravity, 1047 and the nature of space, 1028 and theoretical biology, 1003 Galois, Evariste (France, 1811-1832) and group theory, 1153 and quadratic continued fractions, 915 Galois fields, 1153 see also Finite fields Galton board randomness in, 312 Gambling and defining randomness, 1068 and Gaussian distribution, 977 and randomness sources, 968 Game of Go, 875 Game of Life

and history of 2D CAs, 928 and history of CAs, 877 and history of complexity, 50 implementation of, 949 persistent structures in, 964 as precursor to my work, 880 random initial conditions in, 249 unbounded growth in, 965 universality in, 693, 1117 Game theory, 1104 and computational irreducibility, 1132 and laws in economics, 1014 and models of markets, 1015 and relation to cybernetics, 862 Games and AI, 1099 between programs, 1105 and history of CAs, 877 and multiway systems, 939 randomness in, 968 rules in, 875 Games of chance and defining randomness, 1067 and history of statistics, 1082 randomness in, 305, 968, 1192 and tests of randomness, 1084 Gaming regulations, 969 Gamma (gamma function) argument structures for, 896 and curves from curvature, 1009 emulating If, 1129 from rational integrals, 916 as special function, 1092 and transcendental numbers, 912 see also Factorial Gamma ray bursts, 1187 Gamuts color, 1074 Gap test, 1085 Gaps between primes, 133, 909 Garbage collection in network systems, 199, 935 Garden of Eden in cellular automata, 876, 961 Gardner, Martin (USA, 1914- ) and Game of Life, 877 Gas clouds as source of radio emissions, 1187 Gases CA idealization of, 446 and chaos theory, 971 discrete models for, 999 extraterrestrials based on, 1180, 1190 flow of, 376 see also Fluid flow as main application of Second Law, 451 thermodynamic theories of, 1019 Gasket see Sierpinski pattern Gastrulation (biological folding), 417, 1009 Gates in practical computers, 1108 quantum, 1147 reversible logic, 1098 see also Boolean functions Gauge bosons, 1043 Gauge invariance, 1045 and causal invariance, 527 Gauge theories origin of, 1028 and quantum history, 1057 Gauss, J. Carl Friedrich (Germany, 1777-1855) and Central Limit Theorem, 977 and curvature of surfaces, 1049 and Diophantine equations, 1164 and experimental math, 899 and extraterrestrials, 1189 and iterated maps, 919 and primes, 909 and sphere packings, 985, 986 Gauss circle problem, 910 Gauss map and iterated maps, 919 Gaussian curvature and biological growth, 1009 as invariant quantity, 1049 Gaussian distributions

as assumed in statistics, 1083 and Central Limit Theorem, 976 of constraint violations, 984 in laws of human behavior, 1014 vs. non-standard diffusion, 1024 not from self-avoiding walks, 978 as PDE initial conditions, 163 of price fluctuations, 1014 in quantitative traits, 1003 from random walks, 329 in visual system responses, 1075 Gaussian elimination as iterative algorithm, 1141 Gauss's law in cellular automata, 1023 GCD (greatest common divisor) as associative function, 1094 and computational reducibility, 747 and correspondence systems, 1140 and cyclic addition periods, 950 encoded as integer equation, 1160 and Euclid's algorithm, 915 and FactorInteger, 1090 iterative algorithm for, 1141 and limited size periods, 257 pattern from, 613, 1093 and primitive recursion, 907 and sine curves, 917 sounds from, 1080 Gears and computing devices, 1107 Geese patterns in flocks of, 1011 Gegenbauer, Leopold B. (Austria, 1849-1903) and GegenbauerC, 1091 GegenbauerC (Gegenbauer polynomials) history of, 1091 and isotropy measures, 980 and rule 150 pattern, 612 and trinomial coefficients, 1091 Geiger counters, 969 Gels in living systems, 1180 Gemstones as faceted crystals, 370 synthetic, 993 Genealogical trees as nested, 988 from substitution systems, 893, 1002 General intelligence factor, 1178 General-purpose computers and history of universality, 1110 and universality, 642 General recursive functions, 907, 1121 and Church's Thesis, 1125 General relativity and animal growth models, 1010 difficulty of solving, 1132 and gauge invariance, 1045 history of, 1048 need for explicit matter in, 537 as simple physical model, 1025 and space vs. contents, 1028 as theory of gravity, 530 and time and computation, 1130 and time travel, 1043 and ultimate theory of physics, 1025 variants of, 1048 with varying spacetime dimension, 1056 General systems theory and history of complexity, 862 summary of relations to, 15 Generalization in human thinking, 627 in mathematics, 792, 821, 1168 Generalization rule in axioms, 1150 Generalized mobile automata, 76 Generating function for additive cellular automata, 951 for balanced parentheses, 989 for cycles, 958 for DigitCount, 902 for Fibonacci, 890 modulo 2, 1092 for nested patterns, 1091 for regular languages, 957 for Thue-Morse sequence, 890

for Thue-Morse spectrum, 1081 Generative grammars, 938 Generators in groups, 1141 and relations, 1169 Generic behavior in chaos theory, 971 Genes as analogs of functions in software, 1003 as components of genetic programs, 1002 Genetic algorithms, 1002 and combinatorial optimization, 985 for design optimization, 1193 and sequential substitution systems, 894 Genetic analysis and multiway systems, 938 Genetic code and theoretical biology, 1004 Genetic networks and Boolean networks, 936 Genetic programming and methods of prediction, 1105 Genetic programs and cell positions, 1009 compared to laws of physics, 397 as foundation of biology, 383 and growth of animals, 419 and parts of animals, 417 searching for in biology, 842 smooth variations in, 394 structure of, 1002 Genetic sequences matching of, 1101 Genetics and definition of life, 1178 discrete features of, 1003 and mollusc shell patterns, 1012 randomness assumed in, 970 use of simple rules in, 860 Genomes as programs, 383 Gentzen, Gerhard (Germany, 1909-1945) and consistency of arithmetic, 1168 and transfinite induction, 1163 Genus of algebraic surfaces, 1164 of networks, 1045 Geodesic balls volumes of, 1050 Geodesic deviation and Riemann tensor, 1049 Geodesic domes characteristic shapes of, 1183 and curved space, 532 and spherical networks, 1049 Geodesics and definition of dimension, 1031 distance defined by, 1048 divergence of and chaos, 971 in flat space, 1048 and paths of particles, 531 on surfaces, 1049 Geographic cycle (in landscapes), 1001 Geological fractures, 374, 995 Geometric mean of continued fraction terms, 914 Geometric series and branching patterns, 1005 Geometrical constructions and history of universality, 1109 of real numbers, 1129 rules in, 875 Geometrical forms in aggregation systems, 979 of artifacts, 835 in astronomy, 1187 in biology, 384 and diversity in biology, 395 on Earth seen from space, 1187 molecules made for their, 1194 of shocks in fluids, 1000 Geometrical optics, 1061 Geometrical Play of Leonardo da Vinci, 875 Geometrical substitution systems, 189-192 implementation of, 933 visualizing evolution of, 933 Geometry

of animal shapes, 421 applied to biology, 1004 of attractors for ODEs, 961 axioms for, 774, 1154 as basis for science, 44 of branching patterns, 401 of cellular automaton lattices, 929 curvature in, 532 curves in Greek, 875 differential, 1048 as historical basis of math, 792 labelling in diagrams, 1182 and math in science, 859 network of theorems in Euclid's, 1176 non-universality in, 784 and origin of math, 859 in parametrizing biological forms, 1010 of plant phyllotaxis, 409 and proof in math, 1149 puzzles, 875 reasoning in terms of, 1177 rules for planet motion using, 860 of shell shapes, 417 space as uniform in early, 1028 of space of CA rules, 948 theorems and computational irreducibility, 1132 Geomorphology, 1001 Geons and matter from gravity, 1054 and unified field theory, 1028 Gestalt (in psychology), 1076 Gestures in animal communication, 1180 grammatical rules for, 1181 Gibbs, J. Willard (USA, 1839-1903) and statistical mechanics, 1020 Gibbs phenomenon, 917 and experimental math, 899 and image compression, 1074 Gibbs-Thomson effect, 993 GIF compression, 1070 Gila monster pigmentation pattern of, 426 Gilbreth, Frank B. (USA, 1868-1924) and causal networks, 1033 Gilbreth, Lillian E. M. (USA, 1878-1972) and causal networks, 1033 Gilgamesh, Epic of, 873 Ginger leaves, 1006 Giraffe pigmentation pattern of, 426 Girth of networks, 1029 Glaisher, James W. L. (England, 1848-1928) and binomials mod k, 870 Glare filters (polarizers), 1064 Glass (material) as amorphous material, 994 fracture in, 994 Gleick, James W. (USA, 1954- ) and chaos theory, 972 Glider gun in code 1329, 288 in Game of Life, 965 in rule 110, 293, 964 Gliders, 284 in continuous CAs, 160 and emulation of Nand, 1117 in Game of Life, 249, 964 in rule 110, 292, 964 see also Localized structures Global minima, 347 Global Positioning System see GPS Globular clusters and thermodynamics, 1021 Glueballs (in QCD), 1061 Gluons (in QCD), 1057 confinement of, 1061 Glycerine viscosity of, 996 Gnomons and Euclid's algorithm, 915 and forms of growth, 1008 and substitution systems, 932 Go, game of, 875 Goats fortune-telling from, 968

God and character of space, 1028 and complexity, 861 and free will, 1135 identified with universe, 1196 and objects in nature, 828 and origin of complexity, 3 and phenomena in astronomy, 834 and physics as intelligence, 1191 and purpose for universe, 1185 as source of complexity in biology, 1001 and ultimate theory of physics, 1025 and universe as intelligent, 1196 see also Religion see also Theology Gdel, Kurt F. (Austria/USA, 1906-1978) and character of math, 1176 and consistency of arithmetic, 1168 and defining computability, 1126 and experiment in math, 899 and Gdel's Theorem, 879, 1158 and origins of universality, 1110 and predicate logic, 1152 and register machines, 896 and undecidability, 1136 Gdel beta function, 1121 and primitive recursion, 908 Gdel numbers and encoding lists, 1120 and history of universality, 1110 Gdel's Completeness Theorem, 1152, 1167 for equational logic, 1172 Gdel's Theorem, 1158 and arithmetic systems, 673 and Church's Thesis, 1125 and determinism, 1132 and Diophantine equations, 1161 encoding of statements in, 785 encodings used in, 816 and free will, 1135 and history of math, 1149 and history of universality, 1110 as limitation on math, 7, 1135 practical relevance of, 791 as precursor to my work, 879 proof of using rule 110, 786 and truth, 1167 and universality of arithmetic, 784, 1152 and unprovable statements, 782 use of recursive functions in, 907 Gods animism and, 1195 as source of randomness, 967 Goethe, Johann W. v. (Germany, 1749-1832) and morphology, 1004 Golay, Marcel J. E. (USA, 1902-1989) and error-correcting codes, 1101 and hexagonal CAs, 928 Golay codes and sphere packings, 987 Golay neighborhood (hexagonal cellular automata), 928 Gold hopper crystals in, 993 Goldbach, Christian (Russia, 1690-1764) and polynomials for primes, 909 Goldbach's Conjecture, 135, 911 stated in Peano arithmetic, 1162 true if unprovable, 1167 as unsolved problem, 1166 GoldenRatio and 2D substitution systems, 932 and entropy in rule 32, 958 and Fibonacci encoding, 1070 and general study of form, 967 and growth rate of multiway system, 205 and Penrose tilings, 932 as Pisot number, 903 and plant phyllotaxis, 408, 1006 properties of, 890 and running time of Euclid's algorithm, 1147 and spectra, 1081 Golf balls and circle packings, 985 Golomb, Solomon W. (USA, 1932- ) and nonlinear shift registers, 878 and polyominoes, 943 in Preface, xiii and shift registers, 879, 1088

Goodstein, Reuben L. (England, 1912-1985) and Goodstein sequences, 1163 Goodstein sequences proofs about in set theory, 1160 and unprovability, 1163 Goosefoot leaves, 1006 Gosper, R. William (USA, 1943- ) and dragon curves, 893 and experimental math, 899 and Game of Life, 965 in Preface, xiii Gothic windows nesting in, 873, 874 Government control and computational irreducibility, 1132 Government regulation of games of chance, 1084 GPS (Global Positioning System) and SETI, 1190 and shift registers, 1086 and time dilation, 524, 1042 Gradient descent implementation of, 985 in neural networks, 1102 for satisfying constraints, 344 Gradualism in biological evolution, 395 Grain patterns and repeatable randomness, 976 Grains (in solids) evolution of, 1039 and Voronoi diagrams, 987 Grammar-checking software, 1104 Grammars and concept of programs, 860 context-free, 939, 1103 context-sensitive, 939 of formal languages, 938 of human languages, 630, 1103, 1181 of math expressions, 1150 of ornament, 872 random, 1084 and redundancy, 1086 regular, 939 as systems based on rules, 875 and Turing machines, 961 two-dimensional, 1104 unrestricted, 939 Grand unified models (in physics), 1025, 1043 Granular materials flow in, 1001 packing in, 986 Grape leaves, 401, 1006 Graph-based systems, 193-203 Graph grammars, 1040 Graph isomorphism and NP completeness, 1146 Graph layout, 193 Graph theory and discrete packings, 987 and planarity of networks, 1045 Graphical interfaces, 1102 Graphical representation of time, 1031 Graphical user interfaces as alternative to language, 631 and history of computing, 1108 Graphics as basis for analysis, 111 production of in this book, 851 Graphics3D and 3D cellular automata, 927 Graphs for attractors, 277 cellular automata on, 930, 936 small, 194 see also Networks Grass growth of, 1004 and Kant on complexity, 861 Grassmann, Hermann G. (Germany, 1809-1877) and axioms for arithmetic, 1152 Grassmann algebra as generalizing numbers, 1168 Gravitational waves detectors of, 1048 and speed of light, 1041 in vacuum, 536, 1053 Gravitons, 1054

as particles, 1043 and space vs. matter, 1028 Gravity, 530-537 CPT violation in, 1019 in early universe, 1021 history of, 1047 n-body systems subject to, 1021 particle production by, 1062 randomness in systems under, 313 and time and computation, 1130 in ultimate theory of physics, 469 and vacuum fluctuations, 1062 Gray, Alfred (USA, 1939-1998) and parametric curves, 1009 in Preface, xiii Gray code, 901 and concatenation sequences, 913 and constraint satisfaction, 984 and math functions, 731 as ordering of CAs, 352, 885 and ordering of Walsh functions, 1073 Gray levels dithering to get, 1077 Great Chain of Being, 1197 Great circles as geodesics, 1049, 1050 Great Mosque of Crdoba, 873 Great Pyramid, 874 Great Wall of China, 1187 Greek art, 43, 873 Greek biology, 1003 Greek embryology, 1010 Greek grammars, 875 Greek mathematics and labelling in geometry, 1182 and proof, 1149 rules in, 875 Greek mineralogy, 993 Greek number system, 1182 Greek philosophy and atomism, 876 and complexity, 861 and definition of life, 1178 and extraterrestrial life, 1180 and free will, 1135 and math in science, 859 and universality, 1109 Greek physics and ultimate theories, 1024 Green, Milton W. (USA, 1926- ) and sorting networks, 1142 Greenberg, James M. (USA, 1940- ) and reaction-diffusion, 1013 Green's functions for additive systems, 952 for cellular automata, 950 grep and regular expressions, 958 Grids cellular automata on, 169 lines at slopes on, 916 superimposing, 613, 1078 visible from space, 1187 Grigorchuk, Rostislav I. (Ukraine/Russia, 1953- ) and intermediate growth groups, 938 GroebnerBasis and completion algorithms, 1037 and NP completeness, 1143 Gromov, Mikhael L. (Russia/France/USA, 1943- ) in Preface, xiii and random groups, 938 Ground state of quantum field theories, 1062 of spin systems, 944 Groupoids, 1171 Groups (mathematical), 1153 and abstraction in math, 792 axioms for, 773 axioms for finite, 1176 and CA conservation laws, 1023 CAs based on, 887, 956 Cayley graphs of, 1032 commutative see Commutative groups constraints defining, 945 decidability with commutativity, 1159 emulating Peano arithmetic, 1159 enumeration of, 805

and forcing by axioms, 1172 and gauge theories, 1045 from generators and relations, 1169 inessential incompleteness of, 800 limiting geometry of, 1051 and multiway systems, 938 number of, 945 and operators allowed by axioms, 1172 and particles in physics, 528 PCP and undecidability in, 1139 polyadic, 1171 random, 938 shortest axioms for, 806 and sphere packings, 986 symmetry for lattices, 980 theorems in pure theory of, 1159 undecidability of equivalence of, 1138 universality of, 784, 1159 word problem for, 1141 Growth as amplifying randomness, 970 of animals, 413-422 of crystals, 369-373 of cyclic tag systems, 96 Eden model for, 331, 978 general constraints on, 1010 general schemes for, 1011 history of studies in biology, 1003 and maintaining flatness, 1007 parametrizations of, 1010 of plants, 400-413 of sheets of tissue, 412 undecidability of continued, 1138 Growth and Form (book), 1004 Growth inhibition in plant phyllotaxis, 409 in snowflake growth, 370 Growth rates in computational complexity theory, 1143 and curvature in networks, 533 general theory of, 1162 in multiway systems, 205, 937 and network dimensions, 478, 1030 of number of trivalent networks, 1029 in recursive functions, 908 in substitution systems, 890 in symbolic systems, 897 in Turing machines, 761, 1145 see also Differential growth Growth rules for 1D cellular automata, 24 for 2D cellular automata, 928 Growth totalistic rules, 928 Grzegorczyk hierarchy, 906 GUIs (graphical user interfaces), 1103 and history of computing, 1108 Gullies (in landscapes), 1001 Gustatory (taste) sense, 1105 Gusting of wind, 1001 H theorem of Boltzmann, 1020 Haar wavelets, 1074 Hackers and precursors to my work, 879 and universe as computer, 860 Hadamard, Jacques S. (France, 1865-1963) and chaos theory, 971 and Hadamard matrices, 1073 Hadamard matrices, 1073 Hadamard order for Walsh functions, 1073 Hadrons as particles, 1043 in QCD, 1061 Hailstone numbers (3n+1 problem), 904 Hair cells in inner ear, 585, 1079 Hair follicles and animal coloration, 1012 Haken, Hermann P. J. (Germany, 1927- ) and reaction-diffusion, 1013 Hales, Stephen (England, 1677-1761) and leaf growth, 1005 Hales, Thomas C. (USA, 1958- ) and sphere packings, 986 Halftoning, 1077 Halite (rock salt) hopper crystals, 993 Halting in aggregation systems, 979

in function definitions, 1163 longest times for, 1144 in one-way TMs, 759, 1143 in register machines, 896 in small Turing machines, 1119 in symbolic systems, 897, 897' in Turing machines, 889 Halting probabilities and algorithmic randomness, 1067 for code 20, 964 for Turing machines, 1143 and universal objects, 1127 Halting problems, 1137 analog of, 754 axioms for proofs about, 1167 for cellular automata, 1137 and correspondence systems, 1140 and integer equations, 788 in Mathematica, 1138 for multiway systems, 1137 and negation, 1158 and oracles, 1126 proofs of undecidability of, 1137 and proving undecidability, 1130 and sets, 1139 in specific axiom systems, 1163 trivial for primitive recursion, 907 for Turing machines, 1137 undecidability of, 1128, 1136 Halton (digit reversal) sequences, 905 Hamiltonian paths and NP completeness, 1146 trivalent networks with, 1029 Hamiltonians in discrete quantum systems, 1060 for PDEs, 923 Hamming, Richard W. (USA, 1915-1998) and error-correcting codes, 1101 Hamming codes, 1101 Hamming distance and error correction, 1101 and layout of networks, 1031 Hamming weight (DigitCount), 902 Handles on networks, 527, 1045 Handprints purpose of in cave paintings, 1184 Handwriting randomness in, 1192 Hankel, Hermann (Germany, 1839-1873) and generalization in math, 1168 Haploid cells and randomness in biology, 970 Hard hexagon model and 2D entropies, 959 as exactly soluble, 1133 Hard sphere gas, 1022 and CA fluids history, 999 CA idealization of, 446 and chaos theory, 971 on inspirational book cover, 864 with stationary scattering, 312 and thermodynamics, 1020 Hard square models (lattice gases), 999 Hardware for 1D cellular automata, 868 for 2D cellular automata, 928 structure of computer, 1108 Hardy, G. Harold (England, 1877-1947) and Goldbach's Conjecture, 911 and iterated maps, 919 Harmonic analysis of substitution systems, 1081 and Walsh functions, 1073 Harmonic analyzer, 1107 Harmonic functions and flatness in tissue growth, 1007, 1010 Harmonic oscillator as exactly soluble, 1133 Harmony (musical) and math thinking, 1177 perception of, 1079 Harmony in nature, 967 Harrington, Leo A. (USA, 1946- ) and unprovable statements, 1163 Hartley, Ralph V. L. (USA, 1888-1970) and information theory, 1181 Hartman, Hyman (USA, 1936- ) and CA classes, 948

in Preface, xiii Harvard Mark I computer, 1107 Hashing, 622, 1100 as application of randomness, 1192 to speed up evolution, 1134 Hasse diagrams of posets and causal networks, 1040 Hasse's algorithm (3n+1 problem), 904 Hasse's Principle for Diophantine equations, 1165 Hastings, Stuart P. (USA, 1937- ) and reaction-diffusion, 1013 Hauptvermutung (of combinatorial topology), 1051 Hausdorff dimension, 933, 958, 1030 Hawking, Stephen W. (England, 1942- ) and black hole radiation, 1062 Hawking radiation, 1062 and uniform spectra, 988 Hayek, Friedrich A. (Austria/England/USA/Germany, 1899-1992) and free will, 1135 hcp (hexagonal close packing), 986 Head size in animal growth, 421 Heads (of expressions), 896 depth of in trees, 897 as type specifications, 898 Hearing, 585-588 of elephants, 1181 human, 1079 Heart (human) 1/f noise in beating of, 969 as excitable medium, 1013 modelling and history of CAs, 878 Hearts of palm, 1004 Heat analogies with computation, 726 character of, 445 history of theories of, 1019 Heat bath and 2D Ising model, 982 Heat capacities and quantum history, 1056 Heat exchangers geometrical forms of, 1183 Heated fluids and convection, 1000 Heaven and form of extraterrestrials, 1191 Heavenly bodies perfection of, 875 Hebb, Donald O. (Canada, 1904-1985) and neural networks, 1099 Hebrew religion and free will, 1135 Hedlund, Gustav A. (USA, 1904-1993) in Preface, xiii and shift-commuting block maps, 878 and surjective CAs, 960 Heights of humans distribution of, 977, 1003 Heighway, John E. (USA, 1930- ) and dragon curves, 893 Heisenberg, Werner K. (Germany, 1901-1976) and matrix mechanics, 1056 Heliozoan pattern formed in, 385 Helium lack of quantum solution to, 1133 randomness in convection of, 976 Helix in shell models, 1008 Hellman, Martin E. (USA, 1945- ) and math cryptography, 1089 Helmholtz, Hermann L. F. v. (Germany, 1821-1894) and sound perception, 1080 Henkin semantics (for higher-order logics), 1167 Heptagons hyperbolic tiling with, 1050 and negative curvature, 532 Herbs leaf shapes for identifying, 1005 Herds and randomness in markets, 1015 Heredity use of simple rules in, 860 HermiteH (Hermite polynomials) in solution of harmonic oscillator, 1133 Hero (Heron) (Egypt, ~62 AD)

and computing devices, 1107 Heterostructures, 1082 Hewlett-Packard calculators reverse Polish in, 896 Hexagonal cellular automata and fluid flow, 378 implementation of, 992 as models of crystal growth, 369 and momentum conservation, 1024 number of rules in, 928 Hexagonal close packing, 986 Hexagonal lattice of animal pigment cells, 1012 circle packings in, 349, 985 of circles in ornament, 873 of deformable objects, 988 enumeration on, 959 implementation of CAs on, 992 isotropy on, 980 and r=1/2 1D CA, 885 random walks on, 329 and shapes of cells, 1007 Turing machines on, 930 Hexagonal prism, 929 Hexagrams of I Ching, 893 Hidden Markov models, 590, 1084 Hidden units in neural networks, 1102 Hidden-variables theories, 543, 1058, 1064 Hierarchies as avoiding thermodynamics, 453 in computational complexity theory, 1142 and defining complexity, 1069 in embryo development, 419 of function growth rates, 1163 and history of complexity, 862 in probabilistic models, 1084 and randomness in markets, 1015 Higgs field and expansion of universe, 1055 and notion of ether, 1042 particle associated with, 1047 and particle masses, 1047 High-energy collisions Monte Carlo simulation of, 968 High-level programming and programs in notes, 854 High-school algebra axioms of, 1153, 1153' Higher-order logics, 1167 Higher organisms phenomenon of existence of, 398 Highest common factor see GCD (greatest common divisor) HighLife (2D class 4 CA), 949 Higman, Graham (England, 1917- ) and axioms for groups, 1153 Hilbert, David (Germany, 1862-1943) and axioms for geometry, 1154 and character of math, 1176 and Diophantine equations, 1161 and foundations of math, 1149 and general relativity, 1052 and math in science, 859 and metamathematics, 1150 and space-filling curves, 893 and undecidability, 1136 and zeros of zeta function, 918 Hilbert space in quantum theory, 1059 Hilbert's Tenth Problem, 1161 Hilbert's Thirteenth Problem, 1128 Hill climbing, 346 Hillenbrand, Thomas (Germany, 1970- ) and automated proofs, 1158 Hillman, David (USA, 1955- ) and axioms for logic, 1151 in Preface, xii Hindu-Arabic number system, 902, 1182 Hindu temples nesting in, 874 Hinton, Geoffrey E. (England/USA/Canada, 1947- ) and neural networks, 1100 Hippocampus (in brain), 1102 Hippocrates of Chios (Greece, ~460 BC) and embryology, 1010 Hiss

sound of random sequence, 585 Historians and free will, 1135 Historical perspectives, 844-846 see also history items in specific entries History accidents of in universe, 505 as central to human condition, 846, 1196 of complexity research, 862 computations done in human, 837 of definition of sciences, 863 effect on math of, 792 as explaining axiom systems, 816 general comments about, 850 of life on Earth, 387, 825 of math and ease of concepts, 1177 recorded by physical objects, 1195 role of in biological evolution, 388 theory of and chaos, 971 uniqueness of for universe, 504 History register see Shift registers Hobbes, Thomas (England, 1588-1679) and free will, 1135 and nature of space, 1028 Hodgkin-Huxley equation as example of PDE, 161 Hofmeister, Wilhelm F. B. (Germany, 1824-1877) and phyllotaxis, 1007 Hofstadter, Douglas R. (USA, 1945- ) and recursive sequences, 880, 907 Hokusai, Katsushika (Japan, 1760-1849) and fluid turbulence, 997 Hlder exponents, 959 Holland, John H. (USA, 1929- ) and genetic algorithms, 985 in Preface, xiii Homeobox genes, 419, 1010 Homoclinic tangles, 972 Homogeneity origins of, 353 Homogeneous structures see Cellular automata Homomorphisms and generalized additivity, 952 Homoplectic processes (extrinsic randomness generation), 973 Homotopy and structures in networks, 1046 and topological defects, 1045 Homunculus hypothesis, 1010 Honda, Hisao (Japan, 1943- ) and branching in plants, 1005 Honeycomb form of, 1011 length minimization in, 988 Hooke, Robert (England, 1635-1703) and snowflakes, 992 Hopfield, John J. (USA, 1933- ) and neural networks, 1100, 1102 in Preface, xiii Hopi language and Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, 1181 Hopper crystals, 993 Horizon problem (in cosmology), 1055 Hormones in brains, 1099 in plants, 404 Horn shell growth of, 415 Horner form and evaluation of powers, 1093 Horns (animal) as artificial-looking, 828 compared to antlers, 1008 growth of, 413 Horse races as source of randomness, 968 Horton stream order (in tributaries), 1001 Hours-minutes-seconds origin of, 902 Hoyle, Fred (England, 1915-2001) and extraterrestrials, 1190 HP 700 and creation of this book, 854 HP calculators reverse Polish notation in, 896 Huffman, David A. (USA, 1925-1999) and data compression, 1069

Huffman coding, 564 adaptive, 1069 implementation of, 1071 and JPEG compression, 1074 Human behavior and computational irreducibility, 1132 free will in, 750-753, 1135 and game theory, 1104 laws of, 1014 Occam's razor for, 1025 Human condition defining features of, 1196 scientific approaches to, 845 Human form parametrizations of, 1010 Human history vs. biological evolution, 399 Human languages see Languages (human) Human relics in archeology, 1183 Human thinking, 620-631 and constructs in math, 1177 emulation by computers of, 733 and Gdel's Theorem, 1159 and Principle of Computational Equivalence, 733, 1130 Human will see Free will Humanities relativism in, 1131 summary of relations to, 9, 863 Humans artifacts of early, 1184 defining properties of intelligence of, 822 and future technology, 1195, 1196 genetic programs of, 383, 1002 height distributions of, 977, 1003 making randomness, 306, 970 mathematical power of, 1126 as only intelligence, 822 uniqueness of, 844, 1195 visual system of, 577 weight distributions of, 977 Humboldt, F. W. H. Alexander v. (Germany, 1769-1859) and branching in plants, 1004 Hume, David (Scotland, 1711-1776) and purposes in nature, 1185 Humidity and weather, 1177 Huntington, Edward V. (USA, 1874-1952) and axioms for logic, 1151 Huntington axioms for logic, 773, 1151 Hurwitz numbers, 914 Hydraulic jump, 377 Hydrocarbons considered interesting, 1194 Hydrodynamics see Fluid flow Hydrogen atom as exactly soluble, 1133 and history of quantum theory, 1056 Hydrology and forms of landscapes, 1001 Hyena pigmentation pattern of, 426 Hyperbolic equations, 923, 940 Hyperbolic space, 1049 Hypercube Boolean, 1095 and trivalent networks, 1029 Hypercycles and origin of life, 1179 Hyperelliptic Diophantine equations, 1164 Hyperelliptic functions in solution of spinning top, 1133 Hypergeometric functions asymptotic behavior of, 917 and continued fractions, 914 and curves from curvature, 1009 and nested patterns, 612 Hypergeometric1F1 in Calogero-Moser model, 1133 Hypergeometric2F1 and caps on hyperspheres, 1050 and quintic equations, 945 in Seiberg-Witten model, 1133 and special functions, 1092 and Thue-Morse sequence, 1092 and trinomial coefficients, 1091

HypergeometricPFQ and 6j symbols, 1055 difficulty of evaluating, 1134 from rational integral, 916 Hypergraphs, 1029 Hyperreals as generalizing numbers, 1168 Hypersonic flow see Supersonic flow Hypersphere volume of, 479, 1050 Hyphenation lack of in this book, 852 I-1 base, 932 I Ching and substitution systems, 893 IBM 370 computer my use of, 854 IBM 7090 computer and pi, 911 ICBMs radar used by, 970 radars for detecting, 1188 Ice hopper crystals in, 993 snowflake crystals of, 370 Ice-ray style of Chinese lattice, 874 Icosahedral group, 938 Icosahedral symmetry in quasicrystals, 994 Icosahedron clusters in sphere packing, 986 and GoldenRatio, 891 IDEA cryptographic system, 1086 Ideal forms and Platonism, 1176 Ideal gas CA idealization of, 446 Idealism and free will, 1135 and history of universality, 1109 and logic as foundation, 860 and models of math, 1149 and nature of space, 1028 and theories of communication, 1181 and universe as intelligence, 1196 Idealizations of mathematics, 776 in modelling, 364 and Principle of Computational Equivalence, 728 in traditional science, 736 and ultimate theory of physics, 465 Ideals (algebraic) as generalizing numbers, 1168 Idempotence of And, 817 in operator systems, 801 of Or, 817 Identity cellular automaton, 883 Identity function in combinators, 1122 IEEE floating-point standard and chaos experiments, 919 If (conditional) emulated by Gamma, 1129 Illative logic and symbolic systems, 102 ILLIAC IV and history of CAs, 877 Illinois, University of, xiii Illusions visual, 1076 Image compression lossless, 560 lossy, 572 Image processing by averaging, 1073 history of, 1077 and history of 2D CAs, 877, 928 and visual perception, 1076 and Walsh transforms, 1073 Imaginary time formalism, 1043 as example of model feature, 992 Imitation and bird songs, 1180 see also Emulation Immune system and Boolean networks, 936

and combinatorial chemistry, 1194 and growth of animals, 418 randomness in, 970, 1002 shape space in, 1184 Impact craters as landscape elements, 1001 Implementation see also Emulation see also entries for specific systems Implicants in Boolean formulas, 1095 Implicational calculus, 803, 1170 models in, 1171 possible models of, 805 theorems in, 813 Implicit rules constraints as, 210, 940 Implies axioms for, 803 axioms in terms of, 1151 in multivalued logic, 1175 non-confluence of, 1037 non-universality of, 1174 and structure of proofs, 1155 truth tables for, 802 Impossibilities mathematical, 1137 Impulse response for additive systems, 952 spectrum of, 1081 Incompleteness, 782 essential, 1159 in multiway systems, 783, 797 of Robinson arithmetic, 1169 see also Gdel's Theorem Inconsistency in axiom systems, 781 in multiway systems, 797 Increment function in combinators, 1122 in register machines, 97 in Turing machines, 1144 Incremental improvement and natural selection, 392 Incremental programming, 894 Independence from axioms, 1167 of axioms, 803 from more powerful axioms, 1166 of theorems in logic, 818 Independence results since Gdel's Theorem, 1163 Indeterminism and free will, 750, 1135 Index features of this, 852 names in this, 852 Indian studies of prosody, 875 Indigenous peoples and animism, 1195 Indo-European languages, 1103 Induction (mathematical) and automated proofs, 1158 in axioms of arithmetic, 1152 and recursive sequences, 907 in reduced arithmetic, 800 as scheme for proofs, 1177 statements unprovable without, 1169 Induction (scientific) and experimental math, 899 and ultimate theory of physics, 466 Inequivalence as name for Xor, 1173 Inertia and uniformity of space, 1028 Inertial motion, 521 Infeasible computations, 1143 Inference of cellular automaton rules, 1089 statistical, 589 Inference rules in proofs, 1151 Infinite acceleration in 5-body problem, 1130 Infinite evolution and undecidability, 755 Infinite impulse response cellular automata as, 1035

