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Prinsip PRICE Protection, Rest, Ice, Compress,Elevate Rest; Ice; apply ice to the are of injury for 10-15 mintus every 45-60 min. This minimize bleeding,pain and associated muscle spasm, and decrease the metabolic rate of the underlying tissue Compress; Compress bandages ( not tourniquets) are used to minimize the bleeding and oedema and must be confortably tight. A crepe or elastic bandage is recommended. Elevation; Elevation of the injured tissue minimizes the effect of gravity on accumulating blood oedema at the site of injury rest the injury tissue modify activity to maintance fitness, strength and skill as much as possible as possible

2. Prinsip TOTAPS kecedraan luar / nampak darah . Talking; Dptkan maklumat punca dr mangsa / rakan mangsa / kesan badan. Hubungi pihak pakar & tanya apa yg perlu dilakukan. Lihat tempat kecederaan Lihat tanda & simptom Sentuh utk kenalpasti bahagian terlibat berpandukan reaksinya. Reaksi mangsa aktif tidaklah kronik / tenat.


Touch ; Active ; Passive ; 1

Reaksi mangsa pasif diam / terkejut.

Skill ; Pergerakan yg dapat / boleh dilakukan oleh mangsa gerakan ibu jari / kaki / tangan/ kepala dll. 3. Prinsip DRABC Danger ; A. pastikan persekitaran berada dlm keadaan selamat. Pindahkan mangsa jika perlu. Pastikan tindakbalas dari mangsa. Sentuh & tanya mangsa Minta bantuan. Pastikan saluran pernafasan mangsa tidak tersekat dgn bahan. Buang bahan yg menghalang. Periksa pernafasan mangsa Pandang pergerakan dada. Dengar pernafasan mangsa Rasa pernafasan Periksa nadi karotid @ radial mangsa.

Respon ;

Airways ;

Breathing ;

Circulation ;

Sekiranya tiada pernafasan tetapi ada denyutan nadi. Lakukan EAR ( Expired Air Resuscitation ) 1. Dewasa : Kadar 12 hembusan seminit. 2. Kanak2 & awal remaja : kadar 15 hembusan seminit 3. Bayi (5 thn ke bawah) : Kadar 20 hembvusan seminit.


Sekiranya tiada denyutan nadi tetapi ada pernafasan Lakukan ECC ( External Cardiac Compression ) memaksa darah beredar menerusi jantung ke seluruh anggota. ( mampatan dada ) 1. Dewasa : 2. 3. Gunakan kedua-dua tangan Kadar 80-100 seminit. Mampatan sedalam 4-5 cm. 8 thn ke bawah Gunakan sebelah tangan Kadar 100 seminit. Mampatan sedalam 2.5 cm


Bayi ; - Gunakan jari telunjuk & jari hantu - Kadar 120 seminit. - Sedalam 1.5 cm


Sekiranya tiada pernafasan dan tiada nadi Lakukan CPR ( Cardiac Pulmonary Resuscitation ) EAR + ECC Hembusan dan mampatan henjutan dada mengikut; 1. 2. 3. Dewasa Bayi ; ; 2 : 15 1:5 1 :5 Kanak-kanak ;

Lakukan sebanyak 4 kitaran- lihat rangsangan / tindakbalas mangsa. Periksa nadi setiap 1 minit. Jika mangsa sedar, letakkan mangsa dlm kedudukan pemulihan. Jika tidak sedar , teruskan buat bantuan CPR sehinga bantuan tiba. o Jika terdapat dua orang : = pembantu mula akan melakukan mampatan dan hembusan pada kali pertama kemudian berselang dengan pembantu mula yang kedua selepas hembusan pada kali ke dua.

= pembantu mula kedua akan bersedia selepas mendengar kiraan yang ketiga belas. Contoh kiraan ialah dua belas dan tiga belas dan tukar dan lima belas. = kemudian pembantu mula yang kedua akan memeriksa nadi karotid sebelum meneruskan CPR.