Infinite loops in Mathematica, 1137 and proving undecidability, 1137 Infinite objects and non-standard arithmetic, 1169 Infinite patterns generated in finite time, 732 Infinite trees and symbolic systems, 898 Infinitesimals and computational irreducibility, 1132 as generalizing numbers, 1168 and non-standard analysis, 1172 and PDEs, 161 Infinities in QED, 1057 Infinity and the continuum, 1127 forms of, 1162 and symbolic representation, 788 and transfinite numbers, 1162 and undecidability, 788 Inflationary universe, 1026, 1055 Information in axiom systems, 819 in block encoding, 1071 in cellular automata, 959 and definition of life, 1178 in multicolor encodings, 1111 and radiation in rule 37R, 455 in theorems of logic, 818 and thermodynamics, 1020 Information content algorithmic, 1067 vs. amount of computation, 1133 of biological organisms, 1002 entropy as, 960 and history of chaos theory, 971 in initial conditions, 920 and lower bounds, 1143 measures of, 1181 Information dimension, 959 Information-preserving data compression, 560 Information theory algorithmic, 1067 and cryptography, 1086 and data compression, 1069 and defining complexity, 1068 and defining randomness, 1068 and human languages, 1181 Information transmission and causal networks, 520 in cellular automata, 252 in class 4 systems, 281 and data compression, 1069 and error-correcting codes, 1101 in financial markets, 1015 limited by speed of light, 518 in PDEs, 923, 925 and quantum entanglement, 1065 and universality, 694 Initial conditions for cellular automaton fluids, 381 and complexity, 41 and computability, 1129 finding as NP problem, 1142 information content in, 920 as input for computations, 637 nested in rule 184, 272 NP completeness of finding, 769 and oracles, 1126, 1129 periodic, 266 persistent structures from, 283 and Principle of Computational Equivalence, 724 random, 223-296 randomness from, 304-314 for rule 110 universality, 689 sensitive dependence on, 153 sensitivity to, 250-252 sets of for Turing machines, 1139 shape dependence on, 179 and thermodynamics, 443 and time travel, 1043 for Turing machines, 710 and undecidability, 756 for the universe, 1026 Initial value problems in general relativity, 1053

in PDEs, 940 Injectivity in cellular automata, 959 Ink and printing of this book, 852 spreading of as diffusion, 978 Inner and associative CAs, 956 InputForm for programs in notes, 854 Insanity and free will, 1136 Inscribed circles, 986 Insert (insert element) and random networks, 1038 Insertion sort, 1142 Instabilities in CA evolution, 950 and chaos theory, 153, 971, 972 in crowds of people, 1014 in financial systems, 430 of fluid vortex sheets, 997 in numerical PDEs, 924 in numerical turbulence, 997 in PDEs, 988 and quantum measurement, 542 in reaction-diffusion, 1013 and the Second Law, 1020 in self-gravitating systems, 1021 in splashes, 1000 Instantons in path integrals, 1057 Instincts and defining intelligence, 1178 Institute for Advanced Study, xiii Institutions and complexity research, 862 role of in science, 857 Instruments (musical) as nonlinear oscillators, 971 sounds produced by, 1079 Insurance and history of statistics, 1082 Integer equations, 790, 944 and undecidability, 787 see also Diophantine equations Integer factoring, 1090 see also FactorInteger Integer functions patterns generated by, 870 Integer linear programming NP completeness of, 1145 Integer sequences, 123, 128-131 IntegerDigits basic examples of, 854 and computational reducibility, 747 concatenation of, 913 implementation of, 901 and rule 90 pattern, 870 and substitution systems, 889, 891 and sums of three squares, 910 IntegerExponent and 3n+1 problem, 904 and additive CA attractors, 963 behavior of, 911 and binomial coefficients, 870 and cyclic multiplication, 950 and decimation systems, 909 and period doubling, 892 and a recursive sequence, 906 relation to DigitCount of, 902 and rule 150 pattern, 885 and spectra, 1081 and symbolic systems, 897 TM computation of, 1144 and TM enumeration, 1139 and Turing machine 600720, 1145 and Turing machine for increment, 759 IntegerQ (integer test) and fraction systems, 1115 Integers algorithmically simple, 916 as encodings of lists, 1120 and human experience, 1177 number of, 1127 as ordered set, 1152 represented by symbolic expressions, 1121 transfinite, 1162

Integrability of PDEs, 1023 in three-body problem, 972 Integrals as exact solutions, 1133 Integrate and distance in curved space, 1048 impossibilities in, 1137 numbers generated by, 916 systematic methods for, 1177 Integrated circuits see Chips Intelligence analysis using human, 620 and Anthropic Principle, 1026 attributed to universe, 1195 definition of, 822, 1178 in Drake equation, 1191 extraterrestrial, 635, 822 machine, 628, 1099 and Maxwell's demon, 1021 and philosophical implications, 1197 physics as showing, 1191 as special feature of humans, 844 testing of, 1104, 1178 in the universe, 822 see also Thinking Intelligent design and complexity, 861 and teleology, 1185 Intentionality see Purpose Interdependence and definition of life, 1178 Interestingness of chemicals, 1194 in mathematics, 793, 816 of theorems in general, 821, 1176 of theorems in logic, 817 Interfaces (boundaries) effective rules for in CA, 980 Interfaces (computer) and concept of halting, 1137 graphical vs. language, 631 history of, 1102 Interference and quantum computers, 1148 in quantum mechanics, 1059, 1062 of string updates, 503 Interferometer device like, 311 Intermediate degrees (in computation theory), 734, 1130 Intermediate growth groups, 938, 945 Intermediate steps in multilevel logic, 1096 in proofs, 811, 1155, 1157 in solving PCP, 1140 Intermittency and 1/f noise, 969 Internationalism in mathematical notation, 1182 Internet businesses and speculative stocks, 1015 Interpolation of CA patterns, 1092 and fitting models, 1084 Interpretability axiom system encoding, 816 Interpretation of quantum mechanics, 1058 Interpreted languages, 1109 Interrupts (computer) as source of randomness, 970 Intersection and finite set theory, 1171 Interstellar radio communication, 1189 Interstellar space molecules in, 1179 turbulence in, 1188 Interstices packings that use, 986 Interval, maps on the see Iterated maps Interval arithmetic and generalizing numbers, 1168 Intractability (computational), 758-771 and cryptography, 1089 Intrinsic curvature, 1049 Intrinsic randomness generation, 315-326

and continuum behavior, 333 early reactions to, 971 in early universe, 1056 experiments showing, 976 in financial systems, 432 in fluid flow, 382 in fluttering, 971 and free will, 752 in Ising models, 982 my first paper on, 882 in quantum systems, 543, 1063 in reversible conserving systems, 462 and Second Law, 450 see also Randomness generators Intrinsically defined curves, 1009 Introspection and free will, 1135 Intuition about objects in nature, 828 and computer experiments, 856 and continuous math, 925 development of my, 21 in human thinking, 627 mathematical and proofs, 1156 mechanism for in brain, 1136 need for new, 39-41 from practical computing, 716, 872 and Principle of Computational Equivalence, 726 and ultimate theory of physics, 468 Intuitionism as foundation of math, 1176 Intuitionistic logic and double negation, 1158 and Peano arithmetic, 1152 Invagination in animal development, 418, 1009 Invariances and cellular automata state transition graphs, 963 Invariant configurations in 1D cellular automata, 941, 954 in 2D cellular automata, 942, 954 as attractors, 276 in Game of Life, 964 and satisfying constraints, 348 undecidability of, 1138 Invariant entropy (spacetime entropy), 960, 961 Invariant interval (in relativity theory), 1042 Invariants and axiom system proofs, 1170 in dynamical systems, 961 for knots, 1046 see also Conserved quantities Inventions vs. discoveries in math, 1176 for randomness generation, 969 Inverse problems and NP completeness, 771 and perception, 551 Inverse square law for gravity, 536, 1047 InverseFunction and CA encodings, 1118 Invertible cellular automata see Reversible cellular automata Involute of circle, 418 Involutions cellular automata as, 1017 Ion traps for quantum gates, 1148 Ionosphere radio emissions from, 1187 IQ (intelligence quotient), 1178 tests, 1104 Iran ornamental art in, 874 Iraq ornamental art in, 873 Iris (eye) patterns randomness of, 1014 Iron Age ornamental art from, 873 Irrational numbers and 3D non-periodic tiling, 943 generating additive systems, 953 generating quantum gates, 1148 and idealized billiards, 1022 iterated multiplication by, 903 and musical chords, 1079 in Peano arithmetic, 1162

Irreducibility see Computational Irreducibility Irreducible representations (of groups) and isotropy, 980 and spin, 1046 Irregularities see Regularities Irreversibility in data compression, 572-576 and memory, 625 in physical systems, 441-457 and quantum measurement, 1063 Ising, Ernst (Germany/USA, 1900-1998) and Ising model, 981 Ising model, 981 exact solution of 2D, 1133 ground state of, 944 and history of CAs, 876 lack of exact 3D solution, 1133 and lattice gas models, 999 and my work on CAs, 880 and P completeness, 1149 phase transition in, 982 as precursor to my work, 879 as probabilistic model, 1083 and randomness tests, 1085 undecidability in, 1138 see also Spin systems Islam and ornamental art, 872 as rejecting animism, 1195 Islamic art, 43 Isocorrelation textures, 1078 Isomers (variant molecular structures), 1194 Isotropic tensor, 980 Isotropy in aggregation systems, 978 in biological growth, 1007, 1010 in code 746 CA, 334 of differences in 2D CAs, 950 in discrete systems, 980 in physics and CAs, 473 of random walks, 977 of sums of squares, 910 Iterated aliquot sums, 911 Iterated bitwise operations, 906 Iterated division and continued fractions, 143 Iterated function systems, 191 and pictures of ferns, 1005 Iterated maps, 149-155 algebraic iterates in, 1098 attractors in, 961 of bit operations, 921 from CA densities, 953 on the Cantor set, 869 complex, 933 and computation universality, 1129 and computer experiments, 899 emulating discrete systems, 1129 as evidence of determinism, 972 and financial markets, 1015 and fluid flow, 998 history of, 918 and history of chaos, 971 and history of complexity, 49 of integers, 122 in Newton's method, 1101 periodic points in, 955 as precursors to my work, 879 and QCD, 1061 and recurrence relations, 906 spectra in, 1080 and substitution systems, 921 two-dimensional, 921 Iterated morphisms (substitution systems), 893 Iterated radicals, 915 and GoldenRatio, 891 Iterated rules sizes of formulas for, 1096 Iterated run-length encoding, 905 Iteration as basis for algorithms, 1141 compared to repetition, 990 examples of in Mathematica, 853 Iteration theory and iterated maps, 918 $IterationLimit

and avoiding undecidability, 1138 Iterative automata see Cellular automata Iterative improvement for engineering designs, 1193 in satisfying constraints, 344 IUPAC chemical nomenclature, 1194 J combinator, 1123 Jacobi, Carl G. J. (Germany, 1804-1851) and sums of four squares, 910 JacobiP (Jacobi polynomial) and trinomial coefficients, 1091 JacobiSN (Jacobi elliptic function) asymptotic oscillation of, 917 and background for PDE, 924 and logistic map formulas, 1098 in solution of spinning top, 1133 JacobiSymbol and Hadamard matrices, 1073 and quadratic residues, 1090 and spectra, 1081 Jacquard, Joseph-Marie (France, 1752-1834) and programmable looms, 1107 Jamming-resistant radio and shift registers, 878 Jansky, Karl G. (USA, 1905-1950) and radio astronomy, 1188 Japanese work on CAs, 877 Java (computer language) and chaos experiments, 919 and computer communication, 1182 as example of language, 1109 and register machines, 101 Jellies large alkanes as, 1194 Jen, Erica (USA, 1952- ) in Preface, xiii and rule 30, 871 Jet stream, 1001 Jets turbulence in, 377 Jevons, W. Stanley (England, 1835-1882) and logic machines, 1107 Job, Book of and understanding nature, 876 Johnson noise, 968 Join in lattice theory, 1153 Join (join lists) as associative function, 1094 basic example of, 853 evaluation chains based on, 1095 theorems about, 1168 Joint denial as name for Nor, 1173 Joints characteristic shapes of, 1183 Jones, James P. (USA/Canada, 1941- ) and Diophantine equations, 1161 Josephus problem, 909 Joule, James P. (England, 1818-1889) and nature of heat, 1019 JPEG compression, 573, 1074 Judaism and free will, 1135 and human uniqueness, 1195 as rejecting animism, 1195 Judgement as crucial in modelling, 365 in social sciences, 9 Julesz, Bela (Hungary/USA, 1928- ) and texture perception, 1076 Julia, Gaston M. (France, 1893-1978) and iterated maps, 879 Julia sets, 933, 934 analog of in tree space set, 1006 Junctional calculus, 803, 1170 possible models of, 805 theorems in, 813 Jupiter and extraterrestrial life, 1179 radio emissions from, 1187 Red Spot of, 377, 999 K combinator, 711, 1121 K^0 particle and time reversal violation, 1019 K_33 non-planar graph, 527 Kabala (universal object), 1127

Kaluza, Theodor F. E. (Germany, 1885-1954) and notions of space, 1028 Kamp de Friet hypergeometric functions, 1009 Kaneko, Kunihiko (Japan, 1956- ) and continuous CAs, 922 in Preface, xiii Kansas grid of towns in, 1187 Kant, Immanuel (Germany, 1724-1804) and complexity in biology, 861 and free will, 1135 and purposes in nature, 1185 Karatsuba, Anatolii A. (Russia, 1937- ) and multiplication, 1142 Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) equation, 925 Kari, Jarkko J. (Finland/USA, 1964- ) and undecidability in 2D cellular automata, 1138 Krmn, Theodore von (Hungary/Germany/USA, 1881-1963) and vortex streets, 998 Karnaugh maps, 1097 Kasiski, Friedrich W. (Poland, 1805-1881) and cryptanalysis, 1086 Kauffman, Stuart A. (USA, 1939- ) and Boolean networks, 936 in Preface, xiii Kazakhstan straight railroad in, 1187 KdV equation as exactly soluble, 1133 Kells Book of, 873 Kelvin (William Thomson) (Scotland, 1824-1907) and harmonic analyzer, 1107 and minimum area packings, 988 and models of space, 1027 and Monte Carlo methods, 1192 and thermodynamics, 1019 and vortices in ether, 1044 Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, 988 Kepler, Johannes (Germany, 1571-1630) and 2-body problem, 972 and computers, 1107 and Fibonacci numbers, 891 and inhabitants of Moon, 1190 and rules of nature, 860 and snowflakes, 992 and sphere packings, 986 Keratin repetitive structure of, 1003 Kernels in visual perception, 579 Kerr solution as exact solution, 1133 and time and computation, 1130 Key sequences in cryptography, 598 Keyboard characters for programs in notes, 854 Keystrokes number to create this book, xiv as source of randomness, 970 Khinchin (Khinchin's constant), 914 Kidney ducts branching in, 1008 Kinetic theory and diffusion equation, 1024 and thermodynamics, 1019 "Kingdom was lost" and chaos theory, 971 Kingdoms of organisms, 1003 Kingsnake pigmentation pattern of, 426 Kirby, Laurence A. S. (England/USA, 1952- ) and unprovable statements, 1163 Kirkpatrick, E. Scott (USA, 1941- ) in Preface, xiii and simulated annealing, 985 Kites characteristic shapes of, 1183 Kleene star (RepeatedNull), 957 Klein, Oskar (Sweden/Denmark/USA, 1894-1977) and notions of space, 1028 Klein-Gordon equation discretization of, 1060 vs. sine-Gordon, 922 Kleinian groups and circle packings, 986 KleinInvariantJ (modular elliptic function)

and almost integers, 915 Knapping (of stone tools), 1183 Kneading randomness in, 306 Kneading sequences, 955 Knossos maze at, 873 Knots Alexander moves in, 1038 as complex artifacts, 1183 as constructed by rules, 875 in ether as atoms, 1028, 1044 model of atoms as, 1024 as not in 1D systems, 927 theory of, 1046 Knuth, Donald E. (USA, 1938- ) and dragon curves, 893 and Knuth-Bendix procedure, 1037 in Preface, xiii and tests of randomness, 1084 Knuth-Bendix procedure, 1037 Koch, N. F. Helge von (Sweden, 1870-1924) and nested curves, 934 Koch curve, 191, 933 history of, 934 Kolakoski, William G. (USA, 1944-1997) and cyclic tag systems, 895 Kollectiv (collective) and defining randomness, 1068 Kolmogorov, Andrei N. (Russia, 1903-1987) and algorithmic randomness, 1068 and fluid turbulence, 997, 997' Kolmogorov complexity see Algorithmic information Kondo model, 1057 Koran calligraphy from the, 874 Korec, Ivan (Slovakia, 1943-1998) and encodings of arithmetic, 1163 and register machines, 1121 KPZ (Kardar-Parisi-Zhang) equation, 925 Krohn-Rhodes decompositions, 1069 Kronecker product, 1073 KroneckerDelta and orthogonal bases, 1072 Kufi calligraphy, 874 Kummer, Ernst E. (Germany, 1810-1893) and Fermat's Last Theorem, 1166 Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation, 925 Kuratowski's theorem, 1045 Kurdyumov, Georgii L. (Russia, 1953- ) and transitions in CAs, 981 L-shaped tiles, 932 L systems, 82-87 2D, 187-189 and biological models, 1004 and plant branching, 1005 see also Substitution systems Labyrinth pattern of, 873 Labyrinthine patterns from 2D cellular automata, 427 in code 746, 334 Lag systems, 894 Lagrange, J. Louis (La Grange) (Italy/Germany/France, 1736-1813) and continued fractions, 915 Lagrange points simple geometry of, 1187 in three-body problems, 972 Lagrangian density in general relativity, 1053 for PDEs, 923 in quantum field theory, 1061 LaguerreL (Laguerre polynomials) in hydrogen atom, 1133 Lambda calculus, 1121 and Church's Thesis, 1125 and combinators, 1122 confluence in, 1036 and history of universality, 1110 as idealization of math, 1150 undecidability in, 1136 Lam equations, 995 Laminar fluid flow, 376 in the atmosphere, 1001 Laminated sphere packings, 986 Land grants and regular grid patterns, 1187

Land use effects on weather of, 1177 Landau, Lev D. (Russia, 1908-1968) and fluid turbulence, 997 Landau-Ginzburg equation, 925 Landscapes (abstract) constraint satisfaction on, 346 for memory, 1101 Landscapes (geological), 1001 Langton, Christopher G. (USA, 1948- ) and 2D Turing machines, 930 and CA classes, 948 in Preface, xiii Langton's ant (2D Turing machine), 931 Language games, 1181 Language of mathematics and science, 859 Languages (abstract) as attractors in TMs, 961 context-free, 939, 1091, 1103 context-sensitive, 939 regular, 939 universal and Leibniz, 1149 unrestricted, 939 see also Formal languages Languages (computer), 1103 as examples of software, 1108 functional and combinators, 898 and history of computing, 1108 intuition from existence of, 872 logic programming, 1158 Mathematica, 853 meaning in, 1182 notion of types in, 898 for parallel computing, 1035 thinking in, 1104 universals in, 1182 see also Computer languages Languages (human), 1103 as analogy in atomism, 876 animals trained to use, 826 center in brain, 1099 conventional aspect of, 1181 and cryptanalysis, 599 and defining intelligence, 822, 1178 frequency of words in, 1014 and history of universality, 1109 influence of on thinking, 1181 information content in, 1181 logic in everyday, 806, 1173 and math thinking, 1177 reasons for features of, 1181 recognizing meaning in, 826 redundancy of, 1086, 1181 relativity hypothesis in, 1181 rules for and programs, 860 rules in grammar for, 875 and theories of communication, 1181 and thinking, 630 translation of and AI, 1100 translation of and universality, 643 understanding dead, 1184 and Zipf's law, 1014 Laplace, Pierre-Simon (France, 1749-1827) and Central Limit Theorem, 977 and determinism, 1135 Laplace equation as constraint, 940 and diffusion-limited aggregation, 994 and flatness of growing tissue, 1007 and network dimensions, 1031 Laplacian in curved space, 1050 LARC computer and gas simulation, 864 Large cardinal axioms, 1167 Lasers as technology components, 1195 Latencies in circuits, 1095 Latent heat and crystal growth, 370, 372 Lateral inhibition and pigmentation patterns, 427 in plant phyllotaxis, 409 in snowflake growth, 370 Latin logic operations in, 1173

Latin squares and quasigroups, 1171 as satisfying constraints, 945 Lattice dynamical systems, 155-160, 922 see also Continuous cellular automata Lattice gases, 999 enumeration in, 959 see also Cellular automaton fluids see also Spin systems Lattice gauge theories, 1057, 1061 and computational irreducibility, 1133 and discrete space, 1027 and quantum gravity, 1054 Lattice models see also Cellular automata see also Spin systems Lattice packings, 987 Lattice points numbers inside spheres, 910 Lattice theory axioms for, 1153 and posets, 1041 Lattice vectors and linear congruential generators, 974 LatticeReduce and digit sequence cryptanalysis, 1089 Lattices isotropic behavior on, 980 lines at slopes on, 916 possible, 929 random walks on, 329, 977, 978 Law of large numbers, 976 Laws (human) and defining randomness, 1068 and free will, 1135 and regularities in radio spectrum, 1188 and responsibility, 1136 Laws of Form and Nand, 1173 Laws of physics vs. mathematics, 772 vs. programs in biology, 397 and ultimate theory, 470 Layout of networks, 193 NP completeness of, 1145 LCDs see Liquid crystals LCGs see Linear congruential generators LCM (lowest common multiple) and Lissajous figures, 917 and Riemann Hypothesis, 918 Leading digits, 914 and number compression, 1070 of powers, 903 Leaf shapes see Leaves LeafCount (expression size) and algebraic expressions, 945 and combinator expressions, 1122 and number of recursive functions, 908 and symbolic systems, 897 for universal Diophantine equation, 1161 Learning of bird songs, 1180 of computer languages, 1104 and defining intelligence, 823, 1178 human, 626 models of, 1099, 1102 the science in this book, 855 as trick in evolution, 1002 Learning curves, 1014, 1102 Least squares fitting, 1082, 1083 Leaves arrangements of (phyllotaxis), 408-412, 1006 evolutionary theories of, 1005 flatness in growth of, 1008 growth of, 401, 412, 1005 shapes of, 401-407, 1005 LED segments and textons, 1076 Leech lattice isotropy of, 980 and sphere packings, 987 Leftmost innermost evaluation, 906 Leg (animal) development of, 419 Legendre, Adrien-Marie (France, 1752-1833)

and sums of three squares, 910 LegendreP (Legendre polynomials) and isotropy measures, 980 in solution of Mie scattering, 1133 Lehmer, Derrick H. (USA, 1905-1991) and linear congruential generators, 974 Lehr, Eduard (Germany, ~1932) and parametric curves, 1009 Leibniz, Gottfried W. v. (Germany, 1646-1716) and binary numbers, 902 and calculators, 1107 and free will, 1135 and I Ching, 893 and idealizations of math, 1149 and logic, 1099 and logic as basis for science, 860 and math notation, 1182 and the nature of space, 1028 and origins of universality, 1109 and symbolic logic, 1151 and universal language, 1181 Lemmas defining characteristics of, 1176 and lengths of proofs, 1175 in proof of axiom for logic, 811 in proof searching, 1157 in structure of proofs, 1155 Lempel, Abraham (Israel, 1936- ) and data compression, 1069 Lempel-Ziv encoding, 565 Lemur pigmentation pattern on, 426 Length basic example of, 853 Lenses characteristic shapes of, 1183 Lenticular clouds, 1183 Lenz, Wilhelm (Germany, 1888-1957) and Ising model, 981 Leonardo da Vinci see da Vinci, Leonardo Leopard pigmentation pattern of, 426 Leptons as types of particle, 1043 Less (<) encoded as integer equation, 1160 Letters frequencies of in English, 1069 visual perception of, 1076 Lettuce ammonite septa like, 1008 growth of, 413 Leucippus (Greece, ~480 - ~420 BC) and atomism, 876 Levin, Leonid A. (Russia/USA, 1948- ) and NP completeness, 1143 in Preface, xiii and transitions in CAs, 981 Lvy, Paul P. (France, 1886-1971) and nested C curve, 893, 934 Lvy flights, 969 lex and regular languages, 958 Lexical analysis and regular languages, 958 LFSRs (linear feedback shift registers) see Shift registers LHASA (chemical synthesis software), 1194 Li, Wentian (USA, 1959- ) and CA classes, 948 in Preface, xiii Lichens on Mars, 1180 Lichtenberg figures, 995 Lie groups and additive systems, 953 and sphere packings, 987 Life definition of, 557, 823, 1178 and definition of complexity, 1069 on Earth, 825 and history of complexity, 50 on Mars, 1179 origin of, 1179 Life, Game of see Game of Life Life force, 1178

Life insurance and history of statistics, 1082 Lifeforms alien, 825 LIFO (last-in first-out) stacks and context-free languages, 939 Light caustics in, 984 perception of, 577 and quantum history, 1056 Light bulb filaments, 842 Light cones, 519 for cellular automata, 949 differential geometry of, 1051 and random causal networks, 1052 Light levels and object recognition, 1076 Lightning and origin of life, 1179 pattern of from space, 1187 randomness in, 995 as source of radio emissions, 1187 Lights of cities patterns of from space, 1187 Likelihood maximum, 589, 1083 Lily pads, 401 Limit cycles for differential equations, 961 in iterated maps, 961 see also Repetitive behavior Limit ordinals, 1162 Limitations of science, 6, 748, 846 and ultimate theory of physics, 471 Limited size systems, 255-260, 267 Limits of cellular automaton rules, 948 and fractal dimensions, 933 of networks as space, 1030 undecidability of, 1138 see also Continuum limits Lincoln cathedral, 873 Lincos language, 1189 Lindenmayer, Aristid (USA/Netherlands, 1925-1989) and L systems, 893 and plant branching, 1005 in Preface, xiii Lindgren, Kristian (Sweden, 1960- ) in Preface, xiii and universal CAs, 1115 Line defects, 1045 Line-printer output of my early cellular automata, 19 Linear algebra and CA invariances, 1022, 1023 and dimensions of networks, 1031 and models of memory, 1101 Linear cellular automata see also Additive cellular automata see also Elementary cellular automata Linear codes, 1101 Linear congruential generators, 318, 974 based on powers of 3, 903 and chaos on calculators, 920 cryptanalysis of, 1089 historical use of, 968 and randomized algorithms, 1085 as shift register analogs, 975 Linear differential equations and time series, 1083 Linear differential operators, 953 Linear Diophantine equations, 944, 1164 and polynomial time, 1146 Linear equations, 940 as defining rationals, 916 and free field theories, 1061 Linear feedback shift registers see Shift registers Linear filters in sound compression, 1080 and spectra, 1082 in visual perception, 1076 Linear models and computational irreducibility, 1132 in statistics, 589 Linear predictive coding in sound compression, 1080 Linear programming

NP completeness of integer, 1145 for optimizing designs, 1193 Linear recurrences, 891, 906 and additive CAs, 1018 and history of CAs, 878 and time series, 1083 see also Linear congruential generators Linear stability analysis, 988 Linear systems vs. nonlinear, 940 Linearity compared to additivity, 952 in quantum mechanics, 541, 1060 LinearSolve iterative algorithm for, 1141 and LFSR cryptanalysis, 1087 and linear systems, 940 and NC computations, 1149 Linguistics see Languages (human) Linial (Gulden), Samuel (USA, 1927- ) and underivability of logic axioms, 1170 Linkages in chaos toys, 1183 characteristic shapes of, 1183 and constructible reals, 1129 for randomness generation, 969 Linked lists for Game of Life, 949 Linker for register machines, 1114 Linnik's problem, 910 Linux and creation of this book, 854 Liquid crystals as components in technology, 1195 phase transitions in, 981 topological defects in, 1045 Liquid-gas phase transitions, 981 Liquids flow of, 376 see also Fluid flow Lisp (computer language) grammar of, 1104 and network systems, 936 representing expressions in, 897 theorems about, 1158, 1168 Lissajous figures, 917 List manipulation examples of in Mathematica, 853 Listable and implementing CAs, 866 ListConvolve and aggregation systems, 978 and autocorrelation, 1080 basic example of, 853 and CellularAutomaton, 886 and elementary CAs, 865 and fast evolution rules, 1094 and general CAs, 886 and hexagonal CAs, 992 and image processing, 1077 and integer multiplication, 1093 and Ising model, 981 and multidimensional CAs, 927 recursive algorithm for, 1142 in sandpile models, 989 and Sierpinski pattern, 931 and visual perception, 1076 ListCorrelate and additive CAs, 870, 952 and visual feature extraction, 1077 ListPlay and sound output, 1080 Lists encoded as integers, 1120, 1127 see also Sequences Lithic analysis, 1183 Little group (spacetime symmetries), 1046 Littlewood, John E. (England, 1885-1977) and chaos theory, 971 and Goldbach's Conjecture, 911 and iterated maps, 919 and numbers of primes, 910 Livermore (Lawrence Radiation Laboratory), 864 Lizards pigmentation patterns of, 426 Local conservation laws, 1023

see also Conservation laws Local minima, 346 Localization in class 1 and 2, 252 as origin of repetition, 355 Localization (of eigenstates) and randomness tests, 1085 Localized structures and 3n+1 problem, 904 in class 4 systems, 281-296 in code 20 CA, 285 in code 357 CA, 286 in code 1329 CA, 287 in continuous CAs, 160, 244 as engineering components, 678 finding in 2D CAs, 965 and long-range communication, 252 in network evolution, 525 origins of, 990 and particles in physics, 525 in PDEs, 164, 1129 in presence of randomness, 526 in QCD, 1061 from random initial conditions, 228 in reversible CAs, 440 in rule 30 CA, 700 in rule 37R CA, 455 in rule 45 CA, 701 and rule 110 axiom system, 1168 in rule 110 CA, 31, 292, 964 same in different 2D rules, 949 in three dimensions, 949 in turbulent fluids, 997 in Turing machines, 888 and universality, 692 see also Gliders Locomotion in animals, 1011 Log (logarithm) algebraic independence of, 1164 computation of nth digits in, 912 and computational reducibility, 744, 747 continued fractions for, 144 digits of, 141 leading digits in, 914 randomness in digits of, 967 as source of randomness, 968 uniform distribution mod 1, 904 and Weber's law, 1014 Log-periodic antennas, 1183 Logarithmic growth of number representations, 1070 Logarithmic law for leading digits, 914 Logarithmic series, 1134 Logarithmic spiral, 418 Logging and messages to Moon, 1189 regular patterns of, 1187 Logic as applied to math, 780 axioms for, 773, 808 and combinators, 711, 898 and communication, 1181 and computational irreducibility, 1196 and defining intelligence, 1178 difficult notation in, 1104 and discreteness in programs, 976 as example of lattice theory, 1153 as example of rules, 875 and finite set theory, 1171 as foundation of math, 1176 history of, 1097, 1099, 1151 history of notation for, 1182 and history of universality, 1109 in human languages, 1173 in human thinking, 627 implications for, 1197 interesting theorems in, 816 lengths of proofs in, 1175 machines for doing, 1107 multilayer, 1096 multivalued, 814, 1175 and natural science, 860 non-universality of basic, 784 as not mainstream math, 859 possible models of, 805 in practical computers, 1108 and quantum mechanics, 1058

reversible, 1097 shortest And, Or axioms for, 1174 shortest Nand axioms for, 808 ternary, 814 and Thue on substitution systems, 893 see also Predicate logic Logic circuits emulated by CAs, 662, 1112 emulated by Game of Life, 1117 and universality, 1119 Logic expressions see Boolean expressions Logic minimization, 1095 compared to searching, 1193 Logic programming languages, 1158 Logic Theory Machine, 1157 Logical depth and defining complexity, 1069 for Turing machines, 1144 Logical functions see Boolean functions Logical positivism and theories of communication, 1181 Logical rules see Rules Logicism as foundation of math, 1176 LogIntegral (logarithmic integral li) and distribution of primes, 133, 909 and Zeta, 918 Logistic differential equation and iterated maps, 918 Logistic map, 920 closed forms for iterates of, 1098 and continuous CAs, 922 and history of chaos theory, 971 see also Iterated maps Logistics and causal networks, 1033 and complex systems, 862 Lognormal distribution for human weights, 977, 1003 and multiplicative processes, 977 Logo (computer language) and 2D TMs, 930, 931 Long division, 139 Long-term memory, 1102 Long-time tails in molecular dynamics, 999 and shaking, 969 Longest paths and NP completeness, 1146 Looms and history of computer, 1107 Loop general relativity, 1048 Loop quantum gravity, 1054 and spin networks, 1055 Loop switching method and network layout, 1031 Lorentz, Hendrik A. (Netherlands, 1853-1928) and relativity theory, 1041 Lorentz contraction, 1041 Lorentz gas, 1022 Lorentz transformations, 1041, 1042 Lorentzian spaces, 1051 Lorenz, Edward N. (USA, 1917- ) and chaos theory, 971 and complex ODE, 879 and experimental math, 899 and fluid turbulence, 998 in Preface, xiii Lorenz equations as giving strange attractor, 922 and history of chaos theory, 971 and Lissajous figures, 917 and weather prediction, 1178 Los Alamos and history of CAs, 877 and my work on CAs, xiii, 880 Lossless data compression, 560 Lossy data compression, 572 Lotka, Alfred J. (USA, 1880-1949) and oscillatory chemical reactions, 1013 Lotteries, 969 Lovelace, A. Ada (Byron) K. (England, 1815-1852) and universality, 1110 Low-level languages and practical computing, 1109

and register machines, 101 Lwenheim-Skolem theorem, 1172 Lower bounds on computations, 761, 1143 on parity, 1096 on sorting algorithms, 1142 LPC in sound compression, 1080 Lucas, F. Edouard A. (France, 1842-1891) and binomials mod k, 870 Lucas-Lehmer test for primes, 911 Lucas numbers, 891 Lucian (Greece, 120 - ~180 AD) and inhabitants of Moon, 1190 Lucretius, Titus Carus (Italy, ~95 - ~55 BC) and atomism, 876 and models based on rules, 860 Lukasiewicz, Jan (Poland, 1878-1956) and axioms for logic, 1151 and multivalued logic, 1175 Lukasiewicz representation, 896 Lunes and ornamental art, 872 theory of, 873 Lungs branching in, 1008 Lyapunov exponents in cellular automata, 950 and entropies, 960 in iterated maps, 921 probabilistic estimates of, 953 LZW compression, 565, 1069, 1072 MacArthur Foundation, xiii Mach, Ernst (Austria/Czech., 1838-1916) and Mach's Principle, 1047, 1053 and origins of relativity, 1042 Mach numbers, 997 Machiavelli, Niccol (Italy, 1469-1527) and rules for military drill, 875 Machine 1447 function computed by, 761 and longest halting times, 1144 Machine 1507 as complicated TM, 1144 function computed by, 761 Machine 596440 as candidate for universality, 709 properties of, 1120 Machine 600720 behavior of, 763 and longest halting times, 1144 properties of, 1145 Machine code and history of computing, 1109 and implementation of CAs, 866 of programs by Alan Turing, 1013 and register machines, 97 Machine integers and linear congruential generators, 974 Machine intelligence, 628, 1099 Machine numbers for Turing machines, 888 Machines see also Register machines see also Turing machines Machining plans and Voronoi diagrams, 987 Macintosh and computer interfaces, 1102 Magic Eye random dot stereograms, 1076 Magic squares as defined by constraints, 945 for SETI, 1190 Magnetic chaos toys, 1183 Magnetic field compared to gravitational, 530 and gauge invariance, 1045 Magnetic moments and size of particles, 1044 Magnetic monopoles, 1046 Magnetization in Ising model, 981 phase transition in, 981 Magnetosphere radio signals from, 827, 835, 1187 Magnus, Wilhelm (Germany/USA, 1907-1990) and word problem for groups, 1141

Mainframes (computers) random generators on, 320, 974 Maintainability of software and defining complexity, 1069 Majority cellular automaton and P completeness, 1149 Majorization of functions (growth rates), 1162 Makanin, Gennadi S. (Russia, 1938- ) and sequence equations, 1141 and undecidable word problems, 1141 Malacology (study of molluscs), 1008 Mallow leaves, 1006 Mammoth ivory, 873 Man see Humans Management of machines that think, 629 Management science and Boolean networks, 936 and defining complexity, 1069 and history of complexity, 862 Mandelbrot, Benoit B. (France/USA, 1924- ) and branching models, 1005 and computer experiments, 899 and financial processes, 1014 and fractal landscapes, 1001 and fractals, 880, 934 and history of complexity, 862 and Mandelbrot set, 934 in Preface, xiii and random walks, 990 Mandelbrot set, 934 as precursor to my work, 880 and tree space set, 407, 1006 Manicouagan, Canada circular crater in, 1187 Manifolds in differential geometry, 1048 discrete approximations to, 1050 undecidability in equivalence of, 1051, 1138 Manneville, Paul (France, 1946- ) and CA classes, 948 and continuous CAs, 922 Manufacturing causal network systems for, 1032 Many-fingered time, 1035 Many-to-one mappings, 960 Many-worlds models, 1035 for quantum mechanics, 1063 Map basic example of, 853 MapAt and implementing proofs, 1155 and representation of TMs, 888 MapIndexed basic example of, 853 and causal networks, 1033 Mappings on Cantor set, 869 cellular automata as, 959 complex, 933 functions as, 898 history of iterated, 918 iterated, 149-155 from linear congruences, 974 local and linear, 953 many-to-one, 960 piecewise linear, 921 Marconi, Guglielmo (Italy, 1874-1937) and SETI, 1188 Margolus, Norman H. (USA, 1955- ) and 2D CA simulators, 928 in Preface, xiii Mark I computer, 1107 Market research and random sampling, 1192 Markets price fluctuations in, 429 Markov, Andrei A. (Russia, 1903-1979) and sequential substitution systems, 894 and statistics of language, 1181 and undecidability, 1136 and word problem for semigroups, 1141 Markov partitions and digit sequences, 901 Markov processes, 1084 and 3n+1 problem, 904 and finite automata, 958

and game strategies, 1105 history of, 1181 spectra of, 1081 as statistical models, 590 Markov random fields and texture discrimination, 1077 and visual perception, 584 Markov systems (sequential substitution systems), 894 Marr, David C. (England/USA, 1945-1980) and visual perception, 1076 Mars question of life on, 1179, 1179', 1180 sending messages to, 1189 as source of radio signals, 1188 Martin, Olivier C. (USA/France, 1958- ) and additive CAs, 951 as coauthor of paper, 881 in Preface, xii, xiii Martin-Lf, Per E. R. (Sweden, 1942- ) and randomness, 1068 Martingales (gambling systems), 1068 Marxen, Heiner (Germany, 1957- ) and Turing machines, 889 Masers, natural, 1187 Masking of sounds, 587 visual with textures, 1077 Mass of elementary particles, 1046 equality of inertial and gravitational, 1047 in relativity theory, 1041 in Schwarzschild solution, 1053 in ultimate theory of physics, 528 Massey, James L. (USA/Switzerland, 1934- ) and Berlekamp-Massey algorithm, 1087 Massively parallel computers and history of CAs, 877 Massless particles and speed of light, 1041 spin states of, 1046 Master equations in cellular automata, 953 Matching of networks, 1038 and paramodulation, 1156 of parentheses, 1091 of strings, 1038, 1101 MatchQ (test for matching) and constraint systems, 941 Material equivalence as name for Equal, 1173 Material implication as name for Implies, 1173 Materialism and free will, 1135 Materials fracture in, 994 search-based discoveries of, 1193 Mates and bird songs, 1180 Mathematica algorithms in discovered by searches, 1193 analysis of internal code of, 1003 and authoring system for book, 852 avoidance of data types in, 898, 1154 axiom systems in, 1150 as basis for discoveries, 46 cellular automata in, 867 chaos experiments with, 919 computation of pi with, 911 computation of PrimePi in, 909 computation of PrimeQ in, 909 and computer communication, 1182 and computer experiments, 113, 899 and concept of halting, 1137 confluence of rules in, 1037 creation of, 20 and creation of this book, xii and creation of this index, 852 curves of math functions in, 145 and definition of math, 859 design of for human use, 1177 diversity of universality in, 644 evaluation order in, 898, 906 as example of language, 1109 and examples in education, 1133 and experimental math, 899 function names in index, 852

general notes about, 853 generic inequality of symbols in, 1169 grammar of, 631 history of my work on, 864, 881 and human thinking, 627 as idealization of math, 1150 infinite loops in, 1137 and math insight vs. proofs, 1156 mathematical functions in, 1092 mathematical notation in, 1104 minimal model for, 102 name of, 859 as necessary skill, 856, 857 as notation for computation, 1182 notations for logic in, 1173 NP completeness in, 1143 number of names in, 1103 number representation in, 1070 operator precedence in, 1150 patterns see Patterns (in Mathematica) patterns and network evolution, 1037 patterns and operator systems, 898 and pictures in this book, 851 proofs and design of, 1158 pure functions in, 1121 random programs in, 1183 randomness generation in, 317, 973 scoping of variables in, 1152 and sequential substitution systems, 894 size compared to genomes, 383 structure of, 1103 and structure of proofs, 1155 symbolic expressions in, 896 theorem proving and, 1158 theorems about, 1168 thinking in, 1104 ultimate theory of physics in, 468 undecidability in, 1138 as universal system, 642 universality in, 1110 and use of digit sequences, 902 use of hashing in, 1100 Mathematica Book, 853 writing style in, 849 Mathematical constants, 136-144 Mathematical equations as foundation for science, 1 in history of science, 44 see also Equations Mathematical formulas and computational irreducibility, 737 and engineering, 829 as results of models, 368 and science education, 1133 Mathematical functions, 145-148 as computable, 1128 difficulty of evaluating, 1134 evaluated by CAs, 639 evaluation of as P computations, 1142 interpretation of TMs as, 1144 see also Standard mathematical functions Mathematical impossibilities, 1137 Mathematical induction, 1152 Mathematical logic combinators in, 898 and defining complexity, 1068 and DNF, 1097 history of, 1150 and history of universality, 1110 and intermediate degrees, 734 and neural networks, 1099 and problem of free will, 1135 structure of proofs in, 1151 undecidability in, 1138 unfamiliarity of notation in, 853 see also Foundations of mathematics Mathematical models history of, 992 and Principle of Computational Equivalence, 728 Mathematical morphology, 1077 Mathematical notation, 1182 grammar of, 1104 influence on thinking of, 1181 for logic, 1173 vs. Mathematica, 853 relations vs. axioms in, 1169 Mathematical physics

functions of, 145 Mathematical theories distributions of theorems in, 1175 Mathematicizing power and Church's Thesis, 1126 Mathematics analysis using, 606-620 applied to biological form, 1004 axioms in, 773 as central in education, 855 and continuity of space, 472 definition of, 859 in economic systems, 1015 and extraterrestrial intelligence, 837, 1189 as foundation for science, 1 and history of complexity, 862 history of in science, 5, 859 and human intelligence, 822 idealizations of, 795, 1149 implications for, 772-821 invention vs. discovery in, 1176 and models of thinking, 629 new results in this book in, 863 notation in, 853 numbers in, 116 ordering of constructs in, 1177 and PDEs, 161 in physics, 433 vs. physics, 821 self-limiting of, 792 set theory in education, 1154 in social sciences, 9 summary of relations to, 7, 863 and systems with constraints, 221 types of theorems in, 1176 use of rules in, 875 see also Foundations of mathematics MathieuC (Mathieu function) asymptotic oscillation of, 917 MathLink and CA programs, 865 and computer experiments, 899 and creation of this book, 854 Mating and defining species, 1003 Matiyasevich, Yuri (Russia, 1947- ) and Diophantine equations, 1161 in Preface, xiii and word problem for semigroups, 1141 Matrices and 2D substitution systems, 933 and cryptanalysis, 602 as generalizing numbers, 1168 Hadamard, 1073 mappings of, 921 and non-commutative rings, 1153 random, 977 satisfying constraints, 945 and solving linear systems, 940 Matrix mechanics, 1056 Matrix memories, 1101 MatrixPower and CA entropies, 958 and correlation functions, 1082 and Fibonacci, 890 and substitution systems, 890 and undecidability, 1138 Matter as distinct from space, 1028 in Einstein equations, 1052 as generating curvature, 532, 536 Mauritania Richat structure in, 1187 Max (maximum) as associative, 1094 related to Or, 952 Maximal periods of cellular automata, 950, 1088 of linear congruences, 974 of random generators, 318 of shift registers, 975 and symmetries, 950 Maximal principles variational principles, 1185 Maximum entropy method, 1083 Maximum likelihood, 589, 1083 Maximum-of-t test, 1085 Maxwell, James Clerk (Scotland/England, 1831-1879)

and chaos theory, 971 and electromagnetism, 1041 and fluttering of paper, 971 and gauge invariance, 1045 and Maxwell's demon, 1021 and statistical mechanics, 1019 and stochastic models, 968 Maxwell's demon, 1021 Maxwell's equations as examples of PDEs, 161 and relativistic invariance, 1041 as simple physical models, 1025 May, Robert M. (Australia/USA/England, 1936- ) and chaos theory, 971 Maze designs, 873, 875 Maze-like patterns, 1013 from 2D cellular automata, 427 in code 746, 334 in visual cortex, 1075 Mazoyer, Jacques (France, 1947- ) and firing squad problem, 1035 McCarthy, John (USA, 1927- ) and theorems in Lisp, 1168 McCulloch, Warren S. (USA, 1898-1972) and neural networks, 880, 1099 and universality, 1110 McCulloch-Pitts models, 1099 and finite automata, 958 McCune, William W. (USA, 1953- ) and axioms for groups, 1153 and axioms for logic, 1151 Mean curvature, 1009 Mean field theory for cellular automata, 953 and rate equations, 984 for self-avoiding walks, 978 Meander patterns (mazes), 873 Meanders (in rivers), 1001 Meaning of axiom systems, 797 and intelligence, 826 in languages, 1181 in programs, 1182 and regularity, 1183 of the universe, 1027 Measure entropy for cellular automata, 959 computing, 1084 spacetime, 960 Measure theory and defining randomness, 1067 Measurement in quantum theory, 542, 1062 in thermodynamics, 448, 1020 Measures and fractal dimensions, 934 and spectra, 1081 Mechanical automata, 1183 Mechanical calculators, 1110 Mechanical computers, 1107 Mechanical devices as not universal, 643 Mechanical perception, 1105 Mechanical processes for real numbers, 1129 Mechanical systems for cyclic tag systems, 895 proofs in, 1157 randomness in, 969 and repetitive motion, 829 self-reproducing, 1179 Mechanical toys randomness in, 969 Mechanics and history of mathematics in science, 859 Mechanisms captured in models, 367 compared to purposes, 830 in programs and nature, 297 for randomness, 299 Mechanistic explanations for complexity in nature, 861 in physics, 860, 1026 Medians and robust statistics, 1083 Medical applications, 9, 842 Medicinal plants leaf shapes for, 1005

Medieval logic, 1151 Mediterranean patterns of lights around, 1187 Meet (in lattice theory), 1153 Meier, Willi (Switzerland, 1948- ) and cryptanalysis of rule 30, 1087 MeijerG (Meijer G function) and Integrate, 1177 Meinhardt, Hans (Germany, 1938- ) and patterns on shells, 1012 in Preface, xiii and reaction-diffusion, 1013 Meiosis, 970 Melting of ice, 372 as phase transition, 981 Melting points of alkanes, 1194 difficulty of computing, 1194 MemberQ (list membership test) in aggregation systems, 978 Memo functions, 869, 906 Memory (animal) in lower organisms, 623 and shell patterns, 1012 Memory (computer) emulated by CA, 663 and history of computing, 1108 in practical computers, 1108 and PSPACE completeness, 1142 Memory (extraterrestrial) in Black Cloud, 1190 Memory (human), 1102 and free will, 753, 1136 and future technology, 1195 and human intelligence, 823 and human thinking, 621 inanimate analogs of, 1178 visual, 623 and weather prediction, 1177 Memory-based encoding, 565 Menger, Karl (Austria/USA, 1902-1985) and nested patterns, 934 Mental functions, 1099 see also Brain Menu interfaces, 1102 vs. languages, 631 Mercury advance of perihelion of, 1047 Meredith, Carew A. (Ireland, 1904-1976) and axioms for logic, 1175 Meredith axioms for logic, 808, 1175 Merging in multiway systems, 937 Meristems (in plants), 409, 1004 Mersenne, Marin (France, 1588-1648) and primes, 909 Mersenne primes and perfect numbers, 911 Mertens Conjecture, 910 Mesh generation and discrete spaces, 1050 and Voronoi diagrams, 987 Mesons (in particle physics), 1057 spins of, 1046 Mesopotamian art, 43, 873 Mesoscopic systems and quantum theory, 1058 Metabolism and definition of life, 1178 Metamathematics, 1150 empirical, 1176 and Gdel's Theorem, 1158 Metaphysics implications for, 1196 Metastable states and phase transitions, 341 and quantum measurement, 1063 Meteorites and origin of life, 1179 Meteorology and history of chaos theory, 971 Meter speed of light and defining, 1041 Meter in poetry rules for, 875 Methane, 1194

Method of lines for PDEs, 924 Methodology of computer experiments, 108 and definition of math, 860 development of my, 21 of math in science, 859 for studying sequences, 1091 in this book, 1193 Metric in differential geometry, 1048 for Lorentzian spaces, 1051 for numerical data, 1101 Riemann tensor expansion of, 1049 in space of CA rules, 948 in space of CA states, 869 in unified field theory, 1028 volume density from, 1050 Metric spaces networks as, 1030 Metric tensors, 1048 Metrics for complexity of software, 1069 Michelson, Albert A. (USA, 1852-1931) and experimental math, 899 and Michelson-Morley experiment, 1041 Michelson-Morley experiment, 1041 Microcanonical ensemble for 2D Ising model, 982 Microcosm, 1196 Microorganisms random motion of, 970 Microprocessors randomness instructions in, 970 Microsoft Windows and creation of this book, 854 Microspine pattern from, 385 Microwave background radiation see Cosmic microwave background Middle A frequency of, 1079 Middle Ages animism in, 1195 concept of microcosm in, 1196 understanding of nature in, 876 Middle-square method, 975 for molecular dynamics, 864 Midwest field patterns in, 1187 Mie scattering as exactly soluble, 1133 Military camouflage, 1077 Military cryptography, 1085 and shift registers, 878, 1088 Military drill use of rules in, 875 Military GPS (P-code), 1086 Military secrets and history of complexity, 49 Military SETI, 1188 Military vehicles use of randomness by, 1192 Millen, Jonathan K. (USA, 1942- ) and code 20 CA, 877 Miller, Stanley L. (USA, 1930- ) and origin of life, 1179 Miller-Rabin algorithm (for PrimeQ), 1192 Millipedes locomotion patterns of, 1011 Mimesis, 1178 Mind see also Brain see also Thinking Mind-body problem, 1197 Minds of extraterrestrials, 1191 and free will, 1135 in inanimate objects, 822 and theories of communication, 1181 Mineralogy and forms of crystals, 993 Minimal surfaces computing forms of, 1009 and deformable packings, 988 vs. Einstein equations, 1052 and general study of form, 967 and radiolarians, 1011

as shapes of exoskeletons, 1011 Minimal systems for particular purposes, 1186 for particular sequences, 1186 see also Shortest programs Minimal theories, 1186 Minimality and recognition of purpose, 831 Minimization of Boolean formulas, 617, 1095 of energy, 940 of finite automata, 957 as model of drainage, 1001 of multilevel logic, 1096 and variational principles, 1185 Minkowski, Hermann (Germany, 1864-1909) and relativity theory, 1042 Minkowski space, 1051 and quantum field theory, 1061 as solving Einstein equations, 1053 Minors (in networks), 1045 Minotaur home of the, 873 Minsky, Marvin L. (USA, 1927- ) and discreteness of space, 1027 in Preface, xiii and register machines, 896, 1115 and simple Turing machines, 879, 889, 1143 and tag systems, 1120 and universal Turing machine, 1115, 1119, 1119' Miracles and ultimate theory of physics, 1025 Mirror as amplifier, 310 Mises, Ludwig E. von (Austria/USA, 1881-1973) and free will, 1135 Mises, Richard von (Austria/USA, 1883-1953) and defining randomness, 1068 Missiles radar pulses used by, 970 MIT and my work on CAs, 880 and Paterson worms, 930 and precursors to my work, 879 and work on nesting, 934 Mitotic cell division, 970 Mixed states (in quantum theory), 1062 Mixing of initial conditions in rule 30, 976 Mobile automata, 71-77 2D, 931 2D and causal networks, 1033 active cell motion in, 887 causal-invariant systems for, 1033 causal networks from, 1033 emulated by CAs, 657, 1111 emulating CAs, 664, 1112 experiments on, 112 generalized, 76 implementation of, 887 implementation of generalized, 887 on networks, 1040 random initial conditions in, 949 reversible, 1018 and time in universe, 486 Mbius transformations and complex maps, 933 and continued fractions, 914 and elliptic functions, 1093 Mod (modulo) and algebraic forms for CA rules, 885 basic example of, 854 and computational reducibility, 747 computed by rule 132, 638 and cyclic addition systems, 950 difficulty of evaluating, 1134 emulated by continuous functions, 1129 encoded as integer equation, 1160 and formulas for repetition, 607 and idealized billiards, 1022 and primitive recursion, 907 in rolling motion, 971 TMs to compute, 1144 Mod 1 uniform distribution, 904 see also FractionalPart Mod 2 rule, 25 see also Rule 90

Mod k rules, 870, 952 see also Additive cellular automata Modal logic, 1158 Model theory (in mathematical logic), 1172 of operator systems, 805 and Peano arithmetic, 1169 Models based on grammars, 1084 based on programs, 860 compared to reality, 991 complexity of, 1068, 1083 of data, 550 and epistemology, 1196 general issues about, 363-369, 857 history of making, 992 of mathematics, 776 mechanistic for physics, 1026 origins of physical, 1025 personal experiences of, 991, 992 and Principle of Computational Equivalence, 728 probabilistic, 588 programs as more than, 434 rarity of new, 368 undecidability in, 1138 of universe, 466 see also Ultimate theory of physics see also Simulations Modems data compression in, 1070 Modes in PDEs, 988 Modesty and clarity of explanation, 849 Modular addition, 255, 950 state transition graphs for, 961 Modular functions difficulty of evaluating, 1134 and nested patterns, 1093 Modular groups, 933 Modular multiplication, 257, 950 state transition graphs for, 961 ModularLambda and nested patterns, 1093 Modulo arithmetic system based on, 255 see also Mod Modus ponens, 1150, 1151 and equational axioms, 1151 and equivalential calculus, 1170 and implicational calculus, 1170 MoebiusMu difficulty of evaluating, 1134 and distribution of primes, 910 and maximal periods, 950 Moire patterns, 1078 Molding profiles as examples of patterns, 874 Molds and self-reproduction, 1179 Molecular biology and complexity in biology, 390 and recognition of purpose, 1184 Molecular chaos assumption and H theorem, 1020 Molecular dynamics and cellular automaton fluids, 378 computer simulations of, 999 fluid equations from, 996, 999 and fracture processes, 995 and inspirational book cover, 864 as precursor to my work, 879 Molecules and Brownian motion, 302 defining life, 1178 in fluids, 376 idealized in CA fluids, 379 and quantum theory, 1056 in smell, 1105 unpredictable properties of, 1194 vibrational modes of, 1081 Mollusc shells see Shells Molluscs classified by shell patterns, 1012 pigmentation patterns of, 389 Moments of data, 1083 Moments of inertia and isotropy, 980

Momentum basic mechanism for, 537 Momentum conservation in 2D cellular automata, 1024 in cellular automaton fluids, 379 in Einstein equations, 1052 in network evolution, 529 in physics, 1022 Monadic pure predicate logic, 1152 Monads models for space with, 1028 Monasteries ornamental art from, 873 Monocotyledons (plants) branching in, 1004 symmetries in, 1007 Monoids axioms for, 773 enumeration of, 805 and generalized additivity, 952 and multiway systems, 938 vs. semigroups, 1153 universality of, 1159 Monolith in 2001, 1183 Monopodial branching (in plants), 400 Monotheism and rejection of animism, 1195 and teleology, 1185 Monster Group, 938 and sphere packings, 987 Monte Carlo methods aggregation systems as, 332 as application of randomness, 1192 for CA conservation laws, 1022 and computational irreducibility, 1132 and digit reversal, 905 in Ising models, 982 in lattice gauge theories, 1061 and probabilistic models, 1083 quasi-randomness in, 1085 for satisfying constraints, 344 and stochastic models, 968 Moon circular craters on, 1187 circular shape of, 861, 875 computing orbit of, 313, 1107 sending signals to, 1189 supposed life on, 1180, 1190 and three-body problem, 972 times of rising of, 973 Moore, Cristopher (USA, 1968- ) and P completeness, 1149 Moore, Edward F. (USA, 1925- ) and 2D cellular automata, 928 Moore neighborhood (for 2D cellular automata), 177, 928 Moorish (Islamic) art, 874 Moral responsibility, 1136 Moral theories and free will, 1135 Moray eel pigmentation pattern of, 426 Mordell conjecture, 1164 Mordell equation, 1165 Morning glory leaves, 1006 Morphisms in category theory, 1154 of words, 82-87 see also Substitution systems Morphogenesis (in biology), 400-422, 1003 undecidability in models of, 1138 Morphogenesis (of landscapes), 1001 Morphogens, 1004 Morphology of biological systems, 386 history of, 1004 mathematical, 1077 Morphometrics, 1010 Morrison, Philip (USA, 1915- ) and SETI, 1189 Morse, H. C. Marston (USA, 1892-1977) and substitution systems, 893 Morse code, 1069 Morse-Thue sequence, 83 see also Thue-Morse sequence Mortality problem for matrices, 1138 Mosaics, 873 Moseley, Henry (England, 1801-1872) and shell shapes, 1008

Mosses growth of, 1004 Motion absolute, 1042 of class 4 structures, 281 concept of in physics, 521 Motivation Occam's razor for, 1025 and thinking, 629 Motor skills memory for, 1102 Mountains patterns of, 1001 Mouse motion miles of in creating this book, xiv as source of randomness, 970 Movie effects and substitution systems, 893 MP3 sound compression, 1080 Mu-law sound encoding, 1080 mu operator (in general recursion), 907, 1121 Muchnik, Albert A. (Russia, 1934- ) and intermediate degrees, 1130 Mud and spontaneous generation, 1179 Mug (circular reflector) caustics from, 984 Mules as not self-reproducing, 1178 Mullins, William W. (USA, 1927-2001) and dendritic growth, 993 Multichannel analysis in SETI, 1189 Multifractals generalized dimensions for, 959 and history of fractals, 934 Multilayer logic, 1096 Multinomial (multinomial coefficients) and additive CAs, 1092 patterns generated by, 870 Multiplication CAs based on generalized, 886 computation of, 1093 in digit sequences, 118 lower bound on, 1143 NC algorithms for, 1142 number of steps required for, 1134 performed by CAs, 661, 1112 recursive algorithm for, 1142 see also Times Multiplication systems, 257 reversibility in, 1018 state transition graphs for, 961 Multiplication tables CAs based on, 614, 886 consistent with axioms, 805 for groups, 945, 1172 see also Operator systems Multiplicative digit sequences, 902 Multiplicative processes and lognormal distribution, 977 MultiplicativeOrder and additive CAs, 951, 1133 and cyclic multiplication, 950 difficulty of computing, 1147 and digits of rationals, 912 and linear congruence periods, 974 as period in doubling system, 257 and quantum computers, 1148 Multipole moments and isotropy, 980 Multiregister machines, 1114 Multiresolution analysis, 1074 Multispin coding (bitwise optimization) and cellular automata, 866 Multivalued logic, 814, 1175 Multivariate hypergeometric functions, 916, 1092 Multiverse (many-worlds), 1035, 1063 Multiway systems, 204-209 based on numbers, 939 and branching of time, 504 canonical forms in, 1036 causal invariance in, 507 vs. causal networks, 1037 and cell division in animals, 1009 and chemical synthesis, 1194 compared to sequential substitution systems, 204 completion algorithms for, 1037

computational reducibility in, 1134 confluence in, 1036 convergence in, 1036 emulated by predicate logic, 1159 emulated by TMs, 765 emulating multicolor, 1115 equivalences in, 1172 frequency of behavior in, 938 generating Euclidean spaces, 1036 and Gdel's Theorem, 782 halting problems for, 1137 history of, 938 limited size versions of, 939 as models of math, 776 multidimensional, 939 and NP completeness, 1145 vs. operator systems, 1169 and quantum mechanics, 771 random initial conditions in, 949 randomness in, 205 reversible, 1018 sampling of as axiom systems, 795 searching for paths in, 1157 simulation as NP problem, 1142 spacetime networks from, 1036 states generated by, 207 and string matching, 1101 terminating and confluence, 1036 in terms of operators, 1172 undecidability in, 1136, 1137 word problems in, 1141 Multiway tag systems, 1141 and correspondence systems, 1140 Munching foos as precursors to my work, 879 Munching squares program, 871 Municipal districting and Voronoi diagrams, 987 Muon mass of, 528, 1046 models of, 1044 as type of particle, 1043 Murray, James D. (England/USA, 1931- ) in Preface, xiii and reaction-diffusion, 1013 Muscles CA models for, 878 control of, 625, 1099 as excitable medium, 1013 patterns of cells in, 385, 1007 randomness in twitching of, 1011 Music and auditory perception, 585 in bird and whale songs, 826, 1180 chords in, 917 and extraterrestrials, 1191 frequencies in, 1079 grammatical rules in, 875, 1181 and math thinking, 1177 scores from programs, 1080 on Voyager spacecraft, 1190 Musical chairs randomness in, 968 Musical instruments and nonlinear oscillators, 971 shapes of, 1183 Mutations (biological) effects of, 390 Mutual information and defining complexity, 1069 Mycoplasma bacterium, 1179 Myhill, John R. (USA, 1923-1987) and firing squad problem, 1035 Myhill-Nerode theorem (minimal finite automata), 957, 957' Mysticism and combinatorics, 1082 and non-Western thinking, 1196 and universal objects, 1127 Mythology as models, 992 and origin of complexity, 861 n-body problem gravitational, 1021 n Log[n] algorithms and associative evolution, 1095 in automaton minimization, 957 in evaluating powers, 1093 in Fourier transforms, 1074

for multiplication, 1142 for pi, 912 for PrimeQ, 1090 in sorting, 1142 in Walsh transforms, 1073 see also Computational complexity theory Nakaya, Ukichiro (Japan, 1900-1962) and snowflakes, 992 Name-value pairs, 1182 Named theorems in logic, 817 Names of functions as symbolic expressions, 896 in the index, 852 lookup by sound, 623 of variables in math logic, 1150 Nand axioms for, 803, 808, 1151 emulated by Life, 1117 expression trees, 619, 1096 forms for cellular automata, 619 interesting theorems for, 819 lengths of proofs involving, 1175 as motivating combinators, 1121 in multivalued logic, 1175 as operation on sets, 1171 and reversible logic, 1098 single axiom for, 808 tautologies based on, 781, 1157 theorems for, 1175 truth table for, 802 as universal function, 807, 1096, 1173 and universality, 1119 words in languages for, 1173 Nanotechnology, 1193 cellular automata and, 841, 869 and human future, 1196 and new forms of perception, 1106 summary of relations to, 15 Napier, John (Scotland, 1550-1617) and binary numbers, 902 Natural equations (curves defined by curvature), 1009 Natural language see Languages (human) Natural language query systems, 1100 Natural order for Walsh functions, 1073 Natural selection Biological evolution, 415 difficulties in simulating, 1002 as engineering, 842 vs. engineering, 393 and extraterrestrial life, 1180 as force of limited power, 392 and games, 1104 history of, 1001 and leaf arrangements, 408 as non-math theory, 859 as not producing complexity, 392 of orbits in solar system, 973 as origin of complexity, 383, 861 and pigmentation patterns, 423, 1012 as predictive theory, 397 and Principle of Computational Equivalence, 1002 and purpose, 831, 1185 and shapes of leaves, 404 and shapes of shells, 417, 1008 and shell patterns, 425 summary of relations to, 14 and teleology, 1185 vs. thermodynamics, 1003 value of intelligence in, 1191 Natural theology and history of complexity, 861 and intelligent universe, 1195 Nature compared to artifacts, 40, 828, 967 computations in, 716 mimicked by technology, 1193 undecidability in, 1138 universality in, 718 Nature article of mine in, 882 Nature's God, 1196 Nautilus shell chamber structure of, 1008 growth of, 414 shape of, 385 Navier-Stokes equations, 996

and computational fluid dynamics, 1000 vs. Einstein equations, 535 next-order corrections to, 997 simplified versions of, 997 singularities in, 923 as subsonic approximations, 997 in two dimensions, 999 Navigation beacons radio signals from, 1188 NC (computational complexity class), 1142, 1149 and Boolean minimization, 1096 NDFA (non-deterministic finite automaton), 957 see also Finite automata NDSolve and curves from curvature, 1009 difficulty of evaluating, 1134 and PDEs, 924 and Sitnikov problem, 973 and three-body problem, 972 NDTM see Non-deterministic Turing machines Nearest-neighbor algorithms, 1101 Nebulas patterns in, 835, 1187 Necklaces and maximal periods, 950 and shift rules, 963 Needle Buffon's for pi, 1192 Needle-like crystals, 372 Negation in multivalued logic, 1175 in multiway systems, 796 notion of, 780, 1158 Negative bases, 902 power CAs and, 1093 Negative numbers representation of, 902, 942 Negatively curved space, 531 and automatic groups, 1141 and chaos theory, 971 divergence of geodesics on, 1049 and hyperbolic networks, 1049 Negotiations and price determination, 430 Neighbor-dependent substitution systems, 85-87 Neighbor-independent network rules, 509, 1037 Neighbor-independent substitution systems, 82-85 Neighborhoods possible in cellular automata, 929 symmetry classes of, 928 Neon discharge tubes randomness from, 969 Nerve cells, 1075 determinism in, 1135 as excitable media, 1013 and feature extraction, 623 in inner ear, 1079 and mollusc shell patterns, 1012 monitoring with sound, 1080 repeatable randomness in, 976 and song generation in birds, 1180 structure of and free will, 751 in visual system, 578 and Weber's law, 1014 Nest basic example of, 853 and branching patterns, 1006 constructing expressions with, 897 and lambda calculus integers, 1121 and recursive functions, 1121 Nested expressions, 102 Nested radicals, 915 Nested sequences block frequencies in, 594, 1084 compression of, 566 as initial conditions, 272, 956 pointer-based encoding of, 1071 shown in scan lines, 892 Nested tilings, 219 Nesting and 1/f noise, 969 in 2D cellular automata, 171 in 2D substitution systems, 187 in additive cellular automata, 955 in animal skeletons, 420 at phase transitions, 983 and auditory perception, 586

as basis for algorithms, 1141 in biological systems, 384 in bitwise functions, 871 in cellular automata, 25, 57 and circle packings, 986 and computational reducibility, 741 in continuous systems, 1130 in Cosmati mosaics, 873 in curves from curvature, 1009 in cyclic tag systems, 96 and defining arithmetic, 1164 in digit count sequences, 905 in digit sequences, 117, 913 display hacks for, 871, 932 in eddies in fluids, 997 in elliptic functions, 1093 in erosion patterns, 1001 in firing squad problem, 1035 in flocks of birds, 1011 in forms of artifacts, 1183 formulas for, 608 in Game of Life, 965 with general associative rules, 956 history of, 934 and history of math, 735 in Ising model, 983 in iterated maps, 921, 961 and lack of universality, 694, 734 in lists, 931, 989 in mobile automata, 73 in multiway systems, 207, 937 and musical scores, 1080 in networks, 197, 509 in Newton iteration, 1101 and Nim, 939 as only recently familiar, 1106 origins of, 357-360 in ornamental art, 872 in pattern-avoiding sequences, 944 in patterns of cracks, 995 and Principle of Computational Equivalence, 722 from projections of lattices, 932 in quasicrystals, 994 from random initial conditions, 273 recognizing visual, 582 in recursive sequences, 130 in rule 45, 701 in rule 90, 25, 270 in sequential substitution systems, 91 in snowflakes, 371 in sorting networks, 1142 in structure of attractors, 959 in substitution systems, 83 in symbolic systems, 104 in systems based on numbers, 988 in Turing machines, 79, 1119 and visual uniformity, 1078 in Walsh functions, 1073 in Weierstrass functions, 918 see also Fractals NestList basic example of, 853 in CA evolution, 865 and random walks, 977 understanding operation of, 1177 NestWhile and computation of pi, 912 and concatenation sequences, 913 and context-free parsing, 1103 and encoding of lists, 1121 and general recursion, 907 NestWhileList and length prefixed numbers, 1070 and network distances, 1031 Nets of polyhedra, 476 Network constraint systems, 483, 1032 and self-assembly, 1011 Network systems, 193-203 dimensions in, 936 implementation of, 935 random initial conditions in, 949 sequential, 936 Networks algebraic systems based on, 1172 approximating flat space, 477 approximating spheres, 1049 for attractors, 276 and Boolean functions, 619, 1096, 1097

of CA emulations, 1118 causal invariance for, 515 and Cayley graphs, 1032 cellular automata on, 930, 936 chemical analogies for, 1040 and chemical properties, 1195 and chemical synthesis, 1194 chromatic number of, 1029 circumference of, 1029 colored, 1029, 1039 coloring of and dimension, 1031 coloring of and planarity, 1040 conditions for planarity of, 1045 connectedness of, 1039 of contacts between circles, 986 from continuous space, 533 from continuous systems, 1031 continuum limits of, 1030 and cosmological horizon problem, 1055 curvature in, 532 and cybernetics, 862 de Bruijn, 940 defined by constraints, 482 diameter of, 1029 as difficult to understand, 1177 dimensions of and growth rates, 478 eigenvalues of distance matrix for, 1031 evolution of, 508-515 face distribution in random, 1038 Feynman diagrams as, 1060 girth of, 1029 growth rates on, 1031 homogenous, 1032 implementation of, 1031, 1037 layouts of, 193, 476, 1031 localized structures in, 525, 1045 and Markov processes, 590, 1084 mobile automata on, 1040 as models of space, 475-480 molecules as, 1194 from multiway systems, 209 Nand, 1096 nested, 197 non-overlapping, 515 non-planarity in planar, 527 NP completeness of equivalence of, 1146 NP completeness of matching in, 1038, 1145 NP completeness of path finding in, 1146 number of replacements for, 1038 numbers of trivalent, 1029 overlaps in, 515 planar, 1038 planarity in evolution of, 515 and quantum information, 544 random, 963, 1038 random causal, 1052 random replacements in, 1038 random walks on, 1030 relations between types of, 1037 replacements in directed, 1040 reversible evolution of, 1040 rules for getting to any, 1038 of shift register states, 1089 of signs in languages, 1181 sorting, 1142 state transition, 961 substitution systems, 508-515 symbolic representation of, 1040 symbolic systems based on, 898 and systems theory, 862 of theorems in math, 820, 1176 trivalent as covering all, 476 trivalent examples of, 476 trivalent in 3D, 1030 see also Boolean networks Neumann, Bernhard H. (England/Australia, 1909- ) and axioms for groups, 1153 Neural networks, 1102 for bird songs, 826 for design optimization, 1193 and finite automata, 958 history of, 1099 and history of CAs, 878 and history of statistics, 1083 and history of universality, 1110 and memory, 624 and my work on CAs, 880 as rule-based systems, 860

and undecidability, 1138 and visual perception, 1076 Neurons in brain, 1098 in cybernetics, 862 properties of, 1075 repeatable randomness in, 976 see also Nerve cells Neurotoxins from cone shells, 1011 Neurotransmitters, 1099 Neutral traits, 399 Neutrinos, 1043 identified with gravitons, 1054 limit on number of, 1047 and parity violation, 1019 for SETI, 1189 and speed of light, 1041 Neutron diffusion Monte Carlo of, 968, 1192 Neutron stars radio signals from, 835, 1188 New Age movement and animism, 1195 New moons, 973 New Zealand circular shape in, 1187 Newcomb, Simon (USA, 1835-1909) and leading digits, 914 Newell, Allen (USA, 1927-1992) and automated proofs, 1157 Newspapers reporting canals on Mars, 1180 Newton, Isaac (England, 1642-1727) and 2-body problem, 972 and calculus, 901 and color vision, 1075 and computational irreducibility, 1132 and invariance of mechanical laws, 1041 and law of gravity, 1047 and math in science, 859, 860 and nature of space, 1028 in quote by Kant, 861 and theology, 861 Newtonian physics and determinism, 967 Newton's Laws character of as principle, 1126 Newton's method attractor basins in, 1101 for computing square roots, 913 and gradient descent, 985 and iterated maps, 918 as iterative algorithm, 1141 NeXT (computer) and creation of this book, 854 Nicod, Jean (France, 1893-1924) and axioms for logic, 1151 Night sky observed darkness of, 455 and Olbers' paradox, 1021 Nilpotent groups Cayley graphs of, 1032 Nim (game), 939 Nine-neighbor CA rules, 927 NIntegrate difficulty of evaluating, 1134 NK models (random Boolean networks), 936 NLS equation, 925 NMR and quantum computers, 1148 Noise effect of on transition to turbulence, 996 effect on CAs of, 325, 976 in electronic devices, 302, 968 in natural radio emissions, 1187 produced by crack propagation, 374 radio in galaxy, 836 and time series, 1083 in vacuum tubes, 971 see also Randomness Nomography (Hilbert's thirteenth problem), 1128 Non-Abelian groups CAs based on, 887, 956 and charge quantization, 1046 in gauge theories, 1045, 1057 see also Groups (mathematical) Non-Abelian plane waves, 1061