4. Prinsip RICER dalaman / lebam/ benjol. Rest; Rehatkan bahagian yg cedera.

Ice ; Letakkan ais yg dibungkus dgn kain, air meresap keluar. Utk menurunkan suhu di tempat cedera kerana kapilari darahnya putus / cedera. Compression ; Balut dgn kain bersih, tekanan selama 15-20 minit. Tinggikan bahagian yg dibalut. Rujuk pakar / pemulihan. Elevation ; Refer ;

HEAT EXHAUSTION: This condition often occurs when people exercise (work or play) in a hot, humid place and their body fluids are lost through sweating, causing the body to overheat.

HEAT STROKE: This medical condition is life-threatening. The person's cooling system, which is controlled by the brain, has stopped working, and the internal temperature has risen to the point where brain damage or damage to other internal organs may result (temperature may reach 105+F). HEAT CRAMP: A form of heat exhaustion characterized by muscle spasm attended by pain, dilated pupils, and weak pulse. It occurs in people who lose much salt and water by working intensely in excessive heat. Usual course - acute; intermittent. Endemic areas: tropics; subtropics.


Hastens healing time by reducing swelling around injury Sudden cold contracts blood vessels Helps stop internal bleeding from injured capillaries and blood vessels Keep damp or dry cloth between skin and ice pack Do not apply ice for longer than 15 to 20 minutes at a time For 3 days after injury Apply every hour for 10 to 20 minutes Apply ice after 3 days as long as pain or inflammation persist Apply at least 3 times throughout the day for 15 to 20 minutes

Cooling treatments lower body temperature in order to relieve pain, swelling, 5

constriction of blood vessels, and to decrease the liklihood of cellular damage by slowing the metabolism. Sponge baths, cold compresses, and cold packs are all wet cooling treatments. Dry treatments, such as ice bags and chemical cold packs, are also used to lower body temperature

The most common reason for cooling a body is fever or hyperthermia (extremely high fever). The body can sustain temperatures up to 104F (40C) with relative safety; however, when temperatures rise above 104F (40C), damage to the brain, muscles, blood, and kidneys is increasingly likely. Cooling treatments are also applied immediately following sprains, bruises, burns, eye injuries, and muscle spasms to help alleviate the resulting swelling, pain, and discoloration of the skin. Cooling treatments slow chemical reactions within the body. For this reason, cooling tissues below normal temperature (98.6F/37C) can prevent injury from inadequate oxygen or nutrition. Cold water drowning victims suffering from hypothermia (cooling of the body below its normal temperature) have been successfully resuscitated after long periods underwater without medical complications because of this effect. For the past 40 years, heart surgeons have been experimenting with hypothermia to protect tissues from lack of blood circulation during an operation. Neurosurgeons are also working with hypothermia to protect the very sensitive brain tissues during periods of absent or reduced blood flow.

Depending on the medical need, various cooling methods are used.

Cold packs and ice bags are placed on a localized site and provide topical relief. These compresses should be covered with a waterproof material to protect the skin. Repeated treatments produce the desired pain and swelling relief. Cold treatments are placed on the groin and under the arms to treat hyperthermia. Treatments are refreshed periodically until the appropriate temperature is attained. A tepid sponge bath relieves fever without cooling the body too fast. Eighty degrees Farenheit is still 20F below body temperature and yet warm enough not to drive blood from the skin, thereby preventing the cooling from getting to the body's core. Limbs are bathed first and then the chest, abdomen, back, and buttocks. Perfusion of isolated regions like the brain by using cooled blood is an experimental treatment, offering promising results for the treatment of stroke.

Topical treatments are prepared with ice, cold water (59F/15C), and chemical cold packs. Tepid baths should be 80-93F (26.7-34C).

Small children, adults with circulation problems, and the elderly are all at risk of tissue damage. Rapid cooling causes chills, which in effect raise the body's temperature by raising its metabolism. Blood clots may form from thickened blood caused by the temperature change.