Non-Archimedean fields as generalizing numbers, 1168 Non-commutative geometry and general relativity, 1048 Non-compact groups and tachyon spin, 1046 Non-computability of entropies, 958 of fractal dimension, 933 see also Undecidability Non-computable patterns from constraints, 943 Non-computable reals, 1128 Non-constructibility and additive functions, 953 in set theory, 1154 Non-determinism and multiway systems, 939 Non-deterministic finite automata, 957 Non-deterministic polynomial time (NP), 1142 Non-deterministic Turing machines and aggregation systems, 979 emulated by CAs, 766, 1146 Non-equilibrium thermodynamics and history of complexity, 862 Non-Euclidean geometry, 1149 and abstraction in math, 792 and history of space, 1028 Non-locality and Bell's inequalities, 1064 in digit sequences, 730 Non-measurable sets, 1154 Non-overlapping networks, 515 Non-overlapping strings, 503, 1033 and completion algorithms, 1037 total number of, 1036 Non-periodic crystals (quasicrystals), 994 Non-periodic tilings, 219 Non-standard analysis, 1172 and axioms of analysis, 1155 Non-standard arithmetic, 800, 1169 Non-standard integers as generalizing numbers, 1168 Non-verbal communication, 1181 Non-Western thinking, 1196 Noncontradiction law in logic, 817 Nonlinear differential equations and history of complexity, 862 for ModularLambda, 1093 and special functions, 1092 Nonlinear dynamics summary of relations to, 15 Nonlinear feedback shift registers, 1088 and cryptography, 1085 and history of CAs, 878 as precursors to my work, 879 see also Shift registers Nonlinear field theories topological defects in, 1045 Nonlinear maps in complex plane, 933 on the interval, 918 Nonlinear models and time series, 1083 Nonlinear oscillators arrays of, 921 and history of chaos, 971 Nonlinear Schrdinger equation, 925 Nonlinear wave equations, 165, 923 Nonlinearity and computational irreducibility, 1133 and equation solving, 940 and interactions in field theory, 1061 in PDEs, 923 Noodles and chaos theory, 306 Nor as universal function, 807, 1173 words for in languages, 1173 Nordahl, Mats G. (Sweden, 1958- ) in Preface, xiii and universal CAs, 1115 Normal algorithms (sequential substitution systems), 894 Normal coordinates and Riemann tensor, 1049 Normal distribution see Gaussian distributions

Normal forms in multiway systems, 1036 see also Canonical forms Normal modes of nested systems, 1081 Normal numbers, 912 and concatenation sequences, 913 and defining randomness, 1068 Normal ordering (in quantum field theory), 1062 Norms of tensors, 1050 Nose (human), 1105 Not in multivalued logic, 1175 and satisfiability, 1146 table for, 806 theorems involving, 817 words in languages for, 1173 Notation for chemical compounds, 1194 in logic, 1173 mathematical, 1182 for numbers, 1182 for operators, 1182 for symbolic expressions, 896 used in this book, 852 Notes (musical), 585, 1080 Noughts-and-crosses (tic-tac-toe), 939 Nouns in human languages, 1103 in mathematical notation, 1182 Novikov, Petr S. (Russia, 1901-1975) and word problem for groups, 1141 NP (non-deterministic polynomial time), 1142 NP completeness, 766, 1145 and approximate solutions, 984 and automated proofs, 1157 in Boolean minimization, 1096 in cellular automata, 767 and combinatorial optimization, 985 and cryptography, 1086, 1089 density of difficulty in, 1147 of finding addition chains, 1095 of finding discrete packings, 987 of finding network genus, 1045 of finite PCP, 1139 of knot equivalence, 1046 in Mathematica, 1143 and network evolution rules, 1038 and proof lengths in logic, 1175 and proof searching, 1157 and quantum computers, 771, 1148 relation to undecidability of, 769 in rule 30, 770 of satisfiability, 768 and systems in nature, 1146 of tensor simplification, 1048 of tiling problems, 942, 984 Nqthm (theorem prover), 1158 NSolve difficulty of evaluating, 1134 NTSC television signals bandwidth of, 1079 Nuclear explosions and computer simulations, 1133 and extraterrestrial contact, 1190 patterns of, 377 Nuclear physics and quantum theory, 1056 Nucleation of crystals, 992 Nucleus (atomic) discovery of, 1044 forces in, 1057 spins of, 1046 NullSpace and CA conservation laws, 1022 Number classes and transfinite numbers, 1162 Number conservation in cellular automata, 458 in cellular automaton fluids, 379 Number representations, 142 and data compression, 561 length prefixed, 1070 in symbolic systems, 897 Number theory, 135 and acoustic diffusers, 1183 analytic, 909 and cryptography, 1090

and Diophantine encodings, 1160 and Diophantine equations, 1164 evaluating functions from, 1134 experimental math in, 899 functions in, 1092 history of, 909 and history of complexity, 862 and history of iterated maps, 919 and linear congruential generators, 974 network of theorems in, 820 and origin of substitution systems, 893 and Peano axioms, 1152 and quadratic congruential generators, 975 spectra in, 1081 and Turing machine 600720, 1145 undecidability in, 791, 1138 unsolved problems in, 1166 Numbering of CA rules, 866, 883 of TM rules, 888, 1143 Numbers bases of, 116 chaos theory and, 309 and computational reducibility, 743 equivalence problem for, 916, 1138 generalizations of, 1168 historical notation for, 1182 history of, 901 models based on, 365 natural distributions of, 1070 normal, 912 operator representations for, 916 prime, 132 and Pythagoreans, 859 recognition of, 1089 systems based on, 115-168 tree representations for, 916 Numbers games, 969 Numerical analysis and chaos experiments, 919 and continuous CAs, 921 for differential equations, 924 and repeatability, 898 Numerical computation artifacts in, 1184 characterizing difficulty of, 1143 in fluid flow, 996 of gravitational fields, 1053 and history of computing, 1108 and weather prediction, 1178 Numerical data lookup of, 1101 Numerical integration Monte Carlo methods in, 1192 searches for optimal algorithms in, 1193 Numerology, 1025 Nuts segregation of mixed, 986 Object-oriented programming, 867 Object recognition, 624 Objects described by axiom systems, 797 and image compression, 1074 Observables in quantum mechanics, 1056 Observational errors and Gaussian distribution, 977 and origin of randomness, 967 Observers and Anthropic Principle, 1026 computational abilities of, 737 definition of particles for, 1062 and origin of causal networks, 487 Occam's razor, 1025 Ocean currents and weather, 1177 Ocean waves, 1001 as example of randomness, 301 nested breaking of, 997 pattern formation in, 947 repetitive behavior in, 988 Oceans exploration of, 1191 finding artifacts under, 1183 whale songs in, 1180 Ocelot pigmentation pattern of, 426 OCR (optical character recognition)

and cellular automata, 877 Octahedra extraterrestrial in 2001, 1190 truncated, 930, 987 Octanes, 1194 Octaves (in music), 917, 1079 Octonions as generalizing numbers, 1168 Octopus communication by, 1181 form of tentacles of, 385 visual system of, 1075 Ocular dominance stripes CA model for, 1012 maze-like patterns in, 1013 in visual system, 1075 OddQ (test for odd numbers) and nested patterns, 931 and rule 132, 638 Odds and Evens game, 1105 ODEs, 922 see also Ordinary differential equations Odlyzko, Andrew M. (USA, 1949- ) and additive CAs, 951 as coauthor of paper, 881 in Preface, xiii and zeros of zeta function, 918 Odometer and history of computing, 1107 Odor perception, 1105 and experience of dogs, 827 Offset lists in general cellular automata, 927 OH (hydroxyl) frequency, 1189 Oil and water separation of, 980 Oil fires patterns in, 377 visible from space, 1187 Olaus Magnus (Sweden/Italy, 1490-1568) and snowflakes, 992 Olbers' paradox, 1021 Old English logic operations in, 1173 Olfactory perception, 1105 and experience of dogs, 827 Olive shell growth of, 415 Omega (halting probability), 1067 omega (first transfinite ordinal), 1162 One-sided additivity and cryptography, 1088 repetition from, 954 One-time pad (in cryptography), 1086 One-to-one mapping (injective), 960 Ones expressing numbers with, 916 number of (DigitCount), 902 Onsager, Lars (USA, 1903-1976) and 2D Ising model, 982 Onto cellular automata, 280, 959 Ontology implications for, 1197 and notions of space, 1028 Opcodes in practical computers, 1108 in register machines, 896 Open sets and axioms of topology, 1155 Open systems and thermodynamics, 455 Operating systems and concept of halting, 1137 and history of computing, 1108 in practical computers, 1108 Operation counts in computations, 1143 Operator representations for integers, 916 Operator systems, 801 automated proofs in, 1158 evolution rules for, 898 frameworks for proofs in, 1177 vs. multiway systems, 1169 Operators as generalizing numbers, 1168 notation for, 1182 possible Boolean, 806 precedence of, 1104

precedence of in math, 1150 in quantum theory, 1056 Optic nerve, 1075 Optical amplifier, 310 Optical character recognition (OCR) and history of CAs, 877 Optical computing CA implemented with, 869 and quantum computers, 1148 Optical fibers as technology component, 1195 Optical illusions, 1076 Optical SETI, 1189 Optics and history of math in science, 859 path integral in, 1061 Optimal algorithms, 1141 Optimal evaluation chains, 1095 Optimality and defining purpose, 829 and models of markets, 1015 Optimization combinatorial, 985 and complexity in biology, 398 of designs in engineering, 1193 intuition about in programs, 872 and Occam's razor, 1025 in plant leaf arrangements, 408 Optimized circuit blocks, 1193 Optimizers and proofs about programs, 1168 search strategies in, 1193 Options market prices of, 1015 Or axioms in terms of, 1151 and Boolean formulas, 1095 calculus of expressions, 1170 emulated by CAs, 662, 1112 encoded as integer equation, 1160 in multivalued logic, 1175 and P completeness, 1149 and satisfiability, 1146 table for, 806 theorems involving, 817 words in languages for, 1173 Oracles (in computation theory), 1126 and arithmetic hierarchy, 1139 based on infinite tables, 720 and intermediate degrees, 1131 and non-standard arithmetic, 1169 and second-order logic, 1167 Orbits in Bohr atom, 1056 of comets and Gaussians, 977 and history of computing, 1107 randomness in, 313 as simple shapes, 1187 in three-body problem, 972 Order emergence from randomness, 223 Order diagrams of posets and causal networks, 1040 Order of updates in sequential CAs, 1034 in sequential substitution systems, 894 in string rewriting, 497 in symbolic systems, 898 see also Causal invariance Order parameters in phase transitions, 981 Ordered fields axioms for, 1153 Orderless (commutative) and associative CAs, 956 Boolean functions, 1173 and generalized additivity, 952 and speedups in evolution, 1095 Orders of infinity, 1127, 1162 Ordinal numbers and encoding of proofs, 1163 as generalizing numbers, 1168 and notions of infinity, 1162 Ordinary differential equations (ODEs), 922 for chemical processes, 1013 Oresme, Nicole (France, ~1320-1382) and time as a dimension, 1031 Organic molecules

production of, 1179 Organization see Self-organization Organizational structures and history of complexity, 862 and Occam's razor, 1025 Organogenesis in plants, 409 Organs and biological evolution, 389, 1002 separate rules for different, 383 Origami (paperfolding) NP completeness in, 1145 rules in, 875 Origin of Species, 1001 Ornament examples of, 43 grammatical rules in, 1181 and notion of purpose, 830 rules in, 872 and theory of form, 967 Orreries, 1184 Orthogonal bases, 1072 and image compression, 573 and radio signals, 1188 Oscillations in chemical reactions, 1013 of density in rule 73, 954 in fluid flow, 998 in math functions, 917, 1134 origins of, 354-356 in PDEs, 988 Oscillators in Game of Life, 964 nonlinear, 971 in quantum history, 1056 Oseen, C. William (Sweden, 1879-1944) and fluid flow past spheres, 998 Oster, George F. (USA, 1940- ) and patterns on shells, 1012 in Preface, xiii Other minds problem of recognizing, 1197 Otter (theorem-proving system), 1158 Outer and branching patterns, 1005 and enumerating expressions, 897 and metrics on surfaces, 1048 and shape tensors, 980 Outer totalistic rules in cellular automata, 928 Outlying data, 1083 Overlaps in networks, 510 in strings, 503, 1033 Overshooting in gradient descent, 985 Ozsvth-Schcking rotating vacuum, 1053 P = NP problem, 765 and SETI, 1190 and systems in nature, 770 undecidability of, 1146 P (polynomial time), 1142 p-adic numbers as generalizing numbers, 1168 P-code for GPS, 1086 P completeness, 1149 Packard, Norman H. (USA, 1954- ) and CA classes, 948 as coauthor of paper, 882 in Preface, xiii Packings of bits in CA implementation, 866 of deformable objects, 988 discrete, 987 history of circle, 985 and shapes of cells, 1007 of spheres, 349 PadLeft and initial conditions, 866 Painlev, Paul (France, 1863-1933) and Painlev functions, 1092 Painlev functions and 2D Ising model, 982 and nonlinear ODEs, 1092 and random matrices, 977 Paintings and concept of intelligence, 838 Pair annihilation

and nested patterns, 358 nesting from, 989 Pair correlations and isotropy measures, 980 Pair production in vacuum fluctuations, 1062 Pairing functions (sigma), 1127 Pairwise sorting algorithms, 1142 Palatine Chapel, 873 Paleolithic art, 43, 873 Palermo, Sicily, 873 Paley, Raymond E. A. C. (England/USA, 1907-1933) and Walsh transforms, 1073 Paley, William (England, 1743-1805) and natural theology, 861 Paley family of Hadamard matrices, 1073 Paley order for Walsh functions, 1073 Palindrome systems, 125-127 Palindromes in period-doubling sequences, 892 Palm trees growth of, 1004, 1004' phyllotaxis in, 409 Pandas patterns on, 426, 1013 Pangolins patterns in scales of, 1007 Panini (India, ~500 BC) and grammars, 875 Pantheism, 1196 and physics as intelligence, 1192 Paper crumpling of, 996 fluttering of, 971 Paperfolding and dragon curve, 932 rules in, 875 sequences from, 892 Parabolic equations, 925, 940 Parabolic reflectors characteristic shapes of, 1183 Paraboloids geodesics on, 531 plant stem tips as, 1007 Paradoxes and Gdel's Theorem, 1159 and history of math, 1149 in set theory, 1154 and undecidability proofs, 1137 Paraffins, 1194 Parallel bit operations, 866 Parallel computation in cellular automata, 1109 and creation of this book, 854 difficulty of understanding, 1177 and history of CAs, 876 and implementing CAs, 868 and machine intelligence, 1100 of mathematical functions, 1134 and memory lookup, 622 and my work on CAs, 46 and NC, 1142 and network evolution, 1035 and P completeness, 1149 randomized methods in, 1192 of repetition periods, 1147 vs. sequential, 765 in sorting networks, 1142 and work on CA fluids, 999 Parallel postulate in Euclidean geometry, 1154 Parallel transport (in curved spaces), 1049 on networks, 1051 Parallel universes and branching in time, 1035 Parallel updating in CA programs, 866 perceived by observer, 487 Parameter estimation, 1083, 1083' Parameter space sets for activator-inhibitor systems, 428 for animal shapes, 421 for CA patterns, 956 for CA rules, 948 for continuous CAs, 158, 243, 922 for iterated maps, 921

and Mandelbrot set, 934 for shell growth, 415 for shell shapes, 1008 for trees, 405-407, 1006 and universal objects, 1127 Parametric differentiation as framework for integrals, 1177 Parametric surfaces in shell models, 1008 Paramodulation as step in proof, 1156 Parasitism and biological evolution, 1002 Parastichies (phyllotaxis spirals), 1007 Parentheses language of balanced, 939, 1103 pattern from balanced, 1091 pattern of balanced, 989 and single combinators, 1123 Paris, Jeffrey B. (England, 1944- ) and unprovable statements, 1163 Paris-Harrington theorem unprovability of, 1163 Parity function (Xor) DNF for, 1096 from rule 132, 638 Parity sequence, 83, 890 see also Thue-Morse sequence Parity violation, 1019 difficult to get from gravity, 1054 Parrots communication with, 1180 Parsley shape of cow, 385 Partial differential equations (PDEs), 161-164 for 3D tearing-free growth, 1010 compression of time in, 732 computation with, 732 conservation laws in, 1023 derived from CAs, 1024 Einstein equations as, 1053 emulating cellular automata, 1129 existence of solutions to, 940 for fluid flow, 996 and fracture processes, 995 higher-dimensional, 923 higher-order, 940 and history of CAs, 877 isotropy in, 980 and noisy cellular automata, 976 nonlinear studied by Turing, 1012 origin of, 923 and quantum field theories, 1061 in quantum theory, 1056 for reaction-diffusion, 1012 repetitive behavior in, 988 and self-reproduction models, 876 for solidification fronts, 993 for surfaces from curvature, 1009 and universality, 1129 Partial fractions as framework for integrals, 1177 Partial functions general recursive as, 907 in Turing machines, 1143 Partial quotients in continued fractions, 914 Partially additive rules repetitive behavior in, 954 spacetime entropies for, 960 Partially ordered sets (posets), 1040 as example in lattice theory, 1153 Particle accelerators and discovery of particles, 1044 time dilation in, 524 Particle counting and history of CAs, 877 Particle detectors Monte Carlo studies of, 1192 Particle physics my work in, 17, 864 relativistic invariance in, 1043 time reversal violation in, 1019 Particle production in vacuum field theory, 1062 Particle showers as examples of nesting, 988 multiway system models for, 938

stochastic models for, 968 Particles thermodynamic behavior with, 443 see also Defects see also Elementary particles see also Localized structures Partition and 1D constraints, 940 basic example of, 853 and counting blocks, 1022 and implementation of CAs, 867 and recursive multiplication algorithm, 1142 Partition function and phase transitions, 981 PartitionsP (number of partitions) and number of commutative groups, 1172 Parton model as mechanical model, 1026 Pascal, Blaise (France, 1623-1662) and arbitrary number bases, 902 and his calculator, 1107 and Pascal's triangle, 870 Pascal's triangle and associative CAs, 956 for continuous moduli, 922 and encodings of arithmetic, 1164 history of, 870 and nested patterns, 610, 870 as precursor to my work, 878 and prosody, 875 Passerines (songbirds) songs of, 1180 Passwords as random seeds, 970 Patch entropies, 960 Patches of texture, 578 Patching of programs, 872 Patent related to rule 30, 973 Paterson, Michael S. (England, 1942- ) and 2D Turing machines, 880, 930 Paterson worms as precursors to my work, 880 Path independence see Confluence Path integrals history of, 1057 in quantum field theory, 1061 for quantum gravity, 1054 and random networks, 1039 and statistical mechanics, 1061 Path metric spaces networks as, 1030 Paths representing substitution systems, 892 Paths in multiway systems convergence of, 1036 independence on, 507 and non-determinism, 765 Paths in symbolic systems dependence on, 898 Pattern-avoiding sequences, 944 as extraterrestrial signals, 1190 vs. Ramsey theory, 1068 Pattern formation in biology, 422-428 history of, 947 and history of complexity, 862 in physics, 369-382 from randomness, 223 see also Cellular automata, etc. Pattern matching and game strategies, 1105 see also Matching Pattern recognition, 549 Patterns (in Mathematica) with __ as NP-complete, 1143 basic examples of, 854 and human thinking, 1103 and implementing CAs, 867 and network evolution, 1037 and proof strategies, 1156 Patterns (visual) perception of, 577 Patterns of pigmentation, 422-429 PCE see Principle of Computational Equivalence

PCP (Post Correspondence Problem), 757, 1139 PCs (personal computers) and history of computing, 1108 my use of, 854 PDEs, 161-164 see also Partial differential equations PDF and production of this book, 852 PDP-1 computer and history of CAs, 877 and munching squares, 871 PDP-7 computer and history of CAs, 877 Peacock pigmentation pattern of, 426 Peacock, George (England, 1791-1858) and generalization in math, 1168 Peaks in spectra, 586 Peano, Giuseppe (Italy, 1858-1932) and axioms for arithmetic, 1152 and foundations of math, 1149 and math notation, 1182 and space-filling curves, 893 Peano arithmetic axioms for, 773, 1152 emulating with groups, 1159 encoding proofs by ordinals, 1163 and Fermat's Last Theorem, 1166 and finite axiomatizability, 1176 and Gdel's Theorem, 1159 and Goodstein sequences, 1163 non-standard models for, 1169 and proofs of universality, 1127 undecidability of consistency of, 1168 see also Arithmetic Pebbles coming to surface of sand, 986 and origin of word "calculus", 925 prehistoric computing with, 1107 Peephole set (parameter space set for trees), 407, 935, 1006 Pegboards randomness in, 312, 968 Peirce, Charles S. (USA, 1839-1914) and axioms for logic, 1151 and Nand, 1173 and theories of communication, 1181 Pell equation, 944 and equation for Power, 1161 properties of, 1165 and quadratic Diophantine equations, 1164 Pendulum attractor for, 275 Penny Matching game, 1105 Penrose, Lionel S. (England, 1898-1972) and mechanical self-reproduction, 1179 Penrose, Roger (England, 1931- ) and discreteness of space, 1027 and Penrose tiles, 932, 943 and polyomino tilings, 943 in Preface, xiii and spin networks, 1055 Penrose tilings, 932 cellular automata on, 930, 1028 diffraction patterns of, 1082 see also Quasicrystals Pentagons in deformable packings, 988 and Fibonacci numbers, 891 and GoldenRatio, 891 as inducing curvature, 532 lattices from, 930 see also Five-fold symmetry Pentodes and Nand operation, 1173 Perception, 547-635 atomic-scale, 1195 auditory, 585-588 in biological evolution, 1105 and branching in time, 505 and extraterrestrial intelligence, 836 and familiarity of features, 1105 higher forms of, 632-635 and Principle of Computational Equivalence, 722 and recognizing meaning, 826 relations to NP completeness, 771 of time in universe, 487 traditional idealization of, 736

Perceptrons, 1076, 1099, 1102 Percolation and Boolean networks, 937 as model of drainage, 1001 as phase transition, 983 and structure of class 4, 948 Percussion instruments, 1079 Perfect cuboid as unsolved problem, 1166 Perfect fifth (musical chord) curve of, 146 perception of, 1079 Perfect numbers, 911 and iterated aliquot sums, 911 in ordering of math constructs, 1177 unsolved problem about, 1166 and zeros of sequence, 135 Perfect shuffles, 974 Perfumes odors in, 1105 Period 3 in iterated maps, 955 Period-doubling sequence in iterated maps, 921 spectrum of, 1081 from substitution sequence, 892 Periodic behavior origins of, 354-356 see also Repetitive behavior Periodic points enumeration of, 958 enumeration of in CAs, 954 in shift rules, 963 Periodic structures see Localized structures Periods see Repetition periods Periods (number type), 916 Periostracum, 1011 Peristalsis as repetitive process, 1011 Periwinkle shell growth of, 415 perl (computer language), 894 Permanence Principle of, 1168 Permanents and NP completeness, 1145 Permutation test, 1085 Permutations and group theory, 1153 and reversible block CAs, 1023 and reversible mobile automata, 1018 in sestina rhymes, 875 Perpetual motion machines in quantum field theory, 1062 in thermodynamics, 447 Perrin sequence (generalized Fibonacci sequence), 891 Perron numbers, 958 Persian (Islamic) art, 874 Persian gardens and nested patterns, 874 Persian religions and free will, 1135 Persistent structures in class 4 systems, 281-296 see also Localized structures Personal computers (PCs) and history of computing, 1108 my use of, 854 Perturbation series computational difficulty in, 1146 and computational irreducibility, 1133 in quantum electrodynamics, 1056, 1060 Perturbations continual in CAs, 947 and effect on turbulence, 996 in initial conditions, 250 and randomness generation, 323 sensitivity of complexity to, 1002 Peru mazes in, 873 Petals (in flowers) arrangement of, 409 growth of, 412 Petersen network examples of drawing, 476 Petri nets and causal invariance, 1035

and causal networks, 1033 Petroleum, 1194 PGP cryptographic system, 1086 Phase factors and gauge invariance, 1045 Phase-locked loops, 1188 Phase space of cellular automata, 278 for finite-size systems, 961 Phase transitions, 981, 983 in cellular automata, 339 in continuous CAs, 948 discreteness from, 337 and inflationary universe, 1055 in Ising model, 982 melting in alkanes as, 1194 from molecular dynamics, 999 and nesting, 989 in one dimension, 983 in percolation, 983 in probabilistic CAs, 591, 976 and randomness tests, 1085 and scale invariance, 955 undecidability of, 1138 and uniformity, 354 Phases and localized structures, 990 of matter as analogy for cellular automaton classes, 235 separation of in 2D CA, 336 Phelan, Robert J. (USA, 1933- ) and minimum area packings, 988 Pheromones alkanes as, 1194 and animal communication, 1180 phi see GoldenRatio Philippines as source of shells, 1011 Philosopher's stone and alchemy, 861 as universal object, 1127 Philosophy discussion of math in, 860 and human thinking, 1099 and idea of math in science, 859 implications for, 1196 of language, 1181 and pragmatic theory of law, 1136 and quantum mechanics, 1058, 1135 structure of proofs in, 1151 summary of relations to, 10, 863 and theories of communication, 1181 and universe as intelligent, 1195 and visual perception, 1076 writing style in, 849 Philosophy of science issues of modelling in, 991 and methodology of this book, 1197 Phoenician art, 43, 873 Phonemes in sound compression, 1080 Photoconductivity as element in technology, 1195 Photoelectric effect in quantum theory, 1056 Photographs and concept of intelligence, 838 Photons and Bell's inequalities, 1064 history of, 1056 randomness from, 970 as source of decoherence, 1063 as type of particles, 1043 and vacuum fluctuations, 1062 zero mass of, 1046 Photorealistic graphics textures in, 1077 Photoshop (software) and image processing, 1077 Phrases in human languages, 1103 Phyla of organisms, 1003 Phyllotaxis, 408-412, 1006 purpose invented for, 387 Physical constants numerology for, 1025 Physicists and Church's Thesis, 1126

and defining life, 1178 and effectiveness of math, 860 and free will, 1135 and measuring complexity, 1069 note for, 1043 and quantum measurement, 1058 and SETI, 1180 and study of complexity, 862 and studying hearing, 1080 Physics, 369-382, 433-545 avoidance of complexity in, 862 and Church's Thesis, 1126 compared to math, 821 conserved quantities in, 1022 continuous systems in, 729 fundamental, 433-545 and laws of human behavior, 1135 learning compared to science in this book, 856 vs. mathematics, 1026 mechanistic explanations in, 860 methods applied to biology, 1003 my early work in, 18 notions of purpose in, 1185 as origin of PDEs, 923 and Principle of Computational Equivalence, 720 quantum, 537, 1056-1065 reversibility of laws of, 435, 1019 satisfying constraints in, 349 success of math in, 859 summary of relations to, 8, 863 textbooks and Second Law, 1020 ultimate theory of see Ultimate theory of physics Physiology and free will, 1135 see also Biology Pi approximations to, 912 block frequencies in digits, 594 Buffon's needle and, 1192 computation of nth digits in, 912 continued fraction for, 143, 914 difficulty of evaluating, 1134 digit sequence of, 136 as early example of complexity, 48 frequencies of digits in, 912 generating as purpose, 1185 and history of randomness, 967 and random networks, 963 rational approximations to, 1134 from rational integral, 916 as rule 60 initial condition, 1091 and SETI, 836, 1190 Pi_2 questions, 1126 Pi_n sets, 1139 Piaget, Jean (Switzerland, 1896-1980) and animism in children, 1195 Piano CA cells as keys on, 869 frequencies on, 1079 Pictures as alternative to notation, 853 deductions from, 577 printing of in this book, 852 Pie charts of classes of behavior, 948 Piecewise linear maps, 921 Piecewise linear spaces (cell complexes), 1050 Piezoelectricity as element in technology, 1195 Pigmentation patterns (of organisms), 422-429 communication through, 1181 and complexity in biology, 384 randomness in, 970 in similar organisms, 389 Pilot waves (hidden variables), 1058 Pinball and randomness from initial conditions, 312 Pinecones phyllotaxis in, 409 Pingala (India, ~200 BC) and Fibonacci numbers, 890 Pingala's method for computing powers, 1093 Pink (1/f) noise, 969 see also 1/f noise Pioneer 10 spacecraft, 1189 Pions (in particle physics), 1057

Pipelining in CA implementation, 868 Pippenger, Nicholas J. (USA/Canada, 1947- ) and NC computations, 1149 Pisot numbers, 903, 1081 Pitch in auditory perception, 585 Pitting (hoppering) in crystals, 993 Pitts, Walter H. (USA, 1923-1969) and neural networks, 880, 1099 and universality, 1110 Pixels in bitmaps, 1108 displays made from, 46 and printing of this book, 852 PKZIP (compression program), 1069 Planar Feynman diagrams and QCD, 1040 and quantum gravity, 1054 and random networks, 1039 Planar networks, 195, 1038 Planarity vs. dimension for networks, 1038 generalizations of, 1045 and network evolution, 515 particles and in networks, 526 Planck, Max K. E. L. (Germany, 1858-1947) and quantum theory, 1056 Planck length and discrete space, 1027 in early universe, 1056 Planck's constant, 1061 Plane geometry axioms for, 774 Plane waves in QCD, 1061 superpositions of, 984 Planes in linear congruential patterns, 974 Planetary nebulas, 1187 Planets as approximate spheres, 1187 extrasolar, 1179 formation of, 455 new and gravity theory, 1047 orbits and role of God, 861 rules for motion of, 860 as systems modelled, 366 in three-body problem, 973 Plankton forms of, 1011 Planning and defining intelligence, 1178 Plant breeding as randomized algorithm, 1193 Plant geography and branching types, 1004 Plants classification of, 1004 diversity of pollen in, 1011 growth compared to animals, 420 growth of, 400-413 and history of substitution systems, 893 hormones in, 404 hybrids of, 1193 as models for extraterrestrials, 1190 as origin of ornament, 872 shapes of and math, 859 symmetries of, 1007 Plaque on Pioneer 10 spacecraft, 1189 PLAs (Programmable Logic Arrays), 1095, 1097 Plasma dynamics and electric breakdown, 995 and natural radio emissions, 1187 and pulsar signals, 1188 Plato (Greece, 427-347 BC) and microcosm, 1196 and mimesis, 1178 and the nature of space, 1028 and primes, 909, 910 and purpose in nature, 1185 Platonic solids proof of in Euclid's Elements, 1176 Platonism as foundation of math, 1176 Play in audio representation of cellular automata, 869

Player pianos and history of universality, 1110 as programmable machines, 1107 Plot3D metric for surface in, 1048 Plouffe, Simon (Canada, 1956- ) and computation of pi, 912 in Preface, xiii Pluperfect numbers, 911 Plus (+) combinator for, 1122 and NC computations, 1149 primitive recursive definition of, 907 see also Addition PN (pseudonoise) sequences, 1084 see also Shift registers Podolsky, Boris (USA, 1896-1966) and EPR experiment, 1058 Poetry and Fibonacci numbers, 891 rules in, 875 Poincar, J. Henri (France, 1854-1912) and 3-body problem, 972 and cell complexes, 1050 and chaos theory, 971 and iterated maps, 918 and notion of complexity, 1068 and Poincar recurrence, 1022 Poincar disk (negatively curved space), 1049 Poincar recurrence in cellular automata, 267 and thermodynamics, 1022 Point defects, 1045 Point location and Voronoi diagrams, 987 Pointer-based encoding, 565 implementation of, 1071 and memory, 1100 Pointers and hashing, 622, 1100 in implementation of CAs, 866 Poisson's equation and Einstein equations, 1052 Poker test, 1085 Polar plots and shapes of leaves, 1006 Polarization and Bell's inequalities, 1064 as spin direction, 1046 Poles (in complex plane) undecidability of, 1177 Polish notation for expressions, 896 in logic, 1173 Political boundaries as visible from space, 1187 Political history and human languages, 1103 Politzer, H. David (USA, 1949- ) and particle masses, 1047 in Preface, xiv Pollard, John M. (England, 1941- ) and integer factoring, 1090 Pollard rho method, 1090 Pollen and Brownian motion, 302 and circle packings, 985 forms of, 385, 1011 Polling as application of randomness, 1192 Plya, George (Hungary/Switzerland/USA, 1887-1985) and zeta function zeros, 918 Polyadic groups, 1171 Polycrystalline materials, 993 PolyGamma (polygamma functions) from sums, 917 Polygenes, 1003 Polygons and constructible reals, 1129 produced by 2D CAs, 929 regular allowing tilings, 943 in Voronoi diagrams, 987 Polyhedra as Plato's model for space, 1028 as shapes of dice, 971 as shapes of pollen grains, 1011 in Voronoi diagrams, 987 PolyLog (polylogarithms)

and computing nth digits, 912 and Feynman diagrams, 1060, 1133 as special functions, 1092 POLYLOGTIME and P completeness, 1149 Polymers hydrocarbon, 1194 as self-avoiding walks, 978 smell of, 1105 Polynomial algebra axioms for, 1153 Polynomial equations and algebraic numbers, 916 and EllipticTheta, 1092 lack of universality in, 731 solutions to, 912 see also Quartic equations see also Quintic equations Polynomial factoring see Factor Polynomial growth in substitution systems, 890 Polynomial space (PSPACE), 1142 Polynomial time (P) computations, 762, 1142 and cryptography, 1086 and defining randomness, 1068 PolynomialMod and additive CAs, 951, 1094 and rule 90, 870 and shift registers, 975 PolynomialReduce for Boolean minimization, 1096 PolynomialRemainder and lists with flat spectra, 1081 Polynomials and additive CAs, 610, 951 canonical forms of, 1037 and continued fractions, 914 and difference tables, 1091 digit sequences from, 914 as generalizing numbers, 1168 generating primes with, 909 iterated, 1098 iteration to find roots of, 1101 machines for computing, 1107 as models, 1083 and nested patterns, 610 sets of values taken on by, 1161 and shift registers, 975 universal, 1161 Polyominoes, 943 Polytopes in color space, 1074 and trivalent networks, 1029 Pomeau, Yves (France, 1942- ) and cellular automaton fluids, 999 in Preface, xiii Pompeii maze patterns at, 873 Pond snail shell growth of, 415 Ponzano, Giorgio E. (Italy, 1939- ) and spin networks, 1055 Popcorn segregation of sizes in, 986 Popper, Karl R. (Austria/New Zealand/England, 1902-1994) and free will, 1135 Popping in natural radio emissions, 1187 Population count (DigitCount), 902 Population studies and history of complexity, 861 and history of statistics, 1082 Pores in sphere packings, 986 Posets (partially ordered sets), 1040 as example in lattice theory, 1153 Position and aggregation models, 978 basic example of, 853 and nested patterns, 931 Positional information in embryo development, 1010 Positional notation for numbers, 116, 1182 Positivism and character of math, 1176 and Frege, 1149 and logic as a foundation, 860

and math in science, 859 and theories of communication, 1181 Post, Emil L. (USA, 1897-1954) and axiom systems in logic, 1170 and models of computation, 879 and models of math, 1150 and multivalued logic, 1175 and multiway systems, 938 and origins of universality, 1110 and Post Correspondence Problem, 1139 and tag systems, 879, 894 and truth tables, 1170 and undecidability, 1136 and undecidability of word problem, 1141 and underivability of logic axioms, 1170 and universality, 1125 Post Correspondence Problem (PCP), 757, 1139 density of difficult instances of, 1147 Post tag systems see Tag systems Postmodernism, 1196 Post's problem and intermediate degrees, 1130 PostScript (page description language) and computer communication, 1182 and production of this book, 852 Power see Powers Power cellular automata, 1093 Power-free sequences (repetition-free sequences), 944 Power laws for crushed rock, 995 and fractal dimensions, 933 in spectra, 969 for turbulent fluid flow, 997 Zipf's law as example of, 1014 Power lines radio emissions from, 1188 Power of axiom systems and ordinal numbers, 1163 Power spectra of natural processes, 969 properties of, 1080 see also Spectra Power towers and Ackermann function, 906 and symbolic systems, 897, 897' Power trees, 615 PowerMod and randomized primality testing, 1192 and RSA cryptography, 1090 Powers combinator for, 1122 of complex numbers, 1094 computation of, 615, 1093 computational reducibility in, 749 digit sequences of, 119, 614, 749 encoded as integer equation, 1161 fractional parts of, 121, 903 and linear congruential generators, 318 with nearby values, 1166 in ordering of math constructs, 1177 and primitive recursion, 907 see also Arrow function (nested power) Powers of 2 cellular automaton for, 614, 749 Powers of 3 cellular automaton for, 661 digits in, 119, 903 and linear congruential generators, 318 Powers of 3/2 in continuous CAs, 157 digits in, 903 Powersets and cardinality of reals, 1127 in finite set theory, 1171 Practical computers and concept of halting, 1137 and discrete models, 369 emulated by CAs, 661 history of, 1107 intuition from, 716 and universality, 644 workings of, 1108 Pragmatic theory of law, 1136 Pragmatics and theories of communication, 1181 Pre-Socratics

aphorism from, 1196 Precedence in context-free languages, 1103 in math notation, 1182 of operators in logic, 1173 of operators in WFFs, 1150 Precession in perihelion of Mercury, 1047 Precipitation and extraterrestrial rocks, 1179 Predators avoiding by randomness, 1192 extraterrestrial, 1190 operating not by prediction, 1105 Predestination and free will, 1135 Predicate logic, 1151 automated proofs in, 1158 axioms based on, 1159 axioms for, 773 as basis for Lincos language, 1189 and CA axioms, 794 combinators and, 1121 as foundation for math, 1149 higher-order, 1167 and proofs about programs, 1168 universality in, 784, 1159 Predicates in well-formed formulas, 1150 Predictability in biological evolution, 397 and computational irreducibility, 737 and engineering, 829 and free will, 751 of melting points, 1194 and non-universality, 695 as preventing complexity, 40 and Principle of Computational Equivalence, 6 as requirement for science, 1196 of robots in science fiction, 629 and thermodynamics, 447 of weather, 1177 Prediction of data, 549 evolving methods for, 1105 and game strategies, 1105 Prefetching of data in CA implementation, 868 Prefixed number representation, 1070 Prefixes and pointer-based encoding, 1071 Pregeometry, 1027 Prehistoric structures identifying purposes of, 1184 Premium bonds (lottery) randomness in, 969 Prepend (prepend element) theorems about, 1168 Presburger, Mojzesz (Poland, 1904 - ~1943) and axioms for arithmetic, 1152 Presburger arithmetic, 1152 algorithms for, 1143 Price fluctuations in markets, 429 Prigogine, Ilya (Belgium/USA, 1917-[2003]) in Preface, xiii and reaction-diffusion, 1013 Primal sketch, 1076 Primary colors, 577, 1075 Primates auditory perception in, 1079 Prime (prime numbers) see Primes Prime implicants in Boolean formulas, 1095 PrimePi (prime count), 133, 909 and encoding of lists, 1120 and Zeta, 918 PrimeQ (primality test), 909 encoded as integer equation, 1160 and integer factoring, 1090 randomized methods for, 1192 and shift register periods, 975 Primes and arithmetic systems, 1115 CA for producing, 640, 1109 and complexity history, 48 distribution of, 133, 909 and doubling system periods, 258

and encoding lists, 1120 and extraterrestrials, 837, 1190 of the form x^2+1, 1162 from fraction system, 1115 and hashing, 1100 history of, 908 largest known, 909 leading digits in, 914 and linear congruence periods, 974 Lucas-Lehmer test for, 911 and multiplicative digits, 902 in ordering of math constructs, 1177 and periods of limited size systems, 256 as precursors to my work, 878 and primitive recursion, 907, 908 and quadratic congruential generators, 975 and register machines, 1114 as rule 60 initial condition, 1091 sequence of, 132-135, 909 simplest CA for producing, 1186 tables of, 910 trapezoidal, 911 as values of polynomials, 1162 and Zeta, 148, 918 Primitive cells and CA lattices, 929 Primitive operations in logic, 807, 1096 and natural phenomena, 18 and universality, 642 Primitive polynomials and shift register periods, 975 Primitive recursive functions, 907 and Church's Thesis, 1125 undecidability in, 1136 and universality, 1121 Princeton (Institute for Advanced Study), xiii Principal curvatures, 1049 Principia (of Newton), 859 Principia Mathematica (of Whitehead and Russell) and foundations of math, 1149 and Gdel's Theorem, 1158 logic axioms in, 1151 and orders of logic, 1167 as origin of tag systems, 894 Principle of Computational Equivalence, 715-846 antecedents to, 1125 and computational complexity theory, 766 and computational irreducibility, 738 and concept of microcosm, 1196 and continuity, 729 and epistemology, 1196 and future of computers, 841 and future of technology, 1196 and Gdel's Theorem, 782 historical perspectives on, 844-846 and human uniqueness, 844 implications for ontology, 1197 implications for philosophy, 1196 implications for technology, 840 initial conditions violating, 1129 introduction to, 5 and mathematicians, 1125 and mathematics, 772 and modelling, 728 and natural selection, 1002 and operator systems, 815 and origin of complexity, 736 outline of, 716-719 and philosophy of science, 1197 and postmodernism, 1196 process of understanding, 856 and quantum measurement, 1064 and thermodynamics, 444 and ubiquity of intelligence, 822 and universe as intelligent, 1191 validity of, 726-735 Principle of Entropy Increase character of as principle, 1126 see also Second Law of Thermodynamics Principle of Equivalence (for gravity), 530 Principle of Least Action, 1185 Principle of Least Effort and Zipf's law, 1014 Principle of Natural Selection character of as principle, 1126 see also Natural Selection Principle of Permanence, 1168

Principle of Relativity character of as principle, 1126 see also Relativity theory Printing color gamut in, 1074 and halftoning, 1077 rosettes in 4-color, 1078 of this book, 852 Prions, 988 Prisoner's Dilemma, 1104 Probabilistic cellular automata, 325, 591, 976 classification of, 948 and continuous CAs, 922 Probabilistic estimates in cellular automata, 953 in multiway systems, 937 Probabilistic models, 588 aggregation systems as, 332 and external randomness, 299 Probabilistic CAs, 299 of written languages, 1181 Probabilistic substitution systems, 1084 Probabilities in block encoding, 1071 and entropies, 959 as intermediate truth values, 1175 origin of, 1083 in quantum computers, 1147 in quantum theory, 541, 1058 Probability distributions and fractal dimensions, 934 for random walk, 977 Probability theory and defining randomness, 1067 foundations of, 967 Problem-solving and defining intelligence, 1178 Procedural computer languages, 627 Procedures see Programs Process charts (flowcharts) and causal networks, 1032 Processors in practical computers, 1108 Product and spectra, 1081 see also Multiplication Production systems and computer languages, 1104 and formal languages, 939 see also Multiway systems see also Sequential substitution systems ProductLog and concatenation sequences, 913 Program counter in register machines, 98 Program machines (register machines), 97-102, 896 Programmability and history of math, 1177 of machines, 1107 and universality, 642 Programmable logic arrays (PLAs), 1095, 1097 Programmed cell death, 419 Programmed trading systems, 431 Programming and proofs of universality, 698 and study of programs in the notes, 854 Programming languages see Languages (computer) Programming paradigms in Mathematica, 853 Programs behavior of simple, 23-39 and biological systems, 383 compared to constraints, 342 compared to nature, 297 continuous, 1129 discreteness in, 976 as foundation for science, 3 history of concepts related to, 860 and human thinking, 628 making models based on, 368, 992 in notes to this book, 853, 854 in practical computers, 1108 proving theorems about, 1168 random, 23, 101 as reproducing the universe, 465 see also Algorithms

see also Cellular automata, etc. see also Computation Projection method for Penrose tilings, 932 Prolog (computer language), 1158 Pronunciation lookup based on, 623 Proof theory and number theory, 1166 Proofs, 775 as application of rules, 875 of axiom system correctness, 1170 and computer experiments, 899 and definition of math, 860 encoded by ordinals, 1163 general frameworks for, 1177 of halting for TMs, 1145 importance of relative to theorems, 1177 inference rules in, 1151 lengths of, 1143 lengths of in logic, 1175 of NP completeness, 1145 of P!=NP, 1146 role of in current math, 1156 searching for, 1157 of shortest axiom for logic, 811 structures of, 1155 of undecidability, 1137 of undecidability of PCP, 1140 and universal language of Leibniz, 1109 of universality, 664-673, 722, 1127 of universality by computer, 1115 of universality of Life, 1117 of universality of rule 110, 678-689, 1116 Propagation of class 4 structures, 281 of effects in CAs, 252, 950 of effects in PDEs, 923 Propellers characteristic shapes of, 1183 Proper time (in relativity theory), 1042, 1051 Proportion theory of in art, 872 Propositional logic, 1151 axioms for, 773, 803 see also Logic Prosody (study of verse) and Fibonacci numbers, 891 Protein folding and biological evolution, 1003 and NP completeness, 1146 and optimization, 988 randomness in, 1184 Proteins as biological artifacts, 1184 made from genes, 1002 and nanotechnology, 1193 shapes of, 1003 statistics of sequences in, 1184 symmetries in shapes of, 1007 Protestantism and free will, 1135 Protists pattern in, 385 see also Radiolarians Protocols for computers, 1182 Protons decay of, 1025 size of, 472, 1044 Protoplasm, 1178 Protozoa as fairly optimal organisms, 398 Prouhet, Eugne (France, 1817-1867) and Thue-Morse sequence, 893 Prouhet-Thue-Morse sequence see Thue-Morse sequence Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw (Poland/Canada, 1952- ) and branching in plants, 1005 Pseudocode avoidance by use of Mathematica, 853 PseudoInverse and matrix memories, 1101 Pseudonoise (PN) sequences, 1084 and CDMA signals, 1188 see also Shift registers Pseudorandom generators, 317 historical use of, 968

and history of complexity, 49 as precursors to my work, 879 randomness tests on, 1085 see also Intrinsic randomness generation see also Random number generators Pseudospectral methods for PDEs, 924 PSPACE (polynomial space) computations, 1142 PSPACE completeness of automaton minimization, 957 and periods of CAs, 1147 Psychiatry and history of complexity, 862 Psychoactive drugs and spider webs, 1184 Psychology and defining intelligence, 1178 history of, 1099, 1135 mentions of undecidability in, 1136 systems to emulate, 629 and visual perception, 1076 Psychophysics, 1076 experimental difficulties in, 1077 Ptolemy (Egypt, ~100 - ~170 AD) and math in science, 859 and models based on rules, 860 Public-key cryptography, 1086 and quadratic congruential generators, 975 Publication counts for axiom systems, 1153 for cellular automata, 878 Publication dates conventions for, 851 Publicon and authoring this book, 852 Puffer train (in Game of Life), 965 Pulsar (in Game of Life), 964 Pulsar puffer (in Game of Life), 965 Pulsars and general relativity, 1048 and history of SETI, 1189 on Pioneer 10 plaque, 1189 radio emissions from, 1188 thought to be intelligent, 835 Pulse code modulation (PCM), 1188 Pumping lemmas (for formal languages), 944 Punched cards and history of computing, 1107 and history of universality, 1110 Pure functions and lambda calculus, 1121 see also Function Pure gravity, 1053 Pure mathematics foundations of, 1150 Pure states (in quantum theory), 1062 Purpose in archeology, 1184 in biological evolution, 387 compared to mechanism, 831 and defining randomness, 1068 definition of, 829 for extraterrestrials in science fiction, 1191 and free will, 1136 of natural systems, 1185 Occam's razor for, 1025 in physics, 1185, 1187 possible, 1185 of science, 861 technology as achieving, 843 of whale songs, 1180 Putnam, Hilary W. (USA, 1926- ) and Diophantine equations, 1161 Puzzles based on rules, 875 and constraints, 210 and intelligence, 822, 1178 patterns in, 1104 training animals to solve, 826 use of base 2 in, 902 Pylos tablet maze pattern on, 873 Pyramids rules for building from stone, 874 Sierpinski, 172 Pythagoras (Italy, ~560 - ~480 BC) and math in science, 859, 860 and perfect numbers, 911 and rules in music, 875

Pythagorean theorem sending signals based on, 1189 Pythagorean triples and Moire patterns, 1078 as satisfying constraints, 945 Pythagoreans and aliquot sums, 910 and irrationality of Sqrt[2], 912 and music, 1080 and numerology, 1025 and primes, 908 Python pigmentation pattern of, 426 Q see Robinson arithmetic q-hypergeometric functions in hard hexagon problem, 1133 q-numbers as generalizing numbers, 1168 QCD (quantum chromodynamics), 1057, 1061 and computational irreducibility, 1133 and experience of models in, 991 as simple physical model, 1025 QED see Quantum electrodynamics QSPR (quantitative structure-property relations), 1195 Quadratic congruential generators, 975 Quadratic Diophantine equations, 944 NP completeness of, 1146 Quadratic equations as exactly soluble, 1133 Quadratic forms and Diophantine equations, 1164 Quadratic functions in Turing machines, 1144 Quadratic irrationals and constructible reals, 1129 and continued fraction map, 955 and Penrose tilings, 932 and spectra, 1081 see also Sqrt (square root) Quadratic maps, 921 and history of chaos, 971 Quadratic primes conjecture as unsolved problem, 1166 Quadratic programming and circle packings, 986 Quadratic residue sequences, 1090 in acoustic diffusers, 1183 and flat spectra, 1081 NP completeness in, 1145 Quadratures as exact solutions, 1133 Quadrics fit to curved surfaces, 1049 Quadtrees, 568, 1101 Quality factor in image compression, 573 Quantifier elimination and commutative groups, 1160 and real algebra, 1154 Quantifiers higher-order, 1167 in predicate logic, 1151 in well-formed formulas, 1150 Quantitative traits, 1003 Quantization and discreteness of networks, 528 of volume in spin networks, 1055 Quantized vortices in neutron stars, 1188 Quantum chaos, 1056 and decoherence, 1064 Quantum chromodynamics see QCD Quantum computers, 1147 and NP completeness of factoring, 1090 and quantum history, 1058 vs. Turing machines, 771 Quantum cosmology, 1026, 1063 Quantum cryptography, 1058 Quantum-dot cellular automata, 1193 Quantum electrodynamics (QED) as analogy for quantum gravity, 1054 effective coupling in, 1062 Feynman diagrams in, 1060 history of, 1056 Monte Carlo methods in, 1192

and point electrons, 1044 Quantum field theory, 1061 and computational irreducibility, 1133 difficulty of computations in, 1146 and discrete space, 1027 and energy conditions, 1053 and gravity, 1054 and knot theory, 1046 measurement in, 1065 and origins of mass, 1046 particles in, 540 planar diagrams in, 1040 and quantum computers, 1148 and quantum measurement, 1064 and random networks, 1038 simple effective theories in, 1026 and space as background, 1028 and ultimate theory of physics, 1025 and uniform spectra, 988 vacuum fluctuations in, 1062 Quantum fluctuations and noise, 969 Quantum gravity, 1054 and discrete space, 1027 and Hawking radiation, 1062 history of, 1025 path integrals in, 1057 as source of decoherence, 1063 and space vs. contents, 1028 and spin networks, 1055 undecidability in models of, 1138 Quantum groups and spin networks, 1055 Quantum information theory, 1058 Quantum measurement, 542, 1062 vs. computational irreducibility, 1135 and multiway systems, 1036 Quantum mechanics, 537-545 and atomism, 876 Brillouin zones in, 988 and character of programs, 538 and Church's Thesis, 1126 discretization of, 1059 and existence of formulas, 1132 and free will, 752, 1135 and gauge invariance, 1045 history of, 1056 and history of randomness, 967 and history of statistics, 1082 and mechanistic explanations, 860 and new types of perception, 1106 and NP completeness, 771 and origins of Second Law, 1020 and PDEs, 923 on Pioneer 10 plaque, 1190 and randomness, 303, 539, 970 search for defining features of, 1059 in ultimate theory of physics, 469 and use of abstract models, 1026 and wave-particle duality, 1044 Quantum numbers and network tangles, 527 Quantum potential, 1065 Quarantine of astronauts, 1180 Quark confinement and computational irreducibility, 1133 Quarks confinement of, 1061 as example of model, 992 masses of, 1046 and particle history, 1025 and QCD, 1057 as types of particle, 1043 Quartic equations and computational reducibility, 1132 as exactly soluble, 1133 size of solutions to, 945 Quartz hopper crystals in, 993 Quasars and SETI, 1189 Quasi-Monte Carlo methods and digit reversal, 905 as randomness application, 1192 and statistical tests, 1085 Quasicrystals, 994 diffraction patterns in, 1082 spectra in, 1080

Quasigroups, 945, 1171 Quasiperfect numbers, 911 Quasiperiodicity in combinations of sines, 146 and turbulence, 998 Quaternions and abstraction in math, 792 cellular automata based on, 886 as generalizing numbers, 1168 as non-commutative rings, 1153 Qubits (in quantum systems), 1147 Queen Anne's Lace, 1006 Quicksort algorithm, 1142, 1142' Quincunx board randomness in, 312 Quine-McCluskey procedure, 1095 Quintic equations, 945 as exactly soluble, 1133 numbers defined by, 916 solving as impossibility, 1137 unsolvability of, 1132 Quotient basic example of, 854 and computational reducibility, 747 encoded as integer equation, 1160 Qur'an calligraphy from, 874 Rabbit (Fibonacci) sequences, 891 Racah coefficients see 6j symbols Radar random pulses for, 970, 1192 as source of radio signals, 1188 Radiation of structures from rule 37R, 456 and thermodynamics, 1021 in vacuum field theory, 1062 Radicals continued fractions for, 144 digit sequences for, 139 and linkages, 1129 nested, 915 and periodic points of iterated maps, 955 solving equations in, 945 see also Quadratic irrationals see also Root see also Sqrt Radio astronomy noise in, 1187 and SETI, 835, 1180, 1188 Radio noise, 302 and SETI, 836 Radio signals extraterrestrial, 835, 1180 of human origin, 1188 of natural origin, 1187 and shift registers, 1086 Radioactive decay and quantum field theory, 1057 randomness in, 970 relativity theory applied to, 1043 Radiolarians and circle packings, 985 forms of, 385, 1011 skeletons as animal artifacts, 1184 Radix of numbers see Bases (number) Rad, Tibor (Hungary/USA, 1895-1965) and Busy Beaver Problem, 889 Railroads as speculative stocks, 1015 as visible from space, 1187 RAM (random-access memory) emulated by CA, 663, 1112 Ramanujan, Srinivasa A. (India/England, 1887-1920) and almost integers, 915 and divisor sequences, 910, 911 and experimental math, 899 Ramsey theory, 1068 unprovability related to, 1163 RAND Corporation and random number table, 968 Random as intrinsic randomness generator, 317 Random-access memory (RAM) emulated by CA, 663, 1112 Random-dot stereograms, 1076 Random groups, 938

Random initial conditions, 223-296 for CA doing computations, 1109 as origin of randomness, 304-314 in reversible CAs, 438 in systems other than CAs, 949 Random mappings, 937, 963 Random matrices, 977 Random models see Probabilistic models Random networks, 480, 963, 1038 Random number generators, 317, 974 and history of complexity, 49 and iterated maps, 919 as precursors to my work, 879 see also Randomness generators Random packings, 986 Random phase approximation in path integrals, 1061 Random programs and complexity in biology, 388 crashing of, 1183 on practical computers, 101 typical behavior of, 23 Random proteins, 1184 Random rules typical behavior of, 23, 723 Random sequences spectra of, 587 weighted, 976 Random trees, 1084 Random walks and 3n+1 problem, 904 and continuous behavior, 327 and diffusion-limited aggregation, 979, 994 from digits of pi, 136, 912 and dimensions of networks, 1030 with exponential waiting, 969 and fracture patterns, 995 isotropy of, 980 in iterative improvements, 985 in mobile automata, 75 and nesting, 990 and path integrals, 1057 of prices in markets, 1014 and randomness tests, 1085 in rule 30 pattern, 871 self-avoiding, 978 spectrum of, 1082 Randomization on inspirational book cover, 17, 864 in mechanical systems, 968 in semiconductor devices, 970 Randomized algorithms, 1085, 1142 Randomness algorithmic, 1067 applications of, 1192 in astronomy, 313 in biological pigmentation patterns, 1013 in biology, 970 in boiling, 994 cells in animals generating, 1011 in class 3 systems, 261 in combinator evolution, 713 compared to complexity, 557 in computer systems, 970 continual injection of, 947 in crumpling of paper, 996 in cyclic tag systems, 96 and data compression, 572 definition of, 316, 552-556 deterministic behavior from, 979 dictionary definition of, 1068 in digit of square roots, 139 in digits of pi, 138 in digits of powers, 119 in distribution of primes, 134 in early universe, 1021 from the environment, 301-304 evolution from, 223-296 as explained by chaos theory, 971 of facts in math, 820 in financial markets, 429, 1014 in fluid flow, 376 in forms of crystals, 373 in fracture, 374 and free will, 752 generated by Mathematica, 973 in heartbeats, 1002

history of defining, 1067 human generation of, 1104 increasing popularity of, 1192 from initial conditions, 304-314 intrinsic generation of, 315-326 and irreversibility in physics, 442 mechanical sources of, 968 mechanisms for, 299-326 in mobile automata, 74 in multiway systems, 205 in network systems, 202, 936 and NP completeness in rule 30, 770 in ocean surfaces, 1001 in operation of brain, 1135 in optical system, 310 and origin of continuity, 327 paper of mine on, 882 and percolation theory, 983 in physiological processes, 1011 in primitive recursive functions, 908 in protein sequences, 1184 in quantum chaos, 1056 and quantum measurement, 1063 in quantum systems, 539, 970, 1064 randomized algorithms as tests for, 1085 in recursive sequences, 130 in register machines, 100 repeatable intrinsic, 323 in rolling dice, 305 in rule 30, 27 in sequential substitution systems, 92 in solar system, 973 in statistics, 593 in substitution systems, 88 in tag systems, 94 tests of, 1067, 1084 in three-body problem, 314 in TM running times, 762 in tossing coins, 305 in turbulent fluid flow, 379 in Turing machines, 79 in Turing machines in 2D, 184 ultimate definition of, 1068 in universe that branches, 506 and visual perception, 583 Randomness generators cellular automaton, 975 cryptographic, 975 failures of, 969 generalized Fibonacci, 975 linear congruential, 974 quadratic congruential, 975 shift register, 974 see also Random number generators RANDU (random number generator), 974 Range basic example of, 853 Rankine, William J. M. (Scotland, 1820-1872) and vortices in ether, 1044 Raspberries phyllotaxis in, 409 Raster in CA graphics, 865 Raster displays lines on digital, 916 RasterGraphics and CA graphics, 868 Rate equations, 984 Rational agents and game theory, 1104 and notion of purpose, 1185 Rational choice theory and responsibility, 1136 Rational design in chemistry, 1194 Rational expectations difficulty of testing for, 1015 in economics, 429 Rational functions of complex variables, 933 as generating functions, 1091 integrals of, 916 and periodic points, 959 and regular languages, 958 Rational maps, 918 and Apollonian packings, 986 Rational numbers approximation by, 915

digit sequences of, 138, 912, 1084 number of, 1127 pattern based on, 950 and periodic iterated maps, 955 and randomness from initial conditions, 307 and spectra, 1081 Rationalism and math in science, 860 Rationality bounded of players, 1104 Raup, David M. (USA, 1933- ) and shapes of shells, 1008 Ray, John (England, 1627-1705) and natural theology, 861 Rayleigh number, 1000 Rayleigh speed, 995 Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and repetitive behavior, 988 Rays (fish) patterns in teeth of, 1007 r.e. (recursively enumerable) sets, 1138 r.e. degrees (arithmetic hierarchy), 1139 Reachable states, 275, 957 see also Attractors Reaction-diffusion processes, 1012 and animal growth, 419 and animal pigmentation, 427, 1004, 1013 and cellular automata, 427 and complexity research, 862 and history of CAs, 878 modes in, 1013 and pattern formation, 947 and plant growth, 409 and shell patterns, 1012 Reaction rate equations, 984 Reactions (chemical) repeatable randomness in, 976 and undecidability, 1194 Reading distance and texture recognition, 1076 Real algebra axioms for, 773, 1153 as not universal, 1160 Real analysis axioms for, 1155 Real numbers and computability, 1128 constructible, 1129 countable models of, 1172 number of, 1127 and randomness from initial conditions, 308 Turing computable, 1128 RealDigits (digits of real number) implementation of, 901 and weighted random sequences, 976 Reasoning automated see Automated theorem proving automated mathematical, 1157 predicate logic as model for, 1152 see also Intelligence see also Thinking Rebooting random seed after, 970 Receptors in auditory system, 1079 in color vision, 1075 other types of, 1105 in visual system, 577, 1075 Reciprocals digit sequences of, 730 and Egyptian fractions, 915 Recognition of artifacts, 828, 1183 of CA patterns, 621 of extraterrestrial intelligence, 825 of formal languages, 939 of objects, 1076 of randomness, 317 see also Perception Recombination and randomness in biology, 970 Record (phonograph) for extraterrestrials, 1190 Recreational computing Game of Life in, 949 and history of CAs, 877 and history of complexity, 50

and universality of Life, 693 Recreational logic and combinators, 898 Recreational mathematics complexity in, 49 and number theory, 910 randomness in, 1192 Rectangular numbers, 909 Recurrence relations, 128-131 for Fibonacci numbers, 891 and iterated maps, 906 linear, 906 numbers from, 916 and square roots, 913 and time series, 1083 Recurrent see Repetitive Recurring decimals, 138, 912 Recursion in backtracking algorithm, 1089 as basis for algorithms, 1141 compared to nesting, 990 and history of CAs, 877 induction as basis for, 1152 in substitution system rules, 1033 see also Fractals see also Nesting Recursion relations, 128 Recursive axiomatizability, 1176 Recursive functions and Church's Thesis, 1125 emulating tag systems, 1121 emulating Turing machines, 1121 general, 907 as idealization of math, 1150 not primitive recursive, 908 primitive, 907 and proof of Gdel's Theorem, 1158 and recursive sets, 1138 undecidability in, 1136 universality of, 1121 Recursive sequences, 128-131 history of, 907 inverse of, 906 sounds from, 1080 see also Nested sequences see also Substitution systems Recursive sets, 1138 Recursive subdivision and data compression, 568 implementation of, 1072 and lossy compression, 572 and substitution systems, 187 Recursively enumerable (r.e.) sets, 1138 Red shift and brightness of night sky, 1021 Reduced arithmetic see Robinson arithmetic Reducibility see Computational reducibility Reductio ad absurdum as scheme for proofs, 1177 Reduction see Emulation Reduction of colors in cellular automata, 655 in Turing machines, 669, 1113 Reduction of wave packets, 1063 Reduction ordering in completion algorithms, 1037 Reductionism as theme of existing science, 3 Redundancy and cryptanalysis, 600, 1086 in data, 1069, 1181 in error-correcting codes, 1101 in extraterrestrial signals, 836 in languages, 1181 and role of analysis, 549 Redundancy laws (in logic), 817 Reed-Muller codes, 1073 References in this book, 850 Reflexes vs. free will, 752 Reformation (religious) and free will, 1135 Refractive indices, 1041

Regge, Tullio E. (Italy, 1931- ) and discrete spacetime, 1054 and spin networks, 1055 Regge calculus and discrete space, 1027 variational principle for, 1052 Register machines, 97-102 for computing Sqrt, 1114 continuous versions of, 1128 emulated by arithmetic systems, 673, 1114 emulated by CAs, 661, 1112 emulating TMs, 671, 1114 encoded with Diophantine equations, 1161 halting of, 896, 1137 halting problem for, 1131 history of, 896 implementation of, 896 and intermediate degrees, 1131 and Life universality, 1117 with many registers, 1114 random initial conditions for, 949 small universal, 1121 and undecidability of tiling, 1139 Registers, shift see Shift registers Regular expressions, 957 matching of with repeats, 1143 Regular language complexity (finite automaton size), 958 Regular languages analogs for networks, 1040 decidability of, 1137 and finite automata, 957 production rules for, 939 pumping lemma for, 944 and relations to CAs, 1138 rule 132 as recognizer for, 1109 see also Finite automata Regularities in biology, 384 compared to causes, 352 and computational reducibility, 746 inevitable and Ramsey theory, 1068 and lack of universality, 735 and meaning, 826, 1183 and perception, 549 and practical empirical math, 1090 in solar system, 313, 973 study of as purpose of science, 861 Regularity axiom of in set theory, 1154 Reidemeister moves (for knots), 1046 Reif, Frederick (USA, 1927- ) and inspirational book cover, 864 Reissner-Nordstrm solution, 1133 Relations in groups, 1141 in semigroups, 938 Relatively prime numbers pattern of, 613 Relativism, 1131 Relativity linguistic, 1181 Relativity theory, 516-524 and Bell's inequalities, 1065 and CPT invariance, 1019 history of, 1041 as introducing spacetime, 481 mechanism leading to, 522 and models of electron, 1044 and origin of uncertainty principle, 1058 posets in, 1041 and space vs. contents, 1028 standard treatment of, 1042 and time and computation, 1130 Reliability analysis, 977 Religion and conflict with Darwinian evolution, 1001 and origins in animism, 1195 and Principle of Computational Equivalence, 845 see also Christianity, etc. see also God see also Theology Renormalization, 1057 and discrete space, 1027 and electron self-energy, 1044 lack of in quantum gravity, 1054 Renormalization group, 955 and levels in ultimate theory, 471

and nesting, 989 and particle masses, 1046 and phase transitions, 983 and simple effective laws, 1026 Rnyi, Alfrd (Hungary, 1921-1970) and generalized entropies, 959 Rnyi dimensions, 934 Repeatability in computer experiments, 898 in intrinsic randomness generation, 323, 976, 976' of turbulent flow, 382 Repeated squaring applied to general rules, 1094 and computing powers, 615, 1093 for powers of 2, 749 RepeatedNull (...) in regular expressions, 957 Repeats and cryptanalysis, 599 finding maximal, 1071 Repetition periods in block cellular automata, 1023 of digits in rationals, 912 of finite-size CAs, 260 for linear congruential generators, 974 longest in cellular automata, 1088 maximal in CAs, 951 for mobile automata, 887 and PSPACE completeness, 1142, 1147 of shift registers, 975 of stripes in rule 30, 871 in systems with symmetries, 950 see also Periodic points Repetitive behavior in animals, 1011 as basis for algorithms, 1141 in bird songs, 827 in cellular automata, 57, 954 in cellular automata in 2D, 954 in combinator evolution, 1123 and computational reducibility, 739 in continuous systems, 988 in digit sequences, 138 in DNA, 970 as exception to Second Law, 453 as familiar feature, 1106 in finite-size systems, 255, 267 formula for, 607 and history of math, 735 in human radio signals, 835 and lack of universality, 734 and local constraints, 213 and mechanical engineering, 829 in mobile automata, 72 in numbers, 988 origins of, 354-356 in ornamental art, 872 in PDEs, 988 and Poincar recurrence, 1022 and Principle of Computational Equivalence, 722 recognizing visually, 582 in rule 30, 268, 700 in rule 250, 25 in sorting networks, 1142 structures with see Localized structures in three-body problem, 972 in Turing machines, 79 in whale songs, 1180 Repetitive initial conditions, 266, 954 and CA cryptography, 1087 perturbations in, 701 Repetitive sequences block frequencies in, 1084 as initial conditions, 266 shortest programs for, 1186 ReplaceAll (/.) basic examples of, 854 in implementing CAs, 867 and network evolution, 1038 and symbolic systems, 896 ReplaceList and multiway systems, 937 and multiway tag systems, 1141 and traversing networks, 957 Replacements for networks, 509 order of, 894

see also Order of updates for strings see Sequential substitution systems ReplacePart basic example of, 853 and initial conditions, 865 ReplaceRepeated (//.) and symbolic systems, 898 and undecidability, 1138 Representation and communication, 631 and definition of meaning, 827 Representation of numbers, 142 for data compression, 560 with Egyptian fractions, 915 as nested radicals, 915 as operator trees, 916 see also Bases (number) see also Continued fractions see also Digit sequences Representations of Boolean algebra, 1171 of operator systems, 805 Representing see Emulation Reproduction see Self-reproduction Reproduction curves and iterated maps, 918 Reptiles color vision in, 1075 Reptiles (nested tilings), 932 Resistors 1/f noise in, 969 and on-chip randomness, 970 Resolution of printed pictures in book, 852 Resolution theorem proving, 1157 Resonant scattering and 3-body problem, 973 Responsibility and free will, 1135, 1136 Responsiveness as definition of life, 823 Rest (rest of list) basic example of, 853 Resultant and CAD in real algebra, 1154 Retail store utilization and Voronoi diagrams, 987 Retina (of eye) pattern of cells in, 1007 structure of, 1075 and visual perception, 577 Retinoic acid in embryo development, 1009 Return maps and history of iterated maps, 918 and recognizing chaos, 972 Reversal of digit sequences, 905 Reversal-addition systems, 125-127, 905 Reverse engineering, 1184 Reverse evolution backtracking in CA, 1089 Reverse mathematics, 1167 Reverse Polish notation, 896 Reversibility, 435-441 of CAs at an angle, 1017 in causal networks, 495 of cellular automata see Reversible cellular automata of computation, 1018 in evolution of networks, 1040 in mappings, 960 in mobile automata, 1018 in multiway systems, 1018 and phase transitions, 983 and quantum computers, 1147 and quantum measurement, 542 in systems based on numbers, 1018 testing cellular automata for, 1017 and thermodynamic irreversibility, 442 undecidability of, 1138 see also Irreversibility Reversible 3n+1 problem, 905 Reversible cellular automata, 436-441 block, 460

classification of, 1018 and dynamical systems theory, 961 emulated by ordinary CAs, 1018 history of, 1018 implementing, 1017 inverse rules for, 1017 and irreversible behavior, 452 from multiplication, 1093 number of, 1017 testing for, 1017, 1017' testing for 2D, 1017 and texture generation, 1078 three-color, 436 Reversible logic, 1097 and quantum computers, 1147 Reviews of Modern Physics my CA paper in, 880 Rewrite systems and history of universality, 1110 for networks, 198, 508 sequential substitution systems as, 88, 894 see also Multiway systems see also Sequential substitution systems Reynolds, Osborne (Ireland/England, 1842-1912) and Reynolds numbers, 996 Reynolds numbers, 376, 380, 996 Rhombic dodecahedron, 929, 987 Rhombo-hexagonal dodecahedron, 930 Rhymes rules for in poetry, 875 in whale songs, 1180 Rhythm rules for, 875 Ribbets as sound of Cantor set, 586 Ribosomes, 1193 Ricci scalar curvature, 533 and constraints on tissue growth, 1010 and discretization of space, 1051 in expansion of metric, 1050 and volumes of spheres, 1050 Ricci tensor, 534 and Einstein equations, 1052 implementation of, 1049 for spacetime, 534 Rice, Henry G. (USA, 1920- ) and Rice's theorem, 1137 Richardson, Lewis F. (England/Scotland, 1881-1953) and fluid turbulence, 997 Richat structure circular shape of, 1187 Ricker, William E. (Canada, 1908-2001) and iterated map for fish populations, 918 Riemann, G. F. Bernhard (Germany, 1826-1866) and discrete space, 1027 and distribution of primes, 918 and nested curves, 934 and Riemann tensor, 1049 Riemann Hypothesis and curve of zeta function, 148 and density of primes, 909 as Diophantine equation, 1161 Riemann mapping theorem and growth shapes, 1010 Riemann tensor, 1049 difficulties with in networks, 1051 as form of curvature, 536 implementation of, 1049 Riemann zeta function, 148, 918 see also Zeta Riemannian spaces, 1048 RiemannSiegelZ, 918 curve of, 148 Riemann-Siegel formula, 1134 Riesz, Frigyes (Hungary, 1880-1956) and Riesz products, 1081 Riesz products, 1081 Rigid bodies and analogy to quantum mechanics, 1059 Rigid rods networks made from, 1031 Ring theory, 1153 axioms for, 773 and generalizing numbers, 1168 universality of, 784, 1159 Ringoids, 1171 Riots instabilities in, 1014

Ripples on ocean surfaces, 1001 as repetitive behavior, 988 Risch structure theorem, 1177 Rise time of sounds, 1079 Risk in financial systems, 1015 Risk functions in parameter estimation, 1083 Rivers and landscape structure, 1001 as showing nesting, 359, 988 RNA and definition of life, 1178 and origin of life, 1179 RNGs see Random number generators Road traffic 1/f noise in, 969 flow instabilities in, 1014 Roads straight visible from space, 1187 Robbins, Herbert E. (USA, 1915-2001) and axioms for logic, 1151 Robbins axioms (for logic), 773, 1151, 1174 in terms of Nand, 808 Robinson, Abraham (England/Israel/USA, 1918-1974) and non-standard analysis, 1172 Robinson, J. Alan (USA, 1930- ) and resolution theorem proving, 1157 Robinson, Julia B. (USA, 1919-1985) and axioms for arithmetic, 1152 and Diophantine equations, 1161 and encodings of arithmetic, 1163 in Preface, xiii and undecidability of field theory, 1160 Robinson, Raphael M. (USA, 1911-1995) and axioms for arithmetic, 1152 and non-periodic tilings, 943 in Preface, xiii Robinson arithmetic axioms for, 773 incompleteness in, 800 universality in, 1152 unprovable statements in, 1169 Robotics and history of complexity, 862 linkages in, 1129 and mobile turtles, 930 Robots in fiction vs. humans, 629 free will for, 1135 Robust statistics, 1083 Robustness in biology from randomness, 1002 from randomness, 1192 of software and complexity, 1069 Rock, Paper, Scissors game, 1105 Rock carvings recognition of art in, 874 Rocks as computationally equivalent to humans, 1196 crushing of, 988, 995 patterns of in landscapes, 1001 shaped by wind, 1183 Rogozhin, Yurii (Moldova, 1949- ) and Turing machines, 1119 Rolling of objects, as generating randomness, 305 Roman architecture and nesting, 874 Roman art, 43, 873 Roman law and free will, 1135 Roman military drill, 875 Roman number system, 1182 Roman numerals, 902 Roman religions and animism, 1195 Romberg integration, 1134 Rome (Italy) mosaics in, 872 Root (polynomial root) and continued fractions, 914 and entropies of CAs, 958 and fractal dimensions for additive rules, 956 and generalized special functions, 1092 and hard hexagon model, 959

and linkages, 1129 and origin of group theory, 1153 Root finding attractor basins in, 1101 and iterated maps, 918 see also Newton's method Root vectors and sphere packings, 987 Roots linguistic, 1100 Rope nesting in, 874, 1183 Rose window of Lincoln cathedral, 873 Rosen, Nathan (USA/Israel, 1909-1995) and EPR experiment, 1058 Rosenblatt, Frank (USA, 1928-1971) and perceptrons, 1099 Rosenblueth, Arturo (Mexico, 1900-1970) and reaction-diffusion, 1013 Rosetta stone, 1185 Rosette patterns, 873 in four-color printing, 1078 RoShamBo game, 1105 RotateLeft basic example of, 853 in CA evolution, 865 Rotating vacuum solution to Einstein equations, 1053 Rotation absolute definition of, 1047 particle production in, 1062 Rotation group and spin, 1046 and spin networks, 1055 Rotational symmetry in cellular automaton rules, 928 see also Isotropy see also Symmetry Roth, Klaus F. (England, 1925- ) and rational approximations, 915 Rotor machines for cryptography, 1085 Roughness in aggregation systems, 978 of crystal surfaces, 993 effect on splashes of, 1000 effects of microscopic, 996 in fracture surfaces, 994 in random walk boundaries, 977 and randomness from initial conditions, 305 of surfaces, 1077 of surfaces and repeatable randomness, 976 Roulette randomness in, 306, 968, 969 Roundoff errors and chaos experiments, 919 and continuous CAs, 921 in molecular dynamics, 864 see also Numerical analysis Routing in networks, 1192 RSA cryptography, 1086, 1090 Rucker, Rudy v. B. (USA, 1946- ) and 2D Turing machines, 930 in Preface, xiii Rugs and 2D cellular automata, 929 Rule basic examples of, 854 Rule 0 block emulation of, 702 as having simple behavior, 57 with random initial conditions, 224 Rule 1 as first rule with period 2, 1186 Rule 2 as having simple behavior, 57 Rule 3 half-speed growth in, 57 Rule 4 attractor for, 275 as first rule with period 1, 1186 as having simple behavior, 57 as not universal, 694 with random initial conditions, 225 as statistical test, 597 Rule 7 conserved quantities in, 1022 as having simple behavior, 57

Rule 12 conserved quantities in, 1022 Rule 14 as not universal, 695 Rule 15 block emulation of, 702 as reversible system, 436 Rule 18 nested domains in, 360 repetitive behavior in, 954 spacetime entropy for, 960 temporal sequences in, 960 Rule 22 algebraic form for, 947 attractor network sizes in, 958 block emulations in, 702 density in, 947, 951 evolution of density in, 265 and Game of Life, 965 initial conditions giving randomness in, 951 Lyapunov exponent in, 949 nested pattern from, 58 nesting and randomness in, 263 probabilistic estimates in, 953 with random initial conditions, 227 sensitive dependence in, 251 sources of randomness compared in, 262 spacetime entropy for, 960 Rule 30 adjacent columns in, 1087 algebraic form for, 869 as algorithm from search, 1193 as analogy for quantum measurement, 1063 asymmetry of, 29 attractors in, 280 averaging of pattern from, 353 backtracking tree for, 1089 block frequencies in center column of, 594 blocks in pattern from, 569, 725, 871, 1127 Boolean form for, 616, 869 center column of, 871 compression of pattern from, 562 and computational irreducibility, 745 conserved quantities in, 1022 cryptography with, 603, 1087 density in, 947, 953 diagonal stripes in, 871 directional reversibility in, 1017 directional sampling in, 1087 effect of perturbations in, 325 efficient implementation of center column, 871 emulated by mobile automaton, 664 emulated by substitution system, 666 emulated by symbolic system, 668 emulated by tag system, 667 emulated by Turing machine, 665 emulated by universal CA, 647 emulated by WireWorld, 1117 emulating logical functions, 704 emulating rule for rule 90, 703 encoded as integer equation, 1160 on endpapers of book, 851 as example of art hard to recognize, 874 examples from CellularAutomaton, 868 and extraterrestrial signals, 836 finite-size behavior of, 259, 963, 1088 as generator of hash codes, 1100 history of, 112, 880, 882 initial condition sequence for, 324 intrinsic randomness generation in, 315 inversion of, 1087, 1147 localized structures in, 700 Lyapunov exponent in, 949 mapping for, 870 mixing of initial conditions in, 976 as not showing purpose, 830 and NP completeness, 770, 1090 numbers of cells in picture of, 874 one-sided additivity of, 604 and P completeness, 1149 pattern forced by constraints, 221 patterns on repetitive backgrounds, 700 periods in limited regions, 260, 951 as practical randomness generator, 975 predecessors in, 1087, 1147 probabilistic density estimates in, 953 probabilistic version of, 976 PSPACE completeness of periods in, 1147

purpose of, 1185 and Random, 317 with random initial conditions, 227 and randomness tests, 1085 reactions of scientists to, 872 repetition of columns in, 1087 repetitive behavior in, 267, 954 sensitive dependence in, 251 with shift-register boundary conditions, 1088 sideways evolution of, 604 simple behavior in, 266 from single cell, 27, 59 sizes of BDDs for, 1097 slow growth in, 1118 sources of randomness in, 261 spectrum of, 1082 square root of, 956 state transition graph for, 963 as surjective CA, 959 technological applications of, 843 temporal sequences in, 960 tiling based on, 943 tiling generating pattern of, 221 triangles in pattern of, 871 universality of, 734 Rule 32 entropy in, 958 Rule 37R as candidate for universality, 692 localized structures in, 440 period of cycles in, 1022 properties of, 1018 radiation from, 456 repetition period for, 457 as violating Second Law, 453 Rule 41 block emulations in, 702 localized structures in, 1118 spectrum of, 1082 Rule 45 with alternating steps reversed, 885 block emulations in, 702 cryptography with, 1087 finite-size behavior of, 963, 1088 in limited regions, 260, 951 localized structures in, 701 Lyapunov exponent in, 949, 1088 nesting in, 701 periods in limited regions, 260 properties of pattern, 885 as randomness generator, 976 repetitive behavior in, 954 from single cell, 59 state transition graph for, 963 as surjective CA, 959 temporal sequences in, 960 Rule 48 block emulation of, 702 Rule 50 block emulation of, 702 generating repetitive pattern, 57 repetitive behavior in, 954 repetitive domains in, 356 Rule 51 block emulation of, 702 as complement rule, 883 as not universal, 694 as reversible system, 435 Rule 54 block emulations in, 702, 1118 as candidate for universality, 696 enumeration of initial conditions for, 697 excluded blocks in, 958 localized structures in, 696 from random initial conditions, 696 repetitive domains in, 356 spacetime entropy for, 960 spectrum of, 1082 Rule 56 conserved quantities in, 1022 Rule 57 as first rule with period 3, 1186 as statistical test, 597 Rule 60 algebraic analysis of, 951 and computational reducibility, 744 and cryptography, 600 as difference table generator, 1091

emulated by TMs, 1119 finite-size behavior of, 963 firing squad problem and, 1035 formula for pattern from, 608 generating function for, 1091 from iterated bitwise operations, 906 with math functions as initial conditions, 1091 methods for generating pattern from, 931 with nested initial conditions, 1091 nested pattern from, 58 pattern forced by constraints, 220 pattern generated by substitution system, 187 periods in limited regions, 951 reachable states in, 963 related to TM 596440, 1120 sequential analog of, 1034 and shift registers, 974 and similarity of rules to rule 110, 872 sounds from, 1080 state transition graph for, 963 as statistical test, 597 temporal sequences in, 960 tiling generating pattern of, 220 see also Additive cellular automata see also Rule 90 see also Sierpinski pattern Rule 62 enumerating multiples of 3, 641 as not universal, 695 repetitive domains in, 356 Rule 67R irregular growth in, 1018 pattern produced by, 438 Rule 73 with alternating steps reversed, 885 as candidate for universality, 699 conserved quantities in, 1022 density oscillations in, 954 information transmission in, 699 localized structures in, 700 properties of pattern, 885 from random initial conditions, 699 from single cell, 59 unbounded growth in, 700, 1118 walls in, 699 Rule 85 as reversible system, 436 Rule 86 sizes of BDDs for, 1097 Rule 90 as additive rule, 952 algebraic analysis of, 951 attractors in, 280 backtracking tree for, 1089 block emulation of, 702 blocking transformations in, 270 Boolean form for, 869 Boolean function for, 616 compression of pattern from, 562 conserved quantities in, 1022 in Cosmati mosaics, 873 density in, 953 directional reversibility in, 1017 effect of perturbations in, 325 emulated by mobile automaton, 664 emulated by rule 45, 701 emulated by rule 126, 269 emulated by substitution system, 666 emulated by symbolic system, 668 emulated by tag system, 667 emulated by Turing machine, 665 emulated by universal CA, 646 emulated by WireWorld, 1117 emulation of by itself, 270 evolution of density in, 265 finite automaton for pattern in, 609 finite-size behavior of, 259, 963 formula for pattern in, 610 fractal dimension of pattern, 870 fractal pattern in, 25, 270 generating function for, 1091 history of in my work, 880 and linear feedback shift registers, 877 mapping for, 870 nested initial conditions for, 956 nested pattern in, 25, 270 network in pattern of, 197 as not universal, 695

as origin of nested patterns, 358 origin of self-similarity in, 270 periods in limited regions, 260 probabilistic density estimates in, 953 probabilistic version of, 976 random initial conditions for, 265 repetitive behavior in, 954 rule for emulated by rule 30, 703 sequential analog of, 1034 sizes of BDDs for, 1097 sources of randomness in, 264 spacetime entropy for, 960 state transition graph for, 963 striped patterns in, 870 substitution system for pattern in, 609 as surjective CA, 959 technological applications of, 843 temporal sequences in, 960 two-dimensional analog of, 1092 vs. Ulam systems, 929 see also Additive cellular automata see also Rule 60 see also Sierpinski pattern Rule 90R nesting in, 1018 pattern produced by, 438 and reversible behavior, 452 and spacetime symmetry, 485 Rule 94 block emulations in, 702 compression of pattern from, 562 and difficulty in deducing rules from behavior, 467 as generating even numbers, 641 nesting and randomness in, 951 Rule 102 and rule 110, 872 Rule 103 half-speed growth in, 57 as rule with simple behavior, 57 Rule 105 Boolean formula for iterations of, 1096 nested pattern in, 58 Rule 107 Nand expression for, 1097 Rule 108 attractors in, 278, 958 as not universal, 694 with random initial conditions, 225 Rule 109 generating repetitive pattern, 57 Rule 110 algebraic form for, 869 annihilation of structures in, 359 approximate nesting in, 359 attractors in, 279, 958 axiom system for, 1168 background in, 291, 964 block emulations in, 702 Boolean form for, 869 character of universality proof of, 1156 collisions of structures in, 294 and computational irreducibility, 746 conserved quantities in, 964, 1022 constructions in, 681 in cover image, 851 density with random initial conditions, 947 domains in, 356 emulated by combinators, 713 emulated by integer equation, 785, 1161 emulated by TM, 707, 1119 emulated by WireWorld, 1117 and extraterrestrials, 839 finite-size behavior of, 963 in limited regions, 260, 1088 mapping for, 870 my first work on, 881 and P completeness, 1149 periods in limited regions, 260 persistent structures in, 292, 964 phases of background in, 990 and Principle of Computational Equivalence, 718 from random initial conditions, 229, 290, 677 reactions of scientists to, 872 regular expression for, 957 repetitive behavior in, 954 as showing purpose, 830 and similarity of rules to rule 60, 872 from single cell, 32-39

sizes of BDDs for, 1097 spectrum of, 1082 state transition graph for, 963 and technology, 841 typical behavior of, 676 universality of, 675-691 and word problem for groups, 1141 Rule 121 Nand expression for, 1097 Rule 122R different initial conditions in, 451 as example of thermodynamic behavior, 442 Rule 123 as rule with simple behavior, 57 Rule 124 as variant of rule 110, 693 Rule 126 algebraic form for, 947 attractors in, 279, 958 blocks in evolution of, 278 density evolution in, 953 density with random initial conditions, 947 emulating rule 90, 269 entropy of, 958 excluded blocks in, 958 Lyapunov exponent in, 949 with random initial conditions, 226 regular expression for, 957 repetitive behavior in, 267 sensitive dependence in, 251 spectrum of, 1082 Rule 127 as rule with simple behavior, 57 Rule 128 attractors in, 277, 958 block emulation of, 702 as rule with simple behavior, 57 Rule 129 enumerating powers of 2, 641 nested pattern in, 58 Rule 132 attractors in, 278, 958 computing parity with, 638 finite-size behavior of, 962 and regular languages, 1109 state transition graph for, 962 Rule 136 block emulation of, 702 Rule 137 as variant of rule 110, 693 Rule 144 computations done by, 1109 Rule 146 block emulation of, 702 invariant states in, 348 Rule 148 block emulation of, 702 Rule 150 as additive rule, 952 blocking transformations in, 271 conserved quantities in, 1023 density with random initial conditions, 947 finite automaton for pattern in, 609 formula for iterations of, 1096 formula for pattern in, 610 generating function for, 1091 local conservation laws in, 1023 nested pattern in, 58, 271 as not universal, 695 as origin of nested patterns, 358 origin of nesting in, 271 properties of pattern from, 885 with random initial conditions, 227 represented by Nands, 1096 as rule for code 976 interface, 980 spacetime entropy for, 960 substitution system for pattern in, 609 as surjective CA, 959 two-dimensional analog of, 1092 see also Additive cellular automata Rule 150R fractal dimension of, 1018 generating function for, 1018 nested pattern in, 439 and spacetime symmetry, 485 Rule 152 computations done by, 1109 Rule 154R

pattern produced by, 439 properties of, 1018 Rule 160 attractors in, 278, 958 with random initial conditions, 224 Rule 170 block emulation of, 702 conservation of density in, 458 finite-size behavior of, 963 local conservation laws in, 1023 mapping for, 870 as reversible system, 436 as shift rule, 883 state transition graph for, 963 see also Shift map Rule 172 conserved quantities in, 1022 Rule 173R nesting in, 1018 pattern produced by, 438 Rule 176 block emulation of, 702 Rule 182 algebraic form for, 947 density with random initial conditions, 947 with random initial conditions, 227 Rule 184 attractors in, 278, 958 and block emulations, 702 blocking transformations in, 271 computation done by, 1109 conservation of density in, 458 and context-free languages, 1109 local conservation laws in, 1023 nested initial conditions for, 272 nested patterns in, 272, 359 and nesting in phase transitions, 989 as not universal, 695 phase transition in, 338 and sandpile models, 990 as statistical test, 597 Rule 188 and computational reducibility, 744 Rule 190 enumerating multiples of 4, 641 Rule 192 block emulation of, 702 Rule 193 as variant of rule 110, 693 Rule 204 block emulation of, 702 conservation of density in, 458 as identity rule, 883 as reversible system, 436 Rule 214R randomness in, 439 symmetry between past and future in, 437 Rule 218 different behavior in, 952 with random initial conditions, 225 Rule 225 as analog of fluid turbulence, 382 nested pattern in, 58 nesting and randomness in, 951 properties of pattern from, 885 Rule 232 with random initial conditions, 225 spectrum of, 1082 Rule 236 density evolution in, 953 Rule 238 block emulation of, 702 Rule 240 block emulation of, 702 as reversible system, 436 as shift rule, 883 Rule 250 algebraic form for, 869 backtracking tree for, 1089 Boolean form for, 869 mapping for, 870 as not universal, 694 Or additivity of, 952 as producing checkerboard, 25 with random initial conditions, 224 Rule 254 algebraic form for, 869 backtracking tree for, 1089

as basic example of CA, 24 Boolean form for, 616, 869 emulated by universal CA, 645 finite-size behavior of, 962 as having a purpose, 831 invariant states in, 348 as irreversible system, 435 mapping for, 870 Nand expression for, 1097 with random initial conditions, 224 sizes of BDDs for, 1097 state transition graph for, 962 Rule 255 attractor for, 275 as rule with simple behavior, 57 Rule equivalences, 883 Rule numbers for general cellular automata, 927 for operator systems, 1170 for Turing machines, 888 Ruler-and-compass constructions, 1129, 1137 Rules and axioms, 1150 for cellular automata, 24 elementary see Elementary cellular automata growth totalistic, 928 history of concept of, 874 in Mathematica, 627, 854, 1103 parameter space of, 948 totalistic, 60 see also Programs Rules of inference and structure of proofs, 1155 Run-length encoding, 560 in faxes, 1070 implementation of, 1070 iterated, 905 as number representation, 914 two-dimensional, 1072 Run length test, 1085 Run lengths patterns from, 1091 and Ramsey theory, 1068 and statistical analysis, 595 Run tests for linear congruential generators, 974 Running times of FactorInteger, 1090 of Turing machines, 761 see also Computational complexity theory Runoff and landscape structure, 1001 Runs up test, 1085 Russell, Bertrand A. W. (England, 1872-1970) and axioms for logic, 1151 and character of math, 1176 and foundations of math, 1149 and paradoxes in set theory, 1154 and Principia Mathematica, 894 and theory of types, 898 Russell, John Scott (Scotland, 1808-1882) and solitons, 899 Russell's paradox in set theory, 1154 Russian peasant method for computing powers, 1093 Russian work on cellular automata, 877 Rutherford, Ernest (New Zealand/Canada, 1871-1937) and atomic nuclei, 1044 Rytin, Maxim (Russia, 1975- ) and concatenation sequences, 913 s sound of letter, 1079 S-boxes in DES, 960, 1086 S combinator, 711, 1121 S expressions number of, 989 S matrices and discrete quantum mechanics, 1060 in particle physics, 1057 S_3 (group) CA based on, 887, 956 as first non-commutative group, 1172 Saccadic eye movements, 1192 Sagan, Carl E. (USA, 1934-1996) and Pioneer 10 plaque, 1189

Sahara desert Richat structure in, 1187 Salamander pigmentation pattern on, 426 Salem, James (USA, 1962- ) as coauthor of paper, 882 in Preface, xiii Salt hopper crystals in, 993 Salt Lake features seen from space, 1187 Sand apparent continuity of, 327 and Chladni figures, 984 fluid phenomena in, 1001 patterns from wind in, 1183 settling in, 986 Sand dunes maze-like patterns in, 1013 repetitive patterns of, 1187 and waves on sand, 1001 Sander, Leonard M. (USA, 1941- ) and diffusion-limited aggregation, 994 in Preface, xiii Sandpile model, 989 Sanskrit rules in grammar for, 875 Santa Fe Institute, 862, 882 Sapir-Whorf hypothesis and communication, 1181 and math in science, 860 Sarkovskii's theorem, 955 Satisfiability with 2 and 3 variables, 1146 density of difficult instances of, 1147 emulating Turing machines, 1146 NP completeness of, 767 and proof lengths in logic, 1175 and quantum computers, 1148 Satisfying constraints, 210-221 problem of, 342-351 see also Constraints Saturn and extraterrestrial life, 1179 Saussure, Ferdinand de (Switzerland, 1857-1913) and concept of language, 1181 Saws characteristic shapes of, 1183 Sawtooth functions and Thue-Morse sequence, 1081 Scalar curvature, 533 see also Ricci scalar curvature Scales (in music), 917 Scales (mathematical) in continuum limit of networks, 1030 and fractal dimensions, 933 see also Limits Scales (of animals) coloration of, 1012 phyllotaxis-like patterns in, 1007 Scaling in additive cellular automata, 270 and dimension, 933 of eddy sizes in turbulence, 997 and origins of nesting, 357, 989 and renormalization group, 955 of visual perception, 1076 see also Nesting Scanning probe microscopy and crystal surfaces, 993 for nanotechnology, 1193 Scapula (shoulder blade) for fortune-telling, 968 Scents odors in, 1105 Schemas (axiom), 1156 and finite axiomatizability, 1176 Schemas for algorithms, 990 Schickard, Wilhelm (Germany, 1592-1635) and origin of computers, 1107 Schild ladder, 1051 Scholasticism and argument by design, 861 and history of logic, 1099 Scholes, Myron S. (USA, 1941- ) and options pricing, 1015 Schnfinkel, Moses I. (Germany/Russia, 1889 - ~1942) and combinators, 879, 1121

and origins of universality, 1110 and single combinators, 1123 and symbolic systems, 898 Schoute, Johannes C. (Netherlands, 1877-1942) and phyllotaxis, 1007 Schreger lines in mammoth dentin, 873 Schrder, F. W. K. Ernst (Germany, 1841-1902) and axioms of logic, 1151 Schrdinger, Erwin R. J. A. (Austria/Switzerland/Germany/Ireland, 1887-1961) and quantum mechanics, 1056 Schrdinger equation discretization of, 1060 as example of PDE, 161 and gauge invariance, 1045 lack of chaos in, 1063 and nested potentials, 1081 and path integrals, 1057 Schroeder diffusers quadratic residue diffusers, 1183 Schwarzschild, Karl (Germany, 1873-1916) and Einstein equations, 1053 Schwarzschild solution, 1130, 1133 Science education, 855 limits to, 6, 748, 1135, 1196 math as foundation of, 859 Science Citation Index papers on CAs in, 878 Science fiction and artificial intelligence, 1099 and extraterrestrials, 1180, 1190 and extraterrestrials in 2001, 1183 and free will for computers, 1135 and messages in DNA, 1184 and parallel universes, 1035 robots in, 629 and universe as computer, 1026 Scientific American article of mine in, 881, 882 and CA universality proofs, 1115 and history of CAs, 877 Scientific computing fundamental issues in, 1133 history of, 1107 summary of relations to, 16 Scientific experiments repeatability of, 326 Scientific literature models in the, 368 Scientific pantheism, 1196 Scoping of variables, 1150, 1152 Scores (musical), 1080 Screw dislocations, 993 Screw shell, 1008 Screws characteristic shapes of, 1183 Scribbles as source of randomness, 970 Scroll patterns, 872 Sea urchin form of, 385 Search-and-replace systems, 88 see also Sequential substitution systems Search trees (backtracking), 1089 Searching for axioms of logic, 1174 for cryptographic keys, 603 Darwinian evolution as, 386 for doubling CAs, 1185 to find examples for this book, 111, 393 for non-periodic tilings, 220 for optimal cellular automata, 834 for proofs, 1157 to satisfy constraints, 343, 941 in technology development, 842, 1193 for ultimate theory of physics, 466 Sec (secant) curve of, 145 Sech in solution of KdV equation, 1133 in solution of Toda lattice, 1133 Second Law of Thermodynamics, 441-457 avoided by rule 37R, 453 character of as principle, 1126 and cosmology, 1021 and definition of life, 1178

history of, 1019 limitations of, 451 and microscopic instability, 1020 and my work on CAs, 880 and open systems, 455 and quantum measurement, 1063 and radiation, 1021 and self-organization, 947 textbook treatments of, 1020 Second-order logic, 1167 and arithmetic axioms, 1152 Second-order phase transitions, 981 Secrecy systems see Cryptography Security envelopes randomness in, 1192 Security systems cryptographic, 598 and recognizing artifacts, 1183 SeedRandom, 973 Seeds for crystals, 369 for random generators, 970 Segmentation in animals, 417 Segregation diagram (for I Ching), 893 Sguier, Jean-Armand de (France, 1862-1937) and semigroups, 1153 Seiberg-Witten model as exactly soluble, 1133 Sejnowski, Terrence J. (USA, 1947- ) and neural networks, 1100 in Preface, xiii Sekerka, Robert F. (USA, 1937- ) and dendritic growth, 993 Select (select elements) basic example of, 853 Selection see Natural selection Selective availability (timing encryption in GPS), 1086 Self-adjoint approximations and second-order CAs, 1018 Self-assembly, 1011, 1193 Self-avoiding walks, 978 Self-delimiting digit sequences, 560 Self-energy and corrections to mass, 1046 of electron, 1044 in QED, 1057 Self-gravitating systems, 1021 and my work on CAs, 880 and Voronoi diagrams, 987 Self-limiting growth in plants, 1006 Self-organization, 223 and attractors, 275 and definition of life, 824 and gravitational systems, 1021 history of, 947 and history of complexity, 862 and persistent structures, 282 and reaction-diffusion, 1013 and rule 37R, 455 and Second Law, 1021 summary of relations to, 16 Self-organized criticality, 989 confusion about, 969 Self-reference and Gdel's Theorem, 1159 and proofs of undecidability, 1137 see also Recursion Self-reproduction and cellular automata, 961 and definition of life, 824, 1178 history of, 1179 and history of CA universality, 1117 and history of CAs, 876 Self-similarity and 1/f noise, 969 in cellular automata, 58 and dimension, 933 of Gaussian distribution, 977 in growth of shells, 414, 1008 history of, 934 in networks, 509 origin of in additive CAs, 270, 955 origins of, 357-360 with random initial conditions, 273 in rule 90, 25, 870

in substitution systems, 83 see also Fractals see also Nesting Semantics and semiotics, 1181 Semi-Thue systems see Multiway systems Semiconductor devices 1/f noise in, 969 randomness in, 303, 970 Semiconductors as components in technology, 1195 crystal growth of industrial, 993 and history of computing, 1108 Semigroups axiom for, 773 CAs based on, 886, 956 constraints defining, 945 enumeration of, 805 history of, 1153 and invertible multiway systems, 1018 Krohn-Rhodes decomposition of, 1069 and multiway systems, 938, 1172 and nesting in associative cellular automata, 956 number of, 945 undecidability of equivalence of, 1138 undecidability of word problem for, 1136 universality of, 1159 word problem for, 1141 see also Commutative semigroups Semilattices, 1171 Semiotics, 1181 Sensitive dependence on angles in plant phyllotaxis, 412 on branching parameters, 405 in cellular automata, 250-254 and computational irreducibility, 1133 in fluid flow, 381 and free will, 1135 and history of chaos theory, 971 vs. intrinsic randomness, 261, 322 in iterated maps, 153 in Lorenz equations, 998 in ODEs, 922 as origin of randomness, 309-314 in quantum mechanics, 1063 of snowflakes on seeds, 992 and weather prediction, 1178 see also Chaos theory Sensorimotor cortex, 1099 Sensory input and perception, 1105 and thinking, 1098 Sentences (in human languages), 1103 Sentential calculus see also Logic see also Propositional calculus Septa in chambered shells, 1008 Septic (degree 7) equations, 1132 Sequence equations, 944, 1141 Sequence homomorphisms (substitution systems), 893 Sequences analysis of see Analysis encoded as integers, 1120 integers as fundamental, 1152 practical methods for studying, 1091 recursive, 128-131 see also Digit sequences see also Lists Sequencing of events in universe, 497 Sequency order for Walsh functions, 573, 1073 Sequential automata see Mobile automata Sequential cellular automata, 1034 and convolutional codes, 1119 and texture generation, 1078 Sequential machines history of, 958 see also Finite automata Sequential network systems, 936 Sequential substitution systems, 88-92 and causal networks, 499 computational reducibility in, 1134 emulated by CAs, 660, 1111 emulating CAs, 667, 1113

generalized to 2D, 192 and genetic programs, 1002 history of, 894 implementation of, 893 vs. multiway systems, 204, 894 vs. operator evolution systems, 1170 random initial conditions in, 949 vs. sequential CAs, 1034 Serial test, 1085 Series and Sierpinski pattern, 931 Series expansions and continuous functions, 1127 in QED, 1060 of special functions, 1134 and three-body problem, 972 Sestina and rules for poetry, 875 Set entropy, 959 Set theory, 1154 additional axioms for, 1167 axioms for, 774 and consistency of arithmetic, 1168 and continuum hypothesis, 1127 emulating arithmetic, 1160 and Fermat's Last Theorem, 1166 finite, 1171 and finite axiomatizability, 1176 as foundation for math, 1149 and Goodstein sequences, 1163 and history of universality, 1110 needed for word problems, 1160 and proofs of universality, 1127 and proving P!=NP, 1146 selection of axioms for, 800 and transfinite numbers, 1162 SETI (search for extraterrestrial intelligence), 822 and higher perception, 635 history of, 1188 messages to send in, 1189 practical arguments in, 1191 Sets operators on, 1171 recursive, 1138 and undecidability, 1138 Settling of granular materials, 986 Sex and biological evolution, 386, 985, 1002 random determination for offspring, 1192 Sextic (degree 6) equations, 945 Sferics (natural radio signals), 1187 Shadowing property of chaotic systems, 920 Shafarevich-Tate group, 1164 Shaking of granular materials, 986 as source of randomness, 968, 969 Shallit, Jeffrey O. (USA/Canada, 1957- ) and continued fractions, 914 Shannon, Claude E. (USA, 1916-2001) and analog computers, 1129 and Boolean algebra, 1097 and coding theory, 1069 and cryptography, 1086 and information theory, 1071, 1181 and statistical mechanics, 1020 and Turing machines, 1119 Shannon-Fano codes, 1069 Shannon information for cellular automata, 959 and evolution of languages, 1181 and thermodynamics, 1020 see also Measure entropy see also Redundancy Shape space of antibodies, 1184 Shapes from aggregation systems, 979 of animals, 421 in complex maps, 933 and human experience, 1177 of leaves, 401-407, 1005 limiting in cellular automata, 929 parametrization of, 980 possible from growth, 1010 smooth from 2D CAs, 980 variation in 2D CAs, 179 Shared subexpressions

in equation solutions, 945 in multilevel logic, 1096 and networks, 1040 and speedups, 1094 Sharks patterns in teeth of, 1007 Sharpening and image processing, 1077 Shattering of solids, 995 Shaw, Robert S. (USA, 1946- ) and chaos theory, 971 in Preface, xiii Sheep fortune-telling from, 968 Sheffer, Henry M. (USA, 1883-1964) and axioms for logic, 1151, 1175 and Nand, 1173 Sheffer axioms and Laws of Form, 1173 for logic, 773, 808 Sheffer stroke as name for Nand, 1173 Shell patterns, 423 biology of, 1011 and cellular automata, 389 purpose invented for, 387 Shells as animal artifacts, 1184 biology of, 1008 collecting, 1011 history of studying, 1008 internal, 1008 natural selection of shapes, 417 shapes of, 414-417 Shepherdson, John C. (England, 1926- ) and register machines, 896 Shift-commuting block maps as cellular automata, 961 and history of CAs, 878 see also Cellular automata Shift instructions and CA boundary conditions, 951 and CA implementation, 866 Shift map, 149 and computer experiments, 919 exact iterates of, 919 history of, 961 and origin of randomness, 308 see also Doubling map see also Rule 170 Shift registers applications of, 1086 block frequencies in, 594 and CDMA signals, 1188 and cryptography, 1085 and extraterrestrial messages, 1190 flat spectra from, 1081 and history of CAs, 877 vs. linear congruences, 975 linear feedback, 1086 nonlinear feedback, 1088 as precursors to my work, 879 as random generators, 968, 974 searching for long period, 1193 sequences from, 1084 Shift rules in cellular automata, 883 state transition graphs for, 963 Ships fracture as issue for, 995 Shipwrecks recognizing, 1183 Shocks in CA fluids, 1000 in continuous fluids, 997 in numerical solutions of PDEs, 924 as origin of discreteness, 984 picture of in fluids, 377 as singularities in PDEs, 923 Shor, Peter W. (USA, 1959- ) in Preface, xiii and quantum computing, 1148 Short descriptions of general data, 553 Shortcuts and computational reducibility, 738 and math proofs, 779 and NP completeness, 1148

Shortest descriptions and algorithmic information, 1067 in block encoding, 1071 for integers, 916 Shortest paths and distance on networks, 478 geodesics as, 1048 and polynomial time, 1146 see also Geodesics Shortest programs and algorithmic information, 1067 for particular sequences, 1186 undecidability of, 1138 see also Smallest programs Shot noise, 968 in premium bond lottery, 969 Shotgun method as application of randomness, 1192 Shub, Michael I. (USA, 1943- ) and quadratic pseudorandom generators, 1090 Shuffle-exchange process, 905 Shuffling (of cards), 968, 974 Sierpinski, Waclaw (Poland, 1882-1969) and nested curves, 934 Sierpinski carpet, 933 Sierpinski pattern and 2D substitution system, 187 in Cosmati mosaics, 873 formula for, 608 history of, 934 methods for generating, 931 network based on, 197 in network evolution, 509 and recursive multiplication algorithm, 1142 and rule 90, 25, 870 see also Rule 60 see also Rule 90 Sierpinski pyramid, 172 Sieve of Eratosthenes, 132, 909 cellular automaton for, 640 Sigma_n sets, 1139 Signal processing for SETI, 1189 and Walsh transforms, 1073 Signals artificial radio, 1188 from pulsars, 1188 recognizing intelligent, 835 Signature of spacetime metrics, 1051 Significance (statistical), 594 Signs in languages, 1181 Silicon crystal fracture of, 374 Silverman, Brian (Canada, 1957- ) in Preface, xiii and WireWorld CA, 1117 Similarities between natural systems, 298 in memory, 625 Simon, Herbert A. (USA, 1916-2001) and automated proofs, 1157 Simple behavior origins of, 351-361 and Principle of Computational Equivalence, 719 Simple groups classification of finite, 945 Simple programs crucial experiment on, 23-50 modelling with, 363-369 and searching for technology, 842 world of, 51-113 Simplex and trivalent networks, 1029 Simplicial complexes, 1050 and approximating space, 1051 and quantum gravity, 1054 Simplicity of human artifacts, 828 in scientific models, 1025 in ultimate theory of physics, 470, 1026 see also Simple behavior Simplification Boolean, 1095 of iterated map formulas, 1098 Simplify and proofs, 1158 and real algebra, 1154

see also FullSimplify Simulated annealing, 985, 985' as application of randomness, 1192 for design optimization, 1193 Simulation games and history of CAs, 877 Simulations computational complexity of, 1148 and computational irreducibility, 742 as computationally expensive, 872 of financial markets, 1015 and history of complexity, 862 randomness in, 968, 1192 of rule 90 by rule 126, 269 of ultimate theory of physics, 466 see also Emulation see also Models Simultaneity in relativity theory, 523 and spacelike slices, 1041 in the universe, 486 Sin (sine) as basis for radio signals, 1188 and computational reducibility, 747 and constructible reals, 1129 curve of, 145 curves with curvature from, 418 difficulty of evaluating, 1134 emulating Mod, 1129 in form for iterated map, 921 and formulas for repetition, 607 and Fourier analysis, 1072 and Fourier series, 917 and logistic map formulas, 1098 and musical notes, 1080 and orthogonal bases, 1072 and uniform distribution mod 1, 904 and universal equations, 1129 and Weierstrass functions, 918 Sinai, Yakov G. (Russia/USA 1935- ) and ergodicity of billiards, 1022 Sine-Gordon equation, 163 Single-cell recording, 1075 Singularities in Navier-Stokes equations, 997 in PDEs, 164, 923 in spacetime and computation speeds, 1130 Singularity theorems (in general relativity), 1048, 1053 Sinh in solving 2D Ising model, 982, 1133 SinIntegral curve of, 145 SIS (program for logic minimization), 1096 Sitnikov, Kirill A. (Russia, 1926- ) and 3-body problem, 973 Six-vertex model as exactly soluble, 1133 SixJSymbol (6j symbol) and spin networks, 1055 SK machines and combinators, 898 Skeletons forms of animal, 420 of radiolarians, 1011 Skepticism and teleology, 1185 Sketches and visual perception, 1076 Skewes number and numbers of primes, 910 Skewing transformations, 933 Skin pattern of cells in, 1007 see also Pigmentation patterns Skolem, A. Thoralf (Norway, 1887-1963) and non-standard arithmetic, 1169 and set theory, 1154 Skulls process of growth of, 1010 related by transformations, 1010 Skunk pigmentation pattern of, 426 Slash-dot (/.) basic examples of, 854 Sleep, 1100 Sliding-block codes as cellular automata, 961 Slime molds

spiral waves in, 1013 Slopes digital representation of, 916 Slot (#) and projection function, 907 Slow dynamics in 2D cellular automaton, 336 Slow ship (in Game of Life), 964 Smale, Stephen (USA, 1930- ) and chaos theory, 971 in Preface, xiii Small changes in initial conditions see Sensitive dependence Small programs and computational complexity theory, 758 crucial experiment on, 23-50 world of, 51-113 Small universal Turing machines, 707, 1119 Smallest programs and algorithmic complexity theory, 1143 and recognition of purpose, 832 for single CA steps, 884 see also Shortest programs Smell and experience of dogs, 827 sense of, 1105 Smith, Alvy Ray, III (USA, 1943- ) and branching in plants, 1005 and L systems, 893 in Preface, xiii and universal CAs, 1115 Smith, Cyril S. (USA, 1903-1992) and cellular structures, 1039 Smoke patterns, 377 Smoothing and image processing, 1077 Smoothness origin of, 327 see also Continuity SMP (forerunner of Mathematica) evaluation of recursive functions in, 906 in my personal timeline, 864 my use of, 854 and origins of this book, 18 semantic patterns in, 1156 and tiering of function arguments, 896 Smullyan, Raymond M. (USA, 1919- ) and combinators, 898 Snail shell growth of, 415 Snakes pigmentation patterns on, 426 SNOBOL (computer language), 894 Snow character of, 993 Snowflake pattern and 2D cellular automaton, 171 and 2D substitution system, 188 Snowflakes, 370 that are the same, 992 history of studies of, 992 issues in modelling, 364, 366 as motivating question, 17 SO(3) and spin networks, 1055 SO(8) lattice isotropy of, 980 SO(d) and spin, 1046 Soap bubbles packings of, 988 Soap films vs. Einstein equations, 1052 fluid flow in, 999 in packings, 988 shapes of, 1009 turbulence in, 377 Soap foams evolution of, 1039 Soccer ball as defining curved space, 532 as spherical network, 1049 Social animals and communication, 1180 Social sciences and complex systems, 862 and defining complexity, 1068 and game theory, 1104

Gaussian distribution in, 977 historical foundations for, 1135 and history of statistics, 1082 mechanistic explanations in, 1185 quantitative laws in, 1014 summary of relations to, 9, 863 Socrates (Greece, ~470-399 BC) and purpose in nature, 1185 Sofic systems, 958 Softshell pigmentation pattern on, 426 Software defining complexity of, 1069 design of as motivation, 18 for experiments in this book, 856 vs. genetic programs, 383, 1003 and history of computing, 1108 intuition from, 872 in practical computers, 1108 used in producing book, 852 Soil samples tests for life in martian, 1179 Solar see Sun Solar system randomness in, 973 see also Planets Solid mechanics as model for animal growth, 1010 Solid-state physics and quantum theory, 1056 Solids atomic-scale features on, 1193 breaking of, 374-375 extraterrestrials based on, 1180, 1190 growth of crystals of, 369 history preserved in, 1184, 1195 and memory, 823 modelled with springs, 374 and repeatable randomness, 976 surfaces of and crystal growth, 993 Solitons and computational irreducibility, 1132 and conservation laws in PDEs, 1023 and elementary particles, 1044 and experimental math, 899 and Fermi-Pasta-Ulam experiment, 1020 optical for SETI, 1189 and sine-Gordon equation, 163 slowing of randomization by, 970 as topological defects, 1045 Solomonoff, Ray J. (USA, 1926- ) and algorithmic randomness, 1068 Solutions exact, 1133 Sonar data, 1183 Songs of birds, 826, 1180 of whales, 826, 1180 Sonic booms, 984 Sonification and auditory perception, 1080 of cellular automata, 869 Sophistication of computations see Principle of Computational Equivalence Sort algorithms for, 1142 lower bound on, 1143 and multiway system, 1036 networks for, 1142 NP completeness in verifying algorithms for, 1145 randomized algorithms for, 1192 and sequential substitution system, 894 and simple model of space, 518 in states of multiway systems, 937 and substitution system, 502 Souls as defining features of life, 1178 Sound in 2D, 923 and animal communication, 1180 emitted in fracture processes, 995 Sound compression, 1080 lossy, 572 Sound effects and auditory perception, 1079 Sound perception, 585-588 Sound representation

for cellular automata, 869 Sound waves in fluids, 1000 Soundex system, 1100 Sounds properties of, 1079 Space continuity of in geometry, 1154 curved, 531 defining dimension of, 1030 and defining motion, 521 history of discrete, 1027 locality in, 518 and matter, 474, 1028 and motion of particles, 529 with negative curvature, 1049 as a network, 475-480, 530-537 as stable background, 517 in ultimate theory of physics, 468, 472-486, 516-524 see also Geometry Space (outer) features of Earth from, 835, 1187 Space complexity, 1142 Space-filling curves and the continuum, 1127 and defining dimension, 1030 and image compression, 1072 parametrization of, 935 and paths of caterpillars, 1011 and storage of strings, 1101 and substitution systems, 893 Space groups, 929 Space networks, 475-480 evolution of, 508-515 Spacecraft complex trajectories for, 1183 as first contact with extraterrestrials, 1190 and general relativity, 1048 landings on Moon of, 1180 plaques on, 1190 self-reproducing, 876 supposed sightings of alien, 1180 Spacefiller (in Game of Life), 965 Spacelike hypersurfaces, 1041 and initial value general relativity, 1053 Spacelike slices, 1041 in causal networks, 516 Spaceship gun (in Game of Life), 965 Spaceships (in Game of Life), 964 and emulating Nand, 1117 Spacetime curvature in, 534 see also Gravity see also Space Spacetime code, 1027 Spacetime entropies, 960 and repetitive behavior, 954 and rule 30 encryption, 1087 Spacings of random matrix eigenvalues, 977 of zeros in sine functions, 917 of zeros in zeta function, 918 Spain ornamental art in, 873, 874 Spanning trees and drainage patterns, 1001 Sparks as source of randomness, 302, 969 Sparse computation in Game of Life, 949 Spatial entropy, 958 Spearman, Charles E. (England, 1863-1945) and defining intelligence, 1178 Special functions (of mathematical physics), 1092 and computational reducibility, 1132 curves from, 145 difficulty of evaluating, 1134 Special-purpose devices for cellular automata, 868 and shift registers, 974 Special relativity see Relativity theory Species (biological), 1003 Spectra of cellular automata, 1082 and defining randomness, 1068 in natural systems, 969 of nested 2D patterns, 1082

of nested mechanical systems, 1081 of noise, 968 of number theory functions, 911 properties of, 1080 of random walks, 977 and recognizing chaos, 972 of substitution systems, 586, 1080 of Weierstrass functions, 918 Spectra (atomic) and quantum history, 1056 Spectral test for linear congruential generators, 974 Spectrum (radio) uses of, 1188 Speculative markets, 430, 1015 Speech compression of, 1080 generation of in brains, 826 and hidden Markov models, 1084 recognition of, 1100 as recognizable radio signal, 1188 sounds of, 585, 1079 Speed of light, 1041 and causal networks, 520 expansion of universe at, 1056 and information transmission, 518 invariance of, 523 and quantum effects, 543 and speed of gravity, 1047 Speed of sound, 997 Speed-up theorems, 1134 Speedups and computational irreducibility, 743 in multiway systems, 1176 in Turing machines, 764 Spell-checking systems, 1100 Spelling and soundex system, 623 Spencer Brown, George (England/USA, 1923- ) and axioms for logic, 1175 and Laws of Form, 1173 Sperm, 970 Sphere packing, 986 and codes, 1101 and cores of proteins, 1003 difficulty of, 349 and isotropy of lattices, 980 and lattices, 930 and pollen grains, 1011 and radiolarians, 1011 random, 986 Spheres configurations of charges on, 1146 d-dimensional, 1091 and defining scalar curvature, 534 lattice points inside, 910 vs. Lorentzian spaces, 1051 networks approximating, 480 volumes of, 1050 Spherical networks, 1049 SphericalHarmonicY and isotropy measures, 980 Spider webs as animal artifacts, 1184 patterns in, 1011 Spike trains (for neurons), 1075 repeatability of, 976 Spin (in quantum theory), 1046 and Bell's inequalities, 1064 of elementary particles, 1043 in quantum computers, 1147 Spin-flip transitions, 1187 Spin foams, 1055 Spin glasses and Boolean networks, 937 and computational irreducibility, 1132 ground states of, 944 NP completeness in, 1146 Spin networks, 1055 and discrete space, 1027 and loop quantum gravity, 1054 Spin-statistics connection, 1046 Spin systems vs. cellular automaton fluids, 999 and computational irreducibility, 1133 and discrete quantum mechanics, 1060 as systems based on constraints, 944 undecidability in, 1138

see also Ising model see also Lattice gases Spines on shells, 1008 Spinning as source of randomness, 970 Spinning top as exactly soluble, 1133 Spinodal decomposition, 980 Spinors, 1046 as basic quantum feature, 1059 as formulation of general relativity, 1048 Spinoza's God, 1196 Spiral galaxies, 1021 Spiral waves in reaction-diffusion CAs, 1013 Spirals in animal horns, 413 in constraint searches, 941 and general study of form, 967 in hopper crystals, 993 vs. nesting, 357 in plant phyllotaxis, 408 in shells, 1008 as space-filling curves, 935 and substitution systems, 192 Spirits and animism, 845, 1195 Spirograph-like patterns in astronomy, 1187 Splashes, 377 as art, 839 as fluid phenomena, 1000 repetitive patterns in, 988 Splicing in DNA sequences, 1184 Splines, 1084 Split (split list) basic example of, 853 and cyclic tag systems, 895 and iterative run-length encoding, 905 and minimal finite automata, 957 and nested patterns, 931 and run-length encoding, 1070 in sparse Life, 949 and Turing machine 1507, 1144 Spontaneous generation (of life), 1179 Spontaneous magnetization in Ising model, 981 Spontaneous organization, 223 Spontaneous symmetry breaking and particle masses, 1047 in phase transitions, 983 Sporadic groups, 945 Spores as origin of life, 1179 Spots origin of on animals, 428 Spread spectrum communications, 1086, 1188 Springs characteristic shapes of, 1183 nested arrangements of, 1081 Sqrt (square root) and computational reducibility, 747 computing, 141, 913 and constructible reals, 1129 continued fractions for, 144 cryptanalysis of, 1089 digit sequences under, 731 digits of, 139 and generating function for rule 150R, 1018 as growth rate for mobile automaton, 72 as growth rate for rule 225, 885 as growth rate for TM, 888 and Julia sets, 933 machine for computing, 1107 nested, 915 and random walks, 977 randomness in digits of, 967 register machine for, 1114 and standard deviation of Gaussian, 977 see also Quadratic irrationals see also Sqrt[n] for specific n Squags (Steiner quasigroups), 1171 enumeration of, 805 Squalls as origins of randomness, 301 Square-free sequences, 944 and cyclic tag systems, 895

Square lattices cellular automata on, 170 isotropy on, 980 random walks on, 329 TMs on, 184 Square roots of cellular automata, 956 Squares numbers as sums of, 135, 910 Squaring cellular automaton for, 639, 1109 digit sequences under, 731 and quadratic congruential generators, 975 repeated for powers, 615, 1093 sequences, 1090 Turing machines for, 1144 see also Quadratic residue sequences Squaring the circle, 1137 Squashy objects packing of, 988 Squid visual system of, 1075 Staatliche Museum, Berlin, 873 Stability in financial systems, 430 of matter, 1059 from randomness, 266 topological, 1045 Stable state from random initial conditions, 224 Stacks and context-free languages, 939 Stadium and quantum chaos, 1056 in whimsical description, 850 Staffelbach, Othmar J. (Switzerland, 1952- ) and cryptanalysis of rule 30, 1087 Staircases in block emulations, 1118 characteristic shapes of, 1183 Standard deviation of Gaussian distribution, 976 Standard mathematical functions, 1091 computational reducibility of, 744 and continuous computation, 731, 1128 curves from, 145 and digit cryptography, 1089 and exact solutions, 1133 vs. normal numbers, 912 patterns from, 747, 870 and rational integrals, 916 and three-body problem, 972 see also Mathematical functions Standard Model (of particle physics), 1025 elementary particles in, 1043 and gauge theories, 1045 origins of mass in, 1047 StandardForm issues in designing, 1182 for programs in notes, 854 Star forts nested architecture of, 874 Star Trek extraterrestrials in, 1191 Starfish shape of, 385 symmetries in, 1007 Stars as approximate spheres, 1187 formation of, 455, 1021 in general relativity, 1053 as parts of giant artifacts, 834 with planets, 1179 suitable for extraterrestrials, 1191 in three-body problem, 973 total light from in night sky, 1021 State space of cellular automata, 275, 869, 959 State transition graphs for cellular automata, 961 for Markov processes, 1084 for shift registers, 1089 States of cellular automata, 865 in quantum theory, 1056 States of matter as analogy for CA classes, 235 Stationary phase approximation

in path integrals, 1061 Statistical estimates in cellular automata, 953 Statistical fluctuations and shot noise, 968 Statistical independence and Central Limit Theorem, 976 Statistical mechanics book about as early inspiration, 17, 864 and complexity in science, 861 and defining randomness, 1067 emergence of simple laws in, 1025 and existence of formulas, 1132 and financial markets, 1015 foundations of and randomness, 967 Gaussian distributions in, 977 history of, 1020 and history of statistics, 1082 models for fracture from, 995 Monte Carlo methods in, 1192 origins of irreversibility in, 441 and path integrals, 1061 and pattern formation, 947 phase transitions in, 981 summary of relations to, 16 use of in studying CAs, 961 Statistics, 588-596 complexity of models in, 1068 and cryptanalysis, 1085 of data in 2D, 591 and defining randomness, 1067 history of, 1082 of human behavior, 1014 and isocorrelation textures, 1078 and neural networks, 1100 of proteins, 1184 of rule 30 center column, 871 as tests for fraud, 1184 and texture discrimination, 1077 as way to avoid complexity, 861 as way to avoid randomness, 967 of written languages, 1181 Steam engines linkages in, 1129 and thermodynamics, 1019 Steel fracture in, 994 Stein, Paul R. (USA, 1924-1990) and iterated maps, 918 Steiner quasigroups (squags), 1171 Steiner triple systems, 1171 Stems of plants, 400 vs. antlers, 1008 Stereograms random dot, 1076 Stevens, Peter S. (USA, 1936- ) and patterns in nature, 967 StieltjesGamma difficulty of evaluating, 1134 Stigmergy (local rules for animals), 1184 and aggregation systems, 1011 Still Lifes (persistent structures in Life), 964 Stimulated emission, 1195 Stimulus-response as definition of life, 823 and human thinking, 1099 undecidability in, 1138 Weber's law in, 1014 StirlingS1 (Stirling numbers) pattern generated by, 870 StirlingS2 (Stirling numbers) pattern generated by, 870 Stirring as source of randomness, 969 Stochastic analysis, 587, 1081 Stochastic differential equations and cybernetics, 862 Stochastic models, 968 and external randomness, 299 see also Probabilistic models Stock market prices, 429, 1014 Stokes, George G. (England, 1819-1903) and fluid flow past a sphere, 998 Stokes lines for mathematical functions, 917 Stone, Paper, Scissors game, 1105 Stone Age art, 839, 874

stone circles, 1184 stone tools, 1183 Stoneham, Richard G. (USA, 1920-1996) and normal numbers, 912 Stonehenge, 829, 1184 Stopping problems see Halting problems Stored-program computers, 1108 and history of universality, 1110 Storms as origins of randomness, 301 Strange attractors for differential equations, 961 vs. thermodynamics, 1020 see also Chaos theory see also Class 3 behavior Strategies for combinatorial optimization, 985 in game theory, 1104 for theorem proving, 1158 Strawberries phyllotaxis in, 409 Stream ciphers, 598 and randomness generators, 975 Streamlined objects in fluid flow, 998 Streams and landscape structure, 1001 Streetlamps visible from space, 1187 Stress-energy tensor in Einstein equations, 1052 Stress patterns around cracks, 995 Stretching and randomness, 306 String concatenation systems (correspondence systems), 757, 1139 String equations, 944, 1141 String figures as constructed by rules, 875 String matching, 1101 String rewriting systems, 88, 894 and Church's Thesis, 1125 and history of universality, 1110 as idealization of math, 1150 see also Multiway systems see also Sequential substitution systems String theory (in physics) and models of particles, 1044 and nature of space, 1028 not related to strings of elements, 1033 particle types in, 1047 and quantum gravity, 1054 and quantum history, 1058 as ultimate theory of physics, 1025 StringJoin and correspondence systems, 1139 StringLength and correspondence systems, 1140 StringPosition and generalized substitution systems, 1033 StringReplace and multiway systems, 937 vs. sequential substitution systems, 894 and substitution systems, 889 StringReplacePart and generalized substitution systems, 1033 and multiway systems, 937 Strings of balanced parentheses, 989 matching of in memory, 621 in multiway systems, 937 non-overlapping, 503, 1033 overlaps in, 503 undecidability of problems about, 1138 Strings (physical) in musical instruments, 1079 Stripes origin of on animals, 429 and transition in rule 184, 338 Striping (bitslicing) and implementing CAs, 866 Stroke (Sheffer) as notation for Nand, 1173 Strong coupling and path integrals, 1061 Strong interactions (in particle physics), 1025, 1057 Strouhal number, 998 Structural landforms, 1001

Structural stability and history of chaos, 971 Structuralism and theories of communication, 1181 Structurally-stable defects, 1045 Structure-property relationships for chemicals, 1194 Structure theorems and integrals, 1177 Structure transformations in symbolic systems, 102 Structures in class 4 systems, 281-296 form of in architecture, 967 theory of in math, 1150 see also Localized structures Student t-distribution found by Monte Carlo methods, 1192 Stunted trees as additive cellular automata, 878 Sturgis, Howard E. (USA, 1936-1990) and register machines, 896 Sturmian sequences, 1081 and block frequencies, 1084 and Fibonacci substitution system, 890 SU(2) and spin, 1046 and spinors, 1059 SU(2) x U(1) model, 1025 SU(3) as gauge group in QCD, 1057 SU(n) and 1/n expansion, 1040 and discrete quantum theory, 1060 Subclasses within class 4 CAs, 948 Subdivision and data compression, 568 Subdivision systems (substitution systems), 82 2D, 187 Subformula property and arrangement of proofs, 1155 Subgraph matching and network evolution, 1038 NP completeness of, 1145 Subjective contours in visual perception, 578 Sublimation as phase transition, 981 Subordinate clauses, 1104 Suborganisms and biological evolution, 1002 Subsequences frequencies of, 1084 repeating, 1072 Subset relation as generating posets, 1041 Subshifts of finite type (finite complement languages), 941 2D generalizations of, 959 and excluded blocks in CAs, 958 and repetitive states in CAs, 954 Substitution and structure of proofs, 775, 1155 see also ReplaceAll Substitution ciphers, 1085 Substitution systems, 82-87 2D, 187-192 and animal growth, 420 and attractor structures, 959 as basic origin of nesting, 357 and billiard trajectories, 971 and CA encodings, 1119 and causal networks, 497 and computational reducibility, 1134 and continued fractions, 914 d-dimensional, 932, 1091 and data compression, 568 and digit sequences, 891 in embryo development, 1009 emulated by CAs, 659, 1111 emulated by TMs, 765 emulating CAs, 666 with equal block frequencies, 594 and evaluation chains, 1095 finite automata for patterns from, 1091 formulas for patterns from, 608 and genealogical trees, 1002 as generators of digit sequences, 913 geometrical, 189-192 see also Geometrical substitution systems

that get to any string, 1035 history of, 893 implementation of, 889 implementation of generalized, 1033 initial conditions from, 272 in iterated run-length encoding, 905 and lines on rasters, 916 as model of crushing, 986, 996 in music, 875, 1080 neighbor-dependent, 85-87 neighbor-dependent 2D, 192, 935 neighbor-independent, 82-85 neighbor-independent 2D, 187 network, 508-515 for non-periodic tiling, 942 order of replacements in, 501 and paths, 892 and pattern-avoiding sequences, 944 and plant branching, 400, 1005 probabilistic, 1084 random, 969 random initial conditions in, 949 randomness in, 88 relation to cyclic tag systems, 895 relation to iterated maps, 921 relation to multiplication, 903 relation to tag systems, 93 for rule 90 pattern, 609 for rule 150 pattern, 609 sequential, 88-92 see also Sequential substitution systems and shapes of leaves, 401 and sine curves, 147, 917 space of possible, 406 spectra of, 586, 1080 and systems based on constraints, 942 and texture generation, 1077 and visual perception, 583 and Walsh functions, 1073 see also Multiway systems SubsuperscriptBox and nested patterns, 932 Successor function in arithmetic axioms, 1152 Succulents phyllotaxis in, 409 Sugars and definition of life, 825 Sum numbers generated from, 917 Sum (totalistic) rules, 60 Sumerians art of, 43, 873 and constellations, 1187 Summaries of data, 548 Sun bending of light by, 1048 circular shape of, 861, 875 radiation from and weather, 1177 radio signals from, 1187 as source of radio noise, 1187 Sun Microsystems, xiii, 854, 881 Sundial shell growth of, 415 Sundman, Karl F. (Finland, 1873-1949) and three-body problem, 972 Sunspots 1/f spectrum of, 969 radio noise from, 1187 Superconductors phase transition in, 981 phyllotaxis-like patterns in, 1007 Supercooling and crystallization, 992 Superelliptic Diophantine equations, 1164 Superexponential growth and real algebra, 1154 in TM running times, 763 Superfluidity in neutron stars, 1188 phase transition in, 981 Supergravity theories and space vs. contents, 1028 Superimposing grids at different angles, 1078 Supernatural being as creator of complexity, 3, 861 and free will, 752 see also God

Supernovas, 1188 Superposition in cellular automata, 952 and nested patterns, 955 and PDEs, 923 and quantum computers, 1148 in quantum theory, 541, 1058 of waves, 988 Supersonic flow, 377 in CA fluids, 1000 past cylinders, 999 and Navier-Stokes equations, 997 sonic booms from, 984 see also Shocks Superstitions and animism, 1195 Superstrings see String theory Supersymmetry as basis for models, 1025 particles in models with, 1043, 1047 and quantum gravity, 1054 and vacuum fluctuations, 1062 Supervised learning, 1102 Surface tension and crystal growth, 993 and packing, 988 in radiolarians, 1011 and soap foams, 1039 Surfaces of crystals, 993 curvature of, 1049 discretization of, 1050 geodesics on, 531, 1049 metrics for, 1048 and repeatable randomness, 976 roughness of, 996 see also Solids Surjectivity in cellular automata, 280, 959 undecidability of, 1138 Surreal numbers as generalizing numbers, 1168 and runs of digits, 914 Suture lines in skulls, 1010 Swell on oceans as repetitive behavior, 988 Swindale, Nicholas V. (England/Canada, 1951- ) and pigmentation patterns, 1012 Switch engine (in Game of Life), 965 Switching circuits and Boolean functions, 1097 and causal networks, 1033 Sycamore leaves, 401, 1006 Syllogisms, 875, 1151 and quantifiers, 1152 Symbiosis and biological evolution, 1002 Symbolic algebra and computational reducibility, 1132 see also Algebra Symbolic computation and proof in operator systems, 801 see also Computer algebra Symbolic descriptions and discreteness in programs, 976 Symbolic dynamics and arithmetic coding, 1071 and cellular automata, 960 and history of CAs, 878 and history of iterated maps, 919 and origin of substitution systems, 893 Symbolic expressions and computer communication, 1182 in Mathematica, 1103 to represent integers, 1121 structure of, 896 Symbolic formulas for cellular automata, 869 and computability, 1128 and history of universality, 1109 for iterated maps, 1098 see also Exact solutions Symbolic integration, 1177 Symbolic logic see Logic Symbolic notation, 1182

Symbolic programming in Mathematica, 853 Symbolic representation of infinity, 788 Symbolic systems, 102 based on networks, 898 combinators as, 711 confluence in, 1036, 1113 emulating CAs, 668, 1113 history of, 898 implementation of, 896 and operator systems, 1172 test for universality of, 1123 tree representation of, 897 and valuation functions, 916 Symmetric cellular automata in 1D, 886 in 2D, 928 Symmetric differences and second-order CAs, 1018 Symmetric graphs, 1032 Symmetric matrices in neural networks, 1102 Symmetry in aggregation systems, 979 in alkane molecules, 1194 between space and time, 485 in biological organisms, 1007 and CA discrete space, 1027 and constraints on network rules, 509 of crystals, 993 of exact solutions, 1133 in fossil organisms, 1179 and general study of form, 967 and isotropy on lattices, 980 and maximum periods, 950 in ornamental art, 872 of particles in physics, 528 and phase transitions, 981, 983 in plants, 1007 in quasicrystals, 994 of random biological patterns, 1013 in snowflakes, 992 and sphere packings, 987 and state transition graphs, 962 of tilings, 943 Synapses, 1075 and memory, 1102 randomness in, 970 Synchronic linguistics, 1181 Synchronization in practical computing, 1035 in the universe, 486 Synchrotron radiation, 1187 Synergetics and history of complexity, 862 and reaction-diffusion, 1013 Synoptic weather maps, 1178 Syntax CA as checker of, 1109 for computer communication, 1182 and context-free languages, 1103 of formal languages, 939 of math, 1150 and semiotics, 1181 Synthesis (chemical), 1194 Synthesizers (audio) waveforms in, 1079 Syracuse problem (3n+1 problem), 904 Syrinxes of songbirds, 1180 System identification, 550, 1083 Systems theory definitions of complexity in, 1069 and history of complexity, 862 summary of relations to, 15 Systolic arrays and history of CAs, 877 Szmielew, Wanda M. (Poland/USA, 1918-1976) and commutative groups, 1160 Szudzik, Matthew P. (USA, 1973- ) and axioms for logic, 1151 in Preface, xii T violation (time reversal violation), 1019 T1 and T2 processes in networks, 1038 Table basic examples of, 853 Tables for Boolean formulas, 1095

leading digits in, 914 of primes, 910 of random numbers, 968 see also Multiplication tables Tabulating machines, 1107 Tachyons, 1041 spin of, 1046 Taffy as chaos theory example, 306 fracture in, 994 Tag systems, 93-94 cyclic, 95 see also Cyclic tag systems density in, 894 emulated by correspondence systems, 1140 emulated by recursive functions, 1121 emulated by universal TM, 706, 1119 emulating CAs, 667, 1113 emulating TMs, 670, 1114 implementation of, 894 multiway, 1141 one-element-dependence, 1114 as precursors to my work, 879 random initial conditions in, 949 and TM 596440, 1120 undecidability in, 1136 uniform, 82 see also Substitution systems universality in simple, 1120 universality of one-element dependence, 1120 Tail recursion and recursive functions, 907 Tails (of data), 1083 Taj Mahal nesting in gardens of, 874 Take (take elements) basic example of, 853 Tally sticks and application of randomness, 968 Tan curve of, 145 Tang, Chao (USA, 1958- ) and self-organized criticality, 989 Tangencies in circle packings, 986 in ornamental art, 873 Tanh in neural network models, 1102 and solving Ising model, 982 Taoism, 1196 Tape of Turing machine, 78 Tapir pigmentation pattern of, 426 Taps in shift registers, 975 Tarski, Alfred (Poland/USA, 1902-1983) and axioms for geometry, 1154 and axioms for groups, 1153 and axioms for predicate logic, 1152 and real algebra, 1154 and undecidability of group theory, 1159 Taste sense of, 1105 Tate-Shafarevich group, 1164 Tau lepton mass of, 1046 as type of particle, 1043 Tautologies based on Nand, 781, 1157 Tautology laws of, 817 Tea leaves, 968 Tearing of materials, 995 Technical analysis of financial markets, 1015 Technology components used in, 1195 dating of jargon about, 849 discussions of in this book, 1192 future of, 832 history of vs. fossil record, 398 and human condition, 846 implications for, 840-843 new purposes for, 843 and Occam's razor, 1025 optimization in advanced, 829 search-based development of, 1193 as stimulus for basic science, 42

summary of relations to, 11, 863 TECO (text editor), 894 Tectonic activity, 1001 Teeth folding in formation of, 417 patterns in ray and shark, 1007 Teichmller spaces (parameter spaces), 1006 Telegraphy and data compression, 1069 and SETI, 1189 Teleology, 1185 and argument by design, 861 and biological evolution, 387 Telepathy as feature of extraterrestrials, 1190 Telephone bandwidth of, 1079 development of, 1080 and sound compression, 1072 Telephone information services, 1100 Telephone networks Monte Carlo studies of, 1192 Teleportation, 1058 Telescopes as analogy, 42 and SETI, 835 Television bandwidth of, 1079 data compression for, 1072 as source of radio signals, 1188 Telos (final cause), 1185 Temperament (in music), 917, 1079 Temperature of black holes, 1062 as characterizing equilibrium, 450 in crystal growth, 993 differences in convection, 1000 in Ising model, 982 repeatable randomness in, 976 and weather, 1177 Templates for 2D constraints, 941 in aggregation systems, 978 and hash codes in neural networks, 624 in tilings, 213 in visual perception, 579 Temporal logics and causal invariance, 1035 Temporal sequences in cellular automata, 960 TensorRank and tensors in differential geometry, 1049 Tensors characterizing symmetry of pattern, 980 in differential geometry, 1049 duals of, 1050 Einstein equations and, 1052 manipulation of, 1048 norms of, 1050 Tent map, 150 exact iterates of, 919 and history of chaos theory, 971 Tent olive shell pattern on, 423 Tent patterns on shells, 423 Tentacles of octopus, 385 and spines on shells, 1008 Term rewrite systems see Multiway systems Termination of function computations, 1163 in multiway systems, 1036 problems see Halting problems in symbolic systems, 897 Termite structures and aggregation systems, 1011 as animal artifacts, 1184 Ternary binary-coded, 1070 Ternary cellular automata, 60 Ternary logic, 814 Ternary operators, 1171 Terraces in crystals (hoppering), 993 Territories defending and bird songs, 1180 and Voronoi diagrams, 987

Tertiary structure (of proteins), 1003, 1184 Terza rima and rules for poetry, 875 Tesla, Nikola (USA, 1856-1943) and SETI, 1188, 1189 Tessellation automata see Cellular automata Tessellations defined by constraints, 213 of fixed blocks, 582 Tests of models, 364 Tests of randomness, 1084 for digit sequences, 912 for rule 30, 871 Tetrad formulation of general relativity, 1048 Tetradecahedron, 930, 987, 988 Tetrahedral group (A_4) with trivalent Cayley graph, 1032 Tetrahedron as cluster shape in sphere packings, 986 network as net of, 476 network transformed to cube, 1038 as rigid 3D structure, 1031 in spin networks, 1055 as tip of plant stem, 1004 Tetrakaidecahedron see Tetradecahedron Tetration and Ackermann function, 906 and halting in symbolic systems, 897 and symbolic systems, 897 Text compression of, 1084 in databases, 621 in practical computers, 1108 redundancy of, 1086 Text-based interfaces, 1102 Text editors, 88, 894 Textbooks and computational irreducibility, 1133 of computer science and Church's Thesis, 1126 math in, 773 Textile cone shell pattern on, 423 Textile making rules in, 874 Textons and texture perception, 1076 Texture perception, 577 history of, 1076 Textures in biology, 387 generating, 841, 1078 of physical surfaces, 1077 Texturing use of randomness in, 1192 Thallus shape of, 385 Theism, 1195 Theology and complexity, 3, 861 and form of extraterrestrials, 1191 and free will, 1135 and issues of modelling, 991 and teleology, 1185 and ultimate theory of physics, 1025 and uniqueness of life on Earth, 1180 and universe as intelligent, 1195 see also God see also Religion Theophrastus (Greece, ~371 - ~287 BC) and shapes of leaves, 1005 Theorems, 779 automated proving of, 1157 see also Automated theorem proving character of different types, 820 vs. computer experiments, 899 and definition of math, 860 distributions of in fields of math, 1175 general characterizations of, 1176 interesting ones in logic, 816 involving Nand, 818, 1175 in operator systems, 801 pattern of in logic, 812 pattern of in simple axiom systems, 812 of shortest axioms for logic, 811 Theoretical biology and complexity, 861

history of, 1003 undecidability in, 1138 Theoretical science and computational reducibility, 749 traditional methods of, 737 Theory of being (ontology) implications for, 1197 Theory of biology possibilities for a, 397 Theory of computation, 753 Theory of everything, 1025 Theory of knowledge (epistemology) implications for, 1196 Theory of structures in mathematics, 1150 Theory of universe see Ultimate theory of physics Thermal diffusion and randomization times, 970 Thermal equilibrium in early universe, 1055 and Ising model, 982 see also Equilibrium Thermal noise, 968 in microprocessors, 970 Thermal perception, 1105 Thermodynamic formalism (for dynamical systems), 959 Thermodynamic limit for diffusion equation, 1024 and phase transitions, 983 Thermodynamics analogies to computation, 726 vs. biological evolution, 1003 of computation, 1020 and crystal growth, 993 and defining life, 824, 1178 history of, 1019 and history of complexity, 862 Second Law of, 441-457 see also Second Law of Thermodynamics vs. strange attractors, 1020 summary of relations to, 16 Theta functions see EllipticTheta Thinking attributed to universe, 1195 communication and, 1181 emulation by computers of, 733 and foundations of math, 1176 and Gdel's Theorem, 1159 in higher math, 1177 history of studying, 1099 human, 620-631 influence of language on, 1181 logic as representation of, 860 machines, 628 and Principle of Computational Equivalence, 733 and ultimate theory of universe, 465 Thinking Machines Corporation, xiii, 881 Thirteenth problem (of Hilbert), 1128 Thom, Ren F. (France, 1923-[2002]) in Preface, xiii and structure in animals, 1009 and theoretical biology, 1004 Thompson, D'Arcy W. (Scotland, 1860-1948) and forms in nature, 967 and growth processes, 1010 and leaf shapes, 1006 and theoretical biology, 1004 Thomson, William see Kelvin Threads between particles, 544 Three-body problem, 972 and computational irreducibility, 1132 and history of chaos, 971 and history of complexity, 862, 1068 as precursor to my work, 879 randomness in, 314 and undecidability, 1138 Three-dimensional cellular automata, 182-183 networks, 195, 1030 wave equation, 923 Three squares problem, 910 Through and recursive functions, 907 Throw and context-free parsing, 1103

and pointer-based encoding, 1071 and testing invariances, 1022 and testing reversibility, 1017 Thue, Axel (Norway, 1863-1922) and circle packings, 985 and Diophantine equations, 1164 and multiway systems, 938 and repetition-free sequences, 944 and substitution systems, 879, 893 and word problem for semigroups, 1141 Thue equations, 1164 Thue-Morse sequence, 890 atomic layers in, 1082 as cube-free sequence, 944 and cyclic tag systems, 895 generating function for, 1092 and period-doubling sequence, 892 represented by special functions, 1092 rule 60 applied to, 1091 simplest CA generating, 1186 spectrum of, 586, 1081 statistics of blocks in, 594 from substitution system, 83 and Walsh functions, 1073 Thunderstorms 1/f noise in, 969 Thwaites conjecture (3n+1 problem), 904 Tic-tac-toe network for, 939 Tidal forces and Einstein equations, 1052 Tides machine for predicting, 1107 TIFF format compression in, 1070 Tiger pigmentation pattern of, 426 Tilings, 211-221 from 2 x 2 squares, 1078 and aggregation systems, 979 approximate solutions of, 345 and cellular automata, 943, 1139 as cellular automaton lattices, 930 density of difficult cases of, 1147 diffraction patterns of, 1082 enumeration of, 959 of fixed blocks, 582 history of, 943 in hyperbolic space, 1050 as invariant states of 2D CAs, 349 and Ising models, 1138 and melting points, 1194 NP completeness in, 984, 1145 Penrose, 932 see also Penrose tilings and reversibility of 2D CAs, 1017 Truchet, 875 undecidability in, 1138, 1139 see also Domino problems Time alignment of in universe, 1021 branching in, 504 compression in PDEs, 732 computation between moments of, 1033 and definition of motion, 521 discreteness in, 1032 graphical representation of, 1031 in gravity and computation, 1130 in Hopi language, 1181 network for in multiway systems, 209 and randomness in causal networks, 494 in relation to space, 481-486 and single active cell, 487 in ultimate theory of physics, 486-508, 516-524 Time-and-motion studies and causal networks, 1033 Time complexity (in computational complexity theory), 1142 Time dilation (relativistic), 524 Time Machine (science fiction book), 1031 Time reversal in particle physics, 1019 and thermodynamics, 443, 1020 Time series analysis, 587, 1081, 1083 Time standards as source of radio signals, 1188 Time travel, 1043 and character of time, 1031 and energy conditions, 1053

TimeConstraint and avoiding undecidability, 1138 Timeline of close approaches, 878 of my scientific activities, 864 of publications of mine, 881 of writing this book, 850 Times combinator for, 1122 and NC computations, 1149 in ordering of math constructs, 1177 primitive recursive definition of, 907 Tippett, Leonard H. C. (England, 1902-1985) and random number tables, 968 Tire treads characteristic shapes of, 1183 Tit-for-tat strategy in game theory, 1104 Titan and extraterrestrial life, 1179 TMs see Turing machines Toda lattice as exactly soluble, 1133 Toes (animal) formation of, 419 ToExpression and parsing, 1103 Toffoli, Tommaso (Italy/USA, 1943- ) and 2D CA simulators, 928 and 2D cellular automata, 880 in Preface, xiii Tokens in formal languages, 1103 Tones in music, 1079 Tongue human, 1105 Tool use and defining intelligence, 1178 Toom, Andrei (Russia/USA, 1942- ) and transitions in CAs, 981, 981' Top (spinning) as exactly soluble, 1133 Topochronology, 1027 Topography and identifying artifacts, 1184 origins of, 1001 and weather, 1177 Topological defects, 1045 and localized structures, 990 Topological dimension, 1030 Topological entropy, 958, 959 computing, 1084 history of, 961 Topological equivalence and reversible CAs, 961 Topological field theories and defining dimension, 1031 and quantum computers, 1148 and spin networks, 1055 Topological indices and chemical properties, 1195 Topological processes (T1 and T2) in planar networks, 1038 Topological spacetime entropy, 960 Topological structure and visual memory, 624 Topology axioms for, 774, 1155 and biological form, 1004 and cellular automata, 930 and discrete space, 1050 and general relativity, 1052 of networks, 1045 and networks from continuous systems, 1031 of Schwarzschild solution, 1053 and texture perception, 1076 Topos theory as idealization of math, 1150 Toppling in sandpile model, 989 Torsion in general relativity, 1052 in unified field theory, 1028 Tortoiseshell cats patterns on, 1014 Tossing (of coins, etc.)

as source of randomness, 305, 968, 970 ToString and bracket sequences, 897 Total functions primitive recursive as, 907 in Turing machines, 1143 Total recursive functions see Primitive recursive functions Totalistic cellular automata, 60 2D, 170 and CellularAutomaton, 867 implementation of, 886 as not reversible, 1017 number of, 886 and pigmentation patterns, 1012 with random initial conditions, 233 universality in, 693, 1117 and visual feature extraction, 1077 Totient see EulerPhi Tournaments of game programs, 1104 Towers of Hanoi puzzle, 893 Towns see Cities Toys complex motion in, 1183 random motion in, 968 Tracery in Gothic windows, 873 Tracks made by turning vehicles, 418 Trading effects of details of, 1015 with extraterrestrials, 1191 processes of, 430 Traffic flow 1/f noise in, 969 instabilities in road, 1014 Training of animals, 825 and responses to events, 827 Trains of thought and free will, 752 Transcendental equations numbers defined by, 916 undecidability in, 1138 universality in, 731 Transcendental numbers, 912 constructed from digits, 914 continued fractions of, 144 digit sequences of, 136, 142 and Egyptian fractions, 915 as precursors to my work, 878 see also pi, e, etc. Transfer matrices, 983 Transfinite hierarchy of formalisms, 1159 Transfinite induction, 1160 and Goodstein sequences, 1163 in set theory, 1154 Transfinite numbers, 1162 and abstraction in math, 792, 860, 1149 as generalizing numbers, 1168 Transformation rules and axioms, 1150 examples of in Mathematica, 854 in Mathematica, 627, 1103 in symbolic systems, 102 Transients in class 4 systems, 282 in code 20 cellular automaton, 964 in Game of Life, 965 in halting register machines, 896 and irreversibility in rule 37R, 454 for mobile automata, 887 in state transition graphs, 961 in three-body problem, 973 and undecidability, 754 Transistors and Nand, 1173 Transitions in class 4 systems, 948 in continuous CAs, 244, 948 see also Phase transitions Transitivity and confluence property, 1036 Translations between languages, 1086

between math systems, 816 of functions in logic, 807 see also Emulation Transmutation in alchemy, 861 Transponders and radio signals, 1188 Transpose and Ricci from Riemann tensor, 1049 Transposition sort, 1142 Trapezoidal primes, 911 Travelling salesman problem, 985, 1145 Tree backtracking, 1089 Tree-like patterns in 2D cellular automata, 171 in 2D substitution systems, 188 in crystals, 371 in rule 184, 359 see also Nesting Tree networks as having infinite dimension, 480 Trees for address decoding on chips, 1183 alkane molecules as, 1194 as alternative to hashing, 1100 in animal branching structures, 1008 and attractor structure, 959 balanced binary, 897, 898 binary see Binary trees as combinator expressions, 1123 for computation of powers, 615 depth of in expressions, 897 and digit sequences, 891 dynamic, 936 evolving in symbolic systems, 897 expressions as, 897 in Huffman coding, 1071 in landscape structures, 1001 Mathematica expressions as, 989 Nand, 1096, 1157 networks forming, 196 as origins of nesting, 357 parse, 1103 random, 1084 in recursive evaluation, 907 for representing integers, 916 space of possible, 405 in state transition graphs, 961 and structure of proofs, 1155 and substitution systems, 84 in transition graphs for additive rules, 963 and understanding expressions, 1177 Trees (botanical) and Descartes on complexity, 861 forms of, 401 growth of, 1004 Trend-based weather prediction, 1178 Triangle inequality and definition of distance, 1030 Triangles in discrete space, 1051 Lagrange points forming, 972 in ornamental art, 873 produced by cellular automaton evolution, 24, 225, 947 produced in rule 30, 28 Triangular lattice cellular automata on, 930 percolation theory on, 983 random walks on, 329 Triangular waveform, 917 Triangulation in GPS, 1086 and quantum gravity, 1054 of space, 533, 1050 Tributaries building up rivers from, 359, 1001 TrigFactor and sine curves, 917 Triggerfish pigmentation pattern of, 426 Trigonometric equations universality in, 731, 1129 Trigonometric functions and shapes of leaves, 1006 and undecidability, 1138 Trigonometric series

machine for computing, 1107 nested functions from, 918 and origin of set theory, 1154 and spectra of nested sequences, 1081 Trigonometric sum formulas of Ramanujan, 911 Trillion (as 1,000,000,000,000), 849 Trillions of rules in finding doubling CAs, 832 Trilobites as examples of evolution, 1003 regularities in, 385 Trinomial coefficients, 1091 and rule 150 pattern, 611 Tripling cellular automata, 1186 Trisection of angles, 1137 Tritone (musical interval), 146, 917 Trivalent networks see Networks Troy maze as logo for, 873 Truchet, Sbastien (Jean) (France, 1657-1729) and patterns from rules, 875 True defined with Or and Not, 817 Nand statements equivalent to, 781 True but unprovable statements, 1167 TrueQ and truth values, 1158 Truncated icosahedron and spherical networks, 1049 Truncated octahedron and 3D lattices, 930 Trusses characteristic shapes of, 1183 Truth and computational irreducibility, 1196 and essential incompleteness, 1159 and incompleteness, 1167 in math reached only by experiment, 899 and theories of communication, 1181 and undecidability, 1136, 1139 Truth tables, 1170 vs. axioms, 802 in multiway systems, 1173 and satisfiability, 768 Truth values intermediate, 1175 and lack thereof, 1158 Tubes formation of inside animals, 417 in musical instruments, 1079 Tulip bulbs and speculative markets, 1015 Tumbling of microorganisms, 970 Tumor growth, 1011 aggregation system for, 978 Tuning musical, 917 Tunnelling as basic quantum effect, 1059 Turaev-Viro invariants, 1055 Turbulence, 376 as analogy for quantum field theory, 1059, 1061 in atmosphere, 1001 in convection, 1000 in flow of sand, 1001 vs. fracture roughness, 994 in gravitational fields, 1053 and history of complexity, 862 and history of randomness, 968 in interstellar medium, 1188 as motivating question, 17 numerical computation of, 924, 997 in QCD field configurations, 1061 and snowflake differences, 992 sound of, 1079 as source of apparent intelligence, 837 traditional models of, 997 in two dimensions, 999 Turing, Alan M. (England, 1912-1954) and animal pigmentation, 1012 and artificial intelligence, 1099 and computable numbers, 1128, 1137 computer programs of, 1013 and continuous computation, 1128 and defining computability, 1125 and diagonal arguments, 1128

and history of computers, 1107 and oracles, 1126 and origins of universality, 1110 and reaction-diffusion, 1012 and theoretical biology, 879, 1004 and Turing machines, 879, 889 and undecidability, 1136 and undecidability of word problem, 1141 and universal TM, 1119 Turing completeness see Universality (computational) Turing degrees (arithmetic hierarchy), 1139 Turing machines, 78-81 2D, 184-186 attitude of Gdel towards, 1159 attractors in, 961 axiom systems for, 1167 and Church's Thesis, 1125 compared to circuits, 1148 and computable reals, 1128 computing increment, 758 emulated by CAs, 658, 1111 emulated by combinators, 1122 emulated by Life, 1117 emulated by recursive functions, 1121 emulated by register machines, 671, 1114 emulated by satisfiability, 1146 emulated by tag systems, 670, 1114 emulating CAs, 665, 765, 1113 emulating more colors, 669, 1113, 1119 emulating multiway systems, 765 emulating rule 60, 1119 emulating rule 110, 707, 1119 emulating substitution systems, 765 enumeration of, 1120 evolution of as P computation, 1142 functions computed by small, 1143, 1144 and growth rates of functions, 1163 growth rates of running times, 1145 halting of one-way, 759 halting probabilities for, 1143 halting problem for, 1137 history of, 889 history of 2D, 930 and history of CAs, 876 history of universal, 1119 and history of universality, 1110 as idealization of math, 1150 implementation of, 888 implementation of 2D, 930 implementation of non-deterministic, 1146 initial conditions for, 710 localized structures in, 888 longest halting times for, 1144 non-deterministic, 766, 939 number of, 888 one-way, 759 and oracles, 1126 and P completeness, 1149 paths in 3D from 2D, 931 as precursors to my work, 879 quantum analogs of, 1147 random initial conditions in, 949 and recursive sets, 1138 with rule 60-like behavior, 1120 running times of, 761, 1143 and second-order logic, 1167 simplest with complex behavior, 708-709, 1120 small for elementary rules, 1113 state-color tradeoffs in, 888, 1120 symmetries of, 1120 and time in universe, 486 undecidability in, 1136 and universal CAs, 1115 universality in simple, 706-711 and word problem in groups, 1141 Turing test (in AI), 1099, 1178 Turmites (2D Turing machines), 930 Turning machines (2D Turing machines), 930 Turns and substitution system paths, 892 Turtles pigmentation patterns of, 426 Turtles (artificial) and 2D Turing machines, 930 and 3D paths, 931 Tweeks (natural radio), 1187 Twin paradox

time dilation in, 524 Twin primes, 909 unsolved problem of, 1166 Twinning in crystal growth, 993 Twins biometrics of, 1014 Twistor formulation of general relativity, 1048 Twitching in muscles and free will, 1136 Two-body problem, 313, 972 and computational reducibility, 737 as exactly soluble, 1133 in general relativity, 1053 Two-cell neighborhood cellular automata, 885 Two-dimensional cellular automata, 170-181 constraints, 211 data compression, 568 mobile automata, 931 networks, 195 random walks, 329 substitution systems, 187-192 systems in general, 169-221 template numbering, 941 Turing machines, 184-186 wave equation, 923 Two's complement number representation, 902, 942 Tycho (crater) circular shape of, 1187 Tylor, Edward B. (England, 1832-1917) and animism, 1195 Type theory and category theory, 1154 Types of functions and data, 898 U(1) (group) and additive systems, 953 U-numbers (Ulam sequences), 908 UFOs, 1180, 1183 Ukraine art from, 873 Ulam, Stanislaw M. (Poland/USA, 1909-1984) and CAs, 876, 877, 879 and generalized CAs, 928 and iterated maps, 918 in Preface, xiii and Ulam sequences, 908 Ulam sequences, 908 Ulam's problem (3n+1 problem), 904 Ultimate theory of physics, 465-545 and amount of information, 1133 elementary particles in, 525-530 and extraterrestrial trade, 1191 general features of, 465-471 gravity in, 530-537 history of, 1024 mass in, 528 numerology and, 1025 quantum phenomena in, 537-545 searching for, 466 space in, 472-486, 516-524 and theology, 1025 time in, 486-508, 516-524 undecidability of consequences of, 1027 uniqueness of, 470 and universe as computer, 1026 verifiability of, 469 Ultrafilters and non-standard arithmetic, 1169 Ultraspherical functions and rule 150 pattern, 612 Unary operations and generalized additivity, 952 Unary representation of numbers, 560, 1070 and CA fluids, 1000 historical use of, 1182 in lambda calculus, 1121 and NP completeness, 1145 Unbiased estimators for entropy, 959, 1084 Unbounded growth in class 4 systems, 289 in Game of Life, 965 in rule 110, 293 Uncertainty principle, 1058 as basic quantum effect, 1059 character of as principle, 1126

and vacuum fluctuations, 1062 and virtual particles, 1046 Unconscious thinking, 1136 Undecidability, 753-757 in algebra, 1138 of algorithmic randomness, 1067 of applicability of Baker's method, 1164 of axiom system correctness, 1170 in biology, 1138 in cellular automata, 1138 in chemical synthesis, 1194 in classification of CAs, 948 in combinatorics, 1138 compared to math impossibility, 1137 of completion algorithms, 1037 in computer science, 1138 of confinement in QCD, 1062 of consequences of ultimate theory, 1027 of context-free language equivalence, 1103 degrees of, 1139 density of, 1137 Diophantine equation with, 786 of entropy values, 958 of equivalence in operator systems, 802 of equivalence of manifolds, 1051 of forcing of operators, 1172 in game theory, 1105 of halting problem, 1128 history of, 1136 vs. independence, 1159 in lambda calculus, 1136 in Mathematica, 1138 in mathematical logic, 1138 mentioned in psychology, 1136 in multiway systems, 779, 1136 in nature, 1138 as not relevant to nature, 1132 vs. NP completeness, 769 in number theory, 1138 in operator systems, 815 of phase transitions, 1138 in physics, 1138 of P=NP problem, 1146 and proofs, 779 in quadratic Diophantine equations, 1164 and quantum measurement, 1064 in recursive functions, 1136 and sets, 1138 of structure equivalence in networks, 1045 of surjectivity for 2D CAs, 960 in symbolic integration, 1177 in tag systems, 1136 and three-body problem, 1138 in tiling problems, 942, 1139 of undecidability, 1138 of universality, 1127 without universality, 734 in word problems, 1141 Undefined function values in Turing machines, 1143 Unfailing completion algorithms, 1037 and automated proofs, 1158 Unified field theory (of Einstein), 1025, 1028 Unified models (in particle physics), 1043 Uniform distribution and iterated maps, 919 and linear congruential generators, 320 mod 1, 903 of multiplicative sequences, 903 and plant phyllotaxis, 1007 of powers, 903 of sequences, 904 of unbounded quantities, 1070 Uniform sampling as application of randomness, 1192 Uniform spectra, 1081 origins of, 988 Uniform tag systems, 893 see also Substitution systems Uniformity in hashing, 622 origins of, 353 in rule 254 cellular automaton, 24 visual approximations to, 1078 Union basic example of, 853 and encoding integers as sets, 1160 and finite set theory, 1171

in multiway systems, 937 theorems about, 1168 Uniqueness of humans, 1195 in Navier-Stokes, 997 of patterns from CAs, 956 of solutions to equations, 940 of solutions to PDEs, 923 of ultimate theory of physics, 470 Unitarity (in quantum mechanics), 1059 Unitary matrices and quantum computers, 1147 Univalve shells, 1008 Universal algebra, 1171 of Whitehead, 1150 Universal cellular automata, 644-656, 1110 history of, 1115 and rule 110, 675-691 Universal circuits, 1148 Universal computation see Universality Universal constructor, 1193 Universal Diophantine equations, 786, 789, 1160 history of, 1161 and polynomial values, 1162 Universal languages for extraterrestrial communication, 1189 and human thinking, 1099 and Leibniz, 1109, 1149 and logical positivism, 1181 and theories of communication, 1181 Universal objects, 724, 1127 Universal primitives for logic, 1173 for multivalued logic, 1175 for quantum computers, 1148 for reversible logic, 1098 Universal register machines, 1121 Universal spaces see Cellular automata Universal system in nanotechnology, 1193 Universal Turing machines and cellular automata, 1115 Minsky's, 1119 and running times, 764 simple, 706 Universality (apparent) history of, 967 of mathematics, 860 in models, 992 of natural systems, 298, 718 in nature and elsewhere, 4 Universality (computational), 5, 642-644 and algorithmic information, 1067 of arithmetic systems, 673 automated proving of, 1127 in axiom systems, 784 of cellular automata, 644 of cellular automata in 2D, 693 and class 4 behavior, 691 in classes of systems, 1123 in combinators, 711 and complexity, 643 and computational irreducibility, 742 in computer languages, 642 criteria for, 1126 in cyclic tag systems, 669 density of, 1126 difficulty of proving, 698, 722 in Diophantine equations, 1164 and financial markets, 1015 of general recursive functions, 907 of group theory, 1159 history of, 1109 implications of, 674 and intermediate degrees, 734 lack of with nesting, 734 lack of with repetition, 734 and language translation, 643 in Mathematica, 1110 of mobile automata, 664 and natural science, 643 as not relevant to nature, 1132 vs. NP completeness, 766 in operator systems, 815 and oracles, 1126 and P completeness, 1149

of Peano axioms, 1152 of predicate logic, 1159 and Principle of Computational Equivalence, 717 proofs of, 722 of pure predicate logic, 1152 of recursive functions, 1121 of register machines, 672 removed by adding axioms, 1159 and reversibility, 1019 of rule 30, 734 of sequential substitution systems, 667 of substitution systems, 666 of symbolic systems, 668 in tag systems, 667, 1120 in three-body problem, 972 threshold of, 675 threshold of in CAs, 694 in totalistic cellular automata, 693 in Turing machines, 665, 706-711 ubiquity of, 690, 718 and undecidability, 1137 undecidability of, 1127 Universality (critical phenomena) in iterated maps, 921 and phase transitions, 983 Universality theorem for zeta function, 918 Universals in computer languages, 1182 and decoding dead languages, 1185 in human languages, 1103, 1181 Universe as an artifact, 1191 basic cosmology of, 1055 and Church's Thesis, 1126 initial conditions for, 1026 mind as microcosm of, 1196 vacuum solutions for, 1053 wave function for, 1063 see also Cosmology Universe, theory of see Ultimate theory of physics Unix operating system and my early work, 864 random seeds in, 970 and regular expressions, 958 Unpredictability and free will, 752 history of, 1132 in randomness from environment, 301 see also Predictability Unprovability see Undecidability Unprovable statements about symbolic systems, 897 in math, 1163 Unreliable components and phase transitions, 981 Unrestricted grammars, 939 Unsolvability Diophantine equation showing, 786 in math, 1137 of quintic equations, 1132 of three-body problem, 972 see also Undecidability Unsolved problems in number theory, 789, 1162, 1166 paper of mine on, 882 in science of this book, 856 Unsupervised learning, 1102 Unwinding of primitive recursion, 907 Upside-down visual images, 626 Ur-theory, 1027 Urban planning see Cities Urey, Harold C. (USA, 1893-1981) and origin of life, 1179 URMs (universal register machines), 1121 Uruk, Mesopotamia, 873 U.S. government and artificial intelligence, 1099 and cryptography, 975, 1085 User interfaces and concept of halting, 1137 graphical vs. language, 631 history of, 1102

Utah and features seen from space, 1187 V1 visual cortex, 1075 Vacuum Einstein equations, 536, 1053 Vacuum fluctuations, 540, 1062 and Bell's inequalities, 1065 as source of decoherence, 1063 Vacuum polarization, 1062 Vacuum tubes 1/f noise in, 969 and Nand, 1173 randomness in, 303, 971 Valuation functions for trees, 916 Valuation tables (truth tables) in operator systems, 801, 1170 Value sets of polynomials, 1161 van der Corput, Johannes G. (Netherlands, 1890-1975) and digit reversal sequences, 905 van der Pol, Balthazar (Netherlands, 1889-1959) and history of chaos, 971 van der Pol equation, 922, 971 van der Poorten, Alfred J. (Australia, 1942- ) and nested digit sequences, 913 van der Waerden's Theorem in Ramsey theory, 1068 Vants (2D Turing machines), 930 Variables in mathematical logic, 1150 notation for, 1182 in programs in notes, 854 and pure functions, 1121 scoping of, 1152 Variance and Central Limit Theorem, 976 Variational derivatives in path integrals, 1061 Variational principles as constraints, 940 for gravity, 1052 and notion of purpose, 1185 Vauban star forts nested architecture of, 874 VAX 11/780 computer my use of, 854, 864 VC (Vapnik-Chervonenkis) dimension, 1102 Vector fields topological defects in, 1045 Vector potential and gauge invariance, 1045 Vector quantities conservation of, 1024 Vectors as generalizing numbers, 1168 Vedic poetry and Fibonacci numbers, 891 Vegetation bands maze-like patterns in, 1013 Veins in leaves, 404 and transportation in cities, 1014 Venn, John (England, 1834-1923) and randomness in digits of pi, 879, 912 Venn diagrams, 1171 Ventifacts (wind-sculpted forms), 1001, 1183 Venus and extraterrestrial life, 1179 Verbal communication, 1181 Verbal processing in brains, 1181 Verbs in human languages, 1103 in math notation, 1182 Verhulst equation and iterated maps, 918 Verifiability of models, 366 of ultimate theory of physics, 469 Verification and theorems about programs, 1168 Verilog and logic operations, 1173 Vertex coloring (maximum clique) and discrete packing, 987 VHDL and logic operations, 1173 Vibrations in auditory perception, 585 in musical instruments, 1079

nested of physical systems, 1081 Video radio signals associated with, 1188 Videogames use of randomness in, 1192 Vietnam war draft lottery in, 969 Vigenre, Blaise de (France, 1523-1596) and ciphers, 1085 Vigenre cipher, 599, 1085, 1086 Viking spacecraft, 1179 Villi (biology) formation of, 418 Vinogradov, Ivan M. (Russia, 1891-1983) and Goldbach's Conjecture, 911 Viroids, 1179 Virtual particles as basic quantum effect, 1059 in Feynman diagrams, 1060 and masses of particles, 1046 and persistent structures, 540 surrounding any particle, 1044 and vacuum fluctuations, 1062 Viruses as fairly optimal organisms, 398 genetic programs of, 1002 self-assembly in, 1193 shapes of, 385 Viruses (computer), 1179, 1182 Viscosity in 2D fluids, 999 effects of in fluids, 381, 996 and higher-order Lorenz equations, 998 in models of turbulence, 997 in quantum field theory, 1061 Visible lattice points, 613, 1093 Visual acuity, 1076 Visual cortex, 580, 1075 Visual illusions, 1076 Visual memory, 623 Visual perception, 577-584 assessing models with, 365 and color in this book, 851 in computer experiments, 111 difficulty of analyzing radio signals with, 1189 eye movements in, 1192 history of studies on, 1076 implementation in brain, 1075 and ocular dominance stripes, 1013 and Stone Age paintings, 839 and styles of art, 872 and zebra as camouflaged, 1012 Visual presentation and inadequacy of language, 631 Visual thinking in mathematics, 1177 Vitamin A in embryo development, 1009 VLF radio receiver, 1187 VLSI Boolean formulas and, 1097 testing and randomized algorithms, 1085 Vocal tracts and bird songs, 826 and sound compression, 1080 Vocoders, 1080 Voices random variations in, 1192 Void and Epicurean notion of space, 1028 Volatility of prices in markets, 1015 Volcanos circular shapes of, 1187 as landscape elements, 1001 Voltage and gauge invariance, 1045 Volumes and metrics, 1050 of spheres in curved space, 1050 Volute shells patterns on, 423 von Krmn, Theodore (Hungary/Germany/USA, 1881-1963) and vortex streets, 998 von Koch, N. F. Helge (Sweden, 1870-1924) and nested curves, 934 von Neumann, John (Hungary/USA, 1903-1957) and CAs, 876, 879, 928

and computers, 1108 and history of complexity, 862 and iterated maps, 919 and random generators, 975 and self-reproduction, 1179 and set theory, 1154 and thermodynamics of computation, 1020 and universal CAs, 1117 and use of universality, 1110 von Neumann-Bernays-Gdel set theory, 1155 von Neumann neighborhood (in 2D cellular automata), 170, 928 von Neumann's Law for random networks, 1039 Voronin, Sergei M. (Russia, 1946- ) and zeta function universality, 918 Voronoi diagrams, 987 discrete, 987 and nearest-neighbor memories, 1101 and polycrystalline materials, 993 and random networks, 1038 in sphere packing, 986 Voronoi region and CA lattices, 929 Vortex atoms in the ether, 1044 Vortex streets, 377, 998 Vortices of Descartes, 1027 in flow of sand, 1001 in fluid flow, 376 and general study of form, 967 interactions between, 382, 998 as localized structures, 990 as topological defects, 1045 Vorticity-based models, 999 Vorticity patterns in fluids, 997 Vowels sound of, 1079 and soundex system, 1100 Voyager spacecraft, 1190 W particle, 1046 Waddington, Conrad H. (England/Scotland, 1905-1975) and patterns on shells, 1012 Wagner's theorem, 1045 Wainwright, Thomas E. (USA, 1927- ) and molecular dynamics, 879, 999 Wajsberg, Mordechaj (Poland, 1902 - ~1940) and axioms for logic, 1151 Wakes in fluid flow, 376, 984, 998 Waldmeister (automated theorem prover), 1158, 1174 lengths of proofs from, 1175 Walker, Crayton C. (USA, 1932- ) and Boolean networks, 936 Walking fluid flow when, 996 as repetitive process, 1011 Walks, random see Random walks Wallpaper and 2D cellular automata, 929 Walras, M. E. Lon (France, 1834-1910) and math economics, 1015 Walsh, Joseph L. (USA, 1895-1973) and Walsh transforms, 1073 Walsh transforms, 573, 1072 fast, 1073 Wang, Hao (China/USA, 1921-1995) and lag systems, 894 and tag systems, 1120 and undecidability in tiling, 1139 "Want of a nail..." and chaos theory, 971 Waring, Edward (England, 1736-1798) and Waring's Problem, 910 Waring's Problem, 910 as unsolved problem, 1166 Warp drive determining possibility of, 1027 and extraterrestrial contact, 1190 Wasp nests as animal artifacts, 1184 form of, 385 Watchmaker and argument by design, 861 Water boiling of as discrete transition, 337 and definition of life, 825 and extraterrestrial life, 1179

flow patterns of, 376 and landscape structure, 1001 stream breaking into drops, 984 viscosity of, 996 Water hole (SETI frequency band), 1189 Watersheds in memory landscape, 1101 and Voronoi diagrams, 987 Wave equation, 163 higher-dimensional, 923 as hyperbolic equation, 940 origin of, 923 transformation of time in, 732 Wave packet collapse of the, 1063 Wave-particle duality, 1056 as basic quantum effect, 1058 and discrete space, 1027 and elementary particles, 1044 Wave theory of light, 1041 Waveforms curves of, 146 in FM synthesis, 1079 for sound, 585 Wavelength distribution in color vision, 1074 Wavelets, 1074 and substitution systems, 893 and texture generation, 1077 Waves in fracture processes, 995 on ocean surfaces, 304, 1001 in quantum field theories, 1061 in quantum theory, 1056 and repetitive behavior, 355 superpositions of, 984 as yielding discreteness, 984 Wax impressions, 1178 Weaire, Denis L. (Ireland, 1942- ) and minimum area packings, 988 in Preface, xiii Weak interactions (in particle physics), 1025, 1057 Wear in stone tools, 1184 Weather, 1177 and bifurcations, 972 and forms of snowflakes, 992 as having a mind of its own, 822 maps, 1178 prediction and computational irreducibility, 1132 satellite images from, 1187 Weaving as origin of ornament, 872 patterns for from CAs, 872 programming of patterns for, 1107 rules in, 874 Web and amateur science, 1180 randomness in transactions on, 1192 Weber's law, 1014 Webs (spider) as animal artifacts, 1184 patterns in, 1011 Website list of questions on, 856 and programs in the notes, 854 for this book, iv, 849 Weibull distribution, 977 Weierstrass, Karl T. W. (Germany, 1815-1897) and nested curves, 918, 934 Weierstrass functions, 918 and 1/f noise, 969 WeierstrassP (Weierstrass function) in solution of spinning top, 1133 Weighted cellular automata implementation of, 1012 Weighted random sequences, 976 Weights in additive cellular automata, 952 of connections to nerve cells, 1075 of forms in image compression, 574 in neural networks, 1102 Weights of humans distribution of, 977, 1003 Weinberg-Salam model, 1025 Weizscker, Carl F. v. (Germany, 1912- ) and discreteness of space, 1027 Welch, Terry A. (USA, 1939-1988)

and data compression, 1069 Well-formed formulas in predicate logic, 1150 and truth values, 1158 Wells, Herbert G. (England, 1866-1946) and time travel, 1031 Westminster Abbey decoration in, 873 Weyl, Hermann K. H. (Germany/Switzerland/USA, 1885-1955) and gauge invariance, 1045 and gauge theories of space, 1028 Weyl tensor, 1049 WFFs (well-formed formulas) in predicate logic, 1150 and truth values, 1158 Whale songs, 826, 1180 Wheeler, John A. (USA, 1911- ) and discreteness of space, 1027 and geons, 1054 Wheels characteristic shapes of, 1183 Wheels of fortune, 306 While (loop) and decimation systems, 909 and pointer-based encoding, 1071 and Pollard rho factoring, 1090 and rule 110 proof, 1116 see also NestWhile Whimsical descriptions, 850 Whisk ferns, 1004 Whistlers (radio signals), 1187 in early SETI, 1188 White noise origins of, 969, 988 Whitehead, Alfred N. (England/USA, 1861-1947) and axioms for logic, 1151 and foundations of math, 1149 and math in science, 859 and Principia Mathematica, 894 and universal algebra, 1150 Whitney embedding theorem, 1045 Whorf, Benjamin L. (USA, 1897-1941) and language and thinking, 1181 Whorls number of in shells, 1008 Wick rotation (in quantum field theory), 1043, 1061 Wiener, Harry (USA, 1924-1998) and alkane boiling points, 1195 Wiener, Norbert (USA, 1894-1964) and history of complexity, 862 and reaction-diffusion, 1013 Wiesenfeld, Kurt A. (USA, 1958- ) and self-organized criticality, 989 Wigner-Seitz cells and CA lattices, 929 and Voronoi diagrams, 987 Wigner's semicircle law, 977 Wiles, Andrew J. (England/USA, 1953- ) and Fermat's Last Theorem, 1166 Will origins of free, 750 and purpose, 1136 see also Free will Willow leaves, 1006 Wilson loops (in QCD), 1062 Wind and desert landscapes, 1001 and ocean surfaces, 1001 patterns produced by, 1183 recognizing motion from, 1183 turbulence and gusting in, 1001 Wind chimes, 827 Wind-tree models (dynamic lattice gases), 999 Winding number, 1045 Windows (operating system) and creation of this book, 854 Winfree, Arthur T. (USA, 1942-[2002]) and reaction-diffusion, 1013 Winner-takes-all cellular automata, 339 Wire chambers (particle detectors), 969 Wire rope and nested patterns, 874 WireWorld cellular automaton, 1117 Wisdom, Jack L. (USA, 1953- ) and chaos in solar system, 973 in Preface, xiii Witten, Thomas A., Jr. (USA, 1944- ) and diffusion-limited aggregation, 994

Wittgenstein, Ludwig J. J. (Austria/England, 1889-1951) and philosophy of language, 1181 and truth tables, 1170 Wolfram Research, Inc. and creation of this book, xii and history of this book, 20 and my personal timeline, 864 as producers of Mathematica, 853 Wolpert, Lewis (England, 1929- ) and embryology, 1010 in Preface, xiii Word chains (evaluation chains), 1095 Word equations (sequence equations), 944, 1141 Word frequencies and Zipf's law, 1014 Word problems, 1141 and manifold equivalence, 1051 for semigroups and undecidability, 1136 undecidability in, 1138 and use of set theory, 1160 Word-processing software, 1108 Words cube-free (and Thue-Morse sequence), 890 hashing of, 1100 number of in languages, 1103 Works of God natural forms as, 872 World models and systems theory, 862 World War II cryptography after, 1085 Worm Paterson's, 930 self-reproducing computer, 1179 Worm shell growth of, 415 Worship and animism, 1195 Worthington, Arthur M. (England, 1852-1916), 1000 Wozniakowski (digit reversal) sequences, 905 Wraparound system, 255 Wren, Christopher (England, 1632-1723) and shapes of shells, 1008 Wrinkling, 996 Writing development of, 1184 Writing style of this book, 849 Wulff shapes in CA growth, 929 and CA lattices, 929 X chromosomes and randomness in females, 1014 X-ray crystallography, 993 X-ray diffraction patterns, 1082 Xerographic printing, 1195 XML and computer communication, 1182 Xor axioms for, 803 calculus of expressions, 1170 confluence of, 1037 DNF representation of, 1096 emulated by rule 30, 703 lower bounds on in DNF, 1143 size of formula for, 1096 table for, 806 words in languages for, 1173 Xor rules see also Additive cellular automata see also Rule 90 yacc (compiler generator), 1104 Yang-Mills theories, 1045, 1057 instanton solutions to, 1133 Yemen nested drainage pattern in, 1187 Yin and yang and substitution systems, 893 Young, David A. (USA, 1942- ) and pigmentation patterns, 1012 Young, Thomas (England, 1773-1829) and color vision, 1075 Z particle mass of, 1046 and number of neutrinos, 1047 Z transforms and spectra of substitution systems, 1081 Zebras

correlation of two sides of, 1014 pigmentation patterns of, 426 stripes as camouflage for, 1012 stripes on as discrete, 337 Zeckendorff representation, 892, 1070 Zener diodes as source of randomness, 970 Zeno's paradox and discrete space, 1027 Zermelo, Ernst F. F. (Germany, 1871-1953) and set theory, 1154 Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory, 1154 Zero equivalence undecidability of, 1138 Zero-point fluctuations, 1062 and model of electron, 1044 and notion of ether, 1042 and uniform spectra, 988 Zeros of sine functions, 917 of zeta function, 918 Zeta (Riemann zeta function), 148, 909 and density of relative primes, 1093 difficulty of evaluating, 1134 and distribution of primes, 909 and Feynman diagrams, 1060 from rational integrals, 916 as special function, 1092 Zeta functions for periodic points, 959 ZF (Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory), 1154 ZFC (standard set theory), 1154 Zhabotinsky, Anatol M. (Russia/USA, 1938- ) and oscillatory chemical reactions, 1013 Ziggurats rules for building, 874 Zipf, George K. (USA, 1902-1950) and Zipf's law, 1014 Zipf's law, 1014 Zippers characteristic shapes of, 1183 Ziv, Jacob (Israel, 1931- ) and data compression, 1069 Zuse, Konrad (Germany, 1910-1995) and universe as CA, 1026 Zygmund series, 918

